Qebhet xronologiyasi

Qebhet xronologiyasi


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Misr obelisklarini qurish tartibi piramidalarga o'xshardi. Har ikkalasida ham maksimal balandlikdagi minimal tayanch bor edi. Biroq, bu inshootlarni o'rnatish usullari hozircha noma'lum, obeliskning har ikki tomonida fir'avn unvonlarini o'z ichiga olgan va xudoni ulug'laydigan ierogliflarning o'yma yozuvlari chizig'i ko'rinib turardi. Qadimgi va O'rta qirollik obelisklari quyosh sig'inish markazi Heliopolisdan. Obelisklar Yangi Qirollik davrida mukammallikka erishdi.Obelisklar juft bo'lib ma'badlarning kirish qismida (shuningdek, ba'zi qabrlarda) joylashtirildi. Ular quyoshga sajda qilish bilan bog'liq bo'lgani uchun, ular faqat quyosh xudosi bilan bog'langan ibodatxonalar oldiga qo'yilgan. Ular hatto "kichik obelisklar" va "gigant yoki katta obelisklar" toifalariga bo'lindi. Mashhur va ko'zga ko'ringanlar ikkinchisi.

Misrning yirik obelisklarining balandligi 9 dan 32 metrgacha bo'lgan. Tuzilishning uchi oltin kabi yaltiroq metall bilan qoplangan va u quyoshning birinchi nurini ushlab, aks ettiradi. Kichiklarining balandligi 7 metrdan past edi. Ba'zi obelisklar ma'badlardan balandroq edi.

Dunyoning turli burchaklarida 26 ta Misr obelisklari saqlanib qolgan. Karnakdagi qirolicha Xatshepsut obeliskasi eng mashhur obelisklardan biridir. Uning balandligi 30 metr va vazni 300 tonnani tashkil qiladi. Bu Misrdagi eng baland obelisk va qizil granitdan qilingan.

Boshqalar - Fir'avn Tutmos I obelisk, Karnak ibodatxonasi, Luksor, Fir'avn Ramses II obelisk, Luksor ibodatxonasi, Fir'avn Ramses III obelisk, Fir'avn Seti II obelisk, Karnak ibodatxonasi, Luksor, Luksor muzeyi va Obelisk. Fir'avn Sesostris I, Heliopolis, Qohira. Fir'avn Ramses II obelisk, Luksor obelisk Fransiyaning Parij shahridagi Konkord shahrida joylashgan.

Obelisk so'zi yunoncha "igna" degan ma'noni anglatuvchi obelisk so'zidan kelib chiqqan. Obelisklar odatda bayramni nishonlash, jangda g'alaba qozonish yoki ba'zida xudolarga sovg'a sifatida muhim voqeani xotirlash uchun o'rnatiladi. Bugun Misr obelisklari qayta tiklanmoqda.


Qadimgi Misr xudolari

Hayotdagi harakatlariga qarab, odam uch xil samolyotdan biriga yuboriladi. Bu miloddan avvalgi 400 -yillardagi Misr yog'och sarkofagidan olingan tafsilotlar.

Anubis Yurak hukm Misr mifologiyasi Etsy Misr mifologiyasi Anubis Misr Anubis

Qadimgi yunonlar, o'limdan keyin yahudiylar jahannam olamiga kirib, qirol Minos Evak va Radamanth tomonidan hukm qilinishiga ishonishgan.

Qadimgi Misr hukm xudosi. Anubis - o'liklarning ruhlarini oxirat hayotiga olib borgan, yer osti dunyosining Misr xudosi. Shuningdek, u inson tanasining mumiyalanishini ham ixtiro qilgan. Misrliklarning aytishicha, oxirat dunyosi yer bilan bir xil bo'lgan.

Andre Flickr CC By-SA 20. U mumiyalashni ham ixtiro qilgan xudo edi. Ehtimol, Qebhet haqidagi hikoya Anubis bilan Osiris va Neftis qismidagi boshqa ma'buda roli haqidagi oldingi ertakni yaratgan bo'lishi mumkin.

Osiris er osti dunyosining xudosi va bosh hakami edi. Aniris Osiris mashhur bo'lib, uning o'rnini egallashidan oldin qadimgi xudo va o'liklarning hakami bo'lgan. O'liklar kitobining 30 -chi imlosi misrliklarning pragmatizmidan dalolat beradi.

Bu hukm qilinayotganda, yurak ularga qarshi gapirmasligini ta'minlaydi. 19 -sulolasi Xuneferning hukmronligi Yangi qirollik. Qadimgi misrliklar uni mo''jizaviy tarzda qayta tiklangan sobiq hukmdor o'lik podshoh deb hisoblashgan.

Bu jinoiy dunyoga kirishga loyiqmi yoki yo'qligini aniqlash uchun ishlatiladigan hukm usuli edi. Falon yoki lochin boshli odam sifatida tasvirlangan Horus urush va ovchilik bilan bog'liq bo'lgan osmon xudosi edi. Qadimgi Misr xudolari va ma'budalari misrliklarning tabiiy va g'ayritabiiy muhitini aks ettirgan va ularning ko'p qirralarini tushunishga yordam bergan.

Maat adolat homiysi va qadimgi Misr axloqining ramzi bo'lgan, shuning uchun sud sudlarini boshqargan Vazir Maat ruhoniysi unvoniga sazovor bo'lgan. Misrning Idfo shahridagi ma'badidagi Horus haykali. U, shuningdek, o'simlik xudosi va har yili Nil to'foni bo'lib, o'lim tirilishi va unumdorligi bilan chambarchas bog'liq edi.

Odam o'lgandan so'ng, yurak haqiqat va adolat ma'budasining patlari bilan o'lchandi. U bo'ri tanasi bilan o'limdan keyingi hukm uchun mas'ul bo'lgan Xudodir. Anubis fir'avnlarning yuragini o'lchaganida, uning yuragi tuklar bilan tenglashtirilgan edi, shuning uchun unga keyingi hayotga kirishga ruxsat berildi.

Uning vazifasi o'liklarni yakuniy hukm uchun uyg'otish va yurakning tortilishini nazorat qilish edi. O'lganlarning xudosi Osiris nomidagi Osirisning hukmi deb nomlangan o'liklarni hukm qilish marosimi, o'liklarning yuragini Maat yoki uning iyeroglifi tuyaqush tuklari muvofiqligi uchun muvozanatlangan tarozida tortiladi. tegishli qiymatlarga. Masalan, Ra quyosh xudosi, yong'oq esa osmon ma'budasi edi.

Elysium asfodel maydonlari yoki tatar. Qadimgi Misrliklarning fikricha, yurak insonning barcha yaxshi va yomon ishlarini qayd qiladi va oxiratdagi hukm uchun zarurdir. Anubis ham o'lim hakamining o'g'li edi.

Chaqaloq boshli xudo o'tib ketgan va hukmni qidirayotgan odamlarning qalbini tortish uchun javobgardir. Anubis qadimgi Misr qabrlarining qo'riqchisi va mumiyalanish jarayonining nazoratchisi bo'lgan. Maat oxirat hayotining eng yaxshi hakami edi va yangi haqiqat zalida yangi o'lgan odamning yuragi uning patlari bilan o'lchandi.

Anubis ko'pincha Misr fir'avnlarining devor rasmlarida uchraydi. Ular, shuningdek, O'lganlar kitobining 20 -sonli hukm zalida ijobiy natijaga erishishda yordam so'rab Totga murojaat qilishlari mumkin edi. Misr xudolarining aksariyati dunyoning asosiy qismini ifodalagan.

U shuningdek, ilohiy shohlikning timsoli bo'lgan va ba'zi davrlarda hukmron shoh Horusning namoyishi hisoblangan. Aytishimiz mumkinki, Qadimgi Misr ko'plab xudolarga ishongan va tortish kabi ko'plab marosimlarni bajargan.

Haqiqat va adolatning ma'buda ma'budasi Marhumning yuragi qadimgi Misr qadimiy Misr san'ati Misr artefaktlari bilan o'lchandi.

