Qum bo'roni, quyosh botganda, Gizadagi sfenksga yaqinlashmoqda

Qum bo'roni, quyosh botganda, Gizadagi sfenksga yaqinlashmoqda


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Fishier: qum bo'roni, quyosh botganda, Giza shahridagi sfenksga yaqinlashmoqda, Misr. C Xush kelibsiz V0049386.jpg

Simum, Giza cho'lining yondashuvi, dan Misr va Nubiya. Lui Xey tomonidan Litograf Devid Robertsdan keyin, 1846–49. - Sahifadagi tavsif. 201, old qopqoq tasviri Qadimgi Misrni qidirish Jan Vercoutter, "Abrams kashfiyotlari" seriyasi, Garri N. Abrams, 1992 yil.

Ikonografik to'plamlar
Kalit so'zlar: Devid Roberts Lui Xey

Aql formatining eng muhim shakli - bu avtorizatsiya qilish. Oddiy formatlash kerak emas, agar kerak bo'lsa. Ma'lumotlar jamlanmasi: Ma'lumotlar litsenziyasi.

  • Kutubxona ma'lumotnomasi: ICV № 50051
  • Rasm raqami: V0049386
  • To'liq bibliografik yozuv: http://catalogue.wellcomelibrary.org/record=b1192246


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  • delitsya proizvedeniyem - kopirovat, rasprostranyat va peredavat dannoe proizvedenie
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  • atributiya -Vy doljny ukazat avtorstvo, predstavit ssilku na litsenziyu i ukazat, vnyos li muallif kaki-libo izmeneniya. Bu mumkin emas.

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Afrikaning eng yaxshi tarixiy joylari - Giza piramidalari

Qohiraning o'rtalarida quyosh botdi. 23 million jonli shahar cho'lning rangi edi, uning osmon chizig'i son -sanoqsiz minoralar bilan bezatilgan edi. Biz simob simidan Nil daryosi bo'ylab, sovet uslubidagi baland ko'tarilish yo'llari orqali va qadimiy o'liklar olami bo'lgan Giza shahriga apokaliptik trafikdan o'tdik. Burchakka burilib, ular birdan bizdan oldinda edilar. Mos kelmaydigan, kuchsiz. Uchta dahshatli tosh uchburchaklar.

Giza shahrida xaridorlarni tepalikli taksi kutmoqda. Rasm: Jastin Foks.

Bizning guruhimiz kechasi ovozli va yorug'likli shou uchun Gizaga kelgan edi. Saytga qaraydigan ochiq maydonda o'z joyimizni topib, biz qorong'ilikni kutdik. Keyin lazer va chiroqlar yordamida biz piramidalar tarixini kuzatdik: Nil suvlari, sulolalar, tsivilizatsiyalarning ko'tarilishi va tushishi. Iskandar Zulqarnayn va Kleopatra, Qaysar va Napoleon bu erga hayrat bilan qarashdi.

Turli xil ranglarda porlab turgan yodgorliklar sir bo'lib qoldi. Biz ularning qanday va qachon qurilganini bilib oldik, lekin ko'p savollar qoldi. "Inson vaqtdan qo'rqadi, lekin vaqt piramidalardan qo'rqadi", deb baland ovozda eshittirildi BBC.

Ertasi kuni ertalab bizning kichik sayohatchilar sayohati uchun juda erta - piramida kontseptsiyasining boshlanishiga qadar turishardi. Bizning mikroavtobusimiz shaharning janubida, shamol esgan, cho'l to'xtash joyida paydo bo'ldi.

Har bir sayyoh Sfenks va Buyuk Giza piramidasini ko'rishi kerak. Rasm: Jastin Foks.

Shamol va qaqshatqich qumga egilib, biz Sakkaraning qadam piramidasi majmuasiga bordik, uni savdogarlar va toutlar ushlab turishdi (vaziyat Misr bo'ylab sayohatlarimizda davom etdi). Sakkara Memfis shahri uchun nekropol bo'lgan va 3500 yildan ko'proq vaqt davomida qabriston bo'lib qolgan. Bu Misrdagi eng yirik arxeologik joy.

19-asrning o'rtalariga qadar Sakkaraning ko'p qismi qum ostida dafn etilgan, frantsuz misrshunosi Avgust Mariet u erda birinchi kashfiyotlarini qilgan. Step Piramida majmuasi 1924 yilgacha ochilmagan va u hali ham tiklanish holatida.

Biz gipostil zali orqali Fir'avn Zoserning dafn marosimiga kirdik. Yo'lak palma yoki papirus poyalariga o'xshash qirrali 40 ta "ustunli ustunlar" bilan o'ralgan edi. Zal bizni Buyuk Janubiy sudga olib bordi. Biz quyosh nuri ostiga chiqib, dunyodagi eng qadimgi piramidaga qaradik.

Sakkaradagi qadam shaklidagi qabr-bu birinchi piramida. Rasm: Jastin Foks.

"Hammasi shu erda boshlanadi", dedi bizning yo'riqchimiz Muhammad "Dino" Radvan. Miloddan avvalgi 2650 yilda Zoser o'zining bosh me'mori Imxotepdan unga qadam piramidani qurishni so'ragan. Uning balandligi 60 metrni tashkil etadi va butun dafn majmuasi uzunligi 1 645 metr bo'lgan ohaktoshli devor bilan o'ralgan.

Dino avvalgi ibodatxonalar qanday tez buziladigan materiallardan qurilganini tushuntirdi, qirollik qabrlari odatda ustaxona shaklidagi loydan yasalgan g'ishtli mastaba bilan qoplangan er osti xonalari edi. Biroq, Imxotep mastabani bir -birining ustiga asta -sekin qo'yib, piramida qilib qurdi va uni mayda oq ohaktosh bilan o'ralgan toshdan qurdi. Uning yangiliklaridan Misrning keyingi arxitektura yutuqlari kelib chiqadi.

"Bu erda piramida g'oyasi tug'iladi", dedi Dino. "Endi siz kelib chiqishni ko'rdingiz, buyuklarni qayta ko'rib chiqaylik."

Biz mikroavtobusga o'tirdik va shimolga, yana Gizaga yo'l oldik. Qum bo'roni bu erga etib kelganida, biz Xufu Buyuk Piramidasi yonidagi devor orqasida boshpana topdik.

Buyuk Xufu piramidasi - Giza asosiy majmuasidagi uchta piramidaning eng qadimgi va eng kattasi.

Dino shamolga qarshi baqirdi: "U miloddan avvalgi 2 570 yilda qurib bitkazilganda balandligi 146 metr bo'lgan. 46 asrdan keyin uning balandligi to'qqiz metrga qisqardi. Xufu piramidasi 2,3 million tosh blokdan va og'irligi olti million tonnadan qurilgan. Giza majmuasida uchta piramida bor, ularning hammasi minglab ishchilar tomonidan qurilgan fir'avnlar uchun qabrlar. Bugungi kunda ular Qadimgi Misrning kuchiga va tashkilotiga hurmat sifatida qaraydilar.

Biz Xufuning ulkan tuzilishi oldida turdik. Qadimgi, haddan tashqari, o'z vaqtida burnini qirib tashlagan dahshatli narsa, insoniyatning birinchi yirik, tizimli yutug'i sifatida sahrodan ko'tarildi. Grafiti chizilgan va zilzilalar natijasida shikastlangan ohak toshidan tozalangan, u hali ham ajoyib. Radikal g'oyalarga ko'ra, bu so'nggi 4000 yil ichida deyarli oshmagan.

Biz bo'ronli qum qumga osmonga otilib chiqqach, biz sayt atrofida aylanib yurdik. Tuyalar badbaxt bo'lib yugurishdi, ot bo'shab ketdi va qumtepadan o'tib ketdi. Hatto savat sotuvchilar va pishiriq (uchi) ovchilar bo'ysundirildi.

Dino bizni fir'avn Xafrga tegishli bo'lgan ikkinchi piramidaga olib bordi. Biz navbatga qo'shildik va portalga kirdik. Uzun, klostrofobik o'tish yo'lning pastki qismiga, so'ngra yuqoriga ko'tarildi. Havo shilimshiq bo'lib, nafasim qisqarib ketdi. Biz dafn xonasiga etib keldik. Uning barcha boyliklari anchadan buyon talon -taroj qilingan edi, lekin fir'avn sarkofagi hali ham o'sha erda edi.

