Miloddan avvalgi 150 -yil Rim Britaniya xaritasi

Miloddan avvalgi 150 -yil Rim Britaniya xaritasi



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Rim imperiyasining demografiyasi

Demografik nuqtai nazardan, Rim imperiyasi odatiy zamonaviy davlat edi. Bu bolalar o'limining yuqori darajasi, nikoh yoshining pastligi va nikohda tug'ilishning yuqori darajasi edi. Balki yarmi Rim mavzulari 5 yoshida vafot etdi. 10 yoshida tirik qolganlarning yarmi 50 yoshida vafot etadi. O'zining eng yuqori cho'qqisida, milodiy 160 -yillardagi Antonin vabosidan so'ng, aholisi taxminan 60-70 mln. har kvadrat kilometrga taxminan 16 kishi. Klassik va o'rta asrlar davridagi Evropa jamiyatlaridan farqli o'laroq, Rimda urbanizatsiya darajasi juda yuqori edi. Miloddan avvalgi II asrda Rim shahrida bir milliondan ortiq aholi yashagan. 19 -asrgacha hech bir G'arbiy shahar bunchalik ko'p bo'lmaydi.


Tarkibi

Erta aloqa tahrirlash

Britaniya klassik olamga mashhur edi. Miloddan avvalgi IV asrda yunonlar, finikiyaliklar va karfagenliklar kornish qalay bilan savdo qilishgan. [13] Yunonlar bu Kassiteridlaryoki "qalay orollari" bo'lib, ularni Evropaning g'arbiy sohiliga yaqin joylashtirdi. [14] Karfagenlik dengizchi Himilko eramizdan avvalgi VI yoki V asrda, 4 -asrda yunon tadqiqotchisi Pifeyni ziyorat qilgani aytiladi. Bu sirli joy deb hisoblanar edi, ba'zi yozuvchilar uning mavjudligiga ishonishdan bosh tortishardi. [15]

Birinchi to'g'ridan -to'g'ri Rim aloqasi, Yuliy Tsezar miloddan avvalgi 55 va 54 yillarda, inglizlar galliklarga qarshilik ko'rsatishga yordam berishiga ishongan holda, Golliya zabt etilishining bir qismi sifatida ikkita ekspeditsiya uyushtirgan payt edi. Birinchi ekspeditsiya to'liq bosqindan ko'ra ko'proq kashfiyot edi va Kent qirg'og'ida mustahkam o'rnashib oldi, lekin kemalarning bo'ronli shikastlanishi va otliqlarning yo'qligi tufayli oldinga siljiy olmadi. Harbiy muvaffaqiyatsizlikka qaramay, bu siyosiy muvaffaqiyat edi, Rim Senati Buyuk Britaniyadan garovga olishning misli ko'rilmagan yutug'ini va qit'aga qaytishda belgiya qabilalarini mag'lub etish uchun Rimda 20 kunlik dam olish kunini e'lon qildi. [16]

Ikkinchi bosqinchilik ancha katta kuchni o'z ichiga oldi va Tsezar tinchlik evaziga ko'plab kelt qabilalarini o'lpon to'lashga va garovga berishga majbur qildi yoki taklif qildi. Do'stona mahalliy podshoh Mandubrasiy o'rnatildi va uning raqibi Kassivellaunus bilan kelishildi. Garovga olinganlar bor edi, lekin tarixchilar Qaysar Golliga qaytganidan keyin har qanday o'lpon to'langanmi yoki yo'qmi, degan fikrga qo'shilmaydilar. [17]

Qaysar hech bir hududni bosib olmadi va qo'shin qoldirmadi, lekin u mijozlar o'rnatdi va Britaniyani Rim ta'sir doirasiga kiritdi. Avgust miloddan avvalgi 34, 27 va 25 yillarda bostirib kirishni rejalashtirgan, lekin sharoit hech qachon qulay bo'lmagan, [18] va Britaniya va Rim o'rtasidagi munosabatlar diplomatiya va savdodan biriga aylangan. Avgust hukmronligining oxirida yozgan Strabon, savdoga solinadigan soliqlar har qanday fathdan ko'ra yillik daromad keltirganini da'vo qilgan. [19] Arxeologiya shuni ko'rsatadiki, Buyuk Britaniyaning janubi -sharqida qimmatbaho tovarlar importi ko'paygan. [20] Strabon, shuningdek, Avgust va Avgustga o'z elchixonalarini yuborgan Britaniya qirollari haqida gapiradi Res Gestae qochqin sifatida qabul qilgan ikkita ingliz qirolini nazarda tutadi. [21] Tiberiyning ba'zi kemalari milodiy 16 -yilda Germaniyaga qilgan yurishlari paytida bo'ron bilan Buyuk Britaniyaga olib kelinganda, ular yirtqich hayvonlar haqidagi ertaklar bilan qaytib kelishdi. [22]

Ko'rinib turibdiki, Rim Buyuk Britaniyaning janubida kuchlar muvozanatini qo'llab -quvvatlab, ikkita qudratli podshohlikni qo'llab -quvvatladi: Tasciovanus avlodlari tomonidan boshqariladigan Katuvellauni va Kommius avlodlari boshqaradigan Atrebatlar. [23] Bu siyosat eramizning 39 yoki 40 -yillariga qadar, Kaligula Katuvellauniylar sulolasining quvg'in qilingan a'zosini qabul qilib, Buyuk Britaniyaga bostirib kirishni rejalashtirganiga qadar, Gollandiyani tark etishidan oldin kuzatilgan. [24] [25] Klavdiy milodiy 43 yilda muvaffaqiyatli bostirib kirganida, u Britaniyaning boshqa qochoq hukmdori Verreka atrebatliklarga yordam bergan.

Rim bosqini tahrir

Milodiy 43 -yildagi bosqinchi kuchni Aulus Plautius boshqargan [26], lekin qancha legion yuborilgani noma'lum. The Legio II Avgusta, bo'lajak imperator Vespasian qo'mondonligi ostida, ishtirok etgan yagona shaxs edi. [27] IX Hispaniya, [28] XIV egizak (keyinchalik uslubda Martia Victrix) va XX (keyinchalik uslubda Valeriya Victrix) [29] 60/61 yildagi Boudikan qo'zg'oloni paytida xizmat qilgani ma'lum va ehtimol ular birinchi bosqindan beri o'sha erda bo'lgan. Bu aniq emas, chunki Rim armiyasi moslashuvchan edi, bo'linmalar kerak bo'lganda aylanib yurardi. The Legio IX Hispaniya 71 -yilda Eboracumda (York) va 108 -yilgi bino yozuvida, Imperiyaning sharqida, ehtimol Bar Kokba qo'zg'oloni paytida vayron qilinganidan oldin, doimiy ravishda joylashtirilgan bo'lishi mumkin. [30]

Bosqin, qo'shinlarning qo'zg'oloni bilan kechiktirildi, toki imperator ozodligi ularni okeanni kesib o'tish va taniqli dunyo chegaralaridan tashqarida kampaniya qilish qo'rquvini engishga ko'ndirdi. Ular uchta bo'linishda suzib ketishdi va ehtimol Kentning Richboro shahriga etib kelishdi, hech bo'lmaganda kuchning bir qismi G'arbiy Sasseksning Fishburn shahri yaqinida qo'ngan bo'lishi mumkin. [31]

Katuvellauni va ularning ittifoqchilari ikkita jangda mag'lubiyatga uchrashdi: birinchisi, Richboroga, Medvey daryosiga, ikkinchisi Temza daryosiga qo'ndi. Ularning etakchilaridan biri Togodumnus o'ldirilgan, lekin ukasi Karatak qarshilikni boshqa joyda davom ettirish uchun tirik qolgan. Plautius Temzada to'xtadi va Klavdiyni Katuvellauniya poytaxti Kamulodunumga (Kolchester) oxirgi yurish uchun qo'shinlar, shu jumladan artilleriya va fillar bilan kelgan. Vespasian janubi -g'arbni bo'ysundirdi, [32] Kogidubnus bir necha hududlarning do'stona qiroli sifatida o'rnatildi [33] va to'g'ridan -to'g'ri Rim nazorati ostidagi qabilalar bilan shartnomalar tuzildi.