Qadimgi musofirlar yoki yo'qolgan insoniyat tsivilizatsiyasi Qadimgi Misr xudolari Anubis Misr xudolari

Sud qarori Mitologi Mesir Anubis Mitologi

Mafdet Misr xudolari Https Www Deviantart Com Yliade haqida Deviantart Misr xudolari Misr san'ati ma'buda san'ati

Epingle Sur eski din

Xurgada Misrda qilinadigan ishlar Misrning eng yaxshi 10 ekskursiyasi Misr rasmlari Misr Misr

Hukm Anubis Tarot O'tish Anubis Qadimgi Misr san'ati Misr dizayni

Hukm tarozisini ushlab turgan Anubis Misr xudolari Anubis xudolari

Ma At qanotli ma'buda Misr ma'buda tatuirovkasi Maat ma'budasi Misr tatuirovkasi

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Qadimgi Misr o'liklarini yutuvchi Ammit Xudo Osirisning oxirgi hukmida yurak yeyuvchi Misr xudolari Misr san'ati afsonaviy san'ati

Men Anubisni yaxshi ko'raman, u qorong'ulik xudosi sifatida noto'g'ri tushuniladi, lekin hukmdan keyin u yaxshi ruhlarni osmonga va qadimgi Misr xudolari Misr tatuirovkasi Anubisga chizadi.

Britaniya muzeyidagi o'liklarning kitobi ettita jurnalni ko'rib chiqadi Qadimgi Misr xudolari Qadimgi Misr san'ati

Misr papirusining rasmlari Yorug'lik haqidagi yakuniy hukm Misr tarixining rasmlari Qadimgi Misr

Anuwolf Qadimgi Misr xudolari Anubisning hukmini o'chirish Qadimgi Misr san'ati Misr xudolari

Anubis standart Misr mifologiyasi Qadimgi Misr xudolari Anubis

Rasm tarixi O'rta muddatli kartochkalar Illustratsiya tarixi Qadimgi Misr kitoblari Misr san'ati

Qadimgi Misr hukm zalining qo'riqchisi.

Sud palatasi Osiris o'z taxtida o'tirib, qadimgi Misrdan ko'tarilgan tovon ostida, bu suvdan ko'tariladi.

Qadimgi Misr xudolari va ma'budalari 30 ta qadimgi Misr xudolari Qadimgi Misr xudolari Misr xudolari Misr xudolari

Misr xudolari 11 638 Jpg 638 479 piksellar Qadimgi Misr xudolari Misr xudolari Misr xudosi

Ebros Katta Qadimgi Misr xudosi Anubis Adolat tarozisi 11 75 Qadimgi Misr xudolari Misr xudolari Anubis

Yurakni tortish Qadimgi Misr ma'budasi Qadimgi Misrdan keyingi hayot Misr san'ati

Anubis uchun Oltin karta O'ng tarafdagi odam - bu mening kelib chiqishim bilan qanday bo'lishini ko'rish uchun.

Anubis Misr xudosi haqiqat tukli Anubis Misr xudolari Qadimgi Misr xudolari

Osiris Xuneferning hukmlari O'liklarning kitobi Qadimgi Misr tarixi Qadimgi Misr xudolari Qadimgi Misr

Osiris hukm Xudosi Misr zarb Misr tatuirovka Misr tatuirovka yengini chizish

Kunlarning oxiri Misr ma'budasi Ma, marhumning yuragini hukm tarozisida tortadi Misr san'ati Qadimgi Misr misrligi

Qadimgi Misrdagi ayollarga pin


Din (lotincha Diniy, ma'nosi ‘restraint ’, yoki RelegereTsitseronning so'zlariga ko'ra, "takrorlash, qayta o'qish" yoki, ehtimol, Diniy, muqaddas bo'lgan narsaga hurmat ko'rsatish) - bu ruhiy tajribaning atrofida aylanadigan yoki etakchi bo'lgan e'tiqod va amaliyotlarning uyushgan tizimi. Insoniyat tarixida biron bir dinga amal qilmagan madaniyat yo'q.

Qadim zamonlarda dinni "mifologiya va hozirgi zamon" dan ajratib bo'lmaydigan va dunyo va uning atrofidagi kosmosni yaratgan va saqlab qolishni davom ettirgan, g'ayritabiiy mavjudotlarga bo'lgan ishonchga asoslangan muntazam marosimlardan iborat edi. Bu tezislar antropomorfik bo'lib, madaniyatning qadriyatlarini yaqindan aks ettiradigan yoki o'zini tutgan (Misrda bo'lgani kabi) yoki ba'zida bu qadriyatlarga zid bo'lgan ishlarni qilgan (Gretsiya xudolari ko'rganidek). Din, keyin va hozir, insoniy holatning ma'naviy tomoni, xudolar va ma'budalar (yoki bitta shaxsiy xudo yoki ma'buda), dunyoning yaratilishi, insonning dunyodagi o'rni, o'limdan keyingi hayot, abadiylik bilan bog'liq. va bu dunyoda yoki oxiratda azoblardan qanday qutulish mumkin va har bir millat o'z timsoli va o'xshashligida o'z xudosini yaratgan. Yunon faylasufi Kolofonli Ksenofan (eramizdan avvalgi 570-478 yillar) shunday yozgan edi:

O'liklarning fikricha, xudolar tug'ilgan, kiyimlari, ovozlari va shakllari o'znikiga o'xshash. Ammo agar ho'kizlar, otlar va sherlarning qo'llari bo'lsa yoki erkaklarnikiga o'xshab qo'llari va modasi bilan ishlay olsalar, otlar xudolarning otlarga o'xshash tasvirlarini va ho'kizlarga o'xshagan rasmlarni chizar edi, va har biri o'z tanasini modaga aylantirardi. Efiopiyaliklar xudolarni tekis burunli va qora frakiyaliklarni ko'k ko'zli va qizil sochli deb bilishadi.

Ksenofan xudolar va erkaklar orasida eng buyuklari borligiga ishongan, ular tanada ham, ruhda ham odamlarga o'xshamaydi, lekin u ozchilikda edi. Yahudiylik vizyonerlari va payg'ambarlaridan tashqari, monoteizm qadimgi odamlarga ma'no bermadi. Ko'pchilik, hech bo'lmaganda, yozma va arxeologik ma'lumotlardan ko'rinib turibdiki, har birining o'ziga xos ta'sir doirasiga ega bo'lgan ko'plab xudolarga ishonishgan. Bir kishining shaxsiy hayotida, bir kishining ehtiyojini qondiradigan, yaxlitlikka erishish va tirikchilik qilish uchun har xil turdagi odamlar bilan muloqot qilish kerak. Hozirgi hayotda kimdir ota -onasi, aka -ukalari, o'qituvchilari, do'stlari, sevishganlar, ish beruvchilar, shifokorlar, yoqilg'i quyish shoxobchalari, chilangarlar, siyosatchilar, veterinarlar va boshqalar bilan muloqotda bo'ladi. Hech kim yolg'iz bu rollarning barchasini bajara olmaydi yoki qadim zamonlarda bo'lgani kabi individual ehtiyojlarni ham qondira olmaydi. Xuddi shu tarzda, qadimgi odamlar hech bir xudo insonning barcha ehtiyojlarini qondira olmaydi, deb hisoblagan. Xuddi odam chuvalchiga kasal iti bilan bormaganidek, muhabbat muammosi bilan urush xudosiga ham bormagan bo'lardi. Agar kimdir yurak urishidan aziyat chekayotgan bo'lsa, agar kim jangda g'alaba qozonishni xohlasa, sevgi ma'budasiga borar, faqat urush xudosi bilan maslahatlashar edi.

Qadimgi dunyo dinlarining ko'plab xudolari bu vazifani o'z sohalarida mutaxassis sifatida bajargan. Ba'zi madaniyatlarda ma'lum bir xudo yoki ma'buda shunchalik mashhur bo'lardiki, u ko'p millatli bo'lish haqidagi madaniy tushunchadan oshib ketadi va shu qadar kuchli va hamma narsani qamrab oladigan mavqega ega bo'lardiki, deyarli politeistik madaniyatni henoteizmga aylantiradi. Ko'pxudolik ko'p xudolarga sig'inishni anglatsa, henoteizm bir xil xudoga ko'p shaklda sajda qilishni anglatadi. Tushunishning bunday o'zgarishi qadimgi dunyoda juda kam uchragan va Misr ma'budasi Isis, koinotning eng buyuk yaratuvchisi va qo'llab-quvvatlovchisiga xudoning to'liq qo'shilishining yagona misolidir.

