Buyuk Britaniya asosiy faktlari - tarix

Buyuk Britaniya asosiy faktlari - tarix


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2009 yil aholisi ............................................... ..61,113,205
Aholi jon boshiga YaIM 2008 (Xarid qilish qobiliyati pariteti, AQSh dollari) ........... 36,600
YaIM 2008 (Xarid qilish qobiliyati pariteti, milliard AQSh dollari) ................ 2,231
Ishsizlik................................................. .................... 5,5%

O'rtacha yillik o'sish 1991-97
Aholi (%) ....... .3
Ishchi kuchi (%) ....... .3

Umumiy maydoni ............................................... ................... 94,247 kv.
Shahar aholisi (umumiy aholi sonidan%) ............................... 89
Tug'ilganda umr ko'rish davomiyligi (yillar) ........................................... .......... 77
Chaqaloqlar o'limi (1000 tirik tug'ilishga) ....................................... 6
Xavfsiz suvdan foydalanish (aholining%) .................................... 100
Savodsizlik (15 yoshdan oshgan aholining%) ......................................... .... 1


Jorj III

Qirolicha Viktoriya oldidan Angliyaning eng uzoq hukmronlik qilgan monarxi, 1760 yilda qirol Jorj III (1738-1820) Britaniya taxtiga o'tirgan. Uning 59 yillik hukmronligi davrida u etti yillik urushda Britaniya g'alabasini qo'lga kiritgan va Angliyani boshqargan. x2019s inqilobiy va Napoleon Fransiyaga muvaffaqiyatli qarshilik ko'rsatdi va Amerika inqilobining yo'qolishiga rahbarlik qildi. Vaqti -vaqti bilan o'tkir ruhiy kasallik bilan og'riganidan so'ng, u so'nggi o'n yilini aqldan ozish va ko'rlik tumanida o'tkazdi.


Bolalar uchun Angliya faktlari

1. Angliya nima - Angliya ta'rifi

  • Angliya Buyuk Britaniya tarkibiga kiruvchi to'rtta davlatdan biridir.
  • Uels va Shotlandiya bilan chegaradosh Britaniya orollarida joylashgan.
  • Uning poytaxti London, Manchester, Birmingem, Bristol va Liverpul boshqa yirik shaharlar.
  • Angliya Uels, Shotlandiya va Shimoliy Irlandiya bilan birgalikda Buyuk Britaniya va Shimoliy Irlandiya Birlashgan Qirolligini (qisqacha Buyuk Britaniya yoki Buyuk Britaniya deb ta'riflanadi) tashkil qiladi.

2. Angliya mamlakat yoki shtatmi

  • Angliya - bu davlat.
  • Biroq, bu mustaqil mamlakat emas va Buyuk Britaniyaning (Buyuk Britaniya) suveren davlatining bir qismi yoki ona xalqidir.

3. Nima uchun Angliya Angliya deb ataladi - Angliya ismining kelib chiqishi

  • Angliya ismining kelib chiqishi qadimgi inglizcha ismdir " Englaland "" Burchaklar mamlakati "degan ma'noni anglatadi.
  • Farishtalar - O'rta asrning boshlarida yoki O'rta asrning boshlarida mintaqada (Buyuk Britaniya) yashagan asosiy german qabilalaridan biri bo'lgan odamlar.

4. Angliyaning rasmiy nomi

  • Shtatning rasmiy va to'liq nomi - Angliya, Shotlandiya, Uels va Shimoliy Irlandiya TheBuyuk Britaniya va Shimoliy Irlandiya Birlashgan Qirolligi .

5. Angliya qayerda - Angliya Manzil

6. Angliya qaysi davlatda

  • Angliya suveren davlat yoki Buyuk Britaniya va Shimoliy Irlandiya Birlashgan Qirolligining bir qismidir.

7. Angliya qachon davlatga aylandi

8. Angliya mamlakat sifatida necha yoshda

9. Buyuk Britaniya va Angliya

10. Angliya bayrog'i haqidagi faktlar

  • Angliya bayrog'i oq fonda qizil rangli xochga ega.
  • Bayroqdagi xoch Sent -Jorj xochidan (yoki Sankt -Jorj xochidan) olingan.
  • Bu xoch Sent -Jorj bilan geraldryada o'rta asrlarning oxiridan bog'langan.
  • Sankt -Jorj harbiy avliyo edi, u ko'pincha salibchi sifatida tasvirlangan.
  • Angliya bayrog'idagi qizil xoch ham Union Jack yoki Union Flag (Buyuk Britaniyaning milliy bayrog'i) ning bir qismidir.