Rim hukmronligi o'rnatildi Edit

Orolning janubini egallab olgach, rimliklar e'tiborini hozirgi Uelsga qaratdilar. Silur, Ordovits va Deceangli bosqinchilarga qarshilik ko'rsatishda davom etishdi va Brigantes va Iceni kabi Rim ittifoqchilari orasida vaqti -vaqti bilan kichik qo'zg'olonlarga qaramay, dastlabki o'n yilliklar Rim harbiylarining diqqat markazida edi. Silurlarni Karatak boshqargan va u gubernator Publius Ostorius Skapulaga qarshi samarali partizanlik kampaniyasini olib borgan. Nihoyat, 51 yilda Ostorius Karatakni jangga jalb qilib, uni mag'lub etdi. Britaniya rahbari Brigantesdan panoh topdi, lekin ularning malikasi Kartimandua uni sodiqligini islomiylarga topshirib isbotladi. U Rimga asir sifatida olib kelingan, u erda Klavdiy g'alabasi paytida qilgan hurmatli nutqi imperatorni jonini ayamaslikka ko'ndirgan. Silures hali ham tinchlanmagan va Cartimanduaning sobiq eri Venutius Karatakning o'rnini ingliz qarshiliklarining eng ko'zga ko'ringan etakchisi egallagan. [34]

Neroning qo'shilishi bilan Rim Buyuk Britaniyasi shimoldan Lindumgacha cho'zilgan. Mavritaniya (hozirgi Jazoir va Marokash) ni bosib olgan Gay Suetonius Paulinus, keyin Buyuk Britaniya gubernatori bo'ldi va 60 va 61 -yillarda Mona (Angliya) ga qarshi druidizm bilan hisob -kitob qilish uchun harakat qildi. Paulinus o'z qo'shinini Menay bo'g'ozi bo'ylab olib bordi va druidlarni qirdi va ularning muqaddas bog'larini yoqdi.

Paulinus Monada saylovoldi tashviqotini olib borayotganda, Britaniyaning janubi -sharqida Bodika boshchiligida qo'zg'olon ko'tarildi. Boudica yaqinda vafot etgan Iceni qiroli Prasutagusning bevasi edi. Rim tarixchisi Tatsitning xabar berishicha, Prasutagus qolganlar tegmasin degan umidda o'z shohligining yarmini Neronga qoldirgan. U xato qildi. Uning irodasi bajarilganda, Rim qabilaning erlarini zo'ravonlik bilan zabt etdi. Boudika norozilik bildirdi. Natijada, Rim uni va qizlarini kaltaklash va zo'rlash bilan jazoladi. Bunga javoban, Iceni, Trinovantlar bilan birlashib, Kamulodunumdagi (Kolchester) Rim koloniyasini vayron qildi va IX Legionni yengillashtirish uchun yuborilgan qismini parchalab tashladi. Paulinus isyonchilarning navbatdagi nishoni bo'lgan Londonga (o'sha paytda Londinium deb atalgan) yo'l oldi, lekin uni himoya qilib bo'lmaydi, degan xulosaga keldi. Tashlab ketilgan, Verulamium (Sent -Albans) kabi vayron qilingan. Uch shaharda yetmishdan sakson minggacha odam o'ldirilgani aytiladi. Ammo Paulinus hali ham mavjud bo'lgan uchta legiondan ikkitasi bilan birlashdi, jang maydonini tanladi va yigirma kishidan ko'p bo'lishiga qaramay, Uotling ko'chasidagi jangda isyonchilarni mag'lub etdi. Boudica ko'p o'tmay, o'z-o'zidan zaharlanish yoki kasallik tufayli vafot etdi. [35] [36] [37] Bu vaqt ichida imperator Neron Rim qo'shinlarini Britaniyadan butunlay olib chiqish haqida o'ylardi. [38]

69 yilda "To'rt imperator yili" da yana tartibsizliklar yuz berdi. Rimda fuqarolar urushi davom etar ekan, kuchsiz gubernatorlar Britaniyadagi legionlarni nazorat qila olmadilar va Brigantesning Venutiysi uning imkoniyatidan foydalandi. Rimliklar bundan oldin Cartimanduani himoya qilishgan edi, lekin bu safar buni uddalay olishmadi. Cartimandua evakuatsiya qilindi va Venutius mamlakat shimolida nazorat ostida qoldi. Vespasian imperiyani qo'lga kiritgandan so'ng, uning gubernator sifatida birinchi ikkita tayinlanishi - Kvintus Petillius Cerialis va Sextus Yuliy Frontinus, o'z navbatida, Brigantes va Siluresni bo'ysundirish vazifasini o'z zimmalariga oldilar. [39] [40] Frontinus Rim hukmronligini butun Janubiy Uelsga tatbiq etdi va Dolaucotidagi oltin konlari kabi mineral resurslardan foydalanishni boshladi.

Keyingi yillarda rimliklar orolning ko'p qismini egallab, Rim Buyuk Britaniyasining hajmini oshirdilar. Tarixchi Tatsitning qaynonasi Gnaus Yuliy Agrikola 78-yilda Ordovitslarni zabt etdi. XX Valeriya Victrix Legion, Agricola 84 yilda Shotlandiya shimolidagi Mons Graupius jangida kaledoniyaliklarni mag'lub etdi. [41] Bu Britaniyadagi Rim hududining yuqori suv belgisi edi: g'alabasidan ko'p o'tmay, Agrikola Britaniyadan Rimga chaqirildi va rimliklar Fors-Klayd istmusi bo'ylab yanada himoyalangan chiziqqa chiqib, juda zarur bo'lgan askarlarni ozod qilishdi. boshqa chegaralar bo'ylab.

Rim Britaniya tarixining ko'p qismida orolda ko'p sonli askarlar garnizonga joylashtirilgan. Buning uchun imperator viloyat gubernatori sifatida ishonchli katta odamni tayinlashi kerak edi. Natijada, ko'plab bo'lajak imperatorlar Vespasian, Pertinax va Gordian I shu viloyatda gubernator yoki merosxo'r bo'lib xizmat qilishdi.

Kasb va janubiy Shotlandiyadan chekinish Edit

Agricola chaqiruvidan keyingi o'n yilliklar tasvirlangan tarixiy manba yo'q. Hatto uning o'rinbosarining ismi ham noma'lum. Arxeologiya shuni ko'rsatdiki, Fort -Klayd istmusidan janubda joylashgan ba'zi Rim qal'alari qayta qurilgan, qolganlari esa kengaytirilgan ko'rinadi. Rim tangalari va kulolchilik buyumlari 100 yildan oldingi yillarda Shotlandiya pasttekisligida joylashgan aholi punktlarida aylanib yurganligi aniqlangan, bu esa rimliklashuvning kuchayib borayotganidan dalolat beradi. Bu davrning eng muhim manbalaridan biri, Nortumberlenddagi Vindolanda qal'asidan yozilgan, asosan 90-110 yillarga tegishli yozuvli planshetlardir. Bu planshetlar Rim imperiyasining chekkasida joylashgan Rim qal'asining ishi to'g'risida yaqqol dalillar beradi, bu erda ofitserlarning xotinlari xushmuomala jamiyatni saqlab turishgan, savdogarlar, yuk tashuvchilar va harbiy xizmatchilar esa qal'ani ish bilan ta'minlagan va etkazib berishgan.

Taxminan 105 -yillar Alba piktlari qabilalari qo'lida jiddiy muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchraganga o'xshaydi: bir qancha Rim qal'alari olov bilan vayron qilingan, odam qoldiqlari va zirhlari shikastlangan. Trimontium (zamonaviy Nyustedda, Shotlandiya SE da) hech bo'lmaganda o'sha joyda jangovar harakatlarni ko'rsatadi. Bundan tashqari, Germaniyadan yordamchi kuchlar yuborilgani haqida aniq dalillar bor va o'sha paytdagi ingliz urushi nomi Kirina tribunasining qabr toshida qayd etilgan. Trajanning Dacian urushlari bu hududda qo'shinlarning qisqarishiga yoki hatto butunlay olib ketilishiga olib kelgan bo'lishi mumkin, bu esa yozilmagan harbiy mag'lubiyat emas, balki Piktlar tomonidan qal'alarni yengillashtirish edi. Rimliklar, shuningdek, dushmanga resurslarni rad etish uchun, tartibli ravishda chekinish paytida o'z qal'alarini vayron qilish odatiga ega edilar. Qanday bo'lmasin, chegara, ehtimol, janubda, shu vaqt ichida Solvey -Tayn istmusidagi Stanegate chizig'iga ko'chib o'tgan.