Yuqorida ta'kidlab o'tilganidek, har bir qadimiy madaniyat dinning qandaydir turiga amal qilgan, lekin din qaerdan boshlanganini aniq aytish mumkin emas. Mesopotamiya dini misrliklar diniga ilhomlantirganmi yoki yo'qmi degan bahslar bir asrdan ko'proq davom etmoqda va hal qilinganiga qaraganda yaqin emas. Ehtimol, har bir madaniyat tabiat hodisalarini (kunduzi, kechasi, fasllari) tushuntirish yoki ularning hayoti va odamlarning har kungi noaniq holatini tushunishga yordam berish uchun g'ayritabiiy mavjudotlarga bo'lgan o'z e'tiqodini shakllantirgan. Dinning kelib chiqishini aniqlashga urinish madaniy almashinuvda qiziqarli mashg'ulot bo'lishi mumkin bo'lsa -da, diniy turtki faqat insoniy holatning bir qismi ekanligi aniq ko'rinib turganidek, bir vaqtning foydasi yo'qdek tuyuladi. dunyoning turli burchaklaridagi madaniyatlar mustaqil ravishda hayotning ma'nosi to'g'risida bir xil xulosaga kelishlari mumkin edi.

QADIMGI MESOPOTAMIYADA DIN

Ko'plab madaniy yutuqlar va ixtirolarda bo'lgani kabi, "sivilizatsiya beshigi" va#8221 Mesopotamiya ham dinning vatani sifatida qayd etilgan. Din Mesopotamiyada qachon paydo bo'lganligi noma'lum, ammo diniy amaliyot haqidagi birinchi yozma ma'lumotlar v. Miloddan avvalgi 3500 yil Shumerdan. Mesopotamiya diniy e'tiqodiga ko'ra, odamlar xudolar bilan birga ishlagan va ular bilan mehnat qilgan va ular boshida oliy xudolar tomonidan tekshirilgan betartiblik kuchlarini ushlab turishgan. Tartibni xudolar betartiblikdan yaratgan va bu tamoyilni tasvirlaydigan eng mashhur afsonalardan biri, Tiamatni mag'lub etgan buyuk xudo Marduk va dunyoni yaratish uchun betartiblik kuchlari haqida aytilgan. Tarixchi D. Brendan Nagl yozadi:

Tangrilar g'alaba qozonganiga qaramay, betartiblik kuchlari o'z kuchlarini tiklay olmasliklari va xudolarning tartibli yaratilishini ag'darib yubormasliklariga kafolat yo'q edi. Xudolar ham, odamlar ham betartiblik kuchlarini ushlab turish uchun abadiy kurashda qatnashdilar va ularning har biri bu dramatik jangda o'z rolini o'ynadi. Mesopotamiya shaharlari aholisining mas'uliyati xudolarga dunyoni boshqarish uchun kerak bo'lgan hamma narsani berish edi.

Odamlar, aslida, aynan shu maqsadda yaratilgan: xudolar bilan ishlash va o'zaro manfaatli maqsadda. Ba'zi tarixchilarning Mesopotamiyaliklar o'z xudolariga qul bo'lganligi haqidagi da'volari asossizdir, chunki odamlar o'z pozitsiyasini hamkasb sifatida tushunishgani aniq. Tangrilar xizmatlari uchun odamlarning kundalik ehtiyojlarini qondirish (masalan, pivo, xudolarning ichimliklari) bilan ta'minlash va ular yashab turgan dunyoni asrab -avaylash orqali to'lagan. Bu xudolar odamlarning ehtiyojlarini yaqindan bilar edilar, chunki ular uzoqdan osmonda yashamas edilar, balki er yuzida o'z xalqlari tomonidan qurilgan uylarda yashaydilar, bu uylar Mesopotamiyaning har bir shahrida ko'tarilgan ibodatxonalar edi.

Kuchli ziggurat ustunlik qiladigan ma'bad majmualari xudolarning tom ma'nodagi uylari hisoblangan va ularning haykallari har kuni ruhoniylar va ruhoniylar podshoh yoki malika kabi parvarish qilganidek ovqatlangan, yuvilgan va kiyingan. Masalan, Marduk misolida, uning haykali bayram paytida uni ma'badidan olib chiqib, Bobil shahri orqali olib o'tdi, shunda u toza havodan va quyoshdan bahramand bo'lib, uning go'zalligini qadrlay olardi. Inanna sevgi, jinsiy aloqa va urush ma'budasi sifatida hurmatga sazovor bo'lgan, ruhoniylar va ruhoniylar uning haykali va ma'badiga sodiqlik bilan g'amxo'rlik qilgan yana bir kuchli xudo edi. Inanna er osti dunyosiga tushib, erga unumdorlik va mo'l-ko'lchilik olib keladigan, hayotga qaytayotgan, o'ladigan va qayta tiklanayotgan xudo timsoliga eng qadimgi misollardan biri hisoblanadi. U shu qadar mashhur ediki, uning ibodati Shumerning janubiy mintaqasidan Mesopotamiyaga tarqaldi. U akkadiyaliklar (va keyinroq ossuriyaliklar) Ishtar, Finikiyaliklar Astartasi, Xuri-Xitlar Sauskasi bo'lib, yunonlarning Afroditasi, Misrlik Isis va Rimliklarning Venerasi bilan bog'liq edi.

Ma'badlar shaharning markazi bo'lgan va Mesopotamiya tarixi davomida Akkadiya imperiyasidan (mil. Av. 2334-2150 yillar) Ossuriyaga (mil. Av. 1813-612 yillar) va undan keyin. Ma'bad bir qancha vazifalarni bajargan: ruhoniylar kambag'allarga don va ortiqcha mol tarqatishgan, muhtojlarga maslahat berishgan, tibbiy xizmat ko'rsatishgan va xudolarni ulug'laydigan katta bayramlarga homiylik qilishgan. Tangrilar tirikligida odamlarga katta g'amxo'rlik ko'rsatgan bo'lsalar -da, Mesopotamiyaning oxirat hayoti uzoq tog'lar ostida, ko'lmaklardan eski suvni ichgan va abadiy changni yeb ketgan, yer osti dunyosi edi. Ularning abadiy uyi haqidagi bu noaniq ko'rinishi misrliklardan tubdan farq qilardi.

MISIR DINI

Misr dini Mesopotamiya e'tiqodiga o'xshash edi, ammo odamlar tartibni saqlash uchun xudolar bilan birga ishlaganlar. Uyg'unlik printsipi (misrliklarga ma'lum ma ’at) Misr hayotida (va undan keyingi hayotda) eng katta ahamiyatga ega edi va ularning dini mavjudlikning har bir jabhasiga to'liq qo'shilgan edi. Misr dini - bu sehr, mifologiya, fan, tibbiyot, psixiatriya, spiritizm, gerbologiya, shuningdek, yuqori kuchga ishonish va o'limdan keyingi hayotning zamonaviy tushunchasi edi. Tangrilar odamlarning do'stlari bo'lgan va er yuzidagi hayotlari tugagandan so'ng, ular yashash uchun eng zo'r joy va abadiy uy bilan ta'minlab, ular uchun eng yaxshisini qidirganlar.

