Qutqaruv armiyasi tashkil etilgan

Qutqaruv armiyasi tashkil etilgan



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Londonning sharqiy chekkasida, revivalist va'zgo'y Uilyam But va uning rafiqasi Ketrin nasroniylik missiyasini tuzadilar, keyinchalik Najot armiyasi deb nomlanadi. Qashshoqlik va diniy befarqlik illatlariga qarshi urush olib borishga qaror qilgan But, Britaniya armiyasiga o'xshab, o'zining uslubchi sektsiyasini namuna qilib, forma kiygan vazirlarni "ofitserlar", yangi a'zolarni esa "yollanganlar" deb atadi.

Ayollarga erkaklar bilan teng darajadagi xristian missiyasi Londonning eng tashlandiq mahallalarida "kampaniyalar" ni boshladi. Sho'rvali oshxonalar kambag'allarga jismoniy va ma'naviy yordam ko'rsatish uchun mo'ljallangan turli xil loyihalarning birinchi navbatida edi. Dastlabki yillarda Britaniyada ko'pchilik nasroniylik missiyasi va uning taktikasini tanqid qilishgan va a'zolari ko'pincha tinchlikni buzganlar sifatida jarima va qamoq jazosiga tortilgan.

1878 yilda tashkilot Najot Armiyasi deb nomlandi va ikki yildan so'ng Pensilvaniyada AQShning birinchi bo'linmasi ochildi. Buyuk Depressiya paytida, Qutqaruv Armiyasi muhtojlarga oziq -ovqat va turar joy berdi, va har ikki jahon urushi paytida u qurolli kuchlar bilan ishlash orqali ajralib turardi. O'sha paytga kelib, u muhim xalqaro xayriya tashkiloti sifatida qadrlandi.

Hozirgi kunda Londonda joylashgan Najot Armiyasining 75 dan ortiq mamlakatda filiallari bor. Armiya xushxabar markazlari, kasalxonalar, favqulodda vaziyatlar va falokat xizmatlari, alkogol va giyohvand moddalarni reabilitatsiya qilish dasturlari, jamoat markazlari, ijtimoiy ish markazlari, ikkinchi darajali do'konlar va dam olish maskanlarini boshqaradi. O'z ixtiyoriy badallari va nashrlarini sotishdan tushgan foyda tashkilotni moliyalashtiradi.


Najot qo'shini haqidagi hikoya

Londonda Najot Armiyasi. Heinrich Egersdörfer (nemis rassomi, 1853 - 1915) & quotDie Gartenlaube (Bog'dagi arbor) & quot; kitobidan chizilgan rasmdan keyin yog'och o'ymakorligi. Ernst Keil tomonidan nashr etilgan, Leypsig, 1883 yil: Getty Images


Najot armiyasi tashkil etilgan - TARIX

Najot Armiyasining tarixi 1865 yilda, Uilyam But gunohlardan najotni va'z qilish va Londonning Sharqiy Endidagi kambag'al va kambag'al odamlar orasida hayot pokligini targ'ib qilish uchun xushxabarchi va xayriya tashkilotini tuzgan paytdan boshlangan. Sanoat inqilobining eng notinch davrida o'sgan Uilyam But va uning rafiqasi Ketrin Mumford But, kambag'allar orasida xushxabarchilik ishi yaxshi tashkil etilgan ijtimoiy yordam ishi bilan birga bo'lishi kerak, deb hisoblashgan.

Teologik ildizlar

Uilyam va Ketrin But tomonidan asos solingan Najot Armiyasi, Jon Uesli metodologiyasi va Jeyms Kogi tomonidan targ'ib qilingan Amerika tiklanish davri bilan bog'liq bo'lgan, ijtimoiy majburiyatli xushxabarchilik an'anasini davom ettirishga qaratilgan. Butsning dogmasi - Jon Ueslining "hamma odamlar uchun najot va barcha gunohlardan to'liq najot" haqidagi Arminian teologiyasi. & Rdquo (Murdok 2)

Xristian missiyasi (1865-1878)

1865 yil boshida Uilyam va Ketrin But Londonda va'z qilishni taklif qilishdi. Uilyam Uitechapel yo'lidagi "Ko'zi ojiz tilanchi" deb nomlangan jamoat uyi tashqarisida va'z qila boshladi. 1865 yil oxirida Butlar mustaqil diniy birlashma - Xristian Tiklanish Assotsiatsiyasini tuzdilar, u tez orada Sharqiy London xristian missiyasi deb nomlandi. Ueslian an'analaridan keyin tashkil etilgan. 1867 yilda nasroniy missiyasi pivo sotiladigan "Sharqiy yulduz" do'konini 120 funtga sotib oldi va uni "Xalq missiyasi zali" deb nomlanuvchi birinchi qarorgohiga aylantirdi, u ikkita vazifani bajarishni boshladi: diniy va ijtimoiy. Bu erda odamlarni tun bo'yi ibodat qilish uchun uylar joylashtirdilar, ular "Yarim tunda yig'ilish" harakati sifatida tanilgan va muhtojlarga arzon ovqat sotilgan. (Rappaport 101-2)

Chapda: general Uilyam But. O'ngda: Ketrin xonim xonim, ikkalasi ham Jorj Edvard Veyd.

Sharqiy London xristian missiyasi, xayriya diniy harakati sifatida faoliyat yuritgan, Sharqiy London xarobalarida joylashgan 500 ga yaqin nasroniy missiyalaridan biri edi, lekin tez orada Sharq bo'ylab bir qator missiya stantsiyalarini o'rnatib, o'zining noan'anaviy ijtimoiy ishi bilan ajralib tura boshladi. London najot xabarini tarqatish, qashshoqlarni boqish va boshpana qilish maqsadida. 1870 yilda Ketrin But kambag'al va kambag'allarga yordam berishga qaratilgan & ldquoFood for the million & rdquo ijtimoiy sxemasini boshladi. Missiya Sharqiy Londonda Bramvell But va Jeyms Flaun tomonidan boshqariladigan beshta savdo nuqtasini o'rnatdi. Issiq sho'rva har doim kechayu kunduz mavjud edi va uchta taomdan iborat oddiy kechki ovqatni olti tiyinga sotib olish mumkin edi, lekin mablag 'etishmasligi tufayli 1874 yilga kelib bu sxema muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi. (Inglis 197)

Birinchi yillar davomida, komissiyalar va konferentsiyalar tizimi bilan cheklangan Xristian missiyasi Sharqiy Londonda sekin sur'atlar bilan rivojlanishni ko'rsatdi, chunki unda mablag ', qat'iy doktrina, barqaror tashkiliy asos va xushxabarchilarning sadoqatli yordamchilari yo'q edi, ular cherkovsiz ishlarni samarali hal qila oladilar. -sinflar massasi. Revivalistik va'z Sharqiy End va Ldquoheathens va rdquo orasida kamdan -kam ta'sir ko'rsatganda, yangi strategiya ishlab chiqildi. Missiya jangarilar tili, kiyim -kechak, ommabop musiqa va Viktoriya jamoatchiligiga bo'lgan muhabbat orqali mahalla aholisining diqqatini jalb qilishning yangi usullarini qo'llay boshladi.

Teatrlar yakshanba kuni ishlay olmasligi sababli, Uilyam But missiyaning yakshanba kunlari xizmatiga yollashga qaror qildi. Uning birinchi tanlovi terakdagi Sharq teatri (malika teatri) edi, u musiqiy zalda o'yin-kulgilarni taklif qildi va 800 kishiga mo'ljallangan edi. Keyingi But, Effingham teatrini yolladi, u Londondagi eng zo'r va eng kulgili joylardan biri sifatida tasvirlangan, lekin u 3000 kishini sig'dira oladi. Butning yakshanba kuni o'tkaziladigan xizmatlari shov -shuvli reklamalar orqali e'lon qilindi: & ldquoO'zgarishlar, & rdquo yoki & Ldquo 3000 kishi Effingem teatrini to'ldirishni xohladi. Rahbar Uilyam But keyingi teatrda ertaga yakshanba kuni va'z qiladi. & Rdquo (Bennett 22) But 2000 yil tomoshabinlarni o'ziga jalb qilib, uning va'zini katta qiziqish bilan tingladi. Uning strategiyasi jiddiy va'zni musiqa zallarida bo'lgani kabi mashhur o'yin-kulgilar bilan birlashtirish edi.