Hadrian hukmronligining boshida (117) yangi inqiroz ro'y berdi: shimolda ko'tarilish, Kvint Pompey Falko tomonidan bostirildi. Adrian 120 -yillar atrofida Rim viloyatlari bo'ylab mashhur sayohati bilan Britanniyaga etib kelganida, u Stanegate chegarasi chizig'iga yaqin joyda, avlodlarga Hadrian devori deb nomlanuvchi keng ko'lamli mudofaa devorini qurdi. Hadrian Aulus Platorius Neposni gubernator qilib tayinladi Legio VI Victrix u bilan legion Germaniya past. Bu mashhurni almashtirdi Legio IX Hispaniya, uning yo'qolishi ko'p muhokama qilingan. Arxeologiya 2 -asrning birinchi yarmida Shotlandiyada katta siyosiy beqarorlikdan dalolat beradi va bu vaqtda o'zgarayotgan chegarani shu nuqtai nazardan ko'rish kerak.

Antoninus Pius hukmronligi davrida (138–161) Hadrian chegarasi qisqa vaqt ichida shimolda Fort -Klayd istmusigacha cho'zilgan, u erda Antonin devori 142 yilda Shotlandiya pasttekisligini yangi gubernator Kintus Lollius Urbik tomonidan harbiy qayta ishg'ol qilinganidan keyin qurilgan.

Shotlandiyaning birinchi Antonin bosqini 155–157 yillardagi Brigantes qo'zg'olonidan keyingi inqiroz natijasida tugadi. Quvvat qo'shimchalarini jo'natish imkoniyatlari cheklangan holda, rimliklar o'z qo'shinlarini janubga ko'chirishdi va bu ko'tarilish gubernator Gney Yuliy Verus tomonidan bostirildi. Bir yil ichida Antonin devori qaytarib olindi, lekin 163 yoki 164 yilga kelib u tark etildi. Ikkinchi mashg'ulot, ehtimol, Antoninusning Votadinini himoya qilish bo'yicha sa'y -harakatlari yoki imperiyaning kengayishi bilan faxrlanishi bilan bog'liq edi, chunki Hadrian chegarasiga chekinish uning o'limidan ko'p o'tmay, Antonin devorining afzalliklariga yanada ob'ektiv strategik baho berilishi mumkin edi. . Rimliklar o'sha paytda Shotlandiyadan butunlay chiqib ketishmagan: Nyusteddagi katta qal'a, kamida 180 yilgacha ettita kichikroq post bilan birga saqlanib qolgan.

163/4 yilda chegara Hadrian devoriga qaytganidan keyingi yigirma yillik davr mobaynida Rim kontinental masalalar, birinchi navbatda, Dunay provinsiyalaridagi muammolar bilan shug'ullangan. Ayni paytda Britaniyada ko'milgan tangalar yig'indilarining ko'payishi tinchlikka to'liq erishilmaganligini ko'rsatadi. Shotlandiyada oddiy savdo -sotiqdan ko'ra ko'proq taklif qilish uchun etarli miqdordagi Rim kumushi topilgan va, ehtimol, rimliklar o'zlarining murosasiz dushmanlari - piktlarga hurmat ko'rsatib, shartnoma bitimlarini kuchaytirgan.

175 yilda 5500 kishidan iborat katta sarmat otliq askarlari Buyuk Britaniyaga kelishdi, ehtimol ular yozilmagan qo'zg'olonlarga qarshi kurashayotgan qo'shinlarni kuchaytirish uchun. 180 yilda Hadrian devorini piktlar buzdi va qo'mondon yoki gubernator o'sha erda o'ldirildi, Kassiy Dio Kommod hukmronligining eng jiddiy urushi deb ta'riflagan. Ulpius Marcellus gubernator etib tayinlandi va 184 yilga kelib u yangi tinchlikka erishdi, faqat o'z qo'shinlarining qo'zg'oloniga duch keldi. Marcellusning qattiqqo'lligidan norozi bo'lib, ular Priskus ismli merosxo'ri gubernator sifatida saylashga harakat qilishdi, lekin Marcellus orolni tirik qoldirdi. Britaniyadagi Rim armiyasi bo'ysunmaslikni davom ettirdi: ular Rimga 1500 kishilik delegatsiyani yuborishdi, ular o'zlarini zulm qilgan Pretoriya prefektori Tigidius Perennisni qatl qilishni talab qilishgan, ular Britaniyada merosxo'rlar ro'yxatiga kambag'allarni yuborishgan. Commodus partiya bilan Rim tashqarisida uchrashdi va Perennisni o'ldirishga rozi bo'ldi, lekin bu ularning isyonlarida o'zlarini xavfsizroq his qilishlariga olib keldi.

Bo'lajak imperator Pertinax Britaniyani qo'zg'olonni bostirish uchun yubordi va dastlab nazoratni qayta qo'lga kiritdi, ammo qo'shinlar o'rtasida g'alayon ko'tarildi. Pertinaxga hujum qilishdi va o'lik holda qoldirishdi va 1929 yilda Kommodusning o'rnini bosib, Rimga chaqirishni so'rashdi.

III asr tahriri

Commodusning o'limi bir qator voqealarni harakatga keltirdi, natijada fuqarolar urushiga olib keldi. Pertinaxning qisqa hukmronligidan so'ng, imperatorlik uchun bir nechta raqiblar paydo bo'ldi, ular orasida Septimius Severus va Klodius Albin bor edi. Ikkinchisi Britaniyaning yangi gubernatori edi va u, avvalgi qo'zg'olonlaridan so'ng, mahalliy aholini yutganga o'xshab, u uchta legionni nazorat qilib, uni potentsial muhim da'vogarga aylantirdi. Uning raqibi Severus unga unvonni va'da qilgan Qaysar Albinusning sharqda Pescennius Nigerga yordami evaziga. Niger zararsizlantirilgach, Severus Britanniyadagi ittifoqchisiga murojaat qildi - ehtimol Albinus uning keyingi nishoni bo'lishini ko'rgan va allaqachon urushga tayyorgarlik ko'rgan.

Albin 195 yilda Galiyaga o'tdi, u erda viloyatlar unga hamdard edi va Lugdunumga o'rnatildi. Severus 1962 yil fevralda keldi va keyingi jang hal qiluvchi ahamiyatga ega bo'ldi. Albinus g'alabaga yaqinlashdi, lekin Severus qo'shinlari o'sha kuni g'alaba qozondi va Britaniya gubernatori o'z joniga qasd qildi. Ko'p o'tmay Severus Albinusning hamdardlarini tozaladi va ehtimol Britaniyada katta erlarni jazo sifatida tortib oldi.

Albinus Rim Buyuk Britaniyasining asosiy muammosini ko'rsatdi. Xavfsizlikni ta'minlash uchun viloyat uchta legionning ishtirokini talab qildi, ammo bu kuchlar qo'mondonligi shuhratparast raqiblar uchun ideal quvvat bazasini yaratdi. Bu legionlarni boshqa joyga joylashtirish garnizon orolini olib tashlab, viloyat kelt qabilalarining qo'zg'olonlari va piktlar va skotslarning bosqinidan himoyasiz qoladi.

An'anaviy qarash shuki, Buyuk Britaniya Albinus yo'qligida anarxiyaga tushib qolgan. Cassius Dio, yangi gubernator Virius Lupus, Maeatae deb nomlanuvchi shimoliy qabilalardan tinchlik sotib olishga majbur bo'lganligini yozadi. Keyinchalik tayinlangan harbiy taniqli gubernatorlarning ketma-ket kelishi, Rim dushmanlari qiyin vazifa bilan shug'ullanayotganini ko'rsatadi va Lucius Alfenus Senecio 207 yilda Rimga bergan hisobotida vahshiylar "qo'zg'olon, erni bosib olish, talon-taroj qilish va vayronagarchilik" ni tasvirlaydi. Isyon ko'tarish uchun, albatta, sub'ekt bo'lishi kerak - Maeatae o'zlarini bunday deb hisoblamagan. Senecio qo'shimcha kuchlar yoki imperatorlik ekspeditsiyasini so'radi va Severus 62 yoshda bo'lishiga qaramay, ikkinchisini tanladi.