Misrda diniy amaliyot haqida birinchi yozma ma'lumotlar miloddan avvalgi 3400 yillardan oldin, Misrning Predinastik davrida (miloddan avvalgi 6000-3150) keladi. Isis, Osiris, Ptah, Xator, Atum, Set, Neftis va Horus kabi xudolar juda erta tan olinadigan kuchli kuchlar sifatida allaqachon yaratilgan. Misrning yaratilishi haqidagi afsona Mesopotamiya hikoyasining boshlanishiga o'xshaydi, chunki dastlab faqat tartibsiz, sekin aylanadigan suvlar bo'lgan. Bu okean chegarasiz, chuqur va sukunatsiz edi, toki uning yuzasida er tepaligi (Ben-ben nomi bilan tanilgan, tepalik piramidalar ramzi) va buyuk xudo Atum ( quyosh) Ben-benning ustida turib gapirdi, shu xudodan (havodan) Tefnut (namlik) ma'budasi Geb (erdan) va Nut (osmon) ma'budasini tug'di. Atum Nutni kelin qilib ko'rmoqchi edi, lekin u Gebni sevib qoldi. Sevishganlardan g'azablangan Atum, er yuzidagi Gebdan baland narida, yong'oqni cho'zish orqali ularni ajratdi. Sevishganlar kunduzi ajralishgan bo'lsa -da, ular kechasi birga yig'ilishdi va Nut Osiris, Set va Horus ismli uchta o'g'il va Isis va Neftis ismli ikkita qiz tug'di. Osiris, to'ng'ichi sifatida, butun dunyo egasi deb e'lon qilindi va unga singlisi Isisga xotinlik qilishdi. Rashkdan qolgan Set akasini yomon ko'rdi va taxtga o'tirish uchun uni o'ldirdi. Keyin Isis erining jasadini balzam qildi va kuchli jozibasi bilan Misr xalqini hayotga qaytarish uchun o'liklardan qaytgan Osirisni tiriltirdi. Keyinchalik Osiris haqiqat zalida o'liklarning ruhining oliy hakami bo'lib xizmat qildi va qalbning yuragini tarozida tortib, kimga abadiy hayot berilishini hal qildi.

Misrning oxirat hayoti qamish dalasi sifatida tanilgan va er yuzidagi hayotning eng sevimli daraxti, oqimi va itigacha bo'lgan oyna tasviri bo'lgan. Hayotda sevganlar, u kelganda kutishadi yoki ortidan ergashadilar. Misrliklar er yuzidagi mavjudotni abadiy sayohatning bir qismi deb bilishgan va keyingi bosqichga oson o'tish haqida qayg'urishgan, shuning uchun ular o'zlarining qabrlari (piramidalari), ibodatxonalari va dafn yozuvlarini (Piramida matnlari, O'liklar kitobi) yaratgan. ) ruhning bu dunyodan oxiratga o'tishiga yordam berish uchun. Xudolar, o'limdan keyin, xuddi hayotda bo'lgani kabi, g'amxo'rlik qilishgan. Qebhet ma'buda o'liklarning yurtidagi chanqagan ruhlarga suv olib keldi va Selket va Neftis kabi boshqa ma'budalar qamish dalasiga sayohat qilishganda ularga g'amxo'rlik qilishdi va himoya qilishdi. Qadimgi misrlik, tug'ilishdan o'limgacha va hatto o'limdan keyin ham olamni xudolar buyurganini va hamma shunday tartibda o'z joyiga ega ekanligini tushundi.

DINI Hindiston va Xitoyda

Bu tartib printsipi dunyodagi eng muhim din bo'lib, u hanuzgacha amalda: hinduizm (tarafdorlari ma'lum Sanatan Dxarma, Abadiy tartib). Garchi ko'pincha politeistik e'tiqod sifatida qaralsa -da, hinduizm aslida xentoteistikdir. Hinduizmda faqat bitta oliy xudo - Brahma bor, va boshqa barcha xudolar - bu uning jihatlari va mulohazalari. Brahma inson aqli tushunmaydigan juda katta kontseptsiya bo'lgani uchun, u o'zini Vishnu, Shiva va boshqa ko'plab xudolar deb tan oladigan turli xil versiyalarida o'zini namoyon qiladi. Hind yozuvlarida xudolar soni 330 millionni tashkil etadi, ular milliy darajada tanilganlardan (masalan, Krishna), unchalik taniqli bo'lmagan mahalliy xudolargacha.

Hinduizmning asosiy tushunchasi shundaki, koinotda tartib bor va bu tartibda har bir kishining o'ziga xos o'rni bor. Sayyoradagi har bir odamning vazifasi (dxarma) bor, uni faqat ular bajara oladilar. Agar kimdir bu vazifani bajarishda to'g'ri (karma) harakat qilsa, u holda oliy zotga yaqinlashib, oxir -oqibat xudo bilan birlashish bilan mukofotlanadi, agar odam buni qilsa, qanchalik ko'p marta qayta tug'iladi. oliy ruh bilan yashash va birlashishga yaqinlashish. Bu e'tiqodni Siddartha Guatama Budda bo'lganida va buddizm deb nomlanuvchi dinni asos solgan. Ammo buddizmda, kim xudo bilan birlashishni emas, balki yuqori tabiatga ega bo'lishni xohlaydi, chunki u dunyodagi xayollarni qoldiradi, ular azob -uqubatlarni keltirib chiqaradi va o'lim va o'lim qo'rquvi bilan ongni xira qiladi. Buddizm shu qadar ommalashib ketdiki, u Hindistondan Xitoyga sayohat qilib, u erda ham muvaffaqiyat qozondi.

Qadimgi Xitoyda din v. Miloddan avvalgi 4500 yil, Banpo qishlog'ining neolit ​​davrida topilgan keramika dizaynlari. Bu erta e'tiqod tuzilishi animizm va mifologiyaning aralashmasi bo'lishi mumkin edi, chunki bu tasvirlarga taniqli hayvonlar va ajdaho kiradi. Xia sulolasi davrida (miloddan avvalgi 2070-1600 yillar) hamma antropomorf xudolar bor edi, ular bosh xudo Shangtiga sajda qilar, hammasini boshqarar edi. Bu e'tiqod, Shan sulolasi davrida (miloddan avvalgi 1600-1046 yillar), ota-bobolarga sig'inish amaliyotini rivojlantirgan holda, o'zgarishlar bilan davom etdi.

Odamlar Shangtining mas'uliyati juda ko'p ekaniga ishonishdi, shuning uchun u ularning ehtiyojlarini qondirish uchun band bo'lib qoldi. Odam o'lgach, ular xudolar bilan yashashga ketishdi va odamlar bilan o'sha xudolar o'rtasida vositachi bo'lishdi, deb o'yladilar. Ajdodlarga sig'inish konfutsiylik va daosizmning ikkita buyuk xitoylik e'tiqod tizimiga ta'sir ko'rsatdi, ularning ikkalasi ham ota -bobolariga ibodat qilishning asosiy tamoyillariga aylandi. Vaqt o'tishi bilan, Shangti o'rniga o'liklar abadiy tinchlikda yashaydigan jannat Tian (osmon) tushunchasi paydo bo'ldi. Erdagi hayotdan osmonga o'tish uchun, tubsizlik ustidan unutish ko'prigidan o'tish va oxirgi marta hayotga nazar tashlab, xotirani tozalaydigan chashka ichish kerak edi. Ko'prikda kimdir jannatga loyiq deb topilgan va shunday qilib "noloyiq" va "ko'prikdan" do'zaxga yutib yuborish uchun tubsizlikka tushib ketgan. Xuddi shu stsenariyning boshqa versiyalari, idishning ichganidan keyin ruhning qayta tug'ilishidan dalolat beradi. Qanday bo'lmasin, tiriklar ko'prikning narigi tomoniga o'tgan o'liklarni eslab, ularning xotirasini hurmat qilishlari kerak edi.