11. Bolalar tarixi uchun Angliya tarixi - Angliya tarixi faktlari

  • Angliyada odamlar 800000 yildan ko'proq vaqt oldin yashab kelmoqdalar, bu Happisburgda oyoq izlari va tosh asboblarning topilishi natijasida aniqlangan.
  • Odamlar yashashining davomi oxirgi muzlik davri (LGP) oxirida (taxminan 115000 - 11700 yil oldin) taxminan 13000 yilga to'g'ri keladi.
  • Angliyada mezolit, neolit ​​va bronza davriga mansub ko'plab arxeologik yodgorliklar mavjud, masalan, Aveberi va Stounxenj.
  • Temir davrida keltlar inglizlar nomi bilan mashhur bo'lgan Angliya aholisi edi.
  • Miloddan avvalgi 43 -yilda Buyuk Britaniyani asta -sekin bosib olish jarayoni imperator Klavdiy hukmronligi ostida boshlandi.
  • Miloddan avvalgi 410 yilgacha rimliklar butun Angliya va Uelsni o'z ichiga olgan Britannia provinsiyasini boshqargan.
  • Buyuk Britaniyada Rim hukmronligi tugagach, Angliya-Angliya-Sakson joylashuvi jarayoni boshlandi, bu odamlarning madaniyati va tilini roman-ingliz tilidan german tiliga o'zgartirdi.
  • Anglo-saksonlar tomonidan bir nechta qirolliklar tashkil etildi va oldingi ingliz tilining o'rnini bosadigan eski ingliz tili joriy etildi.
  • Anglo-saksonlar bir-biri bilan va Britaniyaning vorisi bo'lgan Kornuoll, Uels va Old Shimolda urushlar olib borishdi.
  • Miloddan avvalgi 800 yildan keyin vikinglarning takroriy bosqinlari shimoliy shimoliylarni hozirgi Angliya hududining katta qismiga joylashtirishga olib keldi.
  • Bu davrda ba'zi hukmdorlar ingliz-saksonlarning ko'plab qirolliklarini vikinglarga qarshi birlashtirishga harakat qilishdi.
  • Bu sa'y -harakatlar tufayli Angliya Qirolligi X asrda vujudga keldi.
  • 1066 yilda Normanlar Angliyani 1066 yildan 1087 yilgacha boshqargan Normandiya gersogi Uilyam II (shuningdek Uilyam Fathchi deb ham ataladi) boshchiligida Angliyani zabt etdilar.
  • 1135 yildan 1154 yilgacha Anarxiya deb nomlanuvchi mintaqada voris inqirozlari davri bo'lgan.
  • Anarxiya davridan keyin Angliya Plantagenet uyi nazoratiga o'tdi.
  • 1337 yildan 1453 yilgacha Angliyaning Plantagenet uyi va Fransiyaning Valois uyi o'rtasida bir qator janglar bo'lib o'tdi. Yuz yillik urush.
  • Dan keyin Yuz yillik urush Angliya "atirgullar urushi" deb nomlanuvchi taxtni boshqarish uchun o'z ixtiloflarida qatnashdi.
  • Plantagenet uyi ikkita raqib filialga bo'lingan: Lankaster uyi va York uyi.
  • Atirgullar urushi 1485 yilda Lenkasterlar uyi Genri Tudor tomonidan Tudor sulolasi o'rnatilishi bilan tugadi.
  • Tudorlar uyi keyinchalik Styuartlar xonadonidan keyin Angliyani mustamlakachi davlatga aylantirdi.
  • Styuart sulolasi davrida 1642 yildan 1651 yilgacha ingliz fuqarolar urushi deb nomlanuvchi qirolichilar va parlamentariylar o'rtasida qurolli to'qnashuvlar sodir bo'lgan.
  • Urush natijasida qirol Karl I qatl qilindi va bir qator respublika hukumatlari o'rnatildi.
  • Birinchi hukumat Angliya Hamdo'stligi deb nomlanadi, 1649 yildan 1653 yilgacha parlamentli respublika edi.
  • Bu hukumat keyinchalik 1653 yildan 1659 yilgacha Oliver Kromvel boshchiligidagi harbiy diktatura bo'lgan Protektorat bilan almashtirildi.
  • 1660 yilda Styuartlar taxtga qaytdilar, ammo bu 1688 yildagi inqilobda ag'darilgan yana bir qirol Jeyms II (ulug'vor inqilob deb ham ataladi).
  • 1707 yilda Angliya (Uels ham tarkibiga kiradi) Shotlandiya bilan birlashdi va "Buyuk Britaniya" deb nomlanuvchi yagona suveren davlatni tashkil etdi.
  • Sanoat inqilobidan keyin Buyuk Britaniya tarixdagi eng buyuk mustamlakachi imperiya sifatida hukmronlik qildi.
  • Biroq, Birinchi va Ikkinchi jahon urushlari tufayli Buyuk Britaniya kuchsizlanib, deyarli barcha chet el mustamlakalari mustaqillikka erishdi va suveren davlatlarga aylandi.

