Jozef Medill

Jozef Medill


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Jozef Medill 1823 yil 6 aprelda Kanadaning Sent-Jon shahrida tug'ilgan. AQShga ko'chib o'tdi va Ogayo (1849-51) va Klivlend (1851-55) gazetalarida ishlay boshladi.

Respublikachilar partiyasining asoschisi Medill Chikagoga ko'chib o'tdi va u erda Charlz Rey bilan birga uni sotib oldi Chikago Tribunasi 1855 yilda qullikning kuchli raqibi Medill 1860 yilgi prezidentlik saylovlarida Avraam Linkolnni qo'llab -quvvatlagan.

Radikal respublikachilar nomi bilan tanilgan guruh a'zosi Medill Linkolnning Saymon Kameron (urush kotibi), Gideon Uelles (Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari kotibi), Edvard Beyts (Bosh prokuror) va Montgomeri Bler (pochtachi) kabi konservatorlarni tayinlash qarorini qattiq tanqid qildi. Umumiy) Vazirlar Mahkamasiga. U qora polklar tuzishga chaqirdi va Medill tahririyatining birida Linkoln "Kentukki shtatining bir necha yuz xo'jayinini tinchlantirish" uchun mo'ljallangan siyosatga amal qilganlikda ayblandi.

Medill Avraam Linkolnni Benjamin Butlerni urush kotibi etib tayinlashga ko'ndira olmadi. Biroq, u 1864 yilgi prezidentlik saylovida Respublikachilar partiyasidan Jon C. Fremont yoki Salmon Cheyz nomzodini istagan boshqa radikal respublikachilarni qo'llab -quvvatlashdan bosh tortdi. Buning o'rniga u o'z o'quvchilarini Linkoln nomzodiga sodiq qolishga chaqirdi.

1871 yil noyabr oyida Medill Chikago meri etib saylandi. Hukumat tepasida bo'lganida, u Chikago ommaviy kutubxonasini tashkil etishga yordam berdi.

Jozef Medill 1899 yil 16 martda Texasning San -Antonio shahrida vafot etdi.


Jurnalistlar: Jozef Medill (1823-1899)

Bir yil o'tgach, 1856 yil 29 -mayda Illinoys respublikachilari Bloomingtonda tashkiliy qurultoy o'tkazdilar. Jozef Uilson Fifer keyinchalik Bloomington konventsiyasining hikoyasini “Mr. Medill buni menga bir necha bor aytgan. ”

Medillning aytishicha, anjuman ishi tugagandan so'ng, nutq so'zlash vaqti keldi. [Jon] Palmer ajoyib, kuchli nutq so'zladi. [Ouen] Lovejoy u erda edi va u nutq so'zladi. Lovejoy shtatning eng notiq odami deb taxmin qilingan edi. Yana bir -ikki nutq so'zlandi, keyin Medill "Linkoln, Linkoln" ga qo'ng'iroq bo'lganini aytdi. ’ Linkoln tomoshabinlar orasidan o'rnidan turdi va u erda noqulay va sekin gapirdi ‘ Men hech qanday e'tiroz bildirmayman, men turgan joyimdan gapirmayman. ’ "Olomon" unday emas edi va qo'ng'iroq qilishdi: ‘Platforma, platforma, Linkoln, platforma. ’ U oldinga chiqdi. Medill u erda edi Chikago Tribunasi, eslatmalar olish. Linkoln asta -sekin tanishtirildi va boshlandi, lekin Medillning aytishicha, u odamning g'ayrioddiy qat'iyatini ko'radi va u odamda animatsiyani bosadi. Linkoln asta -sekin boshladi, lekin u borgan sari o'rnidan turdi va Medillning aytishicha, bu - u eshitgan eng buyuk nutq. Uning so'zlariga ko'ra, ba'zida Linkoln bulutlarga ko'tarilib, momaqaldiroqlarni chiqarib yuborganga o'xshardi. ” 2

Keyingi to'rt yil ichida Chikago Press va Tribune janob Linkolnning AQSh Senati va prezidentligi uchun takliflariga homiylik qildi. Bu kampaniyada boshqa yirik qog'ozlar Linkoln va O'rta G'arbning yuragiga juda yaqin bo'lmagan edi, - deb yozgan Linkoln olimi Jey Monagan. “ Matbuot va Tribuna [Senat] kampaniyasida g'alaba qozonish uchun butun resurslarini sarfladi. Jurnalistlar Linkoln haqida har tomondan yozishni boshladilar. To'qson to'rt sahifali Respublika darsligi nashr etildi. Linkoln nutqlari, [Kongress a'zosi] Ouen Lovejoy bilan birga, odamlarni qullik dahshatlari bilan tanishtirish uchun chop etilgan. ” 3 Masalan, 1858 yil 25 iyunda, janob Linkoln Medillga o'z ovozlarini tushuntirish uchun yozgan. Meksika-Amerika urushi, hujumga aylandi Chicago Times. U yopdi: “Men bergan barcha ovozlarga havola qilishning iloji yo'q, lekin menimcha, bu misollar uchun etarli va men hech qachon, Meksika urushi ofitserlari yoki askarlaridan, har qanday yukni ushlab qolish uchun ovoz berganimni inkor eta olasiz. . ” 4

Medill janob Linkoln o'z savollarini senator Stiven Duglas bilan o'tkaziladigan muhim Freeport munozarasi uchun tayyorlaganida hozir bo'lgan. Oxir -oqibat janob Linkoln o'zining demokrat raqibiga bergan savollar Duglasga qayta saylanishida yordam berdi, lekin uning prezidentlik kampaniyasini yo'q qilishga yordam berdi. Tarixchi Don E. Fehrenbaxerning so'zlariga ko'ra, Medill o'sha yig'ilishda sodir bo'lgan voqealarning keyinchalik buzilishi uchun javobgardir. "Medill" ning eslashi shundaki, Linkoln unga Freeportga ketadigan poezdda savollarni ko'rsatgan va ikkinchisiga e'tiroz bildirgan, chunki bu Kichik Gigantni qattiq joydan qochishga imkon beradi. , u o'sha kuni tushdan keyin Duglasda nayzalashini ’. Munozaradan oldin, boshqa taniqli respublikachilar, Medillni da'vat qilib, Linkoln bilan bu borada bahslashishdi, lekin hech qanday natija bermadi. haqiqat so'zi, ” Fehrenbacher. 5

Janob Linkoln, Freeport munozarasi oldidan u bilan uchrashish uchun bir qancha etakchilarni yozgan edi. Duglas Ottava munozarasida unga bergan savollarga javoblarni tayyorlashdan tashqari, ular Medillning Duglasga bir nechta xunuk savollarni berish haqidagi taklifiga rozi bo'lishgan. Medill janob Linkolnni savollariga chek qo'yishdan ko'ra, qattiq yondashuvni ilgari surdi. 6 “Mudofaa bo'yicha hech qanday harakat qilmang, ” Medill maslahat berdi. “O'tgan nutqlaringizga yoki pozitsiyalaringizga ishora qilmang, …bugun Dug upni xoin va fitnachi sifatida qabul qiling, bambukli demogog. U Ogayo shtatida kampaniyaga chiqishidan oldin:

Men sizga Duglasni yuboraman va Ogayo shtatining Kolumbusida kech gaplashdim. Siz uning yangi asoslarini va o'zining eski dogmalariga bergan yangi ranglarini ko'rasiz, men sizni Kolumb va Cincinnati -da nutq so'zlashga taklif qilishganini ko'raman. Siz katta olomonni jalb qilasiz va yaxshi kutib olasiz. Men Buckeyesni yaxshi bilaman – o'sha davlatda ko'tariladi.
Meni bir -ikkita taklif qilganim uchun mag'rur deb hisoblamang, masalan: Agar siz nomzod bo'lmasangiz, dadil gapira olasiz. Ogayo shtatida Misr yo'q, siz Bloomingtonda o'qitishingiz mumkin bo'lgan har qanday ta'limot Kolumbda qabul qilinadi. Cincinnati Chikago kabi deyarli radikal. Ular Qochqin qonuniga bo'ysunishga tayyor, lekin uning bekor qilinishini yoki o'zgartirilishini xohlaydilar va bu haqda o'z platformalarida e'lon qilishdi.
Himoyalanishga harakat qilmang, lekin xamir yuzi va qullik demokratiyasining orqasiga issiq zarba bering. Duglasning Kanzas shtatidagi Nebraska shtatidagi qonun loyihasi mashhur shuhratparastlikni kafolatlaydi yoki unga ruxsat beradi, degan aldovli da'vosini yo'q qiling. Biz bugungi maqolamizda shu mavzu bo'yicha etakchi maqola tayyorladik. Agar siz firibgarlikni, aldanishni va sharmandalikni fosh qilsangiz, siz bizning ishimizni Ogayo shtatida qilasiz, chunki bu demokratik da'voning orqasini sindirib tashlaydi. Siz bir yil oldin Chikagodagi ma'ruzangizda demokratiya tamoyillari va oligarxiya tajovuzlariga qarshi turish vatanparvarlarning burchiga bag'ishlangan muhim fikrlarni aytdingiz. Sizning erkinlik ruhiga bo'lgan ishtiyoqingiz poytaxt edi. Bu nutqni qayta ko'rib chiqing. Ba'zi “anecdotes & amp xitlaringizdan voz kechmang, hech kim bunday narsalarni Buckeyesdan ko'ra ko'proq yoqtirmaydi. Menga maslahat beradigan yana bir so'z bor: dadil kiring, yelkangizdan urib, belbog'ning ostiga ham, tepasiga ham urib, momaqaldiroqdek teping. 8

Medill 1860 yilda Respublikachilar partiyasidan prezidentlikka nomzod bo'lish uchun birinchi navbatda Ogayo shtati Salmon Cheyzni afzal ko'rdi. 30 oktyabrda u yozgan edi: “ Shaxsan men Gov Cheyzni har qanday odamdan afzal ko'raman va u eng yaxshi ijro etuvchi qobiliyatga ega ekanligiga ishonadi, lekin agar u hisobga olinmasa. G'alaba qozonadigan odam chol emas. ” Medill qo'shib qo'ydi: "Dadil Abe do'stlari hech qachon chiptaning eng baland uchini orqaga surishga rozi bo'lishmaydi." Linkolnga va uning nomzodi kafolatlangan. Darhaqiqat, Tribuna muharrirlar o'z manfaatlarini ko'zlab, Chikagoni respublikachilar milliy konventsiyasi o'tkaziladigan joy sifatida targ'ib qilishdi. Medillning o'zi 1859 yil dekabrda Nyu -Yorkka, Chikagoga lobbi berish uchun respublikachilar milliy qo'mitasining yig'ilishiga borgan. Janob Linkoln hali taniqli nomzod sifatida paydo bo'lmagani uchun, Chikago tanlovi bir nomzodni boshqasidan afzal ko'rmagan ko'rinadi.

Ayni paytda, Tribuna Linkoln nomzodini kuchaytira boshladi va janob Linkoln Nyu -Yorkka Kuper Institutiga nutq so'zlashdan oldin Chikagoga yo'l oldi. Ko'p o'tmay, Medill "Prezidentlik" va "Avraam Linkoln" tahririyatining tasdiqini yozganidan so'ng, bo'lajak nomzod ularga Kuper instituti ma'ruzasini ko'rsatdi va takliflarini so'radi. Ertasi kuni janob Linkoln ketishidan oldin, ular tirishqoqlik bilan ta'minladilar. Nutq keyinchalik nashr etilgach, ular o'z hissalarini izlashdi va hech narsa topa olishmadi. Doktor Charlz Rey o'z sherigiga shunday dedi: “Medill, eski Abe mashina oynasidan bizning barcha qimmatbaho yozuvlarimizni yo'qotib qo'ygandir, chunki men bu erda chop etilgan nutqida ulardan birining izini topa olmayapman. ” Medill : “ [T] u mayda-chuyda hazillaridan biri uchun mo'ljallangan bo'lishi kerak. ” 10 May oyining o'rtalarida Chikagoda respublikachilar milliy qurultoyi o'tkazilganda, Chikago Press va Tribune isitma balandligida edi. Qurultoy arafasida uning sarlavhasida shunday yozilgan edi: “Yutgan odam, Avraam Linkoln. ” 11

Medill keyinroq janob Linkoln g'alabaga bir necha ovoz berganida qurultoyda muhim rol o'ynaganini da'vo qilgan. U qasddan Ogayo shtati delegatsiyasi bilan o'tirdi, ularning ko'pchiligi Salmon P. Cheyzga garovga qo'yildi: “Agar ikkinchi ovoz berishdan so'ng, men [rais Devid] Ogayo shtatining Kartteriga pichirladim, ‘ Linkoln uchun Ogayo shtati delegatsiyasi, Cheyz xohlagan narsasiga ega bo'lishi mumkin. ’ ‘H-how-d-d ’ye know? ’ Cartutter. ‘Bilaman, va bilasizmi, agar men bilmasam, va'da bermas edim, ”Medill e'lon qildi. ” 12 Kartter ovozlarni almashtirdi va janob Linkoln nomzodi qo'yildi.

1860 yil 27 mayda janob Linkoln Kongressmen Uashbernga yozganidek, “bu kuni ertalab mening sherigim janob Xerndon janob Medildan xat oladi. Tribunayozuvchi Duglasning erkin tuproqli erni egallab olishini va uyga kelganda ma'muriyatni g'azab bilan bosib olishini taxmin qilib, respublikachilar shimolida Duglasga borib qolishidan juda xavotirda ekanligini ko'rsatdi. ” Sentyabr oyi boshida janob Linkoln Medillning mamlakatdagi siyosiy voqealar haqidagi maktubiga javob berdi. U shunday xulosa qildi: “Illinoysning Shimoliy 30 grafligi haqida aytganlaring menga yoqadi. Ular Fremont uchun bo'lgani kabi ko'pchilik ovoz berishadi, degan va'dangizni bajaring va biz sizni qo'yib yuboramiz. Agar bu rost bo'lsa, bizni shtatda kaltaklash ham, yugurish ham mumkin emas. ” 13

Yil oxiriga kelib, Medill bu safar janob Linkoln va uning kabinetiga bo'lajak uchrashuvlar haqida juda xavotirda edi, ayniqsa, Pensilvaniya va Saymon Kameron G'aznachilik kotibi etib tayinlanishi haqidagi mish -mishlar: – 8220Biz Linkolnning ma'lum guruhlarga haddan tashqari qarzdor bo'lishidan qo'rqardik va endi bu isbotlandi. Linkoln - muvaffaqiyatsizlik. Birlashmaganlarga Vashingtonni olib, Linkolnni Springfildda qoldirishga ruxsat berish yaxshidir. ” 14 Tribuna egalari. U sherigi Charlz Reyga yozgan: “Egar Springfilddan kelgan xabarlar rost bo'lsa, bunday bo'lmaydi original Linkoln kabinetda. Bu uning ko'plab raqiblari va dushmanlaridan iborat bo'ladi. Kameron, Seward, Weed, Jorj Low, Kaleb B. Smit, doktor [Charlz] Leyb, [Chikago jurnali va#8217s Charlz] Uilson, Jon Ventvort qabilasi o'g'rilar, ishchilar va pokulatorlar tomonidan boshqariladi ‘ halol Abe ’ tana, ruh va etiklar …. Biz Abe qildik va G- biz uni ochishimiz mumkin. ” 15 Hatto qimmatbaho uchrashuv ham emas. a Tribuna Stikfer – John L. Scripps –, Chikago pochtasi boshlig'i tinchlantirdi. Tribuna boshqaruv.