Uilyam But va uning rafiqasi Ketrin jangari yoki tajovuzkor xristianlik g'oyasiga sodiq qolishdi va ular avtokratik etakchilik an'anaviy cho'ponlik parvarishidan ko'ra o'qimagan va cherkov bo'lmagan ishchilar ommasiga xushxabarni tarqatishda samaraliroq deb hisoblashgan. 1870 yilda Uilyam But Xristian missiyasining bosh nazoratchisi lavozimini egalladi va tashkilotning shubhasiz etakchisiga aylandi. & Rdquo (Bennet 45) Xristian missiyasining mashhurligi, ayniqsa qiyinchiliklar va qarshiliklarga qaramay, London tashqarisida tobora o'sib bordi. 1878 yilga kelib Buyuk Britaniyaning turli joylarida 30 ta stansiya va 36 ta missioner bor edi. Pamela J. Uolker yozganidek,

Xristian missiyasi shahar ishchilar sinfiga erishish uchun keng tarqalgan xushxabarchi missionerlik harakatining bir qismi edi. Uning ilohiyoti metodizm, amerika tiklanish va muqaddaslik harakatiga asoslangan edi. Uilyam Butning ochiq havoda va'z qilishi xushxabarchilar tomonidan o'nlab yillar davomida qilingan ishlarga o'xshardi. Missiya boshqa uy missiyalaridan farq qilardi. Ayollarga berilgan hokimiyat, muqaddaslik ilohiyoti va revivalistik usullarga urg'u berish, uning mustaqilligining o'sishi va qat'iy ierarxik tuzilishi, uni zamondoshlaridan keskin ajratib turadigan xususiyatlar edi. Xristianlar missiyasi aylantirmoqchi bo'lgan ishchilar jamoalari o'rtasida yaratilgan. U aylantirmoqchi bo'lgan ishchilar jamoalari geografiyasi va madaniyatidan xushxabar amaliyotini yaratdi. [42]

Najot armiyasining tug'ilishi

1878 yilda Uilyam But kotibi Jorj Skott Railtonga xat yozganida, u & ldquoXristian missiyasi - bu ko'ngilli armiya. Men odatdaman yoki hech narsa! " (Gariepy 9) Bu Uilyam Butni & ldquoSalvation Army & rdquo so'zini & ldquoVolunteer Army & rdquo so'zini xristian missiyasining yangi nomiga aylantirishga undadi. 1878 yil avgust oyida bo'lib o'tgan Xristian missiyasi konferentsiyalarining birinchisi Najot Armiyasining yangi harbiy dasturini bir ovozdan qabul qildi.

Formalar, bayroqlar va tamburlar

Najot armiyasi harbiy tashkilotning tuzilishi va xulq -atvoriga taqlid qilib, o'zining yangi qiyofasini ishlab chiqdi. Xristian missiyasida erkak xushxabarchilar kamzulli palto, baland bo'yli shlyapa va qora galstuk taqishgan. Xushxabarchi ayollarning kiyimlari, kamzullari va Quaker tipidagi oddiy bosh kiyimlari bor edi, ular ularni hurmatsiz olomonning zarbasidan himoya qilar edilar, ularga kamdan-kam hollarda sigir go'ngi, yomon tuxum yoki tosh tashlamas edilar. Ayollar, shuningdek, S harfi bilan jig'a taqishgan. Missiya Najot Armiyasiga aylangandan so'ng, Viktoriya harbiy kiyimiga o'xshash forma turi qabul qilindi.

1880-yillarda yarim harbiy tashkilotga o'xshagan Najot Armiyasi Buyuk Britaniyada va chet elda o'z missiya stantsiyalarini qura boshladi. Bu missiya stantsiyalari & ldquocorps deb nomlangan. & Rdquo Ularning a'zolari o'ziga xos yarim harbiy kiyim kiygan, & ldquo Cadet & rdquo (vazirlikka nomzod), & ldquoLeutenant & rdquo va & ldquoCapttain & rdquo dan yuqori darajadagi general va & ampquot general va rdquo general. Reyting-fayl a'zolari & ldquosoldiers & rdquo, yangi konvertatsiya qilinganlar & ldquocaptives. & Rdquo

Najotkorlar diniy amaliyotlarini tasvirlash uchun harbiy lug'atdan foydalanganlar. Masalan, uyg'onish uchrashuvlari & ldquosieges, & rdquo charchagan joylar & ldquocitadels & rdquo yoki & ldquooutposlar edi, & rdquo kundalik Muqaddas Kitob o'qishlari & ldquorations deb nomlanadi. Bu harbiy metafora an'anaviy va'zgo'ylikdan ko'ra ko'proq odamlarni o'ziga jalb qilganday tuyuldi.

Ketrin But tomonidan yaratilgan Najot Armiyasining birinchi bayrog'i 1878 yilda Koventri korpusiga taqdim etilgan. Dastlab u to'q qizil rangdagi chegara bilan to'q qizil rangda edi, u muqaddaslikni ramziy qildi va o'rtada sariq quyosh paydo bo'ldi. yulduz, bu Muqaddas Ruh bilan olovli suvga cho'mishni bildiradi. Yulduzga yozilgan "Qon va olov" shiori Masihning qoni va Muqaddas Ruh olovini anglatadi. Zamonaviy hisob -kitoblarga ko'ra, 1878 yil oxirida Najot Armiyasi tarkibida 81 korpus va 127 ofitser bor edi, ulardan 101 tasi o'z yig'ilishlarida o'zgartirilgan. (Briggs 700)

Ushbu o'zgarishlar tufayli Najot Armiyasi kuchliroq, yaxshi tashkil etilgan va samaraliroq bo'ldi. Bannerlar, kornişlar va dafnlar bilan tantanali yurishlar bilan namoyon bo'lgan armiyaning noan'anaviy xushxabarchi va ijtimoiy faoliyati an'anaviy va'zgo'ylikdan ko'ra ko'proq ishchilar sinfiga yoqdi.

Najot armiyasi qo'shni din edi. Bu, ayniqsa, shahar ishchilarining geografiyasi va madaniy hayotiga mos keladigan jang rejasini ixtiro qildi. Diniy so'zlar musiqa zalida kuylangan, sirk plakatlari va teatr e'lonlari shunchalik yaqin ko'chirilgandiki, kuzatuvchilar ularni tez-tez ajrata olmadilar, va'zgo'ylar ko'chadagi sotuvchilarning iborasiga taqlid qilishdi va jamoatlar va'zgo'yga javob berishga undashdi. musiqa zallari. Najotkorlar zamonaviy reklama va tiklanish usullarini yo'q qilishdi. Ularning harbiy tili najotchilarning dushman bilan jang qilish buyrug'ini to'g'ri ifoda etdi. Armiya pablar, musiqa zallari, sport va tikish o'yinlarini asosiy raqib deb hisoblardi, lekin uning mashhur dam olish vaqtidan ilhom olish qobiliyati uning muvaffaqiyatining asosiy omili edi. [Walker 2]

Qutqaruv armiyasining ijtimoiy qanoti

Norman X. Merdokning so'zlariga ko'ra, & ndquoby 1886 yilda Qutqaruv armiyasining o'sishi Angliyada to'xtab qoldi - xristian missiyasining o'sishi Sharqiy Londonda 1874 yilga qadar to'xtab qolgandek, va asosan Uilyam But najotga muhtojlik haqida va'z qilgani uchun. gunohdan qutulish va uning oqibatlari, lekin kambag'al va kambag'allar o'rtasidagi ijtimoiy ishni e'tibordan chetda qoldirdi.

1880 -yillarning o'rtalarida Qutqaruv Armiyasi qashshoqlik va qashshoqlik bilan kurashishga qaratilgan yangi strategiyalarni ishlab chiqdi. Ko'chada va'z qilish, uy uchrashuvlari, ibodat guruhlari va Injilni o'rganish ijtimoiy harakatlar bilan to'ldirildi. Bir muncha vaqt AQShda Qutqaruv Armiyasi komissari bo'lgan Frensis Smit va Viktoriya davrining eng taniqli jurnalistlaridan biri va Najot Armiyasining fidoyi tarafdori Uilyam Tomas Stid (keyinchalik Titanik qurboni) uning paydo bo'lishiga hissa qo'shdilar. najot armiyasining ijtimoiy qanoti. Ular ishontirdilarki, armiya faqat xushxabarga e'tibor qaratmasligi kerak, balki quyi tabaqadan kelganlarni qabul qilish uchun ijtimoiy ishlarga yanada faolroq jalb qilinishi kerak. Uilyam But bu dalillarni tezda tushundi va Xristian ijtimoiy islohotlariga Najot Armiyasini jalb qilishning yangi strategiyasini ma'qulladi.

Smit va Stid Butga uyushgan mehnat birjalari, oziq -ovqat tarqatish tarmoqlari orqali aholi zich joylashgan shaharlarda qashshoqlik, qashshoqlik va ishsizlikni yo'q qilishga qaratilgan ijtimoiy va farovonlik sxemalarini taklif qilgan "Eng qorong'u Angliya va chiqish yo'li" (1890) ni yozishga yordam berdi. -operativ ustaxonalar va fermer xo'jaliklari, ortiqcha ishchi kuchining Britaniya koloniyalariga ko'chishi.