12. Angliya tarixi haqida qiziqarli ma'lumotlar

  • 16 -asrda texni qirol Genrix VIII erkaklar soqoliga kiritgan.
  • 1944 yildan keyin 1735 yildagi Jodugarlik qonuniga binoan hech bir ingliz ayol sudlanmagan.
  • 19 -asrning boshlarida Britaniya hukumati 40% qismini qullar ozodligi uchun sarflagan.
  • Kolbasa 19 -asrda "sirli sumkalar" sifatida ham tanilgan.

13. Angliyaning geografik xususiyatlari - Angliya geografiya faktlari

  • Angliya Buyuk Britaniya orolining qariyb 65 foizini egallaydi, shuningdek, Sitsiliya va Uayt orollarini o'z ichiga oladi.
  • G'arbiy tomondan Angliya Uels bilan, shimoldan esa Shotlandiya bilan chegaradosh.
  • Shuningdek, Angliyada Atlantika okeanining Shimoliy dengizi, Irland dengizi va Seltik dengizi, Bristol kanali va Angliya kanali bo'ylab keng qirg'oq chizig'i mavjud.
  • Sohil chizig'ining butun uzunligi 3,246 km (2,016 milya).
  • Angliyaning geografik markazi Birmingemdan 51 km janubi -sharqda joylashgan.
  • Ko'l tumanida joylashgan Scafell Pike tog'i - dengiz sathidan 3,208 fut (978 metr) baland bo'lgan eng baland joy.
  • Eng past joy dengiz sathidan -13 fut (-4 metr) pastda joylashgan "Fens" deb nomlangan botqoqli hududda joylashgan.
  • Angliyani asosan ikkita geografik zonaga bo'lish mumkin:
    • Tog'li hudud: tekislik va vodiylarga ega bo'lgan qoyali tepaliklar va eroziyaga uchragan tog'lar bilan ajralib turadi. Bu zonaning iqlimi ko'proq yog'ingarchilik va quyosh nuri tushmasligi tufayli sovuqroq. Bu zonaga Kumbrian tog'lari, Pennin tog'lari va Leyk okrugi tog'lari kiradi. Kornuoll va Devon tumanlari tog'li hududda joylashgan.
    • Pasttekislik zonasi Chiltern tepaliklari, Cotswold Hills, North Downs va South Downs kiradi. Bu zonada tog'li zonaga qaraganda quyosh nuri ko'p va yog'ingarchilik nisbatan kam bo'lgani uchun unumdor erlar bor. Ideal iqlim va landshaft tufayli bu zona ko'pchilik ingliz fuqarolarining yashash joyidir.

    14. Angliya quruqlik maydoni - Angliyaning o'lchami

    Angliya kvadrat millari

    Angliya qancha

    • Angliyaning janubdagi Portsmutdan shimolda Shotlandiya chegarasi bo'ylab Tvid daryosigacha bo'lgan uzunligi 558 km (346 milya).

    15. Angliya qo'shni davlatlar

    • G'arbiy tomondan Angliya Uels, shimoldan esa Shotlandiya bilan chegaradosh.
    • Buyuk Britaniyada Angliya kontinental Evropaga eng yaqin.
    • La -Mansh kanali uni Fransiyadan atigi 33 km (12 milya) dengiz oralig'i bilan ajratib turadi.

    16. Bolalar uchun Angliya xaritasi

    17. Angliya iqlimi

    • Angliyaning umumiy iqlimi mo''tadil dengiz tipidadir.
    • Bunday iqlim sharoitida harorat yumshoq bo'lib qoladi.
    • Yozda harorat 32 ° C dan oshmaydi, qishda esa 0 ° C dan oshmaydi.