MESOAMERIKADA DIN

O'liklarni xotirlash va ular er yuzidagi odamlarning hayotida haligacha o'ynab kelayotgan barcha qadimiy dinlarning, shu jumladan mayya e'tiqodining muhim tarkibiy qismi bo'lgan. Xudolar Mayya hayotining barcha jabhalarida ishtirok etishgan. Boshqa madaniyatlarda bo'lgani kabi, har xil xudolar bor edi (250 dan ortiq), ularning hammasi o'ziga xos ta'sir doirasiga ega edi. Ular ob -havoni, o'rim -yig'imni nazorat qilishdi, ular o'z umr yo'ldoshiga yozishdi, har tug'ilishga raislik qilishdi va o'limida hozir bo'lishdi. Maya hayoti Mesopotamiyaga o'xshardi, chunki u qorong'i va qorong'i joy edi, lekin mayya bundan ham battarroq taqdirni tasavvur qilgan, u erda er osti dunyosida yashovchi jinlar lordlari (Xibalba yoki Metnal deb nomlanuvchi) tomonidan doimo hujum yoki aldanish xavfi ostida bo'lgan. . Xibalba bo'ylab sayohat qilish qo'rquvi shunchalik kuchli madaniy kuch ediki, mayya o'z joniga qasd qilish ma'budasini (Ixtab nomi bilan) sharaflaydigan yagona ma'lum qadimiy madaniyatdir, chunki o'z joniga qasd qilish Xibalba yonidan o'tib, to'g'ridan-to'g'ri jannatga olib boriladi (xuddi ular kabi). tug'ilishda yoki jangda o'lganlar). Mayya hayotning davriy tabiatiga, o'lib ketadigan hamma narsa o'zgarib ketishiga ishongan va inson hayotini tabiatda o'z atrofida ko'rgan naqshning yana bir qismi deb hisoblagan. Ular o'limni hayotdan keyingi tabiiy jarayon deb his qilishdi va o'liklarning tiriklarini ta'qib qilish uchun qaytish ehtimoli juda qo'rqardi.

Biror kishi har xil sabablarga ko'ra hayotini saqlab qolishi mumkin edi (boshlig'i noto'g'ri dafn qilingan), shuning uchun o'liklarni xotirlash va ularning ruhini ulug'lash uchun marosimlar o'tkazildi. Bu e'tiqod, shuningdek, mayolardan boshqa mezoamerikalik madaniyatlarda ham mavjud edi, masalan, Aztek va Taraskan. Vaqt o'tishi bilan, u bugun O'liklar kuni deb nomlanadigan bayramga aylandi (El Dia de los Muertos) unda odamlar o'tib ketganlarning hayotini nishonlaydilar va ismlarini eslaydilar.

Bu nafaqat odamlarni eslash va hurmat qilish kerak edi, balki juda muhim ilohiyotshunoslar makkajo'xori Xudosi deb atashgan. Makkajo'xori xudosi-Hun Hunxu shaklidagi o'lik va qayta tiklanadigan xudo figurasi, uni Xibalba lordlari o'ldirgan, o'g'illari Qahramon egizaklar tomonidan tiriltirgan va er osti makonidan makkajo'xori sifatida chiqqan. "Tormozlangan" makkajo'xori xudosi yoki "bargli" makkajo'xori xudosi - Mayya ikonografiyasida uchraydigan keng tarqalgan tasvirlar. U har doim abadiy yosh va kelishgan, boshi makkajo'xori kabi cho'zilgan, uzun sochlari makkajo'xori ipagidek, jade bilan bezatilgan bo'lib, makkajo'xori sopi ramzi sifatida tasvirlangan. Mayya uni shunchalik muhim deb hisoblaganki, onalar yosh o'g'illarining boshlarini bog'lab, peshonalarini tekislab, boshlarini cho'zishgan va unga o'xshash edilar.

Makkajo'xori xudosi mayya uchun muhim xudo bo'lib qoldi, hatto xudolarning eng buyuklari va mashhurlari Gucumatz (Kukulcan va Quetzalcoatl nomi bilan ham tanilgan) tomonidan tutilgan bo'lsa ham, Chichhen Itzadagi buyuk piramidasiga hozir ham har yili millionlab odamlar tashrif buyurishadi. . Har yili egizak va tengkunlik kunlarida, piramida tuzilmasining zinapoyalariga quyosh soya soladi, bu yuqoridan pastgacha tushayotgan buyuk ilonga o'xshaydi, bu osmondan erga qaytgan buyuk Kukulcan, deb o'ylashadi. baraka Hatto bugun ham odamlar Chichen Itzaga yig'ilishib, bu voqeani tengkunlik bayramida guvohi bo'lishadi va o'tmishni eslab, kelajakka umid qilishadi.

Yunon va RIM DINI

’ s diniy e'tiqodlarning bir qismi sifatida o'liklarni xotirlashning ahamiyati yunonlarning e'tiqodining ajralmas qismi edi. Tiriklar tomonidan o'liklarni xotirlashda davom etish, marhumning ruhini narigi dunyoda tirik saqlagan. Boshqa madaniyatlar singari, yunonlar ham ko'p xudolarga ishonishgan, lekin ular ko'pincha o'zlarining ayblovlariga g'amxo'rlik qilishgan, lekin tez -tez o'z xohish -istaklariga intilishgan. Xudolarning injiq tabiati Yunonistonda falsafaning rivojlanishiga hissa qo'shgan bo'lishi mumkin, chunki falsafa faqat din odamlarning ma'naviy ehtiyojlarini qondirmaydigan madaniyatda rivojlanishi mumkin. Aflotun yunon xudolar kontseptsiyasini doimiy ravishda tanqid qilar edi va Critias ularni boshqa erkaklar ustidan nazorat qilish uchun odamlar tomonidan yaratilgan deb da'vo qilardi. Ksenofan, yuqorida ta'kidlab o'tilganidek, yunoncha qarash mutlaqo noto'g'ri va Xudoni tasavvur qilib bo'lmaydi, deb da'vo qilgan. Shunday bo'lsa -da, yunonlarning ko'pchiligi va jamiyatning asosiy vazifasi - xudolarni hurmat qilishlari kerak edi va ular o'z sohalariga o'tganlar ham. Odam endi er yuzida yashamagani uchun, bu odam ko'rinmas xudolarni ulug'lashni unutganidan ko'ra unutilishi kerak degani emas edi. Boshqa qadimgi madaniyatlarda bo'lgani kabi, Gretsiyadagi din ham kundalik hayot va hayot tarziga to'liq birlashtirilgan. Tarixchi Mark Kartrayt bunga izoh beradi:

Qadimgi yunon dunyosida din shaxsiy, bevosita va hayotning barcha sohalarida mavjud bo'lgan. Hayvonlarni qurbon qilish va qurbonliklarni o'z ichiga olgan rasmiy marosimlar, insoniyatning kelib chiqishini tushuntirish va xudolarga inson qiyofasini berish haqidagi afsonalar, shahar manzarasida hukmronlik qilgan ma'badlar, shahar bayramlari, milliy sport va badiiy musobaqalar bilan, din hech qachon ongidan uzoq bo'lmagan. qadimgi yunon.

Yunonlar xudolardan davlat ishlaridan tortib, sevgi, nikoh yoki shaxsiy ishlariga oid shaxsiy qarorlarigacha maslahatlashgan. Qadimgi hikoya, yozuvchi Ksenofon (miloddan avvalgi 430-354 yillar) Sokratga qanday borgani haqida aytadi, faylasuf Forsga yurish uchun Kichik Kir qo'shiniga qo'shilish kerakligini o'ylayaptimi? Sokrat uni Delfidagi xudo haqida savol berish uchun yubordi. O'zining asl savolini berish o'rniga, Ksenofon Delfi xudosidan muvaffaqiyatli ish va xavfsiz qaytishni ta'minlash uchun qaysi xudolardan qaysi biri ma'qulroq bo'lganini so'radi. Ko'rinishidan, u to'g'ri javobni olgan, chunki u Kirning halokatli kampaniyasidan omon qolgan va nafaqat Afinaga qaytib kelgan, balki armiyaning asosiy qismini qutqargan.

Rim dini Gretsiya paradigmasiga amal qilgan. Rim dini, ehtimol, o'ziga xos animizm sifatida boshlangan va boshqa madaniyatlar bilan aloqada bo'lganida rivojlangan. Yunonlar Rim diniga eng katta ta'sir ko'rsatdilar va Rim xudolarining ko'pchiligi shunchaki Rim nomlari va atributlari biroz o'zgartirilgan yunon xudolari. Rimda xudolarga sig'inish davlat ishlari bilan chambarchas bog'liq edi va jamiyatning barqarorligi odamlar xudolarni qanchalik hurmat qilishlari va ularni hurmat qilish marosimlarida ishtirok etishlari bilan bog'liq edi. The Vestal Virgins are one famous example of this belief in that these women were counted on to maintain the vows they had taken and perform their duties responsibly in order to continually honor Vesta and all the goddess gave to the people.