Janob Linkoln inauguratsiyasidan keyin muharrirlar shaffof bo'lib qoldi. Medill va Rey, Missuri shtatidagi Jon C. Fremont harbiy rahbariyatining qog'oz va davosi haqida janjallashishdi. Medill prezident Linkolnni tez -tez tanqid qilar va uning ma'muriyatida mo''tadil bo'lgan. U 1861 yil aprelda Fort Sumterga qilingan hujumdan keyin prezident Linkolnga yozib, hukumat siyosatini bir necha bor qattiqlashtirishga urindi: “Shimoliy G'arbiy sizni oxirgi odam dollar va makkajo'xori bilan qo'llab -quvvatlaydi. Hukumat vakolatlari. yaxshi qilish kerak. O'z burchingizni bajaring, odamlar siz bilan. ” 16 Uning maktublarida tez -tez shafqatsizlik belgisi bor edi. “Bizning millat halokat yoqasida. Har qanday paroxod Yevropa aralashuvi haqidagi yangilikni keltirishi mumkin va odamlar biladi, bu sodir bo'lganda, Ittifoq yo'q bo'lib ketadi va avlodlarning la'nati inoyat kunini aldaganlarning xotirasida qoladi. Hukm bo'ladi, ‘yig'im o'tdi, Yoz tugadi, lekin xalq saqlanmadi. Kentukki shtatining bir necha yuzta xo'jayinlarini tinchlantirish uchun, bu buyuk respublikaga isyon va chet el aralashuvi ta'sirida qaltirashga ruxsat berildi ",-deb yozgan u 1862 yil fevralda.

Medill qora tanli askarlarni yollash va bu masalada chegaradosh davlatlarning his -tuyg'ulariga e'tibor bermaslik tarafdori edi. Jurnal muharrirlarining munosabati Chikago Tribunasi Prezidentning o'ziga xos g'azabiga aylandi. 1862 yilga kelib, tarixchi Filipp Shou Paludanning so'zlariga ko'ra, Medill ‘ [General Jorj B.] maydonda Makkellan va kabinetdagi [Uilyam H.] Seward bizning buyuk ishimizni oxirigacha olib keldi degan fikrga qo'shildi. o'limdan. Seward … - Linkolnning yomon dahosi. U amalda prezident bo'lgan va Abe amakining burunida xloroform bilan to'yingan shimgichni saqlagan, faqat bitta yoki ikkita qisqa afsun bundan mustasno. ” 17

Tarixchi Mark E. Nee, Jr., yozgan edi: “Medill Linkoln kabinetini tanlashda, urush boshlangan paytdagi sekin sur'atda va ayniqsa, Linkolnda qullikka qarshi harakat qilishda tobora g'azablanib ketdi. Uning maktublari shiddatli bo'lib qoldi: "Xudo uchun va sizning mamlakatingiz uchun bizning dahshatli milliy xavfimiz ro'y beradi", dedi u 1862 yil boshida Linkolnga siyosatni faqat bir necha yuzlarni joylashtirish uchun belgilamasligi kerakligini aytdi. Kentukki qul xo'jayinlari. ” 18 Medil ozodlik tarafdori va ozodlik e'lonining kuchli tarafdori edi.

1863 yil iyun oyida Tribuna va#8217s muharrirlar Jon G. Nikolayga maktub yuborishdi, unda ular Prezident obunani ko'rmaganligi haqida shikoyat qilishdi. Tribuna ular yuborgan. Nikolay shunday javob berdi Tribuna boshqa gazetalar bilan birga o'z kabinetidagi stolga qo'yilgan, u erda prezident xodimlari ham, mehmonlar ham o'qishgan. Keyin Nikolay tahririyatni haqorat qila boshladi va u Prezidentning fikrlarini uzatayotganini inkor etdi: “Bu erda siz prezidentning vazifasi bola emasligini taxmin qilishingiz kerakligiga ishontira olaman. #8217s o'ynaydi. Agar siz buni tasavvur qilsangiz har qanday odam Agar siz uning tarixiga befarq o'qigan bo'lsangiz va insoniyat tabiatini foyda ko'rmagan holda o'rgangan bo'lsangiz, uni tanqid qilishdan qochishingiz mumkin. Ammo prezidentning do'stlari, uni uzoq vaqt va yaqindan bilgan, uning butunligini, vatanga sadoqatini va aybloviga ishonib topshirilgan ishni tushunganlar hech bo'lmaganda o'zlarini tiyib turishadi, deb kutish mumkin emas edi. uni shoshqaloqlik ko'rligida hukm qilyapsizmi va achchiq yomonlikda hukm qilyapsizmi? Menimcha, bu ko'p narsa siyosiy yoki shaxsiy do'stlik uchun emas, balki bu erdan o'tishga chaqirilgan olovli sinov uchun saxiylik va xayriya tufayli edi. ” Nikolay xulosa qildi: o'qishni davom ettirish uchun Tribuna –, faqat ma'muriyatdan qanchalik ko'p ayb topsa, men bilaman, inqiroz paytida o'z burchini bajarishga astoydil harakat qilmoqda. ” 19

Bu oxirgi marta emas edi ’ Tribuna muharrirlar o'zlari saylashga yordam bergan prezidentni xafa qilishdi. 1864 yilda Chikagodan delegatsiya Vashingtonga shtatning ajratish loyihasiga norozilik bildirdi. Janob Linkoln ularni loyihani qo'llab -quvvatlamaganliklari uchun tanbeh berdi, keyin esa Jozef Medillga aniq tanbeh berdi: “Va siz, Medill, qo'rqoqdek harakat qilyapsiz. Siz va sizning Tribuna Bu urushda shimoli -g'arbiy gazetalarga ko'proq ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Siz ko'pchilikka ta'sir o'tkaza olasiz, lekin sabab azob chekayotgan paytda qutulish uchun yig'laysiz. Uyga bor va o'sha odamlarni bizga yubor. ” 20

Shunga qaramay, Medill Oq uyga tashrifini davom ettirdi. U prezident Linkolnga alternativa topish yoki uning siyosatiga bir oz ustunlik kiritish uchun 1864 yilgi respublikachilar milliy konventsiyasini kechiktirishga harakat qilgan bo'lsa ham, u hech qachon to'liq tanaffusga chiqmagan. Medillning prezidentga sabrsizligi 1864 yil fevral oyida unga yozgan maktubida namoyon bo'ladi: "Men yozgan biror narsa sizni takliflar bo'yicha harakat qilishga undashi ehtimoldan yiroq emas. Shunga qaramay, men sizning nuqtai nazaringizdan ba'zi narsalar haqida gapirishni do'stlaringizdan biri sifatida o'z burchim deb bilaman. Qayta nomzodlik va qayta saylanishni xohlaysiz, deb o'ylayman va sizning eng ta'sirli va kuchli do'stingiz-bu o'zingiz. O'z yordamisiz do'stlaringizning sa'y -harakatlari ko'p foyda keltirmadi. Shaxmat taxtasida raqiblaringizning o'yinini mag'lub etish va nihoyat ularning o'rtog'ini tekshirish uchun bir necha oddiy harakatlarni bajarish sizning ixtiyoringizda. ” 211 1864 yilda Medill prezident Nikolayga biroz do'stona xat yozgan edi:

Men prezidentning sizga bo'lgan munosabati va o'zim haqimda aytgan gaplaridan xursandman. O'tgan may oyida Washnda bo'lganimda, men biroz xafa bo'ldim. va men u bilan uchrasholmadim, men to'rt marta qo'ng'iroq qildim va har safar kartamni yubordim, lekin qabul qilinmadi, menimcha, bu juda yoqimsiz, lekin u juda band edi. Men bilganingizdek, birinchi navbatda, L. uchun juda ko'p ish qildim, lekin hech qachon uning evaziga bir sent evaziga shaxsiy roziligini so'ramadim. Biz uni qo'llab -quvvatlashga haqli bo'lgan har qanday harakatida samimiy qo'llab -quvvatladik. Albatta, biz uning ma'muriyatining dastlabki 18 oyidagi o'ziga xos xususiyatlarini maqtay olmaymiz. Ammo u qullikka qarshi tamoyillarga sodiq bo'lganida, biz uning tarafdori bo'ldik va agar u kelajak uchun qullikka qarshi to'g'ri siyosat yuritgan bo'lsa, biz uning boshqalarga qarshi qayta saylanishi tarafdorimiz. 22

“Medill tez -tez Linkolnga qarshilik ko'rsatar edi, lekin shamolli shaharda prezidentning do'stlarining bosimi muharrirga [Salmon P.] Cheyz bilan kelishishga ruxsat berish uchun juda katta edi, ” tarixchi Uilyam Frank Zornov yozgan. 23 Tarixiy yozuvchi Jozef Vofning so'zlariga ko'ra, [Medill] hali ham eski do'stini qo'llab -quvvatlagan. Biroq, u o'z e'tiqodida radikal, siyosatida qat'iyatli, o'zi uchun qadrli bo'lgan sabablar uchun faol va mehnatkash edi va tez -tez Linkolnning ikkilanib, Medillning o'ylagan masalalariga jiddiy yondashganidan aqldan ozgan. Medill partiyani Linkolndan ustun qo'ygan kuchli respublikachi edi. Vaqti -vaqti bilan u prezidentni tahririyat bilan tanqid qildi, lekin u Xudo uni qayta saylanishini nazarda tutganiga amin edi va buning oldini olish uchun hech narsa qilinmaydi. ” 24

Medill 1863 yil may oyida Vashingtonda bo'lganida, u shunday deb yozgan edi: “Bo'ri olomon orasidan sizning ofisingizga yoki shartnomalaringizga yoki shaxsiy manfaatlaringizga kirishni istagan dumaloq kutish xonalarini osib qo'yishga na vaqtim, na moyilligim bor edi, men bu haqda yozishni afzal ko'raman. og'zaki aytadigan gapimning mohiyati. Sizning armiyangiz jang, kasallik va xizmat muddati tugashi bilan tezda eriydi va chaqiruv aktining kuchga kirishi juda kechikadi. ” Keyin u armiya chaqiruvi bo'yicha o'z maslahatlarini berishni boshladi.

Urushning tugashi va janob Linkolnning o'limi bilan tugamadi Tribuna va#8217s Linkoln ma'muriyatidagi tortishuvlardagi roli. Prezident Linkoln vafotidan bir yil o'tgach, Uord Xill Lamon Horace White bilan janjallashdi. Chikago Tribunasi. Shunday bo'ldi -ki, u yollanma sifatida xizmat qilgan jirkanch fraktsiya janob Linkoln ma'muriyatiga hech qachon bo'lmagan yagona jiddiy muammo haqida xabar berdi, - deb yozgan Lamon. “Uning o'zi Richmondning "muxbiri" edi Tribunava qilgan yomonligi uning o'rtacha qobiliyatiga to'g'ri kelgan. Janob Linkoln ulardan birini berdi Tribuna muharrirlari Chikagodagi pochtachining daromadli idorasi va paxta ruxsatnomasining eng yirik ruxsatnomasi (aytgancha, bu men bilgan yagona iflos varaqqa berilgan janobga berilgan) va Tribuna ofis Illinoys shtatida katta miqdordagi ijrochi homiyligini nazorat qilar edi, lekin ularning ishtahasini yumshatish uchun qilgan sa'y -harakatlari ularni unga va uning siyosatiga nisbatan yanada zaharli va xunuk hujumlarni nashr etishga undadi. ” 25

Medill 1871 yilda Chikago meri etib saylandi Tribuna umrining qolgan qismi uchun.


Jozef Medill - Tarix

Ilgari hikago shunday edi ancha iflos joy. Bu, ayniqsa, Loop atrofidagi kambag'al immigrantlar hududlarida to'g'ri edi. "Yetib kelgan" oilalar shaharning chekkasidagi yangi joylarga ko'chib ketishar ekan, ular ko'plab uy xo'jaliklarida hanuzgacha yopiq suv quvurlari bo'lmagan va shuning uchun cho'milish uchun joy bo'lmagan mahallalarni qoldirishdi. Bu muammo Progressiv davrga qadar hal qilinmay qoldi, ko'p islohotchilar shahar hokimiyatini gigienani yaxshilash uchun jamoat hammomlarini qurishga undashdi.

Shahar buyurtma ligasi, ayollarni isloh qilish tashkiloti, Chikagodagi hammom hammomini olib bordi. Boshqa islohotchilar va matbuot yordami bilan shahar meri Xempstid Uashbern va shahar hukumati bu ishga qo'shildi. Nihoyat, birinchi hammom shahar tomonidan qurilgan va 1894 yilda G'arbiy tomonda, Xall -Xaus yaqinida ochilgan.

Chikago qurilgan 1894-1918 yillar oralig'ida 19 ta hammom. Boshqa ikkita hammom faqat erkaklar uchun mo'ljallangan suv nasos stantsiyalarida ta'minlandi, bu ularning umumiy sonini 21 taga etkazdi. Ko'p yillar davomida homiylik pasayib ketdi, qonunlarga ko'ra, xonadonlarda yopiq sanitariya -tesisat zarur. Shahar Ikkinchi jahon urushidan keyin hammomlarni yopa boshladi. Oxirgi marta, Madison ko'chasidagi skid qatorli tumanga xizmat ko'rsatish uchun qurilgan, 19 S. Peoria, Robert A. Waller jamoat hammomi ochilgan. U 1979 yilda, Prezident minoralarini rivojlantirish uchun skidning yuragi buzila boshlagach, yopildi.

Chikagodagi hammom oddiy va utilitarian edi. Ko'pchilik taniqli davlat amaldorlari sharafiga nomlangan. Erkaklar va ayollar uchun alohida imkoniyatlar mavjud emas, ular har kuni joylashishi mumkin edi. Kutish xonasi odatda asosiy binoning yon tomonida joylashgan. Dastlabki vannalar juda oz bezak bilan qurilgan, faqat kirish joyi ustidagi vannaning nomi bundan mustasno. Keyinchalik hammomlar ko'proq dizaynni hisobga olgan holda qurilganga o'xshaydi, lekin umuman olganda ular juda oddiy edi.

O'n to'qqizdan Hammom shahar qurgan, to'rttasi hanuzgacha mavjud: uchtasi G'arbiy shaharda va bittasi Pilsenda. O'shandan beri hamma xususiy uylarga aylantirildi.