    18. Angliya demografiyasi

    • 2011 yildagi aholini ro'yxatga olish ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, Angliya aholisi 53,012,456 edi, bu Buyuk Britaniya aholisining 84 foizini tashkil qiladi.
    • 2011 yilgi aholini ro'yxatga olish ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, aholining irqiy foizi:
      • Oq 85,4%
      • Osiyo 7,8%
      • Qora 3,5%
      • Aralash 2,3%
      • Xitoy 0,45%
      • Boshqalar 0,44%
      • Xristian 59,4%
      • Dinsiz odamlar 24,7%
      • Dinini bildirmagan odamlar 7,2%
      • Musulmon 5%
      • Hindu 1,5%
      • Sikx 0,8%
      • Yahudiylar 0,5%
      • Buddistlar 0,5%
      • Boshqalar 0,4%

      19. Angliya aholisi

      • Angliyaning 55 milliondan ortiq aholisi bor, ularning aksariyati London, Janubi -Sharqiy, Midland, Shimoliy G'arbiy, Shimoliy Sharq va Yorkshir atrofida yashaydi.
      • Inglizlardan tashqari, Angliya aholisi boshqa etnik va irqiy guruhlarga mansub va ko'p tillarda gapirishgan.
      • Ingliz tilidan keyin polyak tili Angliya aholisi gapiradigan ikkinchi eng katta tildir.

      20. Angliya aholisi nima - Angliyada qancha odam yashaydi

      • 2011 yilgi aholini ro'yxatga olish ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, Angliya aholisi 53,012,456 edi.
      • 2017 yilda u 55 619 400 ga baholandi.

      Angliya aholisi zichligi

      21. Angliyada nechta tilda gaplashadi

      22. Angliya grafligi

      • Angliyada 48 ta tantanali geografik okruglar (ular leytenantlik hududlari deb ham ataladi) mavjud.
      • Biroq, ma'muriy okruglar soni 50 tani tashkil etadi va ularning har birida tuman kengashi mavjud.
      • Tantanali tumanlar quyidagilar:

      23. Angliya iqtisodiyoti

      • Angliya iqtisodiyoti Buyuk Britaniyaning to'rtta davlati ichida eng yirik hisoblanadi.
      • Angliya iqtisodiyoti ham dunyoning eng yirik iqtisodiyotlaridan biridir.
      • XVIII asrga qadar qishloq xo'jaligi Angliya iqtisodiyotining asosiy ustuni bo'lgan.
      • Ammo sanoat inqilobidan keyin u yuqori darajada rivojlangan mamlakatga aylandi.
      • Angliya kimyoviy mahsulotlar, to'qimachilik, avtomobillar, lokomotivlar, dvigatellar va samolyotlar ishlab chiqaruvchi muhim mamlakatdir.
      • So'nggi o'ttiz yildan buyon Angliya iqtisodiyotida moliyaviy xizmatlar sektori muhim o'rin tutadi.
      • London shahri - bu banklar, sug'urta kompaniyalari, bo'lajak birjalar va tovarlar intensiv ravishda to'plangan dunyodagi eng yirik moliyaviy markazlardan biri.
      • Angliyaning rasmiy valyutasi - Britaniya funt sterlingi (£).
      • Angliya banki Buyuk Britaniyaning markaziy banki bo'lgan Londonda joylashgan.
      • O'rtacha Angliya aholi jon boshiga YaIM 22907 funt sterlingni tashkil qiladi.
      • 2016 yilgi hisob -kitoblarga ko'ra, Angliyaning umumiy qo'shilgan qiymatining umumiy qiymati 1,5 trillion funt sterlingni tashkil qiladi.

      24. Angliya hukumati

      • Angliya Qirolligi Shotlandiya Qirolligi bilan birlashib, Buyuk Britaniya Qirolligini tashkil qilgan 1707 yildan buyon Angliyada hech qanday hukumat yo'q edi.
      • 1801 yilda Irlandiya Qirolligi Buyuk Britaniya Qirolligi bilan birlashib, Buyuk Britaniya va Irlandiya Birlashgan Qirolligini tashkil etdi, 1922 yilda Irlandiya orolining ko'p qismi mustaqillikka erishgandan so'ng Buyuk Britaniya va