Arxeologik dalillar shuni ko'rsatadiki, Senecio Hadrian devori va uning tashqarisidagi qal'alarni himoya qilishni tiklagan va Severusning Britaniyaga kelishi dushman qabilalarini zudlik bilan tinchlik uchun sudga berishga undagan. Imperator g'alabasiz ketish uchun bu erga kelmagan va ehtimol u o'smir o'g'illari Karakalla va Getaga dushman vahshiylar erini boshqarishning tajribasini berishni xohlagan.

Severus boshchiligidagi Kaledoniyaga bostirib kirgan va ehtimol 20 mingga yaqin qo'shin 208 yoki 209 yillarda shimolga ko'chib o'tdi, devorni kesib o'tib, Agrikola ishlatadigan yo'l bilan Shotlandiyaning sharqidan o'tdi. Shimoliy qabilalarning partizan bosqinlarini jazolab, kechirilmaydigan erlarda sustlashgan Severus jang maydonida kaledoniyaliklar bilan uchrasha olmadi. Imperator kuchlari Tay daryosigacha shimolga surishdi, lekin bosqinchilik bilan oz narsaga erishilgan ko'rinadi, chunki kaledoniyaliklar bilan tinchlik shartnomalari imzolangan. 210 yilga kelib Severus Yorkka qaytdi va chegara yana Hadrian devoriga aylandi. U unvonni oldi Britannicus lekin bu nom imperiya hokimiyatidan tashqarida qolgan, fath qilinmagan shimol haqida unchalik ahamiyatga ega emas edi. Deyarli darhol boshqa shimoliy qabilasi Maeatae yana urushga ketdi. Karakalla jazo ekspeditsiyasi bilan jo'nab ketdi, lekin keyingi yil uning kasal otasi vafot etdi va ukasi bilan viloyatga taxtga da'vo qilish uchun ketdi.

Severus o'zining oxirgi harakatlaridan biri sifatida viloyatni bo'linib Britaniyadagi qudratli va isyonkor gubernatorlar muammosini hal qilishga urindi. Britannia Superior va Britannia past. Bu deyarli bir asr davomida isyon potentsialini ushlab turdi. Tarixiy manbalarda keyingi o'n yilliklar haqida kam ma'lumot berilgan, bu davr uzoq tinchlik deb nomlanadi. Shunga qaramay, bu davrda topilgan ko'milgan toshlar soni ko'payib, tartibsizliklar davom etayotganidan dalolat beradi. Qaroqchilikni nazorat qilish uchun Buyuk Britaniya janubi qirg'og'ida bir qator qal'alar qurildi va keyingi yuz yil ichida ular soni ko'payib, Sakson qirg'oq qal'alariga aylandi.

III asr o'rtalarida Rim imperiyasi vahshiylar bosqini, qo'zg'oloni va yangi imperatorlik da'vogarlari tomonidan chalkashib ketdi. Britannia, ehtimol, bu muammolardan qochdi, lekin inflyatsiyaning oshishi uning iqtisodiy samarasini berdi. 259 yilda Postum Gallienga qarshi qo'zg'olon ko'targanida Galiya deb nomlangan imperiya tuzildi. Britannia 274 yilgacha Aurelian imperiyani qayta birlashtirgunga qadar uning bir qismi edi.

Taxminan 280 yilda, Bonus ismli yarim ingliz zobiti, Rimning Rish flotini boshqargan, nemislar uni langarda yoqib yuborishga muvaffaq bo'lishgan. Jazodan qochish uchun u o'zini Koloniya Agrippinasida (Köln) imperator deb e'lon qildi, lekin Mark Avrelius Probus tomonidan ezib tashlandi. Ko'p o'tmay, Britaniya provinsiyalaridan birining ismi oshkor qilinmagan gubernatori ham qo'zg'olonga urinib ko'rdi. Probus kanal bo'ylab vandallar va burgundiyaliklarning tartibsiz qo'shinlarini yuborib, buni to'xtatdi.

Kara qo'zg'oloni 286 yildan 296 yilgacha qisqa muddatli Britaniya imperiyasiga olib keldi. Karausius Britaniya flotining Menapiya dengiz qo'mondoni edi, u imperator Maksimian frank va sakson qaroqchilariga qo'shilganlikda ayblanib, o'lim jazosini eshitganida isyon ko'targan. o'g'irlangan xazina. U Buyuk Britaniyaning barcha provinsiyalarini va Gollandiyaning shimoliy qismini nazoratni birlashtirdi, Maksimyan esa boshqa qo'zg'olonlarni hal qildi. 288 yildagi bosqinchilik uni yengib chiqa olmadi va tinchlik o'rnatildi, Karasius tangalar chiqarib, rasmiy e'tirofga chaqirdi. 293 yilda kichik imperator Konstantiy Xlor ikkinchi hujumni boshladi va isyonchilar Gesoriakum (Bulon-sur-Mer) portini quruqlik va dengiz orqali qamal qildi. U yiqilgandan so'ng, Konstantiy Carausiusning boshqa gallik xoldinglariga hujum qildi va frantsuz ittifoqchilari, Carausiusni uning xazinachisi Allectus egallab oldi. Yuliy Asklepiodot Sautgempton yaqinida bosqinchi flotni qo'ndirdi va quruqlikdagi jangda Allektusni mag'lub etdi. [42] [43] [44] [45]

Diokletianning islohotlari

Diokletian islohotlarining bir qismi sifatida Rim Britaniyasining provinsiyalari imperator bilan yashovchi pretoriya prefektiga va 318 yildan boshlab Augusta Treverorumda (Trier) prefekt Yulius Bassga, Konstantinning o'g'li Krispusga prefekt bo'lgan.

Bu tayinlanishdan oldin, ikkitasi prefektlarning kanonik soni edi (zo'ravonliklarni hisobga olmaganda). Hududiy prefekturalar birinchi bo'lib 325 yilda paydo bo'lgan. To'rttasi 331 yilda ro'yxatga olingan. Shubhasiz, yeparxiya vikari 250 yil bo'lganidek, yeparxiyaning asosiy shahri sifatida Londiniyda joylashgan [ iqtibos kerak ] Londinium va Eborakum provintsiya poytaxti sifatida davom etgani va bu hudud ma'muriy samaradorlik va gubernatorlar bo'lishi uchun kichikroq viloyatlarga bo'linganligi sababli, asosan sud va ma'muriy mansabdor shaxslar ko'proq moliyaviy majburiyatlarni o'z zimmalariga olishdi (chunki G'aznachilik vazirligi prokurorlari asta -sekinlik bilan bosqichma -bosqich pasaytirildi). IV asrning birinchi o'ttiz yilligida paydo bo'lgan).

Gubernatorlar harbiy qo'mondonlikdan mahrum qilindi (bu jarayon 314 yilgacha yakunlandi), u gertsoglarga topshirildi. Fuqarolik va harbiy hokimiyat endi faqat bitta amaldor tomonidan amalga oshirilmas edi, kamdan-kam holatlar bundan mustasno, 5-asr o'rtalariga qadar, Yuqori Misrga dux/gubernator tayinlangunga qadar. Vicar vazifalari gubernatorlarning faoliyatini nazorat qilish va muvofiqlashtirish edi, lekin o'z ma'muriy infratuzilmasiga ega bo'lgan va qurolli kuchlarning mintaqaviy general-polkovniki vazifasini bajaradigan G'aznachilik va Crown Estatesning kundalik faoliyatiga aralashmaslik. Muxtasar qilib aytganda, u yuqori hokimiyatga ega bo'lgan yagona fuqarolik mansabdor shaxs sifatida ma'muriyat ustidan umumiy nazoratni amalga oshirdi, shuningdek, prefekturaning bir qismi bo'lgan gubernatorlar ustidan to'g'ridan -to'g'ri nazoratni amalga oshirdi, boshqa ikkita soliq boshqarmasi bo'lmagan.