Kosciushko hammomi, 1446 N. Greenview -da joylashgan, 1904 -yilda ochilgan. Bu hozirgacha saqlanib qolgan hammomdir, chunki u o'zining kutish xonasi yon tomonida qolgan yagona vannadir. Tafsilotlar shubhasiz munitsipaldir, chunki “Y ” qurilmalari taniqli, lekin bezaksiz. Kutish xonasiga kiraverishda (o'ngda), shuningdek temir temir darvoza dizaynida (chapda) bittasi bor.

Chapda: Illinoys tarixiy qo'riqxonasi

Linkoln ko'chasidagi hammom 1019 N. Vulkotda joylashgan bo'lib, u dastlab bu hududda Linkoln ko'chasi deb nomlangan. Bu qurilishi davom etayotgan ikkinchi hammom 1918 yilda ochilgan. Bu erda hammom dizaynining rivojlanishini aniq ko'rish mumkin. Bu hammom balandligi bir qavat va oldingi versiyalarga qaraganda bir oz ko'proq bezatilgan. Kutish xonasi, ehtimol, panjara ortidagi tomonda edi. Eshik ustidagi belgi, hammomlarni boshqargan keyingi davrning qoldig'i, tanish Park tumanidagi vannaning nomini e'lon qiladi.

Simon Baruch hammomi 1910 yilda ochilgan va 1911 yilda V. Kullertonda joylashgan. U Linkoln ko'chasidagi hammomga o'xshaydi, chunki bu hammom qurilishining keyingi davridan. Kutish xonasi tashqi tomondan ko'rinmaydi, balki u binoning umumiy dizayniga kiritilgan.

Prussiya/polyak immigrant shifokor Simon Baruch hammom ixtirochisi hisoblanadi. 19 -asrning oxirida, u o'z mablag'iga Nyu -York shahrining o'nta tumanlarida hammom qurdi. Qizig'i shundaki, bu hammomning old tomonida Baruch nomi yozilmagan, aksincha u "Chikago jamoat hammomi" ni o'qiydi.


Illinoys tarixiy saqlanish agentligi

Illinoys tarixiy saqlanish agentligi

Chapda: Pilsen hammomi 1849 yil S. Throop shahrida joylashgan. 1908 yilda ochilgan, u Medil va Kosciushko hammomlari kabi davrning boshqa vannalariga o'xshardi. Bu rasmda u tashlandiq va umuman qarovsiz ko'rinadi. Oldin turgan joyda to'xtash joyi mavjud.

O'ngda: Medill va Kosciusko uslubidagi boshqa hammom. Chikagoning birinchi meri sharafiga nomlangan Uilyam B. Ogden hammomi 1906 yilda Bridgeportda 3346 S. Emeraldda ochilgan. 1970 -yilgi fotosuratda u hali ham yaxshi holatda va shaxsiy turar joy sifatida ishlatilgan ko'rinadi. Afsuski, o'shandan beri buzib tashlangan.

Illinoys tarixiy saqlanish agentligi

Chapda: Agar bu hammom boshqalarga qaraganda ancha kattaroq va boshqacha ko'rinsa …, chunki bu shunday! Oxirgi qurilgan hammomlardan biri, Kedzie prospektidagi hammom 1918 yilda (mos ravishda) 2401 S. Kedzie shahrida qurilgan. Uning kattaroq kattaligi, bu bolalarni parvarish qilish stantsiyasi bo'lganligi va uning kutish xonasi auditoriya sifatida ikki barobar ko'p bo'lishi mumkinligi bilan bog'liq. Bu fotosurat shuni ko'rsatadiki, u hali ham yaxshi holatda edi, garchi u buzilgan bo'lsa ham.

O'ngda: Robert A. Waller hammomi 1901 yilda 19 S. Peoria da ochilgan. Bu ochilgan eng qadimgi hammomlardan biri edi va eng qadimiylari bu sahifada ko'rsatilgan. Uning yoshi, nima uchun u keyingi hammomlarga qaraganda ancha boshqacha ko'rinishini tushuntirishi mumkin. Hammomning nomi binoning hech bir joyida yo'q, agar bu rasm 1970 -yillarda olingan vaqtgacha olib tashlanmagan bo'lsa. Bu hammom Madison Street va#8220Skid Row tumanida xizmat ko'rsatgan va 1979 yilda yopilgan shahardagi oxirgi hammom bo'lgan.

Bu maqola oxirgi marta 2008 yil 12 -dekabr, juma kuni soat 22:19 da yangilangan.


Chikagoning qaysi meri politsiyani isloh qildi va ishdan ketdi?

Tanqidchilar Rahm Emanuelning politsiya bo'limini isloh qilmagani uchun iste'foga chiqishni talab qilishidan ancha oldin, Chikagoning boshqa meri aynan shunday qildi - keyin ishdan ketdi.

Jozef Medill bu idorani atigi 20 oy ishlagan va rostdan ham tasodifan shahar hokimi bo'lgan va bu ishdan bosh tortgan.

Voqea 1871 yil 8 oktyabrda boshlangan Buyuk Chikago yong'inidir. O'sha yilgi munitsipal saylovlarga bir oy qolganida, shaharning beshdan to'rt qismi yonib ketdi va 350 ming kishi boshpanasiz qoldi. Hayron qolgan Chikagodagi fuqarolik rahbarlari, shaharning omon qolishi mashhur bo'lgan siyosiy janjalni chetga surib qo'yish kerakligini tushunib etishdi. Shunday qilib, ular "Fuqarolar yong'inga qarshi" maxsus partiyasini tuzdilar va Medildan partiyasiz chiptasini sotib olishni so'rashdi.

U mantiqiy tanlov edi. Chicago Tribune gazetasi muharriri sifatida, uning binosi olov yonib ketganini ko'rdi. Shunday bo'lsa-da, u 11-oktabrda tahririyatli so'zlar bilan boshlanadigan tahririyatni o'z ichiga olgan qog'ozni chop etishga muvaffaq bo'ldi: "Dunyo tarixida o'xshash bo'lmagan falokat paytida, o'ttiz yillik to'plangan kulga qarab, odamlar. Bir paytlar go'zal shaharning qaroriga ko'ra, CHIKAGO yana ko'tariladi.

Shunday bo'lsa -da, Medill dastlab qatnashishdan bosh tortdi. Kuyovga yozgan maktubida u "hokimning vakolatlari shunchalik cheklanganki, u figurali odamdan boshqa narsa emas", deb tushuntirgan.

Ammo uning sovchilari bosimni ushlab turishdi, Medill esa murosaga keldi. Agar ular Illinoys shtati qonun chiqaruvchi hokimiyatining Chikago nizomiga o'zgartirish kiritish to'g'risidagi qonun loyihasiga homiylik qilsalar, merning huquqlariga ba'zi tishlar qo'ysa, u qatnashadi. Agar qonun loyihasi bajarilmasa, Medill ogohlantirdi: "Men o'zimni erkin his qilardim, men o'z lavozimimdan iste'foga chiqaman va pastga tushib ketaman".

Oxir -oqibat, u "pastga tushib ketdi", lekin Chikago siyosatining butun o'yinini o'zgartirmasdan oldin. Tarixchilar Medillni biz bilgan shahar hokimiyatini yaratgan deb hisoblashadi. Undan oldin hokimlar tashrif buyurgan obro'li odamlarni kutib olishdi va lentalarni kesishdi. Aldermenlar otishni o'rganishdi. Ammo qonun chiqaruvchi hokimiyat vakolatlarini qo'lga kiritdi-shahar kengashining harakatlariga veto, shahar amaldorlarini yollash va ishdan bo'shatish vakolati-Medill irodali, vaqti-vaqti bilan kuchli qurollangan merlarning kelishi uchun zamin yaratdi: Anton Cermak va Edvard Kelli , "Chicago Machine" ning asoschilaridan ikkisi Deyli Jeyn Birn Xarold Vashington va Rahm Emanuel.