Men boshim ustidagi minglab tonna tosh haqida o'yladim, Xafre mumiyasining oxirgi dam olish joyi bo'lgan bu xonani bosib. Men ham oxirat haqidagi buyuk va'dalar va bu joy bir paytlar o'z ichiga olgan boyliklar haqida o'yladim. Hammasi ketdi.

Gizaning tungi ovozli va yorug'lik shousi asrlar davomida ajoyib sayohatni ta'minlaydi, bu mashhur saytning tarixini kuzatib boradi. Rasm: Jastin Foks.

Men o'zimni engil his qilib, tiriklar yurtiga qaytdim va tepalikdan piramidalarning qadimgi qo'riqchisi Sfenks tomon yo'l oldim. Gizaning mushuk jumbog'i o'z chuqurida o'tirdi, panjalari cho'zilgan, toshdan o'yilgan mushakli leonin tanasi va ko'pchilik hayratga tushgan yuz.

Arab tilida ma'lum Abu al Xol (Terrorning otasi), sher tanasi bo'lgan odamning haykali qadimgi yunonlar tomonidan "Sfenks" deb nomlangan, chunki u jumboqlarni o'rnatgan va ularga javob bera olmaydigan odamlarni o'ldiradigan afsonaviy qanotli yirtqich hayvonga o'xshardi. Geologik tadqiqotlar shuni ko'rsatdiki, u, ehtimol, Xafriy hukmronligi davrida yo'lning pastki qismidagi toshloqdan o'yilgan, shuning uchun bosh uning xususiyatlarini aks ettiradi.

Oldinda telefonlarini tepada ushlab turgan va hayratlanarli pozalarga ega bo'lgan selfi aqldan ozgan sayyohlar bor edi. Ba'zilar sfenksni o'pishni, quchoqlashni yoki iyagini qitiqlashni taqlid qilishdi. Ular o'zlarining Instagram-lariga shunchalik berilib ketishganki, ular orqalaridagi gigant odam-mushukni qadrlashmagan, hatto payqashmagan. O'zgarmas jonzot, albatta, bularning barchasini oldin ko'rgan va to'rt ming yil bo'lgani kabi, biz haqli bo'lgan nafrat bilan bizni e'tiborsiz qoldirishda davom etgan.

Piramidalarga tashrif buyurganingizdan so'ng, Qohira markazidagi Misr muzeyini o'rganish uchun kamida yarim kun vaqt ajrating (kirish R122* pp). Bu katta omborda Qadimiy Misrdan olingan 120 000 dan ortiq artefaktlar (haykallar, mumiyalar, zargarlik buyumlari, ovqat idishlari, o'yinchoqlar), shu jumladan Tutanxamon xazinalari va oltin dafn niqobi saqlanadi. Aksariyat ob'ektlar hali ham namoyish qilinmoqda, garchi ularning ba'zilari Buyuk Misr muzeyiga ko'chirilmoqda, bu yil oxirida ochilishi rejalashtirilgan.

Safaringizni rejalashtiring

Men Joburgdan Egypt Air (SAA bilan kod almashish) bilan Qohiraga uchdim. 7000 dan* qaytish. egyptair.com

Men On the Tour turkumi bilan Misrga sayohat qildim. Ekskursiyalar Misrshunoslik bo'yicha malakali gidlar tomonidan olib boriladi va turar joy to'rt yoki besh yulduzli korxonalarda bo'ladi. To'qqiz kunlik "King Tutankhamen" safari Qohira, Step va Giza piramidalari, Sfenks, Misr muzeyi va Asandan Luksorgacha bo'lgan Nil kruizini o'z ichiga oldi. Narxga sakkizta nonushta, ikkita tushlik va uchta kechki ovqat va barcha transferlar kiradi. 14,900 RP* pp almashish. 0800-990-311, onthegotours.com

Ko'pchilikning oldini olish uchun ertalab yoki kechqurun piramidalarga tashrif buyuring. Kirish narxi - 122* (bundan tashqari muzey va piramidalar uchun pullik). Saytning eng yaxshi panoramik ko'rinishi uchun platoga chiqish uchun piramidalar o'tgan yo'l bo'ylab harakatlaning. Cho'ldagi piramidalar yo'lga chiqishdan oldin narxni kelishib olishlarini ko'rish uchun tuyani yoki ot aravasini ijaraga oling. E'tibor bering, bu erda zo'ravon va mayda -chuyda terrorchilar yollanma askarlardir!

SA pasporti egalari vizaga muhtoj. Men o'z vizamni Misrning Pretoriyadagi elchixonasidan olganman (xizmat haqi R350*, kurer R240*). visarequest.co.za.

*Narxlar o'zgarishi mumkin

Bu xabar birinchi marta 2019 yil aprel sonida chop etilgan maqoladan olingan Ketmoq jurnal.
Bu masalani oling →
Barcha narxlar nashr etilganida to'g'rilanadi, lekin har bir korxonaning xohishiga ko'ra o'zgarishi mumkin. Buyurtma berishdan yoki sotib olishdan oldin ular bilan maslahatlashing.


Lisanslama

  • baham ko'rdim - eser almashishim, tarqatishim va etkazishim
  • mazmunini o'zgartirish uyarlama - eser moslashuvi
  • otif - Esere yozar yoki litsenziya egasi tomonidan ko'rsatilgan

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Dahshatli fotosuratlarda Kanar orollarini to'q sariq rangli chang bosgan sahrolik qum bo'roni tasvirlangan

Dam olish kunlari 75 m / s tezlikdagi shamol Sahar cho'lidan Atlantika okeani orqali Kanar orollariga qum bo'ronini olib keldi.

Bu hodisalar "kalima" deb ataladi va bu birinchi marta sodir bo'layotgani yo'q. Ammo Ispaniya milliy televideniyesida mintaqa prezidenti Anxel Viktor Torresning aytishicha, bu 40 yil ichida ko'rgan eng yomon qum bo'roni. U buni "dahshatli hafta oxiri" deb atadi.

Yuzlab parvozlar to'xtatilishi bilan birga, kuchli shamol mintaqadagi o'rmon yong'inlarini yanada yomonlashtirdi. Orollardan biri bo'lgan Gran Kanariyada mahalliy ma'lumotlarga ko'ra, havo sifati dunyodagi eng yomon.

Manuel Kampos ismli mahalliylardan biri The New York Times gazetasiga bergan intervyusida shunday dedi: "Men kalima haqida hamma narsani biladigan yoshga keldim, lekin men buni eslay olmayman. Hammasi qizarib ketdi".


Giza, Memfis, Sakkara

GIZA, MEMPHIS va amp SAQQARA: Giza - Qohiraga tashrif buyurgan sayyohlarning ko'pi (hamma bo'lmasa ham) keladigan joy. Bu Misrning ramziy tasviri va barcha qadimiy mo''jizalarning eng mashhur ramzlaridan biridir. YuNESKOning Butunjahon merosi ro'yxatiga kiritilgan Gizadagi piramidalar va sfenkslar Misrning ilk tsivilizatsiyasi, ularning turmush tarzi, e'tiqodi va iste'dodiga haqiqiy tasavvur beradi. Qadimgi narsaga (miloddan avvalgi 2500 yillardan boshlab) qarasam, tom ma'noda g'ozlar paydo bo'lardi.

Giza nekropolidagi cho'l, Misr

Bizning sayohatchimiz Xaysam aytganidek, Memfis ko'proq "ochiq havo muzeyi" ga o'xshaydi. Bu eramizdan avvalgi 3000 -yillarda Eski Qirollik davrida birlashgan Misrning birinchi poytaxti va Giza shahridagi piramida majmuasi bilan birga YuNESKOning Butunjahon merosi ro'yxatiga kiritilgan.

Ochiq osmon ostidagi Memfis muzeyi – Birlashgan Misrning birinchi poytaxti

Sakkara, shuningdek, Misrdagi birinchi va eng qadimgi piramida joylashgan nekropoldir. O'ylaymanki, men haqiqatan ham Sakkara cho'lining go'zalligini uzoq vaqt eslayman. Taxminan quyosh botayotgan paytda biz kichik tepalikda turardik va uzoqdagi boshqa piramidalarga qarardik. O'sha paytda fonda piramidalari bo'lgan qumni ko'rish, men yashagancha qoladi ... bu kun umuman unutilmas kun edi.