Najot Armiyasi jurnali, 1893 yildan butun dunyo, 1892 yil 1 -noyabrdan 1893 -yil 1 -oktabrgacha Qutqaruv armiyasining ijtimoiy qanoti 3886.896 ta ovqat bilan ta'minlangani, 1.094.078 kishi boshpana topgani, 1983 kishi liftlardan o'tgani (ish). muassasalar), 267 ta vaziyat ta'minlangan, 159 tasi xo'jaliklar koloniyasiga, 180 kishi qamoqxona darvozalar uyiga yuborilgan (477). Bundan tashqari, Najot Armiyasi mahalliy hokimiyatni ishsiz odamlarni yo'l ishlarida va umumiy yo'llarda daraxt ekish bilan shug'ullanishga undash orqali yangi ish o'rinlari yaratish sxemasini ilgari surdi.

1893 yilda armiya bo'sh ish o'rinlari to'g'risida statistika va ma'lumotlarni to'playdigan hukumat mehnat bo'limini tuzishga "katta qiziqish" bildirdi. 1900 yilga kelib, Najot Armiyasi kambag'allarga ish topishga yordam berish uchun Londonda o'z mehnat birjasini ochdi. Faqat 1909 yilgacha parlament milliylashtirilgan mehnat birjalarini tashkil etishni nazarda tutuvchi qonunni qabul qildi. Najot Armiyasining ijtimoiy vazirligi Viktoriya Britaniyasining so'nggi o'n yilligida uning eng qimmatli aktivlaridan biriga aylandi.

Eng qorong'u Angliyada

Butning "Qorong'u Angliyada va chiqish yo'li" kitobida, eng qorong'u Afrika va zamonaviy Angliya o'rtasida dahshatli taqqoslash amalga oshirildi. General Buyuk Britaniyaning o'ttiz bir millionlik aholisining uch millioni Angliya va "ldquodarkest England" da yashaganini ta'kidladi. Keyin u xristianlik e'tiqodini sanoatlashgan jamiyatda qanday qo'llashni tushuntirdi. Kitob nashr etilganidan keyin bir necha oy ichida 115000 nusxada tez sotilgan va tez sotilgan kitobga aylandi (Robert Xaggard 73). Darhol Butga nafaqat oddiy o'quvchilar, balki badavlat odamlardan ham xushmuomala javoblar keldi, ular katta xayriya qilishni va'da qilishdi.

Butning kitobining nomi Genri Morton Stenlining "Qorong'u Afrikada" (1890) sayohati haqidagi mashhur hikoyasini bildiradi. Kitobning umumiy xabari shundan iborat ediki, ingliz shahar xarobalaridagi insoniy bo'lmagan yashash sharoitlari Afrikadagi sharoitdan farq qilmas edi.

Eng qorong'u Afrika bo'lgani kabi, eng qorong'i Angliya ham yo'qmi? O'z vahshiylarini tug'dira oladigan tsivilizatsiya, o'z pigmiyalarini ham tug'dirmaydimi? O'z eshiklarimizdan parallel topa olmaymizmi va bizning soborlarimiz va saroylarimizga Stenli ulkan Ekvatorial o'rmonda ko'rgan dahshatlarni dahshat bilan topa olmaymizmi? [18]

But keng jamoatchilik Angliya hali ham bo'linib ketgan millat ekanligini, boylar va kambag'allar o'rtasidagi tafovut millatning ma'naviy va iqtisodiy rivojlanishiga tahdid solishini to'liq anglashini xohladi.

Stenli bosib o'tgan Ekvatorial o'rmon, men aytmoqchi bo'lgan eng qorong'u Angliyaga o'xshaydi, xuddi shu darajada - Stenli iborasi bilan aytganda, Plimutdan Piterxedagacha va uning monoton qorong'uligi, bezgak va qorong'ulik, mitti baliq -insonlashgan odamlar, ular bo'ysundirilgan qullik, xususiylik va baxtsizlik. Eng jasur yurakni xafa qiladigan va bizning eng jasur va eng yaxshi qo'llarimizni umidsizlikka soladigan narsa - bu nurni kirgizish uchun cheksiz monoton o'simtaning tashqi qismini chimchilashdan boshqa narsa qilishning iloji yo'qligi. U orqali yo'lni aniq qilib bering, buni morass va o'rmonning hashamatli parazit o'sishi to'satdan bo'g'ib qo'ymaydi, bunga umid qila oladimi? Hozir, afsuski, hech kim hatto umid qilishga ham jur'at etolmaydi! Bu bizning davrimizdagi "Despond of the Great Slough". [19]

Kitobda Angliyaning kambag'allari haqida hayratlanarli faktlar va statistik ma'lumotlar keltirilgan, ularning aksariyati uysiz, ishsiz va och qolgan. Butning hisob -kitoblariga ko'ra, Britaniya aholisining o'ndan biri, uni "suv ostida qolgan o'ninchi" deb atagan, qashshoqlik va qashshoqlikda yashagan. Qashshoqlik aholisining xunukligidan, baxtsizligidan va mahrum bo'lishidan hayratda qolgan Uilyam But rafiqasi va hamkasblari ta'siri ostida kambag'allarning ma'naviy, ma'naviy va jismoniy qashshoqligini bartaraf etish uchun ijtimoiy yordam dasturini ishlab chiqdi. Bu najot armiyasining mafkuraviy asosi bo'lgan "ldquosoup, sovun va najot" va "rdquo" shiori bilan qisqa ifodalangan.

Butning ijtimoiy muhandislik sxemasi Tomas Karlayl ilgari taklif qilganiga yaqinlik bor edi. Bu Viktoriya donishmandlarining ikkalasi ham Angliyadagi ma'naviy va moddiy sharoitlar bilan shug'ullanishgan. Butda Karlaylning "Eng qorong'u Angliyada o'tmishi va hozirligi" asaridan ko'chirmalar bor edi. But o'z kitobini yozishda Kobbet, Disraeli, Ruskin, Morris va boshqalarning ijtimoiy g'oyalariga asoslanadi. Butning risolasi Viktoriya davri oxirida Angliyadagi qashshoqlik, uyatsizlik, uysizlar va ishsizlikning iqtisodiy, ijtimoiy va axloqiy muammolarini ochishga qaratilgan edi. Keyin u tiqilinch uylar tumanlaridagi qashshoqlik, qashshoqlik, qashshoqlik va illatlarni yo'q qilish orqali xalqni qayta qurish bo'yicha bir qancha takliflarni bildirdi.

Uning farovonlik sxemasi etim bolalar uchun uylar, fohishalik va jinsiy savdodan aziyat chekkan ayollar va qizlarni qutqarish markazlari, alkogolizm va sobiq mahbuslar uchun reabilitatsiya markazlarini tashkil qilishni taklif qildi. Bundan tashqari, u asbob-uskunalar sotib olmoqchi yoki savdoni boshlamoqchi bo'lgan ishchilarga kichik kreditlar beradigan "Kambag'allar bankiri" xizmatini, shuningdek, kambag'allar advokatlari xizmatini, shuningdek, ishsizlar, kooperativ xo'jaliklarining sanoat mehnatini tashkil etishni rejalashtirgan. va Angliyada doimiy ish topa olmaydigan odamlar uchun chet eldagi koloniyalar. Butning dasturi evangelistik xayriya va imperator mafkurasiga asoslangan edi. Uning maqsadi Angliyaning imperiya ekspansiyasi doirasida Angliyaning ortiqcha mehnatini jonlantirish edi.