4-asr boshidagi Verona ro'yxati, 4-asr oxiri Sextus Rufusning asari va 5-asr boshidagi Ofislar ro'yxati va Polemius Silviusning ishi Britannia I, Britannia II nomlarining o'zgarishi bo'yicha to'rt viloyatni o'z ichiga oladi. , Maksima Caesariensis va Flavia Caesariensis, bularning barchasi dastlab hokim tomonidan boshqarilganga o'xshaydi (maqtovlar) otliq darajasidagi. V asr manbalarida Valentiya ismli beshinchi viloyat ro'yxati berilgan va uning gubernatori va Maksimaga konsullik unvoni berilgan. [46] Ammianus Valentinani ham eslatib o'tib, Buyuk fitna tugaganidan keyin 369 yilda Graf Teodoziy tomonidan yaratilganini tasvirlab beradi. Ammianus buni ilgari yo'qolgan viloyatni qayta tashkil etish deb hisoblagan [47], ba'zilari ilgari boshqa nom bilan beshinchi viloyat bo'lgan deb o'ylashiga olib keldi (bu sirli "Vespasiana" bo'lishi mumkinmi? [48]) va boshqalarni Valentiyani joylashtirishga undadi. Hadrian devorining narigi tomonida, Antonin devorining janubida qoldirilgan hududda.

Bu davrda viloyatlar va viloyat markazlarini qayta qurish cherkov yozuvlariga qisman tayanadi. Dastlabki episkoplar imperiya ierarxiyasiga taqlid qilgan deb taxmin qilib, olimlar 314 Arles Kengashi episkoplari ro'yxatidan foydalanadilar. Afsuski, ro'yxat buzilgan: Britaniya delegatsiyasiga Eborakum episkopi "Eborius" va "Londinium" dan ikkita episkop kiradi. de Civilizing Londinensi va boshqasi de civitat colonia Londinensium). [51] Xato har xil tuzatiladi: episkop Ussher taklif qildi Koloniya, [52] Selden Polkovnik yoki Yo'g'on ichak. Kamalodun., [53] va Spelman Koloniya Kameloduni [54] (Kolchesterning har xil nomlari) [56] Geyl [57] va Bingem [58] taklif qilishadi koloniya Lindi va Genri [59] Koloniya Lindum (ikkalasi ham Linkoln) va Bishop Stillingfleet [60] va Frensis Takeray buni yozma xatolik sifatida o'qishgan. Fuqarolik Polkovnik Londin. original uchun Fuqarolik Polkovnik oyog'i. II (Caerleon). [50] Verona ro'yxati asosida, ba'zi qo'lyozmalarda episkoplarga hamroh bo'lgan ruhoniy va diakon to'rtinchi viloyatga tegishli.

XII asrda Uelslik Jerald afsonaviy SS Fagan va "Duvian" tomonidan tashkil etilgan ingliz cherkovining taxminiy metropolitenlarini tasvirlab berdi. U Britannia Prima -ni Uelsda va g'arbiy Angliyada, poytaxti "Urbs Legionum" (Caerleon) Britannia Secunda -da Kentda va Angliya janubida, poytaxti Mercia -dagi "Dorobernia" (Canterbury) Flaviyada va poytaxti "Lundoniya" da joylashgan. (London) Angliya shimolidagi "Maksimiya", poytaxti Eboracum (York) va Valentiya "Albaniya, hozir Shotlandiya", poytaxti Sent -Endryus. [61] [62] Zamonaviy olimlar, odatda, oxirgisi haqida bahslashadi: Valentiya Hadrian devorining yonida yoki undan tashqarida, lekin Sent -Endryus hatto Antonin devori orqasida, Gerald ham o'z siyosiy cherkovining antik davrini qo'llab -quvvatlaganga o'xshaydi.

Umumiy zamonaviy rekonstruksiya, konsullik Maxima provinsiyasini Londiniumda, yeparxiya vikarining qarorgohi maqomiga ko'ra, Geraldning an'anaviy hisobiga ko'ra, g'arbda Prima -ni joylashtiradi, lekin o'z poytaxtini Dobunni (Cirentster) dagi Koriniumga ko'chiradi. U erda topilgan artefaktning asosi Lusiy Septimiusga asoslanib, viloyat rektori Flaviya shahrini Maksimaning shimolida, poytaxti Lindum Koloniyada (Linkoln) Arles episkoplari ro'yxatining bitta tuzatishiga mos kelishi uchun joylashtirgan [65] va shimolda Sekundani joylashtirgan. uning poytaxti Eboracum (York). Valentiya har xil Uels shimolida Deva (Chester) atrofida, Hadrian devori yonida, Luguvalium (Karlisl) atrofida va Dere ko'chasidagi devorlar orasiga joylashtirilgan.

4 -asr tahriri

Konstantius Xlor 306 yilda sog'lig'i yomon bo'lishiga qaramay, Britaniyaning shimoliga bostirib kirishni maqsad qilib, viloyat mudofaasi oldingi yillarda qayta qurilgan holda, 306 yilda qaytdi. Arxeologik dalillar bilan uning kampaniyalari haqida ko'p narsa ma'lum emas, lekin tarixiy manbalarda aytilishicha, u Britaniyaning shimoliga etib borgan va yozning boshida janubga qaytishdan oldin katta jangda g'alaba qozongan. U 306 -yil iyulda o'g'li Konstantin I yonida Yorkda vafot etdi. Keyinchalik Konstantin Buyuk Britaniyani muvaffaqiyatli ishlatib, imperator taxtiga yurishining boshlang'ich nuqtasi sifatida ishlatgan.

Asrning o'rtalarida, bir necha yillar davomida viloyat Konstansning vafotidan keyin uning o'rnini egallagan Magnentiusga sodiq edi. 353 yildagi Mons Selevkiy jangida Magnentsiy mag'lubiyatga uchrab va vafotidan so'ng, Konstantiy II o'zining bosh imperator notariusi Paulus Katenani Magnentsiy tarafdorlarini ovlashga yubordi. Tergov jodugar oviga aylandi, bu esa uni majburlashga majbur qildi vicarius Flavius ​​Martinus aralashadi. Paulus Martinusni xoinlikda ayblab, qasos olganida vicarius Paulusga qilich bilan hujum qildi, uni o'ldirish maqsadida, lekin oxirida u o'z joniga qasd qildi.

IV asrning rivojlanishi bilan sharqda saksonlar va g'arbda skotilar (irlandlar) tomonidan hujumlar kuchayib bordi. Qirg'oqlarni himoya qilish uchun 280 yildan boshlab bir qancha qal'alar qurilgan edi, lekin Saksonlar, Skoti va Attakotti umumiy hujumi, Hadrian devoridagi garnizonda aniq kelishmovchilik bilan birlashganda, Rim Britaniyasini sajda qilib qo'yganda, bu tayyorgarlik etarli emas edi. 367. Bu inqirozni, ba'zida Barbarlar fitnasi yoki Buyuk fitna deb atashgan, graf Teodosiy harbiy va fuqarolik islohotlari bilan hal qilgan.

Yana bir imperator zo'ravon Magnus Maksimus 383 yilda Uels shimolidagi Segontiumda (Caernarfon) qo'zg'olon standartini ko'tarib, La -Manshni kesib o'tdi. Maksimus g'arbiy imperiyaning katta qismini egallab, 384 yil atrofida piktlar va skotlarga qarshi muvaffaqiyatli kampaniya olib bordi. Uning kontinental ekspluatatsiyasidan Buyuk Britaniya qo'shinlari kerak edi va bu davrda Chester va boshqa joylardagi qal'alar tashlab yuborilgani, shimolda reydlar va turar -joylarni qo'zg'atdi. Irlandiyalik Uels. Uning hukmronligi 388 yilda tugatilgan, lekin hamma ingliz qo'shinlari qaytmagan bo'lishi mumkin: imperiyaning harbiy resurslari Reyn va Dunay bo'ylab cho'zilgan. Taxminan 396 yil Buyuk Britaniyaga vahshiylar kirib keldi. Stilicho jazo ekspeditsiyasini boshqargan. Ko'rinib turibdiki, tinchlik 399 yilda tiklangan va ehtimol Alarik I ga qarshi urushda yordam berish uchun 401 ta qo'shin olib chiqilgan.