Although the Romans had imported their primary gods from Greece, once the Roman religion was established and linked to the welfare of the state, no foreign gods were welcomed. When worship of the popular Egyptian goddess Isis was brought to Rome, Emperor Augustus forbade any temples to be built in her honor or public rites observed in her worship because he felt such attention paid to a foreign deity would undermine the authority of the government and established religious beliefs. To the Romans, the gods had created everything according to their will and maintained the universe in the best way possible and a human being was obligated to show them honor for their gifts.

This was true not only for the `major’ gods of the Roman pantheon but also for the spirits of the home. The penates were earth spirits of the pantry who kept one’s home safe and harmonious. One was expected to be thankful for their efforts and remember them upon entering or leaving one’s house. Statues of the penates were taken out of the cupboard and set on the table during meals to honor them and sacrifices were left by the hearth for their enjoyment. If one were diligent in appreciating their efforts, one was rewarded with continued health and happiness and, if one forgot them, one suffered for such ingratitude. Although the religions of other cultures did not have precisely these same kinds of spirits, the recognition of spirits of place – and especially the home – was common.

SIMILARITIES IN ANCIENT RELIGION & THEIR CONTINUANCE

The religions of the ancient world shared many of the same patterns with each other even though the cultures may never have had any contact with each other. The spiritual iconography of the Mayan and Egyptian pyramids has been recognized since the Maya were first brought to the world’s attention by John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood in the 19th century CE but the actual belief structures, stories, and most significant figures in ancient mythology are remarkably similar from culture to culture.

In every culture one finds the same pattern, or very similar patterns, which the people found resonant and which gave vitality to their beliefs. These patterns include the existence of many gods who take a personal interest in the lives of people creation by a supernatural entity who speaks it, fashions it, or commands it into existence other supernatural beings emanating from the first and greatest one a supernatural explanation for the creation of the earth and human beings a relationship between the created humans and their creator god requiring worship and sacrifice.

There is also the repetition of the figure known as the Dying and Reviving God, often a powerful entity himself, who is killed or dies and comes back to life for the good of his people: Osiris in Egypt, Krishna in India, the Maize God in Mesoamerica, Bacchus in Rome, Attis in Greece, Tammuz in Mesopotamia. There is often an afterlife similar to an earthly existence (Egypt and Greece), antithetical to life on earth (Mesoamerica and Mesopotamia), or a combination of both (China and India). The resonant spiritual message of these different religions is repeated in texts from Phoenicia (2700 BCE) to Sumer (2100 BCE) to Palestine (1440 BCE) to Greece (800 BCE) to Rome (c. 100 CE) and went on to inform the beliefs of those who came later. This motif is even touched on in Judaism in the figure of Joseph (Genesis 37, 39-45) who is sold by his brothers into slavery in Egypt, goes down into prison following the accusations of Potiphar’s wife, and is brought back up to life and restored. Following his `resurrection’ he then saves the country from famine, providing for the people in the same way as other regenerative figures. The Phoenician tale of the great god Baal who dies and returns to life to battle the chaos of the god Yamm was already old in 2750 BCE when the city of Tyre was founded (according to Herodotus) and the Greek story of the dying and reviving god Adonis (c. 600 BCE) was derived from earlier Phoenician tales based on Tammuz which was borrowed by the Sumerians (and later the Persians) in the famous Descent of Innana myth.

This theme of life-after-death and life coming from death and, of course, the judgement after death, gained greatest fame through the evangelical efforts of St. Paul who spread the word of the dying and reviving god Jesus Christ throughout ancient Palestine, Asia Minor, Greece and Rome (c. 42-62 CE). Paul’s vision of the figure of Jesus, the annointed son of God who dies to redeem humanity, was drawn from the earlier belief systems and informed the understanding of the scribes who would write the books which make up the Bible.

The religion of Christianity made standard a belief in an afterlife and set up an organized set of rituals by which an adherent could gain everlasting life. In so doing, the early Christians were simply following in the footsteps of the Egyptians, the Sumerians, the Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans all of whom had their own stylized rituals for the worship of their gods. After the Christians, the Muslim interpreters of the Koran instituted their own rituals for understanding the supreme deity which, though vastly different in form from those of Christianity, Judaism or any of the older ‘pagan’ religions, served the same purpose as the rituals once practiced in worship of the Egyptian goddess Hathor over five thousand years ago: to lend human beings the understanding that they are not alone in their struggles, suffering and triumphs, that they can restrain their baser urges, and that death is not the end of existence. The religions of the ancient world provided answers to people’s questions about life and death and, in this regard, are no different than those faiths practiced in the world today.