But juda oddiy taklifni ilgari surib, Najot Armiyasiga e'tibor qaratdi. Agar xususiy donorlar 100 ming so'm ajratishga rozi bo'lishsa, u London kambag'allarining ma'naviy va moddiy ahvolini yaxshilash uchun bir qancha shahar ustaxonalari va fermalar koloniyalarini tashkil qiladi. Seminarlar va koloniyalarda kambag'allardan qat'iy intizom va axloqiy nazoratga bo'ysunish talab qilinadi. Shuningdek, ular o'z ishlariga jiddiy qarashlari kutilgan edi. Shahar ustaxonalaridan birini tugatganlar keyinchalik Angliyadagi fermalar koloniyasiga ko'chirishadi, ular o'zlarini fermer sifatida isbotlaganlaridan so'ng, chet elga, Kanada yoki Avstraliyadagi Najot qo'shinlari fermasi koloniyalariga yoki ko'chishlariga ruxsat berilardi. o'z uyi. Bu maqsadlarga muvofiq, Najot Armiyasi 1891 yilda aralash dehqonchilik va g'isht ishlab chiqarish uchun Esseksda ming akrli er sotib oldi. 1893 yilga kelib, Najot Armiyasi Londonda beshta shahar koloniyasini tashkil qilib, 2700 kishini ish bilan ta'minladi. kreş-trikotaj fabrikasi, kitoblarni bog'lash fabrikasi, kir yuvish va tekstil va tikuvchilik fabrikasi, Najot Armiyasi, shuningdek, o'n sakkizta mehnat byurosi va ishsiz uy xizmatchilarining ro'yxatga olish idorasiga homiylik qildi. Garchi juda qimmat ko'rinsa -da, ko'pchilik Butning dasturi vaqt o'tishi bilan, ayniqsa, Kambag'al qonun bilan solishtirganda, samarali bo'ladi deb ishonishgan. [Haggard 72]

Qorong'u Angliyada nisbatan ijobiy javob paydo bo'ldi. & ldquoBir nechta kitoblar birinchi marta paydo bo'lganidan keyin juda katta e'tiborni tortdi, & rdquo Zamonaviy sharhda g'ayratli donorni yozdi, u o'zi ijtimoiy qanot sxemalari uchun 1500 funt ajratdi (Inglis 204) Butning kitobi nashr etilgandan so'ng, yordam ko'rsatgan individual xayriyachilar soni. General pul va ma'naviy qo'llab -quvvatlash bilan ancha o'sdi. Butning ko'plab g'oyalari uning hayoti davomida amalga oshirildi, boshqalari 20 -asrda davlat farovonlik tizimi ishlay boshlagach, hayotga tatbiq etildi.

Qutqaruv boshpanalari

Qutqaruv armiyasi Londonda va Britaniyaning boshqa joylarida va chet elda erkaklar va ayollar uchun har xil turdagi boshpanalarni boshqargan. Eng arzoni-tinli o'tiradigan joy. Uning mahbuslariga tun bo'yi isitiladigan keng zalda skameykada o'tirishga ruxsat berildi. Biroq, ular yotib, skameykada uxlay olmadilar. Agar mahbus yana bir tiyinini ayamasa, u skameykaga arqon qo'yib, arqon ustida osilib uxlashga ruxsat berardi. Mahbuslar kunduzi to'satdan uyg'onib ketishdi, chunki arqon kesilgan va ular boshpanadan chiqib ketishgan, keyin tozalangan va ventilyatsiya qilingan. Boshqacha turar joyi to'rt tiyin bo'lgan, "tobut uyi" deb nomlangan, chunki uysizlar tobutga o'xshash yog'och qutilarda uxlashlari mumkin edi. Paketga ertalab issiq nonushta kiritilgan. Ba'zi boshpanalarda sho'rva va non ham taklif qilingan.

1890 -yillarda Najot Armiyasi kambag'al sxemasi uchun sho'rvani qayta boshladi. 1896 yilda Najot Armiyasi 3,2 million taom tarqatdi, 1,3 million kishini turar joy bilan ta'minladi va 12 ming kishini ish bilan ta'minladi. 1890 yilga kelib, u o'n ikkita oziq -ovqat ombori, o'n oltita tungi boshpana, ayollar uchun o'n uch boshpana va ko'plab oshxona oshxonalari orqali katta miqdordagi xayriya yordamini ko'rsatdi. Najot Armiyasi, shuningdek, 1880 -yillar davomida yillik kiyim -kechak va ko'rpa -to'shaklar, hayot sug'urtasini sotdi va jamg'arma bankiga ega edi. [Genri R. Xaggard 72]

Erkaklar uchun birinchi tungi boshpana 1888 yilda Limehouse shahridagi 21 West India Dock Road -da ochilgan. Keyingi boshpanalar Sent -Jon maydonining 61A, Clerkenwell 272 Whitechapel Road, Whitechapel va 83 Horseferry Road, Vestminsterda ochildi. Boshpana egalari qutqaruvchilar Lift deb ataydigan zavodlarga ishga joylashishga umid qilishlari mumkin edi, chunki ular axloqiy fazilatlarni, kambag'al odamlarning o'zini hurmat qilish va salohiyatini oshirishlari kerak edi. Ularga duradgorlik, o'tin, savat, qog'oz saralash, kalay, poyabzal, gugurt tikish kabi kasblar o'rgatilgan. Boshqalarni Xedli shahridagi yirik fermaga yuborish mumkin, u erda ular qishloq xo'jaligi ishlarida o'qitilgan. Xadli-on-Temzadagi fermer xo'jaligi, 1500 gektar maydonni o'z ichiga olgan bo'lib, erkaklarni dehqonchilik, duradgorlik, g'isht va poyabzal yasashga o'rgatgan. Bir yil mobaynida 1200 ga yaqin erkak kolonist bo'lib xizmat qilgan. Ulardan 300 dan ortig'i, ular ishlashni xohlamaganliklari yoki isloh qilinmaydigan ichkilikbozliklari sababli ishdan bo'shatildi. (Briggs 709) Qutqaruv armiyasi Britaniya dominionlarida o'z ishg'olini ta'minlashga harakat qildi.

Fohishalarni reabilitatsiya qilish

1881 yilda Whitechapel qutqaruvchisi Elizabet Kottrill Rojdestvo ko'chasidagi 1 uyiga fohishalikka tushib qolgan yoki uysiz, qashshoq va himoyasiz ayollarni olib keta boshladi. Tez orada uning uyi gavjum bo'lib qoldi va yaqinda Xanberi ko'chasida yiqilgan ayollar uchun boshqa uy ijaraga olindi. Hanbury ko'chasidagi boshpanaga kirgan har bir ayol, bir bo'lak non bilan, tomchilab yoyilgan, bir stakan issiq, kuchli, yaxshi shirin choy olish uchun kichik lyuk orqali bir tiyin o'tkazishi kerak edi. Ayollar yeb -ichishdi, tikishdi, to'qishdi, gaplashishdi va katta zalda kechki xizmatni kutishdi. Ular kir yuvish kiyimlarini kir yuvish xonasida yuvishlari mumkin edi. Uchtalik uchun ular kechki ovqat, yotoq va nonushta olishlari mumkin edi. To'qqizda ular yotishga majbur bo'lishdi. Ularning karavotlari yonma -yon joylashtirilgan yog'och qutilar edi. Choyshablar dengiz o'tlari va katta teri choyshabdan iborat bo'lib, uning sirg'alib ketishiga yo'l qo'ymaydi. Boshpana qoidasi quyidagicha edi: to'shak to'qqizda, oltida ko'tariladi va hammasi sakkizta. Ayollarning boshpana joyida onalar va ularning bolalari uchun joy bor edi.

1880 -yillarning o'rtalarida, Bramvell But va uning rafiqasi Florensiya Soper But, ijtimoiy islohotchi va feminist Jozefina Butler va jurnalist Tomas Stid bilan oq qul savdosiga qarshi kampaniyasiga qo'shilishdi. Bramvell But Butt Stit bilan birgalikda fohishalik uchun yosh qizlarning savdosini fosh qildi. 1885 yil iyul oyida "Pall Mall Gazette" gazetasida "Zamonaviy Bobilning qizi sharafi" va "ldquo" jurnalining bir qator maqolalari nashr etildi, unda uning muharriri WT Stead, o'n uch yoshli Eliza Armstrongni alkogolli onasidan besh funtga sotib olgani tasvirlangan. qizning fohishaxonaga joylashtirilishiga onasining to'liq roziligi bilan. (Bartli 88) Stidning jurnalistik jurnalistikasi munozarali bo'lsa -da, maqolalar keng jamoatchilik noroziligini keltirib chiqardi. Ketrin va Uilyam But Butun palataga Jinoyat qonunchiligiga o'zgartirish kiritish to'g'risidagi qonunni qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun petitsiya yuborishdi, u 17 kun ichida 393 ming imzo to'pladi. Oxir -oqibat, parlament 1885 yilda Jinoyat qonunchiligiga o'zgartirishlar kiritish to'g'risidagi qonunni qabul qildi, bunda rozilik yoshi 13 dan 16 gacha ko'tarildi. (Berwinkle 105)

Xuddi shu yili Uilyam But Najot Armiyasi haftalik gazetasida War Cry a & ldquoNew National Scheme of Himoyasiz Qizlar va Yiqilganlarni Qutqarish uchun taklif qildi. & Rdquo & rdquo Bramwell va uning rafiqasi Londonda qurbon bo'lgan ayollar uchun ofis ochdilar. Jinsiy ekspluatatsiya va Yarim tunda qutqaruv brigadalari tashkil etilgan bo'lib, ular LdquoCellar, Gutter va Garretda ko'cha bo'ylab yuruvchilarni qidirishadi va ularga armiyaning boshpana uylarini taklif qilishadi.