Rim hukmronligining oxiri Tahrir

Tarixchilarning an'anaviy qarashlari, Maykl Rostovtzeffning ishi bilan, V asr boshlarida keng tarqalgan iqtisodiy tanazzul haqida edi. Doimiy arxeologik dalillar yana bir voqeani aytib berdi va qabul qilingan qarash qayta baholanmoqda. Ba'zi xususiyatlar kelishilgan: ko'proq boy, ammo kamroq shahar uylari, yangi jamoat binosining tugashi va ba'zi binolarning tark etilishi, mudofaa inshootlari bundan mustasno va "qorong'u er" konlarining keng shakllanishi, shahar bog'larida bog'dorchilik rivojlanganligini ko'rsatadi. [66] 3-asrning oxirida Silchesterdagi bazilikani sanoat maqsadlariga aylantirish, shubhasiz, rasmiy ravishda ma'qullangan, Rim Buyuk Britaniyasining shaharsizlanishining dastlabki bosqichini ko'rsatadi. [67] Hozirgi vaqtda ba'zi saytlarning tark etilishi, avval o'ylagandan keyinroq kechikkan deb hisoblanadi. Ko'p binolar ishlatilishini o'zgartirdi, lekin vayron bo'lmadi. Barbarlik hujumlari kuchayib borar edi, lekin ular shaharlarga emas, balki zaif qishloq aholi punktlariga qaratilgan edi. Some villas such as Great Casterton in Rutland and Hucclecote in Gloucestershire had new mosaic floors laid around this time, suggesting that economic problems may have been limited and patchy. Many suffered some decay before being abandoned in the 5th century the story of Saint Patrick indicates that villas were still occupied until at least 430. Exceptionally, new buildings were still going up in this period in Verulamium and Cirencester. Some urban centres, for example Canterbury, Cirencester, Wroxeter, Winchester and Gloucester, remained active during the 5th and 6th centuries, surrounded by large farming estates.

Urban life had generally grown less intense by the fourth quarter of the 4th century, and coins minted between 378 and 388 are very rare, indicating a likely combination of economic decline, diminishing numbers of troops, problems with the payment of soldiers and officials or with unstable conditions during the usurpation of Magnus Maximus 383–87. Coinage circulation increased during the 390s, but never attained the levels of earlier decades. Copper coins are very rare after 402, though minted silver and gold coins from hoards indicate they were still present in the province even if they were not being spent. By 407 there were very few new Roman coins going into circulation, and by 430 it is likely that coinage as a medium of exchange had been abandoned. Mass-produced wheel thrown pottery ended at approximately the same time the rich continued to use metal and glass vessels, while the poor made do with humble "grey ware" or resorted to leather or wooden containers.

Sub-Roman Britain Edit

Towards the end of the 4th century Britain came under increasing pressure from barbarian attacks, and there were not enough troops to mount an effective defence. After elevating two disappointing usurpers, the army chose a soldier, Constantine III, to become emperor in 407. He crossed to Gaul but was defeated by Honorius it is unclear how many troops remained or ever returned, or whether a commander-in-chief in Britain was ever reappointed. A Saxon incursion in 408 was apparently repelled by the Britons, and in 409 Zosimus records that the natives expelled the Roman civilian administration. Zosimus may be referring to the Bacaudic rebellion of the Breton inhabitants of Armorica since he describes how, in the aftermath of the revolt, all of Armorica and the rest of Gaul followed the example of the Brettaniai. A letter from Emperor Honorius in 410 has traditionally been seen as rejecting a British appeal for help, but it may have been addressed to Bruttium or Bologna. [68] With the imperial layers of the military and civil government gone, administration and justice fell to municipal authorities, and local warlords gradually emerged all over Britain, still utilizing Romano-British ideals and conventions. Historian Stuart Laycock has investigated this process and emphasised elements of continuity from the British tribes in the pre-Roman and Roman periods, through to the native post-Roman kingdoms. [69]

In British tradition, pagan Saxons were invited by Vortigern to assist in fighting the Picts and Irish. (Germanic migration into Roman Britannia may have begun much earlier. There is recorded evidence, for example, of Germanic auxiliaries supporting the legions in Britain in the 1st and 2nd centuries.) The new arrivals rebelled, plunging the country into a series of wars that eventually led to the Saxon occupation of Lowland Britain by 600. Around this time, many Britons fled to Brittany (hence its name), Galicia and probably Ireland. A significant date in sub-Roman Britain is the Groans of the Britons, an unanswered appeal to Aetius, leading general of the western Empire, for assistance against Saxon invasion in 446. Another is the Battle of Deorham in 577, after which the significant cities of Bath, Cirencester and Gloucester fell and the Saxons reached the western sea.

Historians generally reject the historicity of King Arthur, who is supposed to have resisted the Anglo-Saxon conquest according to later medieval legends. [70]

During the Roman period Britain's continental trade was principally directed across the Southern North Sea and Eastern Channel, focusing on the narrow Strait of Dover, with more limited links via the Atlantic seaways. [71] [72] [73] The most important British ports were London and Richborough, whilst the continental ports most heavily engaged in trade with Britain were Boulogne and the sites of Domburg and Colijnsplaat at the mouth of the river Scheldt. [71] [72] During the Late Roman period it is likely that the shore forts played some role in continental trade alongside their defensive functions. [71] [74]

Exports to Britain included: coin pottery, particularly red-gloss terra sigillata (samian ware) from southern, central and eastern Gaul, as well as various other wares from Gaul and the Rhine provinces olive oil from southern Spain in amphorae wine from Gaul in amphorae and barrels salted fish products from the western Mediterranean and Brittany in barrels and amphorae preserved olives from southern Spain in amphorae lava quern-stones from Mayen on the middle Rhine glass and some agricultural products. [71] [72] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] Britain's exports are harder to detect archaeologically, but will have included metals, such as silver and gold and some lead, iron and copper. Other exports probably included agricultural products, oysters and salt, whilst large quantities of coin would have been re-exported back to the continent as well. [71] [79] [80] [82]

These products moved as a result of private trade and also through payments and contracts established by the Roman state to support its military forces and officials on the island, as well as through state taxation and extraction of resources. [71] [82] Up until the mid-3rd century, the Roman state's payments appear to have been unbalanced, with far more products sent to Britain, to support its large military force (which had reached c. 53,000 by the mid-2nd century), than were extracted from the island. [71] [82]

It has been argued that Roman Britain's continental trade peaked in the late 1st century AD and thereafter declined as a result of an increasing reliance on local products by the population of Britain, caused by economic development on the island and by the Roman state's desire to save money by shifting away from expensive long-distance imports. [79] [81] [82] [83] Evidence has been outlined that suggests that the principal decline in Roman Britain's continental trade may have occurred in the late 2nd century AD, from c. 165 AD onwards. [71] This has been linked to the economic impact of contemporary Empire-wide crises: the Antonine Plague and the Marcomannic Wars. [71]

From the mid-3rd century onwards, Britain no longer received such a wide range and extensive quantity of foreign imports as it did during the earlier part of the Roman period vast quantities of coin from continental mints reached the island, whilst there is historical evidence for the export of large amounts of British grain to the continent during the mid-4th century. [71] [80] [84] [85] [86] [87] [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] During the latter part of the Roman period British agricultural products, paid for by both the Roman state and by private consumers, clearly played an important role in supporting the military garrisons and urban centres of the northwestern continental Empire. [71] [80] [86] This came about as a result of the rapid decline in the size of the British garrison from the mid-3rd century onwards (thus freeing up more goods for export), and because of 'Germanic' incursions across the Rhine, which appear to have reduced rural settlement and agricultural output in northern Gaul. [71] [86]


Celtic Britain pre Roman invasion.

(640x825) Greater Britain was increasingly Celtic from 650 BC to 150 AD. Romanised occupation and influence was for approx 400yrs between AD 43 and about to about AD 410.

Britain / including England was the part of the island of Greater Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island.

The Romans referred to the territory as Britannia an ancient term for Britain, and also a later personification of the island. The name is Latin, and derives from the Greek form Prettanike or Brettaniai, which originally designated a collection of islands with individual names, including Albion or Great Britain.

"Thus, European culture is inconceivable without the Celtic contribution".