Bu oson emas edi. Noyabr oyida bo'lib o'tgan saylovda Medill o'zining demokrat raqibidan uch baravar ko'p ovoz olgan bo'lsa -da, demokratlar 20 ta aldermanik o'rindiqning ettitasini qo'lga kiritdi, bu esa shahar Kengashi ag'darilib o'lmasligini ta'minlash uchun etarli edi. O'z navbatida, Medill o'zining ochilish marosimida demokratlarga yupqa pardali surish qildi:

"Agar shaharning munitsipal hukmdorlari aqlli, halol va halol odamlar bo'lib, o'z burchlarini vijdonan va vijdonan bajarganlarida, ular o'z vatandoshlari oldida yaxshilikka o'rnak bo'la oladilar, bu esa halollik va barcha sinflar o'rtasida adolatli munosabatni tezlashtiradi. . "

Buning ma'nosi aniq edi: men va mening do'stlarim rostgo'ymiz, sizniki - firibgar. Shahar aholisining deyarli yarmi muhojirlar va Medill kabi yarim patrisiyaliklar edi, ular Senat qo'mitasiga ishchilar "ish haqining katta qismini ichkilik va tamaki uchun sarflashini" aytishdi. Medill aldermenlar ish va shartnomalarni o'zlariga topshirish deb hisoblagan o'ljalar tizimini qoraladi. Shahar moliya deyarli tugagach, belbog'larni mahkamlash tartibda edi, dedi shahar hokimi. "Hozirgi vaqtda to'lov tizimidagi yuzlab odamlarning xizmatlaridan voz kechish mumkin."

Bu turli nuqtai nazarlar 1980 -yillardagi Vashington davridagi Kengash urushlari oldidan tayyorgarlik ko'rdi. Chikago yong'inidan so'ng, uy egalari va ko'chmas mulk ishlab chiqaruvchilari uysizlarni yonib ketgan bir xil ramkali binolarga joylashtirishni xohlashdi. Medill o'zining ochilish marosimida bashorat qildi: "Agar biz bu xavfli material bilan shaharni qayta quradigan bo'lsak, biz falokatning takrorlanishiga yaqin kunlarda ma'naviy ishonchga egamiz".

Medill o'sha jangda g'alaba qozondi, ba'zi ramka qurilishiga ruxsat beruvchi kengash qarorlariga veto qo'ydi, bu g'alaba Chikagodagi har qanday yog'ochdan yasalgan yog'och konstruktsiyalarni taqiqlovchi yangi yong'in kodeksi bilan mustahkamlandi. Medill davrining shahar chegaralari hali ham g'isht va toshdan yasalgan inshootlar yog'ochdan yasalgan binolar o'rnini bosadigan ko'chalar bo'ylab ko'rinadi.

Politsiya va o't o'chiruvchilarni o'ljalar tizimidan chiqarish qiyinlashdi. Aldermenlar Medillning taklifiga binoan korporatsiya maslahatchilari endi politsiyalarni yollay olmasliklari to'g'risida qaror qabul qilishganidan hayron bo'lishdi. Hamma narsa doim shunday bo'lganmi? For their part, council members challenged Medill's assertion that he had the authority to revoke saloon licenses. The neighborhood saloon was many a ward heeler's headquarters, a place to press the flesh and distribute largesse.

The two issues collided when Medill replaced the get-along-go-along police chief with a reform-minded cop who wasn't even a Chicagoan. Worse, the new chief ordered taverns to close at 11 p.m. The police board, an Old Guard stronghold, fired the police chief for "negligence of duty." In reality, it was for doing his duty, and Medill responded by firing two members of the police board. But when he nominated replacements, the remaining board members boycotted a meeting to confirm them, while the fired members showed up.

Under the headline "When Will It End?" the Tribune reported the resulting circus as if it were a fashion show: "It is true that the ex-commissioners were present, Mr. Reno in a striped overcoat and Mr. Klokko in a silk hat, which well became his classic cast of features."

In fact, the end was nigh for Medill's mayoralty. The culture wars were taking a toll on Medill, a teetotaler trying to govern a city of corner taverns. When immigrant groups organized a People's Party to oppose him — a mayor's term then was two years — he decided not to give them the opportunity. In August 1873, he informed the council he "would be absent from the city for an unspecified period of time." He went off on an extended European vacation, and the aldermen appointed an "acting mayor," who served the rest of Medill's term.

His reforms largely survived, though, and Medill returned to his earlier loves, journalism and political kibitzing. As editor of the Tribune, he offered advice to President William McKinley, as he previously had to President Abraham Lincoln. But asked to run for the U.S. Senate, Medill declined, indicating he'd learned a lesson during his brief time in Chicago's City Hall. He expressed it in true patrician style:

"Politics and office seeking are pretty good things to let alone for a man who has intellect and individuality."


History in River NorthVintage Restaurants

Gus and Ida Lazzerini opened this northern Italian restaurant in 1952 in what was then a heavily industrial neighborhood rich with printing companies and paper salesmen at 331 West Superior in the River North neighborhood of Chicago. They passed control to their son-in-law Francesco Nardini in 1980, when the locals were mostly photographers and art dealers.

The restaurant is now in its third generation and is operated by Francesco's sons GianCarlo and Guido, who serve the same family-style Italian fare in a neighborhood now flooded with condominiums and warehouse lofts. The restaurant, with its nautical-themed interior, still looks much the same as it did back in the 1950's, and its tin ceiling dates back to 1893.

Gene & Georgetti, Chicago's oldest steakhouse, has been serving prime cuts from the same historic location since 1941 at 500 North Franklin in River North. Gene Michelotti, an Italian emigre and avuncular host, and his chef friend, Alfredo Federighi (nicknamed "Georgetti" after a famed Italian cyclist), breathed life into their American dream in this wooden building, erected in 1872 shortly after the Great Fire.

Today, this Chicago institution, a longtime haven for celebrity diners, is operated by Tony Durpetti, who grew up a few doors down from the restaurant and married Gene's daughter, Marion. The chef, the bartender, and many of the waitstaff have been mainstays of the restaurant, many having worked there for several decades.

Ike Sewell (an All-Southwestern Conference guard for the University of Texas football team in 1924) and his italian-born business partner Richard Novaretti (otherwise known as Ric Riccardo) created the world's first deep dish pizza at 29 East Ohio Street in 1943, although some sources report that the concept was actually developed by their chef, Rudy Malnati.

The restaurant was originally known as "The Pizzeria" and then became "Pizzeria Riccardo." The deep dish pizza was so popular that in 1955 they opened a second pizzeria a block away at 619 N. Wabash, where it (too) remains today. The second restaurant was named "Pizzeria Due," and, upon its opening, the original restaurant at this location was renamed "Pizzeria Uno." Today, Pizzeria Uno is a national chain, but old school Chicagoans know that it was born at this very location. (Incidentally, the guy who typically gets the credit for starting it all, Ike Sewell, died of leukemia in 1990 at age 87.)

  • Ike Sewell and his business partner Richard Novaretti (better known as Ric Riccardo) opened a pizzeria at 29 East Ohio Street in 1943 and began serving the world's first deep-dish pizza. Their new twist on a millennium-old dish was such an immense hit that they were unable to accommodate the demand, so in 1955 they opened a second restaurant at 619 North Wabash Avenue in the River North neighborhood of Chicago, about a block away. They named the second restaurant "Pizzeria Due" and promptly changed the name of the first restaurant (then known as "Pizzeria Riccardo") to "Pizzeria Uno."