Lesser-known deities

  • Ȧakhu - God of the fifth Ảat 𖐐]
  • Ảakhu - A ram headed god 𖐐]
  • Ảakhu-ḥetch-t - A god of the dead 𖐑]
  • Ảakhu-ra - A singing god of dawn 𖐑]
  • Ảakhu-sa-ta-f - A warrior god 𖐑]
  • Ảakhui - A god with two lotus scepters 𖐐]
  • Ȧmi-beq - A god of the dead 𖐒]
  • Ảmi-haf - A god who has a harpoon 𖐓]
  • Ami-Ḥe-t-Serqet-Ka-hetep-t - A god 𖐓]
  • Ảmi-kar - A singing ape god 𖐔]
  • Ảmi-keḥau - A god 𖐔]
  • Ảmi-naut-f - A serpent god 𖐒]
  • Ảmi-nehţ-f - A god 𖐓]
  • Ảmi-neter - A singing god 𖐓]
  • Ảmi-Nu - A sky god 𖐓]
  • Ȧmi-Pe - A lion god 𖐒]
  • Ảmi-reţ - A god 𖐓]
  • Ảmi-seḥseḩ - A god 𖐔]
  • Ảmi-sekhet-f - A god of his domain 𖐔]
  • Ảmi-sepa-f - A god 𖐔]
  • Ảmi-suḥt-f - A god of the ninth Ảat 𖐔]
  • Ảmi-ta - A serpent god 𖐔]
  • Ảmi-ut - God of the ninth day of the month 𖐒]
  • Ảnmut-făbesh - A star god 𖐕]
  • Antywy - A god of the tenth nome of Upper Egypt 𖐖] God of the sixth hour of night. 𖐗]
  • Ảri - The creative god 𖐘]
  • Ảri-em-ăua - God of the sixth hour of night 𖐘]
  • Ảri-en-ȧb-f - A blue eyed god 𖐘]
  • Ảri-ḥetch-f - A light god 𖐘]
  • Ảri-ren-f-tehesef - God of the tenth day of the month 𖐘]
  • Ảri-tchet-f - A god of the ninth day of the month 𖐘]
  • Ảrit-Ảmen - A god 𖐘]
  • Athpi - A god of dawn 𖐙]
  • Ati - A god 𖐙]
  • Ba - A ram god associated with virility 𖐚]
  • Ba-ảakhu-hā-f - A ram headed god 𖐚]
  • Ba-em-uār-ur - A god 𖐚]
  • Ba-pefi - A ram-headed god of the eighth hour 𖐚]
  • Ba-ta - An ape god 𖐚]
  • Ba-tau - A god worshipped at Cynopolis𖐚]
  • Ba-utcha-hāu-f - A ram-headed god 𖐚]
  • Ḥeb - A god 𖐛]
  • Ḥun-sāḥu - A god 𖐜]
  • Ḥutchai - The god of the west wind 𖐛]
  • Khenti-en-Sa-t - A star god 𖐝]
  • Khenti-heh-f - A knife-eyed god who guarded the tomb of Osiris 𖐝]
  • Khenti-ḥenthau - A god 𖐝]
  • Khenti-Ḥet Ȧnes - A god 𖐝]
  • Khenti-kha-t-ảnes - A knife-eyed god who guarded Osiris 𖐝]
  • Khenti-Khas - A god who protected noses of the dead 𖐝]
  • Maa-ảb-khenti-ảḥ-t-f - A god 𖐞]
  • Maa-ảtht-f - A god of the fourteenth Ảat 𖐞]
  • Maa-en-Rā - An ape doorkeeper god 𖐞]
  • Maa-f-ur - A god 𖐞]
  • Maa-ḥa-f - A ferry god 𖐞]
  • Maa-mer-f - God of the twenty-sixth day of the month 𖐞]
  • Men-t - A god 𖐟]
  • Meni - A god 𖐟]
  • Menyu - A god of the fifth month 𖐟]
  • Menu-nesu-Ḩeru - A warrior bull god 𖐟]
  • Menu-qeṭ - God of the first Ảat 𖐟]
  • Meţ-en-Ảsảr - A serpent god 𖐠]
  • Meţ-ḥer - A god of the dead 𖐠]
  • Meṭes - A god 𖐠]
  • Meţes - A doorkeeper god 𖐠]
  • Meţes-ảb - An ibis headed god 𖐠]
  • Meṭes-neshen - A god 𖐠]
  • Meţi - A hawk headed god 𖐠]
  • Meţni - A hippopotamus god of evil 𖐠]
  • Meţu-ta-f - A god 𖐠]
  • Neb - A goose god 𖐡]
  • Neb ảa - A singing god of dawn 𖐡]
  • Neb ảmakh - A god who towed the boat of Ảf 𖐡]
  • Neb ankh - A singing god of dawn 𖐢]
  • Neb āq-t - A jackal god 𖐣]
  • Neb Kheper-Khenti-Ṭuat - A Maāt god 𖐤]
  • Neb Khert-ta - A star god 𖐤]
  • Neb pāt - A god 𖐣]
  • Neb seb-t - A god 𖐤]
  • Neb Uast - A god of the boat of Pakhit 𖐣]
  • Neb-Un - A god 𖐣]
  • Neb user - A ram-headed god 𖐣]
  • Neb utchat-ti - A serpent god with human legs 𖐣]
  • Nebti - A god 𖐡]
  • Nekenher - A frightening god 𖐈]
  • Neter - A serpent god 𖐟]
  • Neterti - A god in Ṭuat 𖐟]
  • Neter bah - A god 𖐟]
  • Neter neferu - A god 𖐥]
  • Neter-hāu - Nile god 𖐥]
  • Neter-ka-qetqet - A god who guarded Osiris 𖐥]
  • Neter-kha - God of one thousand years 𖐥]
  • Netrit-ta-meh - An axe god 𖐥]
  • Netrit-Then - An axe god 𖐥]
  • Serq - A serpent god 𖐦]
  • Unnti - The god of existence 𖐧]
  • Untả - A light god 𖐧]
  • Yuqoriga - An ape god 𖐨]
  • Up-hai - God of the dead 𖐨]
  • Up-shāt-taui - A god 𖐨]
  • Up-uatu - A singing god 𖐨]
  • Upi-sekhemti - A jackal-headed singing god 𖐨]
  • Upt-heka - Enchantment god 𖐨]
  • Upȧst - A light god 𖐨]
  • Upu - God of the serpent Shemti 𖐨]
  • Ur - A god 𖐩]
  • Ur-ȧres (Urȧrset) - A god of a boat 𖐪]
  • Ur-at - A god of Kher-Āḥa 𖐩]
  • Ur-heka - A god of Denderah𖐪]
  • Ur-henhenu - A water god 𖐪]
  • Ur-henu - A water god 𖐪]
  • Ur-khert - A jackal god in the second Ảat 𖐪]
  • Ur-maati-f - A god 𖐪]
  • Ur-metuu-ḩer-ȧat-f - A god 𖐪]
  • Ur-peḥti - A doorkeeper god 𖐪]
  • Ur-peḩui-f - A god 𖐪]
  • Urrtȧ - A god 𖐩]

Ayol

  • Ảmi-khent-āat - A goddess of Edfû𖐓]
  • Ảmi-pet-seshem-neterit - One of the 12 Thoueris goddesses 𖐒]
  • Ảmi-urt - A cow goddess 𖐒]
  • Ảmi-utchat-sảakhu-Ảtemt - One of the 12 Thoueris goddesses 𖐒]
  • Ảmit-Qeţem - A goddess who assisted resurrecting Osiris 𖐔]
  • Ảmit-she-t-urt - A goddess 𖐔]
  • Āpertra - A singing goddess ⏎]
  • Ảrit-ȧakhu - A star goddess 𖐘]
  • Ảriti - A goddess 𖐘]
  • Ba-khati - A goddess 𖐚]
  • Baiut-s-ảmiu-heh - A goddess 𖐚]
  • Ḥebit - An air goddess 𖐛]
  • Hetemit - Goddess of destruction
  • Ḥunit - Goddess of the twenty first day of the month 𖐜]
  • Ḥunit Pe - A tutelary goddess of Buto𖐜]
  • Ḥunit urit - A tutelary goddess of Heliopolis𖐜]
  • Ḥuntheth - A lioness goddess 𖐜]
  • Ḥurit urit - A goddess 𖐜]
  • Maa-ā - A singing god 𖐞]
  • Maa-neter-s - A singing goddess 𖐞]
  • Neb Ȧa-t (Nebt Ȧa-t) - A goddess 𖐡]
  • Neb Ȧa-t-Then (Nebt Ȧa-t-Then) - A goddess 𖐡]
  • Neb āāu (Nebt āāu) - A goddess
  • Neb-ābui (Nebt-ābui) - A goddess
  • Neb ȧkeb (Nebt ȧkeb) - A goddess 𖐢]
  • Neb Ȧnit (Nebt Ȧnit) - A goddess 𖐢]
  • Neb ảri-t-qerr-t (Nebt ȧri-t-qerr-t) - A goddess 𖐢]
  • Neb ảrit-tcheṭflu - Goddess who created reptiles 𖐢]
  • Neb ảs-ḥatt - A goddess 𖐢]
  • Neb ȧs-ur (Nebt ȧs-ur) - A goddess 𖐢]
  • Neb Ȧter (Nebt Ȧter-Meḥ) - A goddess 𖐢]
  • Neb ȧter-Shemā (Nebt ȧter-Shemā) - A goddess 𖐢]
  • Neb ảur (Nebt ảur) - A goddess of the river 𖐡]
  • Neb Aut (Neb-t Aut) - A goddess 𖐡]
  • Neb Bȧa-t (Nebt Bȧa-t) - A goddess 𖐣]
  • Neb ḥekau (Nebt ḥekau) - The goddess of spells 𖐤]
  • Neb ḥetep (Nebt ḥetep) - A crocodile goddess 𖐤]
  • Neb Khasa (Nebt Khasa) - A goddess 𖐤]
  • Neb Khebit (Nebt Khebit) - The goddess of Chemmis𖐤]
  • Neb peḥti (Nebt peḥti) - A goddess 𖐣]
  • Neb Per-res (Nebt Per-res) - A goddess 𖐣]
  • Neb petti (Nebt petti) - A goddess 𖐣]
  • Neb Sa (Nebt Sa) - A goddess 𖐤]
  • Neb Sam (Nebt Sam) - A goddess 𖐤]
  • Neb sau-ta (Nebt sau-ta) - A goddess 𖐤]
  • Neb sebu (Nebt sebu) - A goddess 𖐤]
  • Neb Septi (Nebt Septi) - A goddess 𖐤]
  • Neb-t ȧakhu - A serpent goddess of dawn 𖐡]
  • Neb-t ȧnemit - A goddess of offerings 𖐡]
  • Neb-t ānkh - One of twelve goddesses who opened the gates of Ṭuat to Ảf 𖐢]
  • Neb-t ānkhiu - A goddess with two serpents 𖐢]
  • Neb-t Ảţu - A goddess 𖐢]
  • Neb-t au-t-ȧb - A cow goddess 𖐡]
  • Neb-t Kheper - A serpent goddess 𖐤]
  • Neb-t usha - Goddess of the eighth division of the Ṭuat 𖐣]
  • Neb Un (Nebt Un) - A goddess 𖐣]
  • Nebt Ānnu - A goddess 𖐢]
  • Neterit-nekhenit-Rā - A singing goddess in Ṭuat 𖐥]
  • Un-baiusit (Unt-baiusit) - A goddess 𖐧]
  • Unnit - A goddess 𖐧]
  • Unnuit - A goddess 𖐧]
  • Upit - A serpent goddess 𖐨]
  • Ur-ā - A goddess 𖐪]
  • Urit - A goddess 𖐩]
  • Urit-ȧmi-t-Ṭuat - A goddess of escorting Ra 𖐩]
  • Urit-em-sekhemu-s - Goddess of the fourth hour 𖐪]
  • Urit-en-kru - A lioness headed hippopatomus goddess 𖐪]
  • Urit-hekau - A spell casting goddess 𖐪]
  • Urit-ḥekau - Goddess of Upper Egypt 𖐩]
  • Urti-ḥethati - Goddess of Ánu 𖐪]