Sakkaradagi Qadam piramidasiga etib borishdan oldin o'tadigan qadimiy koridor

Iltimos, ushbu uchta joy haqida batafsil ma'lumot olish uchun "Biz tashrif buyurgan joylar" ga o'ting.

Sayohat vaqti: Biz 2012 yilgi Rojdestvo ta'tilida Qohiraga uchib keldik. Garchi Giza Qohiradan 45 daqiqalik masofada bo'lsa -da, yo'l sharoitlari va ba'zi yo'l bloklari tufayli u erga etib borish uchun bir soatdan ko'proq vaqt kerak bo'ldi. Noyabrdan martgacha - Misrni kashf qilish uchun eng yaxshi vaqt, ob -havo yaxshi bo'lganda va siz issiq quyoshdan aqldan ozmasdan sahro quyoshidan bahramand bo'lishingiz mumkin.

BIZNING HOTEL: Biz Qohiraning markazida joylashgan Qohira Moon mehmonxonasida joylashdik, Qohira muzeyi va Tahrir maydonidan atigi 10 daqiqa piyoda. Rostini aytsam, bu kichik (atigi 3 kishiga mo'ljallangan) liftlar, hamma qavatda yuradigan katta qizil chumolilar, tunda juda ko'p shovqin va boshqa muammolar bo'lgan o'rtacha mehmonxonadan past edi. Ammo bu mehmonxonaning egasi Muhammad - juda samimiy va yordamchi janob. Bu erdagi barcha xodimlar ham xuddi shu tarzda, bu mehmonxonaning boshqa muammolarini hal qiladi. Muhammad biz uchun u erga va u erga bir nechta sayohatni, shu jumladan Gizaga sayohatni uyushtirdi.

Biz haydovchiga ega bo'lgan shaxsiy mashina uchun 45 AQSh dollari va Xaysam ekskursiyasi uchun 15 AQSh dollari to'ladik (iltimos, Qohirada sizga yoki sizga kimdir ekskursiya kerak bo'lsa, "Mening yo'riqnomam" yorlig'ini bosing). Menimcha, jami 60 dollar evaziga Giza, Memfis va Sakkara bo'ylab sayohat qilishimiz kerak. Yaxshiyamki, birodar Xaysam Misr haqida qadimiy, yaqin o'tmish va zamonaviy davridan ko'p narsalarni biladigan ajoyib qo'llanma edi. U juda kamtar, muloyim, xushmuomala va nihoyat, biz hech narsaga ishonishimiz mumkin bo'lgan odam edi.

Ovqatlanish va xarid qilish: Biz o'sha kuni tushlik qilish uchun ko'cha-ko'yda joylashgan mahalliy restoranda to'xtadik. Bu Giza va Memfis o'rtasida tez yig'iladigan shvarmaga o'xshardi. Piramidalar chegarasida ovqatlanish yoki tushlik qilish uchun mutlaqo joy yo'q, hech bo'lmaganda men ko'rmadim.

Suvenirlar uchun biz Giza va Sakkarada u erda va u erda arzon narsalarni sotadigan ko'plab sotuvchilarni ko'rdik. Memfisda ko'proq do'konlar bor, u erda siz ozgina sovg'alar va o'zingiz uchun biror narsa olishingiz mumkin. OGOHLANTIRISH: ulardan papirus mahsulotlarini sotib olmang, chunki ular haqiqiy papirus qog'ozlari emas. Yo'lboshchimiz Xaysam bizni Sakkara yo'lidagi katta burgut papirus ko'rgazma zaliga olib bordi. Bu hukumat tomonidan tasdiqlangan do'kon, shuning uchun siz haqiqiy narsani sotib olganingizni bilasiz. Har xil narx oralig'ida va turli mavzularda tanlash uchun yuzlab papirusli devor bezaklari mavjud. Bizni ko'rsatayotgan yigit, 10 daqiqa vaqt ajratib, uning daraxtlaridan papirus qanday yasalganini ko'rsatdi ... bu bizning kichkintoylarimiz uchun juda qiziqarli va juda tarbiyali edi. Agar sizga kerak bo'lsa, bu ularning telefon raqami - +2037719585.

BIZ tashrif buyurgan joylar: Bizning taksimiz ertalab soat 9dan oldin Giza shahriga jo'nab ketdi va biz piramidalarga kirish joyi yaqinida tuyalarni ijaraga olmoqchi bo'lgan joyga 10 ga yaqin etib keldik. Giza - biz ko'p vaqtimizni o'tkazgan joyimiz va soat#3:30 atrofida. . Memfis Gizadan yarim soatlik masofada joylashgan va biz, taxminan, bir soatdan ko'proq vaqt o'tkazdik. Keyin bizning oxirgi manzilimiz Sakkara yarim soatlik yo'l edi va yana quyosh botish vaqti yaqinida bir soatcha vaqt o'tkazdi. Yo'lboshchimiz Xaysam bizni kun bo'yi bu piramidalar va qadimgi misrliklarning barcha maftunkor sirlari bilan zavqlantiradi.

Giza piramidalari va Misr cho'lida sayohatimiz

1) GIZA & amp SPHINX ning ajoyib piramidalari: Giza shahriga etib kelganimizdan so'ng, biz birinchi navbatda tuyalarni ijaraga olmoqchi bo'lgan joyga bordik, lekin ot minish (lekin kim ...?). Biz cho'llarni, panoramali joyni, piramidalarni, keyin sfenksni olib boradigan eng uzoq safarga chiqdik.

Mana bizning minishlarimizdan biri Gizadagi piramidalarga borish

Nodonligimni kechiring, lekin men butun vaqt davomida Giza nekropolida jami 3 ta piramida bor deb o'yladim. Ammo biz piramidalar yaqinidagi "Panoramik nuqta" ga yaqinlashayotganimizda, Xaysam tushuntirdi: 3 ta asosiy piramida - 3 ta fir'avn (Xufu, Xafre va Menkaure) va 6 ta kichik (3 ta Xufu piramidasi bilan dafn qilingan joy). qolgan 3 Menkaure piramidasi bilan) onalari, qizlari va xotinlari uchun. Panoramik nuqta-bu tepalikdagi joy, u erda siz tizilgan 9 ta piramidani ko'rishingiz mumkin. Bu joy bizga nafaqat Buyuk Piramidalarning ajoyib manzarasini berdi, balki bu erdan bizni cho'l sahrosi ham hayratga solishi mumkin edi. Erkaklarning otini tez haydashini, havoda oq qum uchayotganini kuzatish Gollivudning ba'zi filmlarida dushmanlarini quvib chiqargan arab sultonlariga o'xshardi. Men mubolag'a qilmayman, lekin bu tuyaning orqasidan menga yoqqan haqiqiy go'zallik edi.

Buyuk Giza Piramidalari

Panoramik saytdan so'ng, biz bu piramidalar bilan yaqindan tanishish uchun tuyalar ustida bo'ldik. Shunday qilib, biz bu qoldiq tuzilmalarning eski ohaktoshiga tegdik, suratga tushdik va tuyaga qaytib sfenks tomon yo'l oldik. Siz haqiqatan ham biz qilmagan piramidalarning qabristoniga kirishingiz mumkin. Har qanday kunda, uchta katta piramidaning kamida ikkitasida dafn xonasi tashrif buyuruvchilar uchun ochiq bo'ladi. Va siz bu tashriflar uchun alohida to'laysiz.

Yana tuya ustida va biz Sfenks tomon yo'l oldik. Misrdagi eng katta Giza sfenksi fir'avn Xafr uchun bo'lgan o'rta piramidaning oldida joylashgan. Sfenksning tanasi - bu odamning boshi birikmasidan iborat bo'lib, u inson donoligi va sherning tanasini ifodalaydi, bu esa sherning kuchi va kuchini anglatadi. Bu tuyalarimizni egalariga qaytarish va Memfis tomon haydashni boshlashdan avvalgi to'xtash joyimiz edi.