Harorat

Uilyam va Ketrin But umr bo'yi muloyimlikka sodiq edilar. Ular ichkilikbozlik va fohishalikni barcha yomonliklarning ildizi deb atashdi. 1853 yilda Ketrin But Londondagi Exeter Hall-da amerikalik salibchi Jon Bartolomew Gufni (1818-1886) eshitdi. U uning dalillaridan ilhomlanib, uyma-uy tashrif buyurish uchun muomala kampaniyasini o'ylab topdi, keyinchalik u Najot Armiyasining ijtimoiy qutqaruv ishlari doirasida amalga oshirdi. 1880 -yillarga kelib Ketrin But Najot Armiyasi va dunyodagi eng katta tiyilish jamiyatini tuzdi. & Rdquo (Mumford 30)

Qutqaruv armiyasi & ldquoinebriates uchun bir nechta uylarni boshqargan, va bu atama spirtli ichimliklar, morfin va laudanga qaram odamlarni nazarda tutgan. Londonning Rukvud yo'lida joylashgan Hillsborough uyi yolg'onchilar uyi ayol bemorlarni joylashtirdi, ular birinchi marta tekin qabul qilindi, lekin 1890 -yillarning oxirida ular 10 -chi hissa qo'shishlari kutilgan edi. har haftada ularni saqlash xarajatlari. Bemorlar odatda uyda o'n ikki oy yoki undan ham qisqa vaqt qolishgan. Davolanish tugagach, agar ular turmush qurgan bo'lsalar, ularni erlariga qaytarishgan va uylanmagan bemorlarning ba'zilari, masalan, uy ma'murlari ularga qoniqarli fikr bildirish sharti bilan, xizmatchi yoki hamshira kabi lavozimlarga yuborilgan.

Match Girls Strike

Ko'pchilik ishchilar (asosan ayollar), chuvalchanglik sanoatida ishlaganlar, nekrozdan, yoki fosforli xamirga tayoqchalarini tushirgan ishchilarga zarar etkazgan. 15 yoshida boshlarida zaharli gugurt qutilari bo'lgan yosh ayollar kal edi. 1891 yilda Butlar Londondagi Bryant va Meyning gugurt zavodiga qarshi kampaniya boshladi. Uilyam But Londonning Old Ford shahrida qarovsiz qolgan fabrikani sotib oldi va uni gugurt ishlab chiqarish uchun mashinalar va ishchilar bilan jihozladi. Butning gugurt qutilarida shunday yozuv bor edi: & ldquoLights to Darkest England. & rdquo Tez orada uning raqobatchilari nekrozga olib kelmaydigan xavfsizlik o'yinlarini ishlab chiqarishga qaror qilishdi.

Mehnat migratsiyasi

Qorong'u Angliyada Uilyam But inglizlarning ortiqcha ishchi kuchi uchun chet el koloniyalarini yaratish g'oyasini ilgari surdi. Dastlabki emigratsiya 1882 yilda, Najot Armiyasi Avstraliyaga emigrant ayollarni yollashda qatnashgan paytda sodir bo'lgan. Keyin, 1885 yilda, Armiya jurnallarida Avstraliya, Janubiy Afrika va Kanadaga emigratsiyani e'lon qiladigan muntazam xabarlar seriyasi paydo bo'ldi. Birinchi emigratsion kema 1905 yilda Liverpuldan Kanadaga 1000 kishi bilan suzib ketdi. 1908 yilning yoziga kelib 36 mingdan ortiq muhojirlar Britaniya dominionlariga Armiya homiyligida sayohat qilishdi.

Mablag'lar

Dastlab, stendlar deyarli pulsiz va mulksiz mustaqil xristian tashkilotini tuzdilar. 1860 -yillarning o'rtalarida ular missionerlik ishlarini nomenominatsion evangelistik jamiyatlarning moliyaviy yordami bilan boshladilar. (Murdok 170) Xristian missiyasi Xushxabarni targ'ib qilish jamiyati va bir nechta bag'ishlangan xususiy donorlardan mablag 'oldi. 1867 yilda But missiya ishiga yordam berish uchun o'nta taniqli xayriyachilar kengashini tuzdi va yanada samarali mablag 'yig'ish rejasini tuzdi. 1869 yil kuzining boshiga kelib, u 1300 funt yig'di, yana 1600 funt va'da qildi, umuman 2900 funt. (Bennet 37) Bu pul 1870 yilda Xalq missiyasi zaliga aylantirilgan Xalq bozorini sotib olishga sarflandi.

O'sha yili But Kengashni tarqatib yubordi va Konferentsiya tashkil etdi, uning tarkibiga stendlarning o'zlari va turli missiya stantsiyalarini boshqaruvchi xushxabarchilar kirgan. Butning moliyaviy ahvoli hali ham yomon edi va qarzlar 1872 yilgacha o'chirilmadi. 1870 yil aprelda "Christian Mission" jurnali missiyani davom ettirish uchun xayriya va ixtiyoriy qurbonliklarga chaqirdi. 1870 yildan 1874 yilgacha Missiya tomonidan boshqariladigan, kambag'allarga arzon ovqatlarni taklif qiladigan osh oshxonalari, missiyaning qarzlarini yopish uchun katta daromad keltirmadi.

Uilyam But o'z ijtimoiy xizmatini olib borish uchun keng jamoatchilik va tashkilotlar bergan mablag'larga to'liq bog'liq edi. 1879 yil 30 sentyabrda tugagan yil uchun Najot Armiyasining birinchi balansida 7,194 funtlik tushum ko'rsatilgan, shundan 4 723 funt (59%) va tashqi manbalardan olingan. 18 750 000 funtdan oshdi. Bunga, Bramvell Butning nazorati ostida, yanada samarali mablag 'yig'ish sabab bo'ldi.

1886 yil sentyabr oyida, birinchi "O'z-o'zini inkor qilish haftaligi" tashkil etilganda, Najot Armiyasi tizimli kichik moliyaviy hissa qo'shish dasturini, shuningdek, katta xayr-ehsonlar, sovg'alar va meros qoldirishni boshladi. Additionally, William Booth decided that each corps must be responsible for raising their own funds. At the end of 1888, Booth requested the Home Secretary to provide funds for the Salvation Army in the annual amount of 15,000 pounds to improve the inhumane conditions of the &ldquo vast numbers of men and women&rdquo in East London slums. The request was rejected, but Booth managed to raise 102,559 pounds from individual philanthropists to start implementing this scheme. (Irvine 17) By the end of the Victorian era, the Salvation Army had been widely recognised as an important Christian social relief organisation and developed effective fundraising techniques which helped it extend its social work in Britain and overseas. All donations collected from individuals and the amount donated were publicised in the annual reports.

Oversea Activity

Confession of an Indian . [Click on image to enlarge it and to obtain more imformation.]

In 1880, the Salvation Army opened its missions in the United States, in the following year in Australia in 1882 in Canada in 1887 in Jamaica in 1898 in Barbados and in 1901 in Trinidad. By the end of the century, the Salvation Army established its posts in several European countries, India, South Africa, and South America. In the 1890s, the Salvation Army had some 45,00 officers in Britain and 10,000 worldwide.

Opposition and Recognition

The unconventional activity of the Salvation Army began to provoke opposition. Many denominations, including the om1.html Church, regarded William Booth's open-air evangelism with suspicion because it allowed women to preach. The politician Lord Shaftesbury condemned the activities of the Salvation Army and described William Booth as the &ldquoAntichrist. &rdquo (Gariepy 31) The magazine Punch called him &ldquoField Marshal Von Booth. &rdquo (Benge 164) Apart from that, the Army &ldquosoldiers&rdquo were initially often persecuted by authorities and mobs.

From the outset the activity of the Salvation Army stirred controversy and resentment in some circles. Critics described Booth's social schemes as totally utopian and impractical. They also put into question the honesty of the General and his family and accused him of authoritarianism. Thomas Huxley, natural scientist and agnostic, wrote twelve letters to The Times in which he tried to discourage people from giving Booth money for his scheme. He described Booth's venture as &ldquoautocratic socialism masked by its theological exterior. &rdquo (7) Charles Bradlaugh, a political activist and atheist, is said to have died muttering: &ldquoGeneral Booth's accounts, General Booth's accounts.&rdquo (Inglis 208)

Many people did not like the Salvation Army parades with loud singing and shouting. Brewers feared that the temperance actions would diminish alcohol consumption. Owners of drink stores organised gangs of thugs, who called themselves the Skeleton Army to disrupt the activities of the Salvation Army. They followed Salvationists' processions carrying skull and crossbones banners and dirty dishcloths on broom handles. Their intention was to mock the practices of The Salvation Army. Meetings were also disrupted by loud jeering, stone and rat throwing. The most violent disturbances against the Salvation Army occurred in 1882, when 56 buildings were attacked and 669 Salvationists were brutally assaulted in provincial towns such as Honiton, Frome, Salisbury and Chester. (Swift 186, 193) However, in spite of violence and persecution, some 500,000 people were on and off under the ministry of the Salvation Army in Britain in the last quarter of the 19th century.

However, the Salvation Army began to gain powerful supporters too. Winston Churchill, who was then the Undersecretary of State, agreed with Booth's social ideas. Cardinal Manning, the Head of the Catholic Church in Britain, wrote a letter to General Booth sympathising with him in his efforts to ameliorate the condition of the London poor. (The Mercury , Nov. 7, 1890 ) Charles Spurgeon, a Particular Baptist preacher, known as the 'Prince of Preachers', also expressed his support for the General. He wrote: &ldquoFive thousand extra policemen could not fill [the Salvation Army's] place in the repression of crime and disorder. &rdquo (Benge 165)

Gradually, the Salvation Army began to earn respect from both the lower and upper strata of society. Although Queen Victoria never gave her official patronage to the activities of the Salvation Army, she sent Catherine Booth the following message in 1882: &ldquoHer Majesty learns with much satisfaction that you have, with other members of your Society, been successful in your efforts to win many thousands to the ways of temperance, virtue, and religion. &rdquo (Walsh 185) Towards the end of the Victorian era the Salvation Army became widely recognised as the champion of the poor and destitute.

By the end of the Victorian Era the social work of the Salvation Army had become officially recognised. In 1902, Booth was invited to attend the coronation of King Edward VII, and in 1907 he received an honorary doctorate from Oxford University. A number of religious leaders expressed support to the social work of the Salvation Army, and Robert William Dale, a Congregationalist church leader, said that &ldquothe Salvation Army was a new instrument for social and moral reform. &rdquo (Inglis 205)

Xulosa

The Salvation Army grew from an obscure Christian Mission, established in East London in 1865, into an effective international organisation with numerous and varied social programmes. By the end of the Victorian era it had become one of the most successful Christian social relief organisations which was not only engaged in street preaching but also in a variety of social services for the poor, destitute and homeless. Its programmes, such as rescue homes for sexually-abused women and rehabilitation centres for alcoholics, drug addicts, juvenile delinquents, and ex-prisoners, anticipated similar welfare programmes in the twentieth century. Although the Salvation Army generally revealed conservative attitudes towards a liberal society, and its members often lived in self-imposed cultural isolation, it nevertheless supported first-wave Christian feminism by allowing women to preach and carry out social work. The spiritual and social ministry of the Salvation Army stirred the social conscience of many Victorians and contributed significantly to a number of welfare reforms in Britain and elsewhere.


Tarix

In 1938, the first-ever National Donut Day was celebrated in Chicago, and the history of The Salvation Army’s Donut Lassies was officially immortalized. The Donut Lassies were sent to France in 1917 where they established field bases near the front lines. These huts served as locations where soldiers could stock up on essential goods and snag a treat or two provided by the lassies. When it became apparent that baking was going to be difficult to continue during war time, two volunteers – Ensign Margaret Sheldon and Adjutant Helen Purviance – began frying donuts in soldiers’ helmets. Their work brought a light of hope and happiness to the battlefield – a much-needed boost for soldiers who had been there for ages.

The “Donut Lassies” are now often credited with popularizing the donut in the United States when the troops (commonly known as “doughboys”) came back from fighting in Europe. Over a hundred years later, The Salvation Army is still serving on the front lines, now through a wide range of social services for the most vulnerable Americans.

Read the press release to see how we are celebrating National Donut Day this year.


Current organization

The Salvation Army operates in 113 countries and provides services in 175 different languages. For administrative purposes, the organization divides itself geographically into Territories, which are then sub-divided into Divisions. Each Territory has an administrative hub known as Territorial Headquarters (THQ). Likewise, each Division has a Divisional Headquarters (DHQ). For example, Japan is one territory, the United States is divided into four Territories: Eastern, Southern, Central, and Western, while Germany and Lithuania together are one territory. Each of these Territories is led by a Territorial Commander who receives orders from The Salvation Army's International Headquarters in London.

The Salvation Army is one of the world's largest providers of social aid, with expenditures including operating costs of $2.6 billion in 2004, helping more than 32 million people in the US alone. In addition to community centers and disaster relief, the organization does work in refugee camps, especially among displaced people in Africa. The Salvation Army has received an A- rating from the American Institute of Philanthropy.

There are more than 17,000 active and more than 8,700 retired officers, 1 041 461 soldiers, around 100,000 other employees and more than 4.5 million volunteers. It is led by General Shaw Clifton, who has held this position since April 2, 2006 after the 2006 High Council elected him as the next General January 28, 2006.

Current events

Grammy Award winner Kelly Clarkson performed live during the nationally televised halftime of the Dallas Cowboys Thanksgiving Day game, which officially launched the 2007 Salvation Army Red Kettle Christmas campaign. [4]

Ranks

The Salvation Army has a quasi-military ranking structure. Officers are leaders within the movement.

Officer ranks, lowest first [5] [6]
Reyting Insignia
Kadet One or two red stripes (representing training year) on a blue background
Lieutenant One silver star on a red background
Kapitan Two silver stars on a red background
Mayor Silver crest on a red background
Lt. Colonel Silver crest and silver edging on a red background
Polkovnik Like Lt. Colonel, except lapel insignia is bordered with silver piping
Commissioner Silver crest with oak leaves, silver piping, and dark red velvet background
Chief of Staff Like Commissioner, with addition of a silver bar under the crest
Umumiy Like commissioner, except gold with gold bar under the crest

Cadet is the title given to those in training to be Salvation Army Officers. Lieutenant, Captain, and Major are the regular ranks for Salvation Army officers. A Cadet is commissioned to the rank of Lieutenant (as of March 2008), and after 5 years promoted to Captain, then after 15 years receives the rank of Major in recognition of service. Lieutenant-Colonel, Colonel, Commissioner and General are all special appointment ranks in that they are only given to officers in senior leadership positions.

There are those who serve as non commissioned officers in leadership roles and they are given the rank of Sergeant (USA South) or Envoy. These ranks are usually temporary and only for a period of about three years where they are either renewed or the person reverts back to the status of soldier if they no longer serve in a leadership role.

The Flag

Around the world, The Salvation Army flag is a symbol of the Army's war against sin and social evil. The red on the flag symbolizes the blood shed by Christ, the yellow for the fire of the Holy Spirit and the blue for the purity of God the Father. The star contains the Salvation Army's motto, 'Blood and Fire'. This describes the blood of Jesus shed on the cross to save all people, and the fire of the Holy Spirit which purifies believers.

The flag, designed by General Catherine Booth, precedes outdoor activities such as a march of witness. It is used in ceremonies such as the dedication of children and the swearing-in of soldiers. It is sometimes placed on the coffin at the funeral of a Salvationist. The Salvation Army term used to describe the death of a Salvationist is that of the deceased being "promoted to Glory". This term is still used and upheld by Salvationists.

Musiqa

As the popularity of the organization grew and Salvationists worked their way through the streets of London attempting to convert individuals, they were sometimes confronted with unruly crowds. A family of musicians (the Frys, from Alderbury near Salisbury in Wiltshire, the home of the Salvation Army Band) began working with the Army as their "bodyguards" and played music to distract the crowds. [7] They were also involved in union-busting actions: Salvation Army bands would show up at union actions and attempt to bring down the union activities with hymns and music. [iqtibos kerak] This in turn led the Industrial Workers of the World to create their own lyrics set to popular Salvation Army Band tunes, many of which remain in that union's "Little Red Songbook." [iqtibos kerak]

The tradition of having musicians available continued, and eventually grew into the creation of true bands. Their musical groups, usually a brass band or smaller collection of brass instruments, are seen in public at Army campaigns, as well as at other festivals, parades and at Christmas. Across the world the brass band has been an integral part of the Army’s ministry and an immediately recognizable symbol to Salvationists and non-Salvationists alike. The Salvation Army also has choirs these are known as Songster Brigades, normally comprising the traditional soprano, alto, tenor and bass singers. The Premier Songster Brigade in the Salvation Army is the International Staff Songsters (ISS).

The standard of playing is high and the Army operates bands at the international level, such as the International Staff Band (a brass band) which is the equal of professional ensembles although it does not participate in the brass band contest (see music competition) scene. Some professional brass players and contesting brass band personnel have come up through The Salvation Army.

Sometimes larger Salvation Army corps (churches) have brass bands that play at Sunday meetings or services. Examples include Parramatta Citadel Band in Australia, Montclair Citadel Band in the USA and Maidenhead Citadel Band in the UK.

The Army tradition in music is to use the popular idiom of the day to reach people for Jesus. The Army's Joy Strings were a hit pop group in the 1960s and early 1970s in the UK and beyond, reaching the charts and being featured on national television. Another popular band is The Insyderz, an American ska-core group in the 1990s and early 2000s. Current bands like New Zealand's Vatic, Chamberlin, Hypemusic and The Lads, England's Electralyte, Australia's Soteria Music Ministries and Escape and America's transMission, The Singing Company, HAB, and BurN, carry on this Salvation Army tradition.


The Salvation Army Florida

William Booth embarked upon his ministerial career in 1852. His crusade was to win the lost multitudes of London to Christ. He went into the streets of London to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ to the poor, the homeless, the hungry and the destitute.

Booth abandoned the conventional concept of a church and a pulpit and took his message to the people. His fervor led to disagreement with the leaders of the church in London. They preferred traditional measures. As a result, he withdrew from the church and traveled throughout England conducting evangelistic meetings. His wife, Catherine, was a major force in The Salvation Army movement.

In 1865, William Booth was invited to hold a series of evangelistic meetings in the east end of London. He set up a tent in a Quaker graveyard and his services became an instant success. This proved to be the end of his wanderings as an independent traveling evangelist. His renown as a religious leader spread throughout London. His followers were a vigorous group dedicated to fight for the souls of men and women.

Thieves, prostitutes, gamblers and drunkards were among Booth’s first converts to Christianity. His congregations were desperately poor. He preached hope and salvation. His aim was to lead them to Christ and to link them to a church for further spiritual guidance. Even though they were converted, churches did not accept Booth’s followers because of what they had been. Booth gave their lives direction in a spiritual manner and put them to work to save others who were like themselves. They too preached and sang in the streets as a living testimony to the power of God.

In 1867, Booth had only 10 full-time workers. By 1874, the numbers had grown to 1,000 volunteers and 42 evangelists. They served under the name “The Christian Mission.” Booth assumed the title of a General Superintendent. His followers called him “General.” Known as the “Hallelujah Army,'” the converts spread out of the east end of London into neighboring areas and then to other cities.

Booth was reading a printer’s proof of the 1878 Annual Report when the noticed the statement, ‘”The Christian Mission under the Superintendent’s of the Rev. William Booth is a volunteer army. He crossed out the words “Volunteer Army'” and penned in “Salvation Army'” From those words came the basis of the foundation deed of The Salvation Army which was adopted in August of that same year.

Converts became soldiers of Christ and are known as Salvationists. They launched an offensive throughout the British Isles. In some instances there were real battles as organized gangs mocked and attacked soldiers as they went about their work. In spite of the violence and persecution, some 250,000 persons were converted under the ministry of the Salvationists between 1881 and 1885.

Meanwhile, the Army was gaining a foothold in the United States. Lieutenant Eliza Shirley had left England to join her parents who had migrated to America earlier in search of work. She held the first meeting of The Salvation Army in America in Philadelphia in 1879. The Salvationists were received enthusiastically. Shirley wrote to General Booth begging for reinforcements. None were available at first. Glowing reports of the work in Philadelphia convinced Booth to send an official group to pioneer the work in America in 1880.

On March 10, 1880, Commissioner George Scott Railton and seven women officers knelt on the dockside at Battery Park in New York City to give thanks for their safe arrival. This was to be their first official street meeting held in the United States. These pioneers were to be met with similar unfriendly actions, as was the case in Great Britain. They were ridiculed, arrested and attacked. Several officers and soldiers even gave their lives.

Three years later, Railton and the seven “Hallelujah Lassies”‘ had expanded their operation into California, Connecticut, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio and Pennsylvania.

President Grover Cleveland received a delegation of Salvation Army officers in 1886 and gave the organization a warm personal endorsement. This was the first recognition from the White House that was to be followed by similar receptions from succeeding presidents of the United States.

Termed as the “invasion of the United States,” The Salvation Army movement expanded rapidly to Canada, Australia, France, Switzerland, India, South Africa, Iceland and Germany. Currently in the United States, there are more than 10,000 local neighborhood units, and The Salvation Army is active in virtually every corner of the world.

A Brief History of the USA Southern Territory

The opening salvos of the Salvation War were fired in Baltimore, Maryland when the Shirley family arrived there in 1881. Early successes followed throughout Maryland and from there the work spread further through the South.

The South was the focus of attention during the Spanish-American War, as Florida became the launching point for American forces before sailing for Cuba. The first work in America among the military took place here among the troops.

The Salvation Army in the South found its fortunes bound to a farm economy that was dominated by Cotton and tobacco. As prices rose and fell, corps experienced both boom times and bust. The work was difficult to establish but finally it was felt that the region was strong enough to become its own command.

In April 1927, the National Commander Evangeline Booth came to Atlanta to proclaim the opening of the Southern Territory. Appointed to head the new command were Commissioner and Mrs. William McIntyre, native Canadians but whose service was almost entirely in the United States. The opening was not a smooth one as two years later the Great Depression fell on the world.

As the economy improved and as the South tackled the problems created by years of racial segregation, the Army found more fertile fields for growth. It pragmatic approach to social issues and its simple, but heartfelt proclamation of the Christian Gospel has allowed it to grow at a continuing accelerated pace. Currently one of the fastest growing territories in the world the Southern Territory is now experiencing growth in new areas such as ethnic ministries with Hispanic and Asian corps.

Innovative social programs have continued to keep the Army’s work relevant through the transition caused by welfare reform The vitality of its Christian message is witnessed by new corps openings, larger numbers of cadets, larger attendance in its meeting and the optimism that comes with a forward march.


Bizning tariximiz

William Booth embarked upon his ministerial career in 1852, desiring to win the lost multitudes of England to Christ. He walked the streets of London to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ to the poor, the homeless, the hungry, and the destitute.

Booth abandoned the conventional concept of a church and a pulpit, instead taking his message to the people. His fervor led to disagreement with church leaders in London, who preferred traditional methods. As a result, he withdrew from the church and traveled throughout England, conducting evangelistic meetings. His wife, Catherine, could accurately be called a cofounder of The Salvation Army.

In 1865, William Booth was invited to hold a series of evangelistic meetings in the East End of London. He set up a tent in a Quaker graveyard, and his services became an instant success. This proved to be the end of his wanderings as an indepedent traveling evangelist. His renown as a religious leader spread thoughout London, and he attracted followers who were dedicated to fight for the souls of men and women.

Thieves, prostitutes, gamblers, and drunkards were among Booth's first converts to Christianity. To congregations who were desperately poor, he preached hope and salvation. His aim was to lead people to Christ and link them to a church for further spiritual guidance.

Many churches, however, did not accept Booth's followers because of their past. So Booth continued giving his new converts spiritual direction, challenging them to save others like themselves. Soon, they too were preaching and singing in the streets as a living testimony to the power of God.

In 1867, Booth had only 10 full-time workers, but by 1874, the number had grown to 1,000 volunteers and 42 evangelists, all serving under the name "The Christian Mission." Booth assumed the title of general superintendent, with his followers calling him "General." Known as the "Hallelujah Army," the converts spread out of the East End of London into neighboring areas and then to other cities.

Booth was reading a printer's proof of the 1878 annual report when he noticed the statement "The Christian Mission is a volunteer army." Crossing out the words "volunteer army," he penned in "Salvation Army." From those words came the basis of the foundation deed of The Salvation Army.

From that point, converts became soldiers of Christ and were known then, as now, as Salvationists. They launched an offensive throughout the British Isles, in some cases facing real battles as organized gangs mocked and attacked them. In spite of violence and persecution, some 250,000 people were converted under the ministry of The Salvation Army between 1881 and 1885.

Meanwhile, the Army was gaining a foothold in the United States. Lieutenant Eliza Shirley had left England to join her parents, who had migrated to America earlier in search for work. In 1879, she held the first meeting of The Salvation Army in America, in Philadelphia. The Salvationists were received enthusiastically. Shirley wrote to General Booth, begging for reinforcements. None were available at first. Glowing reports of the work in Philadelphia, however, eventually convinced Booth, in 1880, to send an official group to pioneer the work in America.

On March 10, 1880, Commissioner George Scott Raiton and seven women officers knelt on the dockside at Battery Park in New York City to give thanks for their safe arrival. At their first official street meeting, these pioneers were met with unfriendly actions, as had happened in Great Britain. They were ridiculed, arrested, and attacked. Several officers and soldiers even gave their lives.Three years later, Railton and other Salvationists had expanded their operation into California, Connecticut, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. President Grover Cleveland received a delegation of Salvation Army officers in 1886 and gave the organization a warm personal endorsement. This was the first recognition from the White House and would be followed by similar receptions from succeeding presidents.

The Salvation Army movement expanded rapidly to Canada, Australia, France, Switzerland, India, South Africa, Iceland, and local neighborhood units. The Salvation Army is active in virtually every corner of the world.

General Booth's death in 1912 was a great loss to The Salvation Army. However, he had laid a firm foundation' even his death could not deter the ministry's onward march. His eldest son, Bramwell Booth, succeeded him.

The Salvation Army Mission Statement

The Salvation Army, an international movement, is an evangelical part of the universal Christian Church. Its message is based on the Bible. Its ministry is motivated by the love of God. Its mission is to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ and to meet human needs in His name without discrimination.


Salvation Army founded - HISTORY

William Booth: Salvation Army Founder, Freemason

To those who claim there is no proof that William Booth founder of the Salvation Army was a Freemason I present the following evidence. Throughout his life we can plainly see that Mr. Booth would put his hand (usually the right) inside his jacket. Why does this matter? In Freemasonry this is called the "hidden hand of Jahbulon" (AKA sign of the master of the second veil) gesture and was done in order to clandestinely show his brother Masons that he was part of their fraternity. The phrase refers to how Freemasons consider themselves to be the hidden hand that shapes world history.

When looking at all the world leaders who have participated in this conspiracy I see no reason to disagree. Jah-bul-on is the combination of the trinity of gods of Freemasonry: Jah (Yah - Yahweh), Bul (Baal) and On (Osiris -worshiped in Egypt as the god On).

If you look closely at the photographs you can see one in which William Booth is wearing a T shirt with the original Salvation Army logo. It depicts the sun wearing a crown which makes sense since Yahweh, Baal and Osiris are all connected to sun worship. It also features a very snake like 'S' seemingly wrapped around the cross of Christ. The snake wrapped around a T-shaped (tau) cross is called an ankh and is also occult in origin.

Below you will find many more examples of Booth making this Masonic gesture the preponderance of which completely rules out the possibility it was accidental. Some have attempted to suggest that Booth did this because he had constant 'tummy aches'. Interestingly, this exact same excuse was used to explain Napoleon's constant usage of this hidden hand gesture in most of his known portraits.

Perhaps the most persuasive evidence of all is the fact that Mr. Booth is listed at the Masonic Ezekiel Grand Lodge of New Jersey's website amongst the famous religious leaders who were also Masons. [Update: He has subsequently been removed!] There are other Masonic websites that also claim William Booth as one of their own and I see no reason to disagree.

Many world leaders throughout history (particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries) have been photographed and immortalized in art whilst making this Masonic gesture, perhaps the most well known of which is Napoleon. What was not understood until recent history was the significance of the gesture. I urge you to do your own research and confirm the truth for yourselves brothers and sisters.

Fair warning to the Freemason apologists, lots of people with bad tummy aches below!

Others Who Used This Masonic Gesture

American Presidents

President James Garfield

President Franklin Pierce

President Andrew Johnson

President John Adams

President Rutherford B. Hayes

President Martin Van Buren

Here we see two men with President Lincoln visiting the troops. Notice Lincoln is not making the gesture? He was surrounded by his enemies. But look who is! There seems to be no limit to the amount of civil war soldier photographs that depict them making this Freemason gesture. One was even featured on the popular "Pawn Stars" TV show.

One should note that from day one black slavery was a Masonic scheme fomented to create racial hostility in America, an enemy within. Eventually this will lead to the race wars that will destroy her. Lincoln abolition of slavery went against their timetable and led to his eventual assassination.


This is John Wilkes Booth, Lincoln's assassin showing us that his true allegiance was to the Masons first, country second. Could he possibly be related to William Booth?

This is Solomon Rothschild of the Jewish banking family. By the way, did you know that 'Rothschild' means "red shield"? According to this video featuring Mark Cleminson, the Rothschild family financed both William Booth and the Salvation Army!

Joseph Stalin and George Washington

Master of the Second Veil - Give them.

Principal Sojourner - Shem, Ham and Japhet [Give the sign by casting down a cane and taking it up by the end, as before explained]

Master of Second Veil - They are right. You have my permission to enter the Second Veil. The candidates, led by the Principal Sojourner, pass in.

Master of the Second Veil - Three Most Excellent Masters you must have been, or thus far you could not have come but further you cannot go without my words, sign and word of exhortation. My words are Shem, Japhet and Adoniram my sign is this, [thrusting his hand in his bosom] it is in imitation of one given by God to Moses, when He commanded him to thrust his hand into his bosom, and taking it out it became as leprous as snow. My word of exhortation is explanatory of this sign, and is found in the writings of Moses VI: fourth chapter of Exodus:

And the Lord said unto Moses, put now thy hand into thy bosom and he put his hand in his bosom and when he took it out, behold his hand was as leprous as snow.
Exodus 4:6 (KJV)

Something that this Masonic ritual rather aptly demonstrates is Satan's propensity for taking God's word and twisting it to suit his own agenda. Time and again we see him doing this, Satan is a great imitator, as well as a thief. Even down to co-opting the rainbow and using it to promote his wicked sexual deviancy.


The Salvation Army’s commitment to Memphis – three major campuses on 33 acres with $150 million in capital investment – makes this one of the only cities in the U.S. to have all three signature programs in one location, working together throughout the year to stabilize lives for the children of tomorrow.

Because of Memphis’ long-term and interrelated problems of poverty, homelessness, addiction and violence, The Salvation Army has committed its resources to Heal Memphis with long-term solutions:

Purdue Center Of Hope

Services were provided in donated space until the 1970s, when Abe Plough chaired a capital campaign to repurpose a building for dormitory space at 200 Monroe. When that was sold to make room for AutoZone Park, the Kemmons Wilson family led the campaign to build the first specially designed Purdue Center of Hope at 696 Jackson.

Opened in 2000, with three shelters housing 122 people each night, today it is the largest provider of shelter and services to homeless women and children in Memphis. Addiction recovery, job placement and permanent housing are just some of the outcomes. Additionally, the Angel Tree program brings Christmas joy to thousands of children and seniors in need each Christmas, often preventing eviction or utility cutoff — and our Canteen Ministry and disaster relief continues to bring caring assistance to the front lines.

Adult Rehabilitation Center

A residential work therapy program, the Mid-South Adult Rehabilitation Center (ARC) opened in 2009 at 2649 Kirby Whitten.

Family stores provide meaningful job training, and proceeds keep the ARC self-supporting, as 140 men and women work toward sobriety and rehabilitation.

Combined with Renewal Place and an Intensive Outpatient Program (IOP) at the Purdue Center of Hope, The Salvation Army is the largest provider of alcohol and drug recovery programs in Memphis. With spiraling addiction rates crippling the city’s resources and families, The Salvation Army is again at the point of critical need.

Kroc Center

Finally in 2013, maximizing the Joan Kroc bequest with a capital campaign chaired by Meg and Scott Crosby, The Salvation Army opened the doors of the Ray and Joan Kroc Corps Community Center at 800 East Parkway South.

Here, on 15 acres in the heart of the city, in 100,000 square feet of innovative space, the Kroc Center provides arts, education, recreation and worship to people of all ages and backgrounds – including 10,000 members and 260,000 guests each year.

This proactive schedule builds individuals, families and neighborhoods, and ultimately, a more positive city — lessening the needs for critical services downstream.


Preaching the Gospel

All Salvationists accept a disciplined and compassionate life of high moral standards which includes abstinence from alcohol and tobacco. From its earliest days the Army has accorded women equal opportunities, every rank and service being open to them and from childhood the young are encouraged to love and serve God.Raised to evangelise, the Army spontaneously embarked on schemes for the social betterment of the poor. Such concerns have since developed, wherever the Army operates, in practical, skilled and cost-effective ways. Evolving social services meet endemic needs and specific crises worldwide. Modern facilities and highly-trained staff are employed.

Modern facilities and longer-term development is under continual review. Increasingly the Army’s policy and its indigenous membership allow it to cooperate with international relief agencies and governments alike.

The movement’s partnership with both private and public philanthropy will continue to bring comfort to the needy, while the proclamation of God’s redemptive love offers individuals and communities the opportunity to enjoy a better life on earth and a place in Christ’s everlasting Kingdom.


Videoni tomosha qiling: UZBEKISTAN ARMIYASI 2 orinni egallab turibti XALQARO QUROLLI KUCHLAR MUSOBOQASIDA