Male or female

  • Medjed - A minor god from the Book of the Dead. " 𖐫]
  • Neb au-t-ȧb - A god or goddess in the Ṭuat 𖐡] (needs additional citation for verification)
  • Netrit fent - An axe god or goddess 𖐟] (needs additional citation for verification)

    Book: Petry. The Egyptian gods . 1994. 127. Book: Coulter. Charles Russell. Turner. Patricia. Encyclopedia of ancient deities. 2000. Fitzroy Dearborn. Chicago. 1-57958-270-2. Book: Coulter. Charles Russell. Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities. Turner. Patricia. 2013-07-04. Marshrut. 978-1-135-96390-3. en. Book: Petry. Alan W. Shorter with a new bibliography by Bonnie L.. The Egyptian gods : a handbook. 1994. the Borgo press. San Bernardino (Calif.). 0-89370-535-7. 125. Rev.. Willockx. Sjef. Amentet, Andjeti and Anubis: Three Ancient Egyptian Gods (2007). 25. en. Web site: Mark. Joshua J.. Egyptian Gods - The Complete List. World History Encyclopedia. Web site: GVC09-24: Mystical creatures and gods -Egyptian. winners.virtualclassroom.org. Willockx. Sjef. Amentet, Andjeti and Anubis: Three Ancient Egyptian Gods (2007). 35. en. Willockx. Sjef. Amentet, Andjeti and Anubis: Three Ancient Egyptian Gods (2007). 9. en. Web site: Gods of Egypt. www.touregypt.net. ru. Book: Petry. The Egyptian gods . 1994. 52. Willockx. Sjef. Amentet, Andjeti and Anubis: Three Ancient Egyptian Gods (2007). 5. en. Book: Lorton. Claude Traunecker. transl. from the French by David. The gods of Egypt. 2001. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, N.Y [u.a.]. 0-8014-3834-9. 59. 1st English-language, enhanced and expanded. Book: Petry. The Egyptian gods . 1994. 94. Book: Petry. The Egyptian gods . 1994. the Borgo press. 53. Book: Petry. The Egyptian gods . 1994. 139. Book: translations. translated by Raymond O. Faulkner with additional. Wasserman. a commentary by Ogden Goelet JR. with color illustrations from the facsimile volume produced in 1890 under the supervision of E. A. Wallis Budge introduced by Carol A.R. Andrews edited by Eva Von Dassow in an edition conceived by James. The Egyptian Book of the dead : the Book of going forth by day : being the Papyrus of Ani (royal scribe of the divine offerings), written and illustrated circa 1250 B.C.E., by scribes and artists unknown, including the balance of chapters of the books of the dead known as the theban recension, compiled from ancient texts, dating back to the roots of egyptian civilization. 1994. Chronicle Books. San-Fransisko. 0-8118-0767-3. 175. 1st. Web site: McClintock and Strong Biblical Cyclopedia introduction and main index.. McClintock and Strong Biblical Cyclopedia Online. en. Book: Petry. The Egyptian gods . 1994. 0-89370-535-7. 43. Book: Petry. The Egyptian gods . 1994. 129. Willockx. Sjef. Amentet, Andjeti and Anubis: Three Ancient Egyptian Gods (2007). 14. en. http://mythoslearners.weebly.com/egyptian.html Random Gods: Book: Petry. The Egyptian gods . 1994. 8. Book: Durdin-Robertson. Lourens. Communion With The Goddes: Idols, Images, and Symbols of the Goddesses Egypt Part III. 1979. Cesara Publications. 1. Book: Durdin-Robertson. Communion With The Goddes. 1979. 2. Book: Durdin-Robertson. Communion With The Goddes. 1979. 20. Book: Durdin-Robertson. Communion With The Goddes. 1979. 21. Book: Durdin-Robertson. Communion With The Goddes. 1979. 22. Book: Durdin-Robertson. Communion With The Goddes. 1979. 24. Book: Durdin-Robertson. Communion With The Goddes. 1979. 29. Book: Durdin-Robertson. Communion With The Goddes. 1979. 30. Book: Durdin-Robertson. Communion With The Goddes. 1979. 31. Web site: Aswan History Facts and Timeline: Aswan, Egypt. www.world-guides.com. en. Book: Durdin-Robertson. Communion With The Goddes. 1979. 32. Book: Lorton. The gods of Egypt. 2001. 67. Zecchi. Marco. Chronique d'Égypte. Fondation Égyptologique Reine Élizabeth. Bruxelles. LXXVI. 2001. The god Hedjhotep. 151–152. 5 - 19. 10.1484/J.CDE.2.309159. Book: Durdin-Robertson. Communion With The Goddes. 1979. 37. Book: Nelson. Tomas. The Woman's Study Bible: Receiving God's Truth for Balance, Hope, and Transformation. 2017. Biblica, Inc.. 97. Book: Durdin-Robertson. Communion With The Goddes . 1979. 38. Book: Durdin-Robertson. Communion With The Goddes. 1979. 40. Book: Budge. Sir Ernest A. Wallis. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary (in two volumes, with an index of English words, king list and geographical list with indexes, list of hieroglyphic characters, Coptic and Semitic alphabets. 2010. Cosimo Classics. New York. 978-1-61640-460-4. 24. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary s. 2010. New York. 23. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary . 2010. New York. 46. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary s. 2010. 47. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary . 2010. 48. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary . 2010. 59. Book: Lorton. The gods of Egypt. 2001. 60. Book: Budge . Sir Ernest A. Wallis . An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary. . 2010 . 67 . 20 July 2019. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary . 2010. 67. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary . 2010. 13. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary . 2010. 199. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary . 2010. 474. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hierogl yphic dictionary s. 2010. 472. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary . 2010. 556. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary . 2010. 403. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary . 2010. 336. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary . 2010. 358. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary . 2010. 359. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary . 2010. 360. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary . 2010. 363. Book: Lorton. The gods of Egypt. 2001. 31. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary. 2010. 404. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary . 2010. 612. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary . 2010. 165. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary . 2010. 162. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary . 2010. 172. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary. 2010. 119. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary. 2010. 267. Book: Budge. An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary. 2010. 173. Web site: Taylor. Jon. What is a Book of the Dead?. Britaniya muzeyi. 22 September 2010. 17 April 2015. dead. https://web.archive.org/web/20150417192941/http://blog.britishmuseum.org/2010/09/22/what-is-a-book-of-the-dead/#comment-57. 17 April 2015. Web site: Gods of Ancient Egypt: Hemsut. www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk. en. 2018-04-20. Web site: Hemsut. www.reshafim.org.il. 2018-04-20. https://web.archive.org/web/20180723020706/http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/religion/hemsut.htm. 2018-07-23. dead.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "List of Egyptian deities".


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Izohlar:

  1. Mezigami

    Unda biror narsa. Endi hamma narsa menga ayon bo'ldi, ma'lumot uchun katta rahmat.

  2. Gohn

    I apologise, but it does not approach me.

  3. Northclyf

    Yuqorida aytilganlarning barchasi haqiqatni aytdi. Keling, bu savolni muhokama qilaylik.

  4. Krocka

    WOW .... =)

  5. Attkins

    Kechirasiz, men aralashaman, lekin menimcha, savolni hal qilishning boshqa yo'li bor.



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