Cunobelin (Early 1st century AD - 40 AD)

Son of Tasciovanus, father of Adminius, Togodumnus and Caratacus. During the last years of his father's reign, he invaded the territory of the Trinovantes and subdued them. He continued to rule over the Trinovantes from Camulodunum and retained his seat of government there when he succeeded to the Catuvellaunian throne upon the death of Tasciovanus circa AD 10. He became 'the first British statesman,' and through diplomatic means, probably had his kingship over the joint Catuvellaunian/Trinovantian kingdom ratified by Rome, for some of his later coinage bears the title 'REX'. He continued to rule the combined tribes from Camulodunum for many years, and his capital became the focal point of British politics, learning and trade. Cunobelinos died circa AD 42, shortly before the coming of Rome.

Celtic Britain and Ireland were dominated by a number of tribes, each with their own well-defined territory. It is thanks to Roman cartographers , occupiers or chroniclers, such as Strabo, Julius Caesar, and Diodorus, that the names of individual tribes are known to us today, albeit in Romanized or Latin form and with variable accuracy.Tacitus writes that the Britons made no distinction in the sex of their leaders but were used to women commanders in war, the most famous of whom were Cartimandua, queen of the Brigantes, and Boudica, queen of the Iceni. Cartimandua capitulated to Rome soon after the Claudian conquest and grew rich and prosperous as a result. When the British patriot Caratacus sought refuge in her kingdom, she handed him over to Rome, which defended her in the civil war that later resulted. And, when the Iceni rebelled, it was Cartimandua who held back the Brigantes, the largest tribe in Britain, from coming to their aid. At first, the Iceni, too, had been a client kingdom of Rome. But, with the death of Prasutagus, his consort Boudica led the people in failed revolt. Boudica poisoned herself and the survivors starved—two British queens or chieftains who responded so differently to Roman domination.

Celtic tribes in Ptolemy's Ireland late Iron Age 100 A.D

of Iron-Age and Roman Britain

The Tribes of England and Wales

Atrebates * Belgae * Brigantes * Cantiaci

Carvetii * Catuvellauni * Coritani * Cornovii

Deceangi * Demetae * Dobunni * .

["Next to these [the Silures] are the Dobuni,

and their town Corinium 18*00 54°10"

Above quote from the Geographia of Ptolemy (II.ii)

The Dobunni tribe occupied territories encompassing the modern counties of Gloucester, Avon, west Oxfordshire, north Somerset, along with parts of southern Hereford & Worcester and Warwickshire. They were a non-Belgic people occupying impressive hillforts with some Belgic influences.

Other passages in Ptolemy Book II Chapter 2 give the ancient names of a number of rivers and other geographical features within the territories of the Dobunni tribe]

. Durotriges * Iceni * Ordovices * Parisi

Regnenses * Segontiaci * Silures * Trinovantes

Novantae * Selgovae * Damnoni * Votadini

Vacomagi * Venicones * Taexali * Caledoni * Epidii

The Minor Northern Tribes.

To clarify what is meant by 'minor' in the above heading, this section contains details of those tribes located by the Geographer Ptolemy in northern Britain, but were listed without any towns or settlements in a single passage quoted below:

""Next to the Damnoni, but more toward the east near the Epidium Promontorium are the Epidi and next to these the Cerones then the Carnonacae, and the Caereni but more toward the east and in the extreme east dwell the Cornavi from the Lemannonis Sinus as far as the Varar Aestuarium are the Caledoni, and above these is the Caledoni Silva, from which toward the east are the Decantae, and next to these the Lugi extending to the Cornavi boundary, and above the Lugi are the Smertae.""

Above quote from the Geographia of Ptolemy (II.ii)

From this short passage we may deduce these tribes' positions in relation to each other, and their approximate territorial boundaries may be worked out with reference to a map of northern Britain, helped by other passages in Ptolemy's work. We must remember, however, that Ptolemy has somehow rotated Scotland 90° to the east, so that 'east' is actually north, and when Ptolemy says that a tribe is 'above' or 'below' another he actually means west and east respectively.

It should be noted that separate pages are maintained for both the Epidii and Caledoni tribes, primarily because the geographer Ptolemy recorded additional details about their tribal territories.

Kintyre, Knapdale and southern Argyll, probably the Isles of Arran and Bute to the east, possibly also the islands of Islay and Jura to the north-west, all of which lie in the modern region of Northern Strathclyde.

Southern Ross, including Morvern, Ardmurchan, Sunart, Ardgour, Moidart, Arisaig and Morar, possibly also Knoydart and Och. It is possible that the Isle of Mull also was inhabited by this tribe.

Inhabited the coastal region of Wester Ross on the Scottish Mainland, from the Kyle of Lochalsh in the south to Loch Broom in the north it is possible that this tribe also inhabited the Isle of Skye, Scitis Insula, to the south-west.

Inhabited the extreme north-western coast of mainland Britain in the Highland Region of Scotland, from Enard Bay in Northern Ross to Cape Wrath in Sutherland. Their territories included the mountain ranges of Ben More Assynt, Foinaven and Ben Hope. It is possible that Strath Naver marked the border between this tribe and the Cornavi to the east, the River Naver is recorded in Ptolemy as the Navarus Fluvius (or Nabarus).

Lived in the extreme north-eastern corner of the Scottish Highlands inhabiting Caithness and north-eastern Sutherland. Ptolemy names three promontories along the Cornavian coastline: Tarvedrum Sive Orcas Prom., Virvedrum Prom. and Verubium Prom., which are respectively, Dunnett Head north-east of Thurso, Duncansby Head east of John o'Groats and Noss Head north-east of Wick.

This tribe inhabited the inland parts of central Scotland to the east of the Great Glen Fault, encompassing the north Central Region, west Tayside, south-west Grampian and south-east Highland Region.

Inhabited the lands to the west of the Great Glen Fault in the Highland Region of Scotland, comprising Northern Inverness and Easter Ross. Tarbert Ness, which marks the northernmost extent of the tribe, was known as Ripa Alta during Roman times, and the Beauly Firth just north-west of modern Inverness was known as the Varar Aestuarium.

Inhabited the coastal regions of south-east Sutherland and southern Caithness in the Scottish Highland Region. One of the tribe's rivers is named in Ptolemy, the River Helmsdale, which empties into the Moray Firth south of the modern town of Helmsdale, was known as the Ila Fluvius to the Romans.

Inhabited the inland parts of the western Scottish Highlands, comprising central and northern Ross and south-western Sutherland, between Ben Mor Coignach on the west coast overlooking The Minch and the Dornoch Firth on the east coast overlooking the Moray Firth.

See: The Geography of Claudius Ptolemaeus, trans. tomonidan E.L. Stevenson (Dover, New York, 1991)

Principal sites in Roman occupation of Britain, with indication of the local Celtic tribes.

Tribes of Wales at the time of the Roman invasion. Exact boundaries are conjectural.

Ancalites (Hampshire and Wiltshire, England)

Attacotti (Scotland or Ireland, see Scoti)

Atrebates (an important tribe of Southern England)

Belgae (Wiltshire and Hampshire)

Bibroci (Berkshire, England)

Brigantes (an important tribe in most of Northern England) and in the south-east corner of Ireland)

Caereni (far western Highlands)

Caledones (along the Great Glen)

Cantiaci (present-day Kent which preserves the ancient tribal name)

Carnonacae (western Highlands)

Cateni (north and west of Sutherland) - they gave the county its Gaelic name Cataibh

Catuvellauni (Hertfordshire) - neighbours of the Iceni, they joined in their rebellion

Corieltauvi (East Midlands including Leicester)

Decantae or Ducantae (eastern Ross and Black Isle)

Dobunni (Cotswolds and Severn valley)

Dumnonii or Damnonii, Domnainn) (Devon, Cornwall, Somerset, Strathclyde, and Connacht in Ireland)

Durotriges (Dorset, south Somerset, south Wiltshire)

Epidii (Kintyre and neighboring islands)

Iceni (East Anglia) - under Boudica, they rebelled against Roman rule

Scoti from Ulster (and to the western portion of Scotland) Latin term for Irish pirates?