Giza sfenksi, Misrdagi eng katta sfenks

Bu erda aytishim kerak bo'lgan narsa shundaki, agar siz ilgari tuyaga minmagan bo'lsangiz, buni Gizada qiling ... bundan afsuslanmaysiz. Qum va hayratlanarli piramidalarga tuyaning orqasidan qarab turgan qirollik tuyg'usini tasvirlab berolmayman, chunki u asta-sekin cho'lning yuragiga kirib boradi. Tuya o'rnidan turganda yoki men bilan o'tirganida biroz qo'rqinchli edi ... Men har safar baqirganday bo'ldim. Oh, va ertasi kuni o'sha yurishdan oyoqlarim og'riganini aytmasam ham bo'ladi. Tuya minishning hiylasi shundan iboratki, siz dam olishingiz va tuyaning harakati bilan tanangizni oldinga va orqaga harakatlantirishga ruxsat berishingiz kerak, bu menga ko'nikishim uchun biroz vaqt talab qildi. Men o'zimni xuddi shu balandlikdan yiqilib, badanimni bo'shatib qo'ysam, oyog'imni sindirib tashlaganday bo'ldim.

Bu erda Gizaga tashrif buyurganingizda ba'zi kerakli ma'lumotlar/ehtiyot choralari. Birinchidan, agar siz sahroda tuya/ot minishni o'ylayotgan bo'lsangiz, mehmonxonangiz/sayohatchilaringiz Giza shahriga kelishidan oldin buni sizga moslashtira oladimi -yo'qligini bilib oling. Siz har doim Haisam bilan bog'lanishingiz va yo'riqchimiz bilan bog'lanishingiz mumkin, agar u mavjud bo'lsa (iltimos, mening sayohatchilarim yorlig'ini bosing). Ikkinchidan, piramida majmuasining perimetri ichida bo'lganingizda, hech qachon va hech qachon tuyalarni ijaraga olmang. Ko'p dahshatli voqealar sodir bo'ldi, bu erda ular sizga nafaqat osmondan pul undirishadi, balki sizning pulingizni 1 soat davomida olishadi va sizga 10 daqiqadan ko'proq tuya bermaydilar. Biz 2 tuya uchun 400 LE to'ladik, 2 yordamchimiz bilan taxminan 2 yarim soat va yo'lboshchimiz Xaysam aka uchun bepul ot. Shuni ham yodda tutingki, sayohatni tugatgandan so'ng, yordamchilar ba'zi maslahatlarni kutishadi ... ular cho'l ustida uzoq vaqt quyosh ostida piyoda yurish uchun juda ko'p mehnat qilishadi, biroz saxovatli bo'ling. Giza piramidalarining asosiy darvozasiga kirish uchun kirish kattalar uchun 60 LE va bolalar uchun 30 LE. Agar siz uchta piramidaning biriga kirmoqchi bo'lsangiz, kattalar uchun 100 LE va bolalar uchun 60 LE. Odatda, eng katta piramida "Xufu piramidasi" har kuni tashrif buyuruvchilar uchun ochiq, boshqa kichikroq. Yana bir narsa - Gizaga boradigan kuni hech qanday chiroyli kiyim kiymang. Siz cho'lga ketyapsiz, bu piramidalar va boshqa saytlarni ko'rishingiz bilan siz chang bilan qoplanasiz. Juda qulay narsa, shlyapa kiying va ozgina suv idishlarini olib boring, ayniqsa yozda sayohat qilsangiz. Nihoyat, piramidalarga chiqishga urinmang ... bu taqiqlangan va o'ta xavfli.

Gizadagi tasodifiy suratkash, keyinroq u mening kameram uchun suratga tushganidan beri pul so'ragan va u meni va tuyasini suratga olishimni talab qilgan.

2) MEMPHIS OCHIQ AIR MUSEYI: Bu Gizaning ulkan cho'llari va piramidalariga qaraganda, kashf qilinadigan kichik ochiq maydon. Yangi qirollikdan Misrning eng muhim qiroli Fir'avn Ramsi II ning ohaktoshdan yasalgan ulkan haykali joylashgan yopiq maydon bor. Tadqiqotlar shuni ko'rsatdiki, Musoni Misrdan quvib chiqargan va Qizil dengizda cho'kib ketgan fir'avn King Remses II bo'lgan. Haykalning uzunligi taxminan 10 metr bo'lib, uning orqa tomonida yotqizilgan. Tashqarida, ko'plab xarobalar va boshqa er -xotin Fir'avn Remzi II haykallari bor. Hovli o'rtasida Memfis sfenksi deb nomlangan alabaster sfenksi miloddan avvalgi 1200 yildan boshlab asl joyida joylashgan.

Tadqiqotchilar, Memfisdagi Yangi Qirollikdan kelgan fir'avn Remses II ning ohaktosh haykalini Misrdan quvib chiqargan va Qizil dengizda cho'kib ketgan fir'avn shohi deb hisoblaydilar.

Bu erga kirish narxi kattalar uchun 30 LE, bolalar uchun 20 LE. Ochiq osmon ostidagi muzeyning bir tomonida suvenir do'konlari kam.

Memfis ochiq havodagi muzeyidagi alabaster sfenksi, Memfis sfenksi sifatida ham tanilgan va Yangi Qirollikdan

3) SAQQARA NEKROPOLISI: Yuqorida aytib o'tganimdek, Sakkara nekropoli - Misrdagi birinchi va eng qadimgi piramida bo'lgan ulkan qabriston. Bu erda miloddan avvalgi 27 -asrda mashhur bo'lgan Zoser yoki Djoserning qadamli piramidasi tasvirlangan. Step piramida majmuasiga kelish uchun siz o'tishingiz kerak bo'lgan yo'lak bor. Men Xaysam nima deganini eslay olmayman, lekin o'tish joyi ham qadimiy turg'un arxitektura bo'lib, tosh ustunlari va kichik xonalari ko'p. Piramidaning qarshisidagi zinadan ko'tarilgandan so'ng, biz kichik bir tepalikka keldik, u erdan Dahshurning narida, Bent va Qizil piramida deb nomlangan yana ikkita mashhur piramidani ko'rdik. Bent piramida miloddan avvalgi 2600 yillardan boshlab Djoserning o'g'li tomonidan Eski Qirollik davrida qurilgan. Bu qadam piramida va oddiy silliq piramidalar orasidagi o'tish shakliga misol. Bent piramidasi kutilgan tarzda chiqmaganligi sababli, u hech qachon ishlatilmagan. Uning o'rniga Qizil piramida to'g'ri piramidal burchaklar bilan qurilgan va bu shohning dafn qilingan joyi. Kechga yaqin edi va chang bosgan sahrodagi piramidalarga uzoqdan qarash sehrli edi.

Sakkara nekropolining qadam piramidasi –, Misrdagi birinchi va eng qadimgi piramida

Sakkara piramidasiga kirish kattalar uchun 60 LE, bolalar uchun 30 LE. Bu Dahshur piramidalari bilan birga YuNESKOning Butunjahon merosi ro'yxatiga kiritilgan.

Daxshurning egilgan piramidi (chapda) va Qizil piramida (o'ngda) uzoqdan, Sakkaradan ko'rinadi.


Siz bilmoqchisiz Biz hayotdan qochish uchun emas, balki hayot bizdan qochish uchun sayohat qilamiz

Bu erdagi ob -havo barmoqlar orasidan qum kabi o'tadi, va siz hali ham yashirincha tan olgan va "O'liklarning kitobi" ni o'qib qurgan ekzotizm kultining ozgina qismini ochligini qondira olmaysiz. Misr ierogliflari tasavvufi. Agar siz Tutanxamunning la'natidan, misrlik tumorlarning kuchidan yoki Muqaddas sharfning pichirlashidan qo'rqmasangiz, sumkalaringizni to'plang va 5000 yildan ziyodroq bo'lgan qadimiy dunyoga tegish uchun vaqt portalidan o'ting. Qanchalik qadimgi bo'lsa ham, Misr koinoti haligacha aylanishda davom etmoqda, xuddi qum bintlariga o'ralgan va qaynayotgan quyoshda saqlangan mumiya kabi saqlanib qolgan. Ha, qum issiq, lekin siz bunga ko'nikasiz. Siz dunyo mo''jizasiga duch kelganingizda, bunga e'tibor ham bermaysiz. Bu Giza piramidalarini to'g'rilaydi. Siz granit va ohaktoshning ulug'vor tuzilmalari bilan tanishish, Misr qabrlaridan chiqqan sovuqni ko'zdan kechirish va his qilish, marmar bezaklarning oxirgi qoldiqlaridan bahramand bo'lish yoki his -tuyg'ularingiz papirusini ochish va quchoqlash sharafiga egasiz. ba'zi cheksiz uzun tunnellarda noma'lum.
Maslahat - tasavvuringiz uchun biror narsa qoldiring, uni tirik qoldiring! Xufu, Xefren va Mikerinning Giza va ndashidagi uchta piramidaning har biridan bahramand bo'lgandan so'ng, siz Buyuk Sfenks haykali bilan Piradagi piramidal sayohatingizni yakunlashingiz mumkin. Agar siz doimo Misr qirollarining pichirlashlari va afsunlarini jimgina eshitayotgan bo'lsangiz, buni Luksor shahridagi Shohlar vodiysining ulkan oltin darvozalarini tarqatib yuborishga chaqiriq deb biling. Garchi siz 60 dan ortiq qabrlarning kichik bir qismi bilan tanishish imkoniga ega bo'lsangiz -da, bu Misr afsuni degani emas. Aksincha, sizning ongingiz qadimgi tsivilizatsiyaning ishtiyoqida yo'qoladi va faqat tarixiy sayohatingizni tugatganingizda qayta paydo bo'ladi. Va bu Misr poytaxti Qohiraga tashrifingizdan oldin bo'lmaydi. Sizning e'tiboringizni tortadigan birinchi narsa - behisob me'moriy mo''jizalar.

Qayerga borsangiz ham, bu mamlakatlarda yashab kelayotgan madaniyatlarning asrlar davomida bosilgan nusxalaridan mahobatli masjidlar va eski minoralar sizni hayratga soladi. Albatta, siz "Al Azhar", "Al Hakim", "Ibn Tulun", "Sinan posho", "Amir" va Muhammad Ali masjidi kabi diniy ibodatxonalar muhitini namlashingiz kerak. Bilamizki, siz mumiyani ko'rasizmi deb so'rashni kuta olmaysizmi? Qohira Misr muzeyi sizning injiqligingiz haqida o'yladi. Qabrlar, sarkofaglar, fir'avnlarning liboslari, Misr niqoblari va qimmatbaho toshlari va ajoyib saqlanib qolgan mumiyalar, siz kelgan paytdan beri orzu qilgan glamni qo'shadi. Siz kitobingizni Misr haqidagi xotiralar bilan, fir'avn Amenxotepning tosh haykallari, Djoser piramidasi, Saladin qal'asi, qadimgi Bobil qal'asi va osilgan kopt cherkovi bilan to'ldirishingiz kerak. Agar sizda biroz vaqt qolsa, siz dunyodagi eng yirik bozorlardan biri - Xan El Xalilga cho'kishingiz kerak. Faqat bu erda siz Xudo Osiris kabi his qilasiz, Nil daryosida qayiqda suzib yurasiz, Qizil dengizdagi suv osti boyliklarini o'rganasiz, hayajonli safari paytida qumtepalarni yirtasiz yoki ekzotik xazinalarni o'rganayotganda tuya minasiz. Agar siz suv sportining ashaddiy muxlisi bo'lsangiz, Misr - uchish yoki shamol sörfu bo'yicha jahon chempioni bo'lish uchun imkoniyat. Misrda to'lqinlar va toza plyajlar muxlislari uchun joy ham bor. Go'zallikdan nafas oling va iching, chunki bu lahza hayotingizda bir marta haqiqatga aylanadi. Agar siz an'anaviy Misr oshxonasining ta'mini bilmoqchi bo'lsangiz, ku va skaronari va falafelni tatib ko'rishdan tortinmang. Sizni xabardor qilish uchun, misrliklar ziravorlarni ilohiy deb bilishadi va siz ularning ta'mini tatib ko'rish orqali ta'mingizning samaradorligini his qilishingiz mumkin. Siz borishga tayyormisiz?


Bir kun Giza, Memfis va Sakkara cho'lida

GIZA, MEMPHIS va amp SAQQARA: Giza - Qohiraga tashrif buyurgan sayyohlarning ko'pi (hamma bo'lmasa ham) keladigan joy. Bu Misrning ramziy tasviri va barcha qadimiy mo''jizalarning eng mashhur ramzlaridan biridir. YuNESKOning Butunjahon merosi ro'yxatiga kiritilgan Gizadagi piramidalar va sfenkslar Misrning ilk tsivilizatsiyasi, ularning turmush tarzi, e'tiqodi va iste'dodiga haqiqiy tasavvur beradi. Qadimgi narsaga (miloddan avvalgi 2500 yillardan boshlab) qarasam, tom ma'noda g'ozlar paydo bo'lardi.

Bizning sayohatchimiz Xaysam aytganidek, Memfis ko'proq "ochiq havo muzeyi" ga o'xshaydi. Bu eramizdan avvalgi 3000 -yillarda Eski Qirollik davrida birlashgan Misrning birinchi poytaxti va Giza shahridagi piramida majmuasi bilan birga YuNESKOning Butunjahon merosi ro'yxatiga kiritilgan.

Sakkara, shuningdek, Misrdagi birinchi va eng qadimgi piramida joylashgan nekropoldir. O'ylaymanki, men haqiqatan ham Sakkara cho'lining go'zalligini uzoq vaqt eslayman. Taxminan quyosh botayotgan paytda biz kichik tepalikda turardik va uzoqdagi boshqa piramidalarga qarardik. O'sha paytda fonda piramidalari bo'lgan qumni ko'rish, men yashagancha qoladi ... bu kun umuman unutilmas kun edi.

Iltimos, ushbu uchta joy haqida batafsil ma'lumot olish uchun "Biz tashrif buyurgan joylar" ga o'ting.

Sayohat vaqti: Biz 2012 yil Rojdestvo ta'tilida Qohiraga uchib keldik. Garchi Giza Qohira markazidan 45 daqiqalik masofada joylashgan bo'lsa -da, yo'l sharoitlari va yo'l to'siqlari tufayli u erga etib borish uchun bir soatdan ko'proq vaqt kerak bo'ldi. Noyabrdan martgacha - Misrni kashf qilishning eng yaxshi vaqti, ob -havo yaxshi bo'lganda va siz issiq quyoshdan aqldan ozmasdan sahro quyoshidan bahramand bo'lishingiz mumkin.

BIZNING HOTEL: Biz Qohiraning markazida joylashgan Qohira Moon mehmonxonasida joylashdik, Qohira muzeyi va Tahrir maydonidan atigi 10 daqiqa piyoda. Rostini aytganda, bu kichkina (atigi 3 kishiga mo'ljallangan) liftlar, katta qizil chumolilar, hamma qavatda yurgan, kechasi juda ko'p shovqin va boshqa muammolar bo'lgan o'rtacha mehmonxonadan past edi. Ammo bu mehmonxonaning egasi Muhammad - juda samimiy va yordamchi janob. Bu erdagi barcha xodimlar ham xuddi shu tarzda, bu mehmonxonaning boshqa muammolarini yengib chiqadi. Muhammad biz uchun u erda va u erda bir qancha sayohatlarni, shu jumladan Gizaga sayohatni uyushtirdi.

Biz haydovchiga ega bo'lgan shaxsiy avtomobil uchun 45 AQSh dollari va Xaysam sayohatchisi uchun 15 AQSh dollari to'ladik (iltimos, sizga yoki siz bilgan kimsaga Qohirada gid -yo'riq kerak bo'lsa, "Mening sayohatlarim" yorlig'ini bosing). Menimcha, jami 60 dollar evaziga Giza, Memfis va Saqqara bo'ylab sayohat qilishimiz kerak. Yaxshiyamki, birodar Xaysam Misr haqida qadimiy, yaqin o'tmish va zamonaviy davridan ko'p narsalarni biladigan ajoyib qo'llanma edi. U juda kamtar, muloyim, xushmuomala va nihoyat, biz har narsaga ishonishimiz mumkin bo'lgan odam edi.

Ovqatlanish va xarid qilish: Biz o'sha kuni tushlik qilish uchun ko'cha yonidagi mahalliy restoranga to'xtadik. Bu Giza va Memfis o'rtasida tez yig'iladigan shvarmaga o'xshardi. Piramidalar chegarasida ovqatlanish yoki tushlik qilish uchun mutlaqo joy yo'q, hech bo'lmaganda men ko'rmadim.

Suvenirlar uchun biz Giza va Sakkarada u erda va u erda arzon narsalarni sotadigan ko'plab sotuvchilarni ko'rdik. Memphis has more stores where you can get some small gifts and something for yourself. WARNING: do not buy any papyrus products from them as they are not real papyrus papers. Our guide Haisam took us to a big showroom of papyrus, Golden Eagle Papyrus on Sakkara Road. This is a government approved store, and therefore you know you are buying the real thing. It has hundreds of papyrus wall decors to choose from at various price ranges and with different themes. The guy who was showing us around actually took 10 minutes to show us how a piece of papyrus was made from its trees…thatwas absolutely fascinating and very educational for our little ones. Here is their phone number if you need it – +2037719585.

PLACES WE’VE VISITED: Our taxi left for Giza little before 9am and we reached the place where we were going to rent out camels from near the entrance to the pyramids around 10. Giza is the place where we spent most of the time – about 3:30 hours. Memphis is about half an hour drive from Giza and we spent, I think, about little more than an hour. Then our final destination of the day, Saqqara, was another half an hour drive and again, spent about an hour near the sunset time. Our guide, Haisam, kept us entertained with all the charming secrets of these pyramids and ancient Egyptians all day.

1) GREAT PYRAMIDS of GIZA & SPHINX: After arriving at Giza city, we first went to the place where we were going to rent our camels from another option was to ride a horse (but who would…?). We took the longest ride which took us around the deserts, to the panoramic spot, to the pyramids, and then to the sphinx.

Pardon my ignorance, but all this time I thought there were total of 3 pyramids in Giza necropolis. But as we were approaching the “Panoramic spot” near the pyramids, Haisam explained that there are 3 main pyramids which are the burial sites for 3 pharaohs (Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure) and 6 small ones (3 with the pyramid of Khufu and the other 3 with the pyramid of Menkaure) for their mothers, daughters, and wives. Panoramic spot is an up-hill site from where you can see all the 9 pyramids lined up. This place not only gave us magnificent view of the Great Pyramids, but from here we could also be fascinated by the wilderness of the desert. Watching men riding their horses fast, flying white sand in the air looked like Arabian Sultans chasing their enemies in Hollywood movies. I am not exaggerating, but it was a true beauty that I enjoyed from the back of my camel.

After the panoramic site, we were on the camels again and off to get up-close and personal with these pyramids. So, we touched the old limestone of these relic structures, took some pictures, and back on the camel headed towards the sphinx. You can actually go inside the burial chamber of these pyramids which we didn’t do. At any given day, at least two of the three big pyramids will have the burial chamber open to visitors. And you pay separately for these visits.

On the camel again and we headed towards the Sphinx. Sphinx of Giza, the biggest one in Egypt, is located in front of the middle pyramid, which was for Pharaoh Khafre. The Sphinx’s body is a combination of head of a man, representing the wisdom of human and the body of a lion, meaning the strength and power of a lion. This was our last stop before returning our camels to their owners and start driving towards Memphis.

One thing I must say here is that, if you haven’t ridden a camel before, DO IT in Giza…you won’t regret it. I cannot describe the royal feeling of looking over the sand and to the astonishing pyramids from a camel-back as it slowly makes it trails into the heart of the desert…nothing beats that. It was a bit scary when the camel got up or sat down with me on its back…I felt like screaming every time. Oh, and not to mention the pain I had in my legs the next day from that ride. The trick of riding a camel is that you have to relax and just let your body move back and forth with the movement of the camel, which took some time for me to get used to. I felt like I was going to fall from that height and break a leg if I let my body loose.

Here are some necessary information/precautions when visiting Giza. First of all, if you are thinking about riding camel/horse in the desert, see if your hotel/tour guide can arrange that for you before arriving in Giza. You can always contact and take our guide Haisam, if he is available (please click on my Tour Guides tab). Second, never, ever rent camels once you are already inside the perimeter of the pyramid complex. Lots of horrible stories have happened where they not only charge you sky amount of money, but also takes your money first for 1 hour and won’t give you the camel for more than 10 minutes. We paid 400 LE for 2 camels with 2 helpers for about 2 and half hours and a free horse for brother Haisam, our guide. Also keep in mind that, the helpers expect some tips after you are done with the trip…they work really hard walking on foot on the desert for a long time under the sun, be a little generous. The entrance fee to enter the main gate to Giza pyramids is 60 LE for adults and 30 LE for kids. If you want to go inside one of the 3 pyramids its 100 LE for adults and 60 LE for kids. Usually the biggest pyramid, “Pyramid of Khufu” is open every day for the visitors in addition to another smaller one. Another thing is – don’t wear any fancy clothes on the day you are going to Giza. You are going to desert, you will be covered in dusts by the time you are done seeing these pyramids and other sites. Wear something very comfortable, a hat, and take few water-bottles with you, especially if you are traveling in summer. Finally, don’t try to climb the pyramids…its forbidden and extremely dangerous.

A random poser in Giza, who later asked for money since he posed for my camera and he was the one who kept insisting that I take picture of him and his camel

2) MEMPHIS OPEN-AIR MUSEUM: This is rather a small open area to explore compared to Giza’s vast desert and the pyramids. There is an enclosed area where an enormous limestone statue of Egypt’s most important king Pharaoh Ramsey II from New Kingdom rests. Research has indicated that most likely it was Pharaoh King Remses II who chased Moses out of Egypt and drowned in Red Sea. The statue is about 10 meters long and laying on its back. Outside, there are many ruins along with couple other smaller sculptures of Pharaoh Ramsey II. The alabaster sphinx, called Sphinx of Memphis, in the middle of the yard is in its original spot from 1200 BC.

A limestone statue of Pharaoh Remses II from New Kingdom in Memphis, researchers believe that he is the Pharaoh King who chased Moses out of Egypt and drowned in Red Sea

Entry fee here is 30 LE for adults and 20 LE for children. There are few souvenir shops lined up in one side of this open air museum.

An alabaster sphinx in the open air museum of Memphis, known as Sphinx of Memphis – also from the New Kingdom

3) SAQQARA NECROPOLIS: As I have mentioned above, Saqqara Necropolis is a vast burial ground which has the first and the oldest pyramid in Egypt. It features the famous Step pyramid of King Zoser or Djoser from the 27 th century BC. There is a corridor that you have to pass to come to the Step pyramid complex. I can’t remember what Haisam said, but the passageway is also an ancient stable-like architecture with many stone pillars and many rooms. After climbing the stairs opposite of the pyramid, we came up to a small hill, from where we saw another two famous pyramids in the far distance of Dahshur, called Bent pyramid and Red pyramid. Bent pyramid was built under Old Kingdom from around 2600 BC by the son of Djoser. This is an example of a transitional form of pyramid between Step pyramid and regular smooth pyramids. As the Bent pyramid did not come out the way expected it was never used. Instead the Red pyramid was built next to it with correct pyramidal angles and that is the burial site of the king. It was almost dusk and looking at those pyramids from afar on the dusty desert was magical.

Entrance fee to Saqqara pyramid is 60 LE for adult and 30 LE for children. This is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site along with the pyramids in Dahshur.

Bent pyramid (back on the left) of Dahshur and Red pyramid (on the right) in far distance, seen from Saqqara

Menkare

Menkaure north face The lower part of Menkaure was cased in granite

The entrance to this pyramid is in the north face, equidistant from the corners and in the fifth masonry course – so that it is several metres above the level of the pyramid-pavement, now largely hidden under mounds of rubble and dislodged blocks. The polar passage is rectangular in cross-section and, because it is only 1.2 metres in vertical height, one is forced to ‘bow low’ when entering. This passage is granite-lined to the point where it enters the bedrock and then, after proceeding a short distance, the sloping passage terminates in a sort of ‘ante-chamber’ the walls of which are decorated with typical Old-Kingdom ‘palace-facade’ panelling. (This feature is applied to the exteriors of many tombs of earlier dynasties and is thought to represent in stone the appearance of Egyptian buildings of the time).

At the far (southern) end of this ante-chamber there are three portcullises made from thin slabs of granite and now in a raised position. After passing under these the height of the passage increases to 1.8 metres (one and a half times the height of the polar passage) and becomes ‘horizontal’ (actually the floor slopes down to the south at an angle of 4°) and, after arriving at a point below the centre of the pyramid, opens into a ‘large apartment’.

Menkaure rock-cut chambers

This apartment extends towards the west and has been cut out from the living rock – there are three exits. The first lies immediately above the entrance to the apartment and leads to a passage (having the same cross-section as the polar-passage) which slopes back up towards the north-face. This second sloping passage is ‘blind’ and terminates within the masonry, and this has led scholars to conclude that there was a ‘change of plan’ in the construction of this pyramid. It is at least certain that this ‘blind passage’ was constructed first because tool-marks in the horizontal passage show that this was constructed from the ‘inside-outwards’ – therefore the lower passage system was designed and cut before the major bulk of the pyramid was built.

The second exit from the large apartment leads to a chamber to the west with a very low ceiling – this is evidently a ‘construction-chamber’ because the floor is composed of beams of granite tightly fitted together and actually comprising the roof of the ‘sepulchral-chamber’ below. How these massive granite beams were manhandled in this confined space is a mystery.

To enter the ‘sepulchral-chamber’ one passes through the third exit, situated in the middle of the floor of the large apartment. A short sloping passage leads into a chamber lined with granite and the roof beams, mentioned above, have been cut in a curve on their undersides so that the ceiling has the appearance of being vaulted. This chamber contained, at the date of its discovery, a basalt sarcophagus decorated with palace-facade panelling but this was lost at sea when it was being shipped off to Britain – whether this coffer was original we shall probably never know.

The lost sarcophagus of Menkaure

There is one last feature of the passage-system which appears almost to have been added as an afterthought. In the passage to the ‘sepulchral-chamber’ there is a short side passage, with uneven steps, which branches off to a rough-hewn chamber at a lower level. In the walls of this chamber there are six deep niches, all empty.

In conclusion, if this pyramid ever contained any original remains – mummy-wrappings, stone, pottery, or wooden objects and so on – then all evidence of them must have been removed very carefully. (Actually some coffin-boards inscribed with the name ‘MENKAURE’ were found within the pyramid but on examination these turned out to be part of an ‘intrusive-burial’ of late date).


Sunset land

ASCENDING the gateway to the other world is not, quite literally, for the weak-kneed. You have to bend in half and crawl your way first down and then up, groping the walls on the sides of the very narrow passageway. There is no stairwell, just a wooden board with slats on it to break your fall should you slip. Apart from your joints, your lungs also need to be in perfect condition to be able to draw in any oxygen molecules that might still be lingering in this alleyway. The passage is just every bit as eerie as you might have imagined dark, dingy and somewhat claustrophobic despite a diffuse light whose source is invisible. There is a faint musty smell that is mildly nauseating. The passage goes on and on, seemingly interminable, so much so that you come to believe that anytime now you will ascend to the heavens straightaway. Bunday omad yo'q. Eventually you reach a chamber, about 10 metre long and 5 metre wide.

We are inside Cheops, the largest of the three Great Pyramids of Giza, the only ancient wonder of the world still standing, defying the ravages of time and the devastation wrought by a quaking earth that might have dislodged structures less majestic. A diffuse light from an indeterminate source lights up the cell to reveal a damaged alabaster coffin. It is open and empty as if inviting you to step into it and lie down, the nearest you can come to being a pharaoh yourself. Should you venture to attempt this, you are bound to jump out of your skin not so much out of fright, but because the cold and clammy alabaster makes your skin crawl.

The cell is bare without any murals that embellish the tombs of pharaohs in the Valley of Kings near Luxor. There are two tiny square holes on the walls. Peering into them brings you face to face with discarded plastic water bottles. Actually, these holes stretch right up to the surface of the pyramid on either side. They have been built at a precise angle to capture the rays of two specific stars in the sky. Ancient Egyptians believed that the soul of the deceased king would ascend directly to these stars through this shaft.

The Cheops pyramid, or Khufu as it is known in Egypt, was completed around 2560 B.C. to house the mummy of King Khufu, who reigned for 23 years. Recorded Egyptian history dates back to 3000 B.C., and Khufu belonged to the fourth dynasty. Early history was first recorded in Greek by Manetho, an Egyptian priest, at the behest of King Ptolemy I. Manetho culled facts and figures out of funerary temples, monuments and other archaeological records. These have been corroborated by subsequent archaeologists and historians.

A staggering 137-metre-high Khufu was built with over two million limestone blocks, each weighing 4.5 tonnes and quarried from a nearby mine in Giza on the outskirts of todays Cairo. How on earth did they lug all these stones up in an age without Komatsu cranes? Your Egyptologist guide tells you how ancient Egyptians fashioned a ramp around the pyramid as it was being built and just rolled these blocks on pieces of wood. Of course, they employed an army of slaves to do that. Khufu and his two sons, who built the other two pyramids at Giza, virtually emptied the treasury for their grandiose funerary monuments and famines stalked their kingdom soon after. No wonder subsequent rulers abandoned building pyramids and settled for less extravagant mortuary structures.

Khufus pyramidal tomb was a departure from the usual box-shaped tombs of the earlier emperors. This is because Khufu, whose mothers mummy had been stolen by tomb-raiders, was paranoid about encountering a similar fate. In ancient Egyptian belief, perfect preservation of the mummy was critical to afterlife. Mummification of royal bodies is a recurring theme in Egyptian art, sculpture and mythology. Anubis the jackal god presides over mummification. The loss of a pharaonic mummy would be a fate worse than death itself. So, Khufu commissioned Hem Iwno, the royal architect who first designed the step-pyramids of Sakkara, to build him an impregnable stone fortress where his mummy would lie safely until escorted by god Osiris and goddess Isis to join them in paradise. (It was customary for royal tombs to be constructed and completed during the lifetime of the king, under his supervision.)

The Giza necropolis, close to modern Cairo, consists of the pyramids of the fourth dynasty pharaohs Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure. Along with the Sphinx, they are the only surviving wonders of the ancient world.-

Where, then, was Khufus own mummy? Why was the sarcophagus empty? The guide tells you how Khufu contrived to dodge the tomb-raiders by building a secret passage deep into the entrails of the pyramid. The entrance to this chamber is in the adjacent Giza village, under the three smaller pyramids that were built beside Khufu to entomb his queen and sisters. Khufus real resting place was found accidentally in 1920 when the tripod of a photographer adjusting his camera for a shot of the Great Pyramid slipped right through the dirt and dropped 20 feet below with a faint thud. Khufus own coffin was in a crypt fortified with granite blocks, virtually impregnable except with dynamite.

There is a tiny statue of Khufu in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, which was brought there from the Temple of Osiris at Abydor in upper Egypt. King Khufu may have been eclipsed by the overwhelming allure of his own pyramid, but he was an eminent emperor. There are extensive records of his life and times from his own tomb as well as those of his family and courtiers buried in the vicinity of the great monument. Adjacent is the pyramid built by Khafre, Khufus son, standing on an elevated plane and wearing a shimmering limestone crown. Originally, all three pyramids were covered in limestone plaster, which gave them a brilliance visible for miles around. Perhaps they even sported a golden crown. But the plaster was chipped away and carted to embellish mosques and palaces that were built more than 2,000 years later. The third pyramid on the site is that of Menkaure, not inconsiderable in girth, but dwarfed by its neighbour, Khufu. The three pyramids belonged to the Old Kingdom, fourth dynasty that ruled from 2625-2500 BC. There are over 110 other pyramids in Egypt scattered over the Nile delta.

Our next stop is the inscrutable Sphinx, majestically overlooking the necropolis. Called Abu al Hol in Arabic, the Sphinx was so named by the ancient Greeks, who believed it resembled a mythical winged monster with a lions body and womans head, one that killed anyone unable to solve the riddles it set. Carved at the bedrock of the causeway to the Khafre pyramid, it is believed to resemble Khafre himself. Its nose has been blown away, though, and many stories abound on the provocation for the maiming. Framed by two pyramids on either side, the Sphinx is perhaps the single spectacular symbol of all that was grand and awe-inspiring in ancient Egypt.

Impressive as they are, the three Great Pyramids pale into insignificance beside the grandeur and opulence of the necropolis on the west bank of the Nile in Luxor, 679 kilometres upstream. Ancient Egyptians reserved the westerly direction for afterlife, associating death with sunset. Just as the sun reappears the next day, so would the interred monarch, albeit sapped of all his juices and desiccated to brittleness in his mummified form. Death seems to have been a pervasive theme in ancient Egypt. Exotic funerary practices and elaborate tombs painstakingly embellished may give the impression that ancient Egyptian civilisation was morbid and death-obsessed. On the contrary, this fascination with afterlife could be viewed as a life-affirming practice where death was viewed merely as a transitional state. Egyptian theology entails neither a rejection of earthly life nor a willing martyrdom in the name of an ideal paradise. Death is just another state where the social trappings of status and rank as well as material possessions continue to provide comfort and support. No other civilisation in recorded history is, perhaps, known to have celebrated death as ancient Egyptians did.

A mural in the temple of Hatseshpsut, who was the pharaoh in the 15th century B.C., the second woman in ancient Egypt to assume power.-

Approaching the Valley of Kings by road, we pass the massive Colossi of Memnon, the two statues believed to be those of the Ethiopian king and the son of the dawn goddess Eos. These statues are the only two things that remain of a flood plain that once supported a large temple complex. Not far away is the glorious Temple of Hatseshpsut, a pharaonic regent who crowned herself queen. Standing amidst a sandy wilderness, this temple is one of the finest examples of Egyptian architecture of the time.

You would be forgiven for dismissing the expansive Valley of Kings as yet another desolate stretch of desert. Not even a blade of grass grows on the barren hillsides. Had not Lord Carnarvon and Howard Carter, British Egyptologists, unearthed the splendid tombs in this sprawling necropolis in the first quarter of the 20th century, humanity might not have known about this incredibly vivid and most ancient royal heritage. The valley is ringed by barren hills, one of which, al Qurn, is shaped like a pyramid.

The Valley of Kings has 62 tombs that have been excavated so far, albeit long after tomb-raiders had carried away everything portable and valuable. The only tomb that was found intact by Howard Carter in 1922 was that of young Tutenkhamun who, by the age of 19, had already been monarch for nine years and had died of a mysterious disease in 1327 B.C. Even modern archaeologists almost missed this tomb, buried as it was, under the rubble from an adjacent tomb. Its presence was revealed when a donkey in Carters excavation team just vanished through loose lands into the bowels of the earth.

Though he was a relatively insignificant pharaoh, King Tut had been buried with priceless treasures such as an exquisitely engraved golden mask and cartloads of dazzling gold jewellery encrusted with precious stones, an indication of what might have been buried in the tombs of the greater monarchs like Ramses II who had ruled for 63 years. Much of his reign is considered to be the golden years of ancient Egypt. Unfortunately, these seem to have been lost forever to humanity since no one knows when these tombs were raided by robbers and where they removed their priceless contents. Fortunately, the robbers have left the tombs intact without vandalising them.

The Tutenkhamun regalia is on display at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. In fact, King Tuts mummy had been encased in three sarcophagi, one inside the other, and these in turn contained three coffins. The first coffin was made of gilded wood the second, of coloured glass and inlaid with precious stones the third, made of solid gold. Archaeologists also found a treasury protected by Anubis the jackal god, and containing calcite Canopic jars that might have held the boy kings liver, lungs and kidneys. The tomb at Valley of Kings now has his mummy, fairly well-preserved for someone who died 4,000 years ago. The murals on the walls retain their bright colours.

Of the 62 royal tombs that have been unearthed, only 12 are open to visitors, and of these, your ticket entitles you to visit just three. Tombs of King Tut and Ramses VI require additional tickets. But, as you would find out, they are worth every Egyptian piastre. The tomb of Ramses VI is probably the most glamorous of the lot with dazzling murals and seemingly never-ending corridors. Most tombs follow a set pattern with four passages, each symbolising a specific stage on the journey to afterlife. You pass through long passages constructed east to west, to first the Hall of Waiting to the Chariot Hall and finally to the burial chamber situated at right angle.

The tombs were decorated with pictures from the Book of the Dead with colourful scenes to guide the pharaoh on his journey. Others have scenes from the Book of Caverns, Book of Gates, Book of Heavens and Book of Earth.

A visit to the Egyptian Museum in Cairo is indeed a chastening experience. From the fashionable footwear and garments on display to the furniture, vehicles and household objects, the stuff used in pharaonic times is not very different from what we use today in our modern homes. Only the pillow seems to have evolved from a curved wooden headrest to todays eiderdown-filled cushion. There is little doubt that the Egyptian civilisation was indeed a very advanced and refined one, on which subsequent generations spanning five millennia have improved little.

An obelisk at the Karnak temple complex.-

Our journey through Egypt takes us to other spectacular archaeological sites, too. The temples of Abu Simbel far in the Nubian desert, Philae Temple dedicated to goddess Isis in Aswan, Kom Ombo, Edfu, Karnak and Luxor, temples all on the banks of the Nile. Many of these temples bear the unmistakeable evidence of Greco-Roman influence in their architecture. You almost develop a crick in your neck, gazing at the towering columns of Karnak Temple in Luxor. Karnak is a spectacular complex of sanctuaries, pylons, pillars and obelisks, all engraved with scenes from Egyptian mythology interspersed with history and a wonderful place to get lost in the past!

Egypt has had its fair share of foreign rulers leaving their indelible mark on the lands customs, rituals, art and architecture through the ages. After a series of ethnic Egyptian and Saite kings spread over three kingdoms Old, Middle and New spanning over 2,000 years, Egypt fell to Nubian kings from 760 B.C. to 656 B.C. The Nubians were not ethnically very different from the Egyptians themselves. Persians ruled over Egypt from 525 B.C. The Macedonians led by Alexander the Great liberated Egypt from the Persians in 332 B.C. and went on to found Alexandria. The Macedonian Greeks, led by Alexanders general, Ptolemy I, invaded Egypt in 305 B.C. and held sway for three centuries, leaving their lasting mark on the architecture of the period even while assimilating Egyptian gods into the Greek pantheon. Queen Cleopatra was the last of the Ptolemies. As intelligent as she was beautiful, Cleopatra kept her hold over Egypt by marrying Julius Caesar, the Roman emperor who might otherwise have posed a threat to her kingdom. When Caesar was assassinated, she married Mark Antony. During this period, Alexandria became the centre of unparalleled scholarship and culture. Eventually, the Greeks made way for the Romans, who came in around 30 B.C. Islam came to Egypt in A.D. 640. The capital, accordingly, shifted from Memphis to Thebes (Luxor) to Alexandria to Cairo.

We wrap up our tour of Egypt with a visit to Abu Simbel on the banks of the Nile in Nubia. From Aswan, we speed through 280 kilometres of featureless desert to Lake Nasser, the largest man-made lake in the world created by the construction of Aswan High Dam. The dam was Gamal Abdel Nassers pet project to harness the Nile to feed his countrymen, conceived in an era when big dams had not yet become a bad word. Two majestic temples one for Ramses II and another for his queen Nefertari keep silent vigil over the turquoise blue expanse of the lake. The temples were relocated to the present location when the lake threatened to submerge the original temple site. At the entrance are four mammoth statues of Ramses II, one of them damaged, in a seated posture depicting him as king of this world.

After all, his reign of 66 years was perhaps the longest for any Egyptian monarch and was considered the golden era of ancient Egypt. As you enter, you find more of his statues in funerary posture hands crossed over chest and finally, in the pantheon, he is depicted as god, seated alongside Ra-Harakhti, Amun and Ptah. The sheer magnitude of the statues is stunning. Could a civilisation of such splendour and grandeur have left anything less dazzling for posterity to marvel at?


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