The Billy Goat Tavern has easily achieved more notoriety than any burger joint in Chicago history. Originally opened in the shadow of the old Chicago Stadium by the eccentric William (Billy) Sianis in either 1934 or 1937, it gained its first blast of publicity in 1944, when Billy hung a sign saying "No Republicans Allowed" during the Republican National Convention.

The following year, the Billy Goat Tavern became indelibly and supernaturally entangled in the city's sports history. Before the fourth game of the 1945 World Series, with the Cubs leading the Detroit Tigers two games to one, Sianis attempted to bring his pet billy goat into Wrigley Field, but was turned away, allegedly by William Wrigley himself and allegedly because the goat smelled bad. Sianis, angry and upset, retaliated by purporting to place a curse on the Cubs, vowing that they would never again return to the World Series. The hapless northsiders went on to lose the 1945 affair and, ostensibly because of the "Curse of the Billy Goat," have not returned since, despite being painfully close on a number of occasions. Some observers of paranormal activity insist that the curse reared its ugly head in the form of a black cat tiptoeing past Hall-Of-Famer Ron Santo at Shea Stadium shortly before the Cubs blew a monumental first-place lead during the 1969 season. Other mediums of the supernatural claim that the curse caused a routine ground ball to pass unobstructed through Leon Durham's legs in the 1984 National League Championship Series. Still other psychic observers assert that the curse reappeared in the form of Steve Bartman in 2003. The Billy Goat Tavern relocated to 430 North Michigan Avenue (Lower Level) of Michigan Avenue in 1964 and soon became a favorite lunching spot for journalists at the Chicago Tribune and the Chicago Sun-Times, most notably Mike Royko. Bill Murray, a frequent diner, made the Billy Goat Tavern the subject of a famous Saturday Night Live sketch in which the proprietors famously shouted "Cheezborger, cheezborger, cheezborger!" and replied, "No Coke. Pepsi." (Or "No Fries. Chips.") Today, there are several additional BIlly Goat locations around the city, and it's "No Pepsi. Coke."

Just after the Great Fire incinerated most of Chicago in 1871, a local engineer named James McCole built a two-story, balloon-frame wooden structure with a detached garage at the southwest corner of Huron and Orleans. A few months later, the city council passed an ordinance prohibiting the construction of wooden buildings in the downtown district, making McCole's structure one of the few remaining wooden structures built prior to the "new" law.

In 1921, a man named Vito Giacomo opened a restaurant on the first floor, replacing a grocery store that operated there for the preceding 49 years. The restaurant, known as "The Green Door," snuck through the Prohibition era as a speakeasy (which apparently explains its name). The building tilts slightly toward the north because it began to settle into the Earth in the early 1900's.

Harry Caray was a frequent visitor, and one of his Budweiser commercials was even filmed here at 678 North Orleans Street. The tavern, which has changed very little through the years, is peppered with such "bric-a-brac" as antique signs, posters, photographs, and other nostalgia. What's more, the soap box car hanging from the ceiling was once used in a race in which Illinois native and former United States President Ronald Reagan once participated.

Gino's East was founded in 1966 at 160 E. Superior by two taxi drivers and their friend. It soon became renowned for both its food and its heavily-scribbled upon interior. In 2000, the pizzeria moved to this location (site of the defunct Planet Hollywood), along with the graffiti-covered walls and the pizza ovens. In 2006, a second Gino’s East opened at essentially the original location of the first one.

(Note: Gino’s East should not be confused with the original Gino’s, which opened at 932 North Rush Street in 1954, decayed rapidly, failed to enjoy the same sterling reputation of Gino’s East, and ultimately closed in 2007.)


Here are some interesting facts and body measurements you should know about Joseph Albright.

Joseph Albright Bio and Wiki

  • Full Names: Joseph Medill Patterson Reeve
  • Popular As: Businessman and news publisher
  • Gender: Male
  • Occupation / Profession: Businessman and news publisher
  • Millati: American
  • Race / Ethnicity: To be updated
  • Din: To be updated
  • Sexual Orientation: Streyt

Joseph Albright Birthday

  • Age / How Old?: 83 years old as of 2020
  • Zodiac Sign: To be updated
  • Date of Birth: 1937
  • Tug'ilgan joy: To be updated
  • Tug'ilgan kun: To be updated

Joseph Albright Body Measurements

  • Height / How Tall?: To be updated
  • Og'irligi: To be updated
  • Ko'z rangi: To be updated
  • Soch rangi: To be updated
  • Poyafzal o'lchami: To be updated

Joseph Albright Family and Relationship

  • Father (Dad): Jay Frederick Reeve (1893–1956).
  • Ona: Josephine Medill Patterson (1913–1996).
  • Siblings (Sisters): Alice Arlen
  • Marital Status: Married
  • Wife/Spouse: Married to Marcia Kunstel and Madeleine Albright (m. 1959–1982).
  • Dating / Girlfriend: Not Applicable
  • Bolalar: Sons (None) Daughter(s) (Anne, Alice, and Katie).

Joseph Albright Networth and Salary

  • Sof qiymat: $1 million – $5 million as of 2020.
  • Salary: Under Review
  • Source of Income: Businessman and news publisher

A House Once More Divided

Georgiann Baldino has been publishing fiction and nonfiction since 2004, primarily concerning the American Civil War era. Her most recent book, A Family and Nation Under Fire, from Kent State University Press is a collection of previously unpublished journals and correspondence between Maj. William Medill, 8th Illinois Cavalry, and older brother Joseph, one of the influential owners of the Chikago Tribunasi.

Beginning with the Three-Fifths Compromise in the U.S. Constitution, United States history is filled with &ldquocompromises&rdquo intended to preserve a rough balance of power between slave-holding and free states. The Three-Fifths Compromise was followed by the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and the Compromise of 1850. These negotiations helped America delay war, but after the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, further concessions meant not only preserving but expanding slavery.

The election of Abraham Lincoln outraged many in the South. South Carolina Governor Francis Pickens declaredprior to the Civil Warhe &ldquowould be willing to cover the state with ruin, conflagration and blood rather than submit&rdquo to abolition.(1) After decades of compromise on the issue of slavery, South Carolina became the first state to secede. Ultimately Governor Pickens reached his goal, but before peace was restored, conflagration and blood truly covered South Carolina.

Lincoln&rsquos campaign and election prompted a different response from activists like Joseph Medill, co-owner and editor of the Chikago Tribunasi. Medill was motivated by a desire to preserve the Union and emancipate slaves, and he felt a good newspaper must report stories in ways that advanced society. To him that meant abolishing slavery. Joseph became a key player in a new generation of abolitionist leadership.

Public advocacy in the Tribuna made Joseph a target. In 1860 while in Washington, D.C., he criticized concessionists, the position of Illinois Congressman William Kellogg. At the National Hotel, Congressman Kellogg attacked Joseph, landing blows to Joseph&rsquos head and face. Kellogg had been appointed to the Committee of Thirty-Three of the U. S. House of Representatives, tasked with averting a civil war. Joseph described the assault in a letter to his wife, Katherine: &ldquoWm. Kellogg started home in a hurry to Springfield to help beat Judd (2) for a place in the Cabinet. He is talking compromise. He [Kellogg] is a cowardly Republican and wants to back down. I quarreled with him." (3)

Joseph Medill and his partner, Dr. Charles Ray, used the pages of the Tribuna to support the Lincoln administration and rally the public to the cause of emancipation. Joseph urged the swift organization of black regiments and broadcast the goals for the Union League of America (U.L.A.,) a group established to promote loyalty to the Union. Joseph played a prominent role in Union League programs.(4) The U.L.A. supported organizations such as the United States Sanitary Commission and provided funding and organizational support to the Republican Party.