Selgovae (north of Dumfries and Galloway)

Ordovices (Gwynedd) - they waged guerrilla warfare from the north Wales hills

Parisii (East Riding of Yorkshire,Humberside and Gaul)

Silures (Gwent) - also resisted the Romans in present-day south Wales

Smertae (central Sutherland)

Trinovantes (Essex) - neighbours of the Iceni, they joined in their rebellion

Uluti or Volunti (north-east of Ireland and Lancashire - they gave their name to Ulster

Vacomagi (in and around the Cairngorms)

Venicones (Fife and south-east Tayside in Scotland

Votadini (north-east England and south-east Scotland - they later formed Gododdin.


Military areas

Geographically, Britain consists of two parts: (1) the comparatively flat lowlands of the south, east, and midlands, suitable for agriculture and open to the continent, i.e., to the rest of the Roman Empire, and (2) the area comprising Devon, Cornwall, Wales, and northern England. These latter regions lie more—often very much more—than 600 feet (183 metres) above sea level and are scarred with gorges and deep valleys. They are mountainous in character and difficult for armies to traverse. The lowlands were conquered easily and quickly, though the midlands were garrisoned until about 79 ce . The uplands were hardly subdued completely until the end of the 2nd century. They differ, moreover, in the character of their Roman occupation. The lowlands were the scene of civil life. Towns, villages, and country houses were their prominent features troops were hardly seen in them save in some fortresses on the edge of the hills and in a chain of forts built in the 4th century to defend the south and southeast coast, the so-called Saxon Shore. The uplands of Wales and the north were an entirely different matter. There civil life straggled into Glamorgan and Pembrokeshire and even touched Brecknockshire, while in the north it penetrated as far as County Durham. The hills, however, were one extensive military frontier, covered with forts and the strategic roads that connected them. Only the trading settlements outside the forts afforded any hint of organized Roman communities.

This geographical division was not reproduced by Rome in any administrative partition of the province. At first the whole was governed by one imperial legate (legatus Augusti) of consular standing. Caracalla made it two provinces, superior va inferior, the former including Caerleon, Monmouthshire, and Chester, the latter Lincoln, York, and Hadrian’s Wall. In the 4th century there were four provinces: Britannia Prima, Britannia Secunda, and Flavia Caesariensis, ruled by governors with the title of praesides, and Maxima Caesariensis, ruled by a consularis (governor of consular rank), all under the vicarius Britanniarum (vice-governor of the Britains). After 369 a fifth province named Valentia was added. Politically, it is known that Britannia Prima included Cirencester. Within the army organization the command was divided between the dux Britanniarum, or “duke of the Britains,” responsible for York and Hadrian’s Wall, while the comes litoris Saxonici, or “count of the Saxon Shore,” was responsible for the fleet and for coastal defense. In the later stages of Roman rule the comes Britanniarum, or “count of the Britains,” commanded the field army.


Britain 200 CE

A Roman province now covers the southern half of the British Isles.

Yana ajoyib tarkibga obuna bo'ling va reklamalarni o'chirib tashlang

Yo'lingizni yo'qotdingizmi? Ro'yxatini ko'ring barcha xaritalar

Yana ajoyib tarkibga obuna bo'ling va reklamalarni o'chirib tashlang

What is happening in Britain in 200CE

In 43 CE the Romans invaded Britain again, and this time stayed, making it a part of the huge Roman empire. They expanded out from their Bridgehead in Kent but, in 61, a major rebellion broke out in what is today East Anglia, and was only with difficulty put down.

By the 70’s the Romans had occupied all the southern half of the country. By then the South East and Midlands was dotted with numerous self-governing, Roman-style towns complete with forums, temples, baths, amphitheatres and so on. The elite were at least partially Romanized. Villas scattered throughout the countryside show their increasing prosperity as they grew in size over the generations.

The North and Wales were more militarized, covered by a network of military roads connecting a multitude of forts, large and small. Hadrian’s Wall, built in 122, guarded the northern frontier. Away from these centres of military power, the Britons of Wales and the North lived largely as they had before the Romans came.


Map of the Island of Britain AD 450-600

This map of Britain concentrates on the British territories and kingdoms that were established during the fourth and fifth centuries, as the Saxons and Angles began their settlement of the east coast. It provides an overview of all the territories known or estimated to have existed under Romano-British control, although not all of them existed at the same time, or in the same form as shown here.

Many territories in the south-east appear to have been slow to assume any independent status and were very short-lived, while others in the west had shifting borders and a sketchy history that suggests a gradual transition from Roman-style administration to Celtic kingdom. At this stage modern England did not exist (the name derives from Engle-land, in use from no earlier than the mid-sixth century to describe the 'land of the Angles') neither did Wales (a Saxon name which is generally taken to mean 'foreigner' or 'stranger' but which is more probably a mangled form of the original name for Celts). Scotland was either known as Caledonia (the Roman version of a tribal name), or Pictland after the name (seemingly coined by the Romans) for the majority of its Celtic population. The Irish Scotti tribe, the Dal Riada, were only just beginning to migrate onto the western coast of Pictland, around Argyll.

Most of the kingdoms shown have some historical basis but some, especially those in the south and east of what later became England, are less definite. Their borders remain mostly or entirely conjectural, and the existence of some of them is based on fragmentary evidence. The historical validity of each kingdom (where there is doubt) is mentioned in its king list text.

(This map was reproduced with permission in the novel, An Elmet Inquest, by John H Egbers, 2011. See the Post-Roman Britain section of the Sources page for details.)

To select a territory for further information, click anywhere within its borders.

Original text and map copyright © P L Kessler and the History Files. An original feature for the History Files. Go back or return home.


Map of Early Independent Britain AD 400-425

Faced with an economic downturn in the second half of the fourth century and various barbarian raids and more serious incursions, Roman Britain exhibited a marked decline in fortunes. Various internal revolts meant that military units were greatly depleted, with two strong forces being taken onto the Continent never, it seems, to return in any great number.

Various client states were set up (or officially acknowledged) in the west and north. Renewed war flared up against the Picts of the far north, apparently lasting 'for many years'. Further Scotti (Irish) raids took place on the south coast of Britain in 404/405, just as a major force of imperial troops was being withdrawn. The British provinces were relatively isolated and lacking in support from Rome in their fight against barbarian incursions. In 409 the Britons expelled all Roman officials, breaking ties that were never renewed.

Following the break with Rome there came a period in which central administration apparently began to break down. And then Vortigern seemingly came to the fore, already powerful in the semi-independent Pagenses territories of the west.

All borders are conjectural, but rough territorial boundaries are known.

To select a territory for further information (usually in the accompanying feature if an entry is available), click anywhere within its borders.

Original text and map copyright © P L Kessler and the History Files. An original feature for the History Files. Go back or return home.


Limited technology

All maps of large territories created before air travel and spaceflight are bound to look imprecise when compared to modern examples.

When Rome contacted or conquered a new territory, cartographers did not have the advantage of a bird’s eye view or technologically advanced surveying equipment.

Still, the Romans managed to build an impressive network of roads and a system of aqueducts that surely required an impressive grasp of geography and topography as well as significant mapping skills.


Roman Sites in Wales

Caerleon was the location for a Roman legionary fortress. Substantial archaeological remains can be seen there, including this military amphitheater.

The best Roman site in Wales is the amphitheater at Caerleon , just north of Newport. As for the amphitheater itself, it is oval in shape, with eight great entrances. Prior to the 20 th century, it was known to the local folk as “King Arthur’s Round Table.” But excavations in 1926 confirmed its Roman origins. It was built about AD 80 for audiences of up to 6,000 and was twice rebuilt during the Roman occupation.

The highest, still-standing Roman building in Britain, incidentally, is the shell of a lighthouse at Dover Castle . It’s a great, thick, lumpy cylinder, right next to a church, originally Anglo-Saxon, that has been extensively renovated and modernized.

One way you sometimes become aware of the Roman mark on Britain is by driving on long, straight roads. The greatest of the Roman roads are the Fosse Way, marking a very straight line between Bath and Lincoln Ermine Street from London to York and Watling Street, a Roman adaptation of an even earlier road that made a continuous line between Richborough in Kent, across the Thames, and on to Wroxeter near the Welsh border.

Very few stretches of unchanged Roman road are still visible. One is Wade’s Causeway , on high moorland in the North York Moors National Park . It has a high-quality surface made from sandstone slabs closely fitted together, is elevated, and has the characteristic drainage ditches on each side.


Videoni tomosha qiling: DUNYO TARIXI. 39-Mavzu: Rim respublikasining hayoti.