Joseph&rsquos early public calls for war turned to personal anxiety and grief when two of his younger brothers became casualties of war. Yet, he continued to support a war of liberation and pursue principles of freedom and self-government. Joseph provides a poignant example of moral imperative informing political activism.

Abraham Lincoln and supporters like Joseph Medill taught that politics must not violate human rights. Immoral behavior must never be subject to a majority vote. Robert Todd Lincoln explained his father&rsquos views on democracy eloquently in 1896. &ldquoIn our country there are no ruling classes. The right to direct public affairs according to his might and influence and conscience belongs to the humblest as well as to the greatest&hellipBut it is time of danger, critical moments, which bring into action the high moral quality of the citizenship of America.&rdquo(5)

People didn&rsquot grasp the danger of a house divided then, and many fail to grasp it now, but history repeats itself in elusive, yet profound, ways. Today, the ugly specter of divided parties returns. No matter which party we align with, President Trump&rsquos ability to divide us and willingness to condone violence should alarm us all.

From the beginning of his campaign, Donald Trump used rhetoric to incite supporters, using baseless slurs to disparage immigrants (6) and political opponents. During the presidential campaign in March 2016, it seemed unlikely that Trump had enough votes at the Republican National convention to secure his nomination. If that happened, Trump warned during an interview with CNN, &ldquoI think you would have riots.&rdquo (7) When President Trump wages verbal war with the intelligence community and independent sources of investigation, he provokes division that threaten to become an &ldquoirrepressible conflict,&rdquo echoing the pre-Civil-War rancor. If Americans don&rsquot reject politicians who divide us, condone violence, label a group of people as criminal, and another group enemies of the people, we do so at our own peril.

Once again we face dilemmas that require as much of us as any time in the nation&rsquos past. Modern Americans tend to take our stable democracy for granted, but Mr. Lincoln realized the freedoms gained in the Revolution could be lost. He enlisted newsmen like Joseph Medill to champion justice and liberty. Lincoln understood that involved citizens preserve the union, and he taught a vital lesson that only when human rights are respected is democracy worth preserving.

(1) Orville Vernon Burton, Age of Lincoln, (New York : Hill and Wang, 2007)118.

(2) Longtime Lincoln friend and supporter Norman Judd did not receive a Cabinet post but was named Minister to Prussia.

(3) Georgiann Baldino, Editor, A Family and Nation Under Fire, (Kent: Kent State University Press, 2018) 25.

(4) Robert McCormick&rsquos papers in the McCormick Research Center at the First Division Museum, Medill Family Correspondence.

(5) Speech of the Hon. Robert T. Lincoln made at the Celebration of the Thirty-eighth Anniversary of the Lincoln-Douglas Debate, Galesburg, Ill., October 7, 1858(Hancock NY: Herald Print, 1921) 2.


For Journalists

EVANSTON, Ill. -- Northwestern University Medill School of Journalism, Media, Integrated Marketing Communications will mark its Centennial this year with speakers, research and celebratory events through spring of 2022. The theme for the year is “Unparalleled Past, Unlimited Future.”

The school was founded on Feb. 8, 1921 with nine undergraduate students. Today, Medill provides instruction on five campuses around the world and has more than 18,000 alumni who are leaders in journalism, media, marketing, communications and more.

Leading up to Medill’s incorporation, Chicago Tribune reporter Edward J. Doherty urged Northwestern President Walter Dill Scott and Tribune publisher Robert R. McCormick to start a journalism program at Northwestern. With funding from the Tribune and backing from McCormick, the school was established. It was named for Joseph Medill, McCormick’s grandfather. Joseph Medill was a leading abolitionist who used the newspaper he owned, the Chicago Tribune, to promote anti-slavery views and helped catapult Abraham Lincoln to the U.S. presidency. He also served as mayor of Chicago following the Great Chicago Fire in 1871.

“For 100 years, Medill has trained the world’s best storytellers,” said Medill Dean Charles Whitaker, a longtime faculty member and Medill alumnus. “Whether they are journalists who record the first draft of history or marketers blending data with creativity, Medill students and alumni craft the narratives of the events, people and brands that populate and animate our world. I am proud of what we’ve collectively accomplished in our first 100 years, and am excited by the work we’re doing to prepare for our next 100 years.”

Medill is marking its Centennial in myriad ways including a dedicated Centennial website that includes a timeline of its history, alumni memories, ways for people to get involved with the Centennial celebration and thoughts from faculty about where Medill will go in the next 100 years.

To commemorate the milestone in its history, Medill will also host virtual events beginning in February 2021 with in-person events to follow when possible through the spring of 2022. Events are open to the public. The first event will be a Medill Trivia night on Monday, Feb. 8, 2021 at 6 p.m. Central. A commemorative issue of the Medill alumni magazine will be published this spring with a special retrospective on the school’s history. Banners on Sheridan Road in Evanston will highlight the work of students in the past and today. An online exhibit with University Libraries is also planned.

For more information and a full list of events, visit the Medill Centennial website .


Xulosa

There are other important subjects to which I would call your attention were this communication not already too long. But I found it impossible to discuss the extraordinary condition of things in which the fire has placed the City Government in the brief space usually occupied by a Mayor’s inaugural. In concluding I point with pride and admiration to the gigantic efforts our whole people are putting forth to rise from the ruins, and rebuild Chicago. The money value of their losses can hardly be calculated. But who can compute the aggregate of anguish, distress, and suffering they have endured and must yet endure? These wounds are still sore and agonizing, though they have been greatly alleviated by the prompt, generous, and world-wide charities that have been poured out for their succor and relief and I claim in their behalf that they are showing themselves worthy the benefactions received. They have faced their calamity with noble fortitude and unflinching courage. Repining or lamentation is unheard in our midst, but hope and cheerfulness are everywhere exhibited and expressed. All are inspired with an ambition to prove to the world that they are worthy of its sympathy, confidence and assistance, and to show how bravely they can encounter disaster, how quickly repair losses, and restore Chicago to her high rank among the great cities of the earth.

Happily there is that left which fire cannot consume—habits of industry and self-reliance, personal integrity, business aptitude, mechanical skill, and unconquerable will. These created what the flames devoured, and these can speedily recreate more than was swept away. Under free institutions, good government, and the blessings of Providence, all losses will soon be repaired, all misery caused by the fire assuaged, and a prosperity greater than ever dreamt of will be achieved in a period so brief, that the rise will astonish mankind even more than the fall of Chicago.


Videoni tomosha qiling: A Day In The Life Of A Medill MSJ Student


Izohlar:

  1. Aviv

    Cheksiz muhokama qilish mumkin va zarur :)

  2. Clifford

    jozibali jumla

  3. Oswin

    Shuningdek, biz sizsiz juda yaxshi iborani qilar edik

  4. Hiroshi

    Sizga qiziqarli mavzularda ko'p ma'lumotlar mavjud bo'lgan saytga kelishni maslahat beraman.

  5. Panteleimon

    Havolalar almashishni xohlaysizmi?

  6. Lornell

    Afsuski, endi men ifoda eta olmayman - uchrashuvga kechikdim. Ammo men qaytaman - men bu savol bo'yicha o'ylaganimni yozib qo'yaman.

  7. Bevin

    We are sorry that they interfere… But they are very close to the theme. Ular javob bilan yordam berishlari mumkin. Write to the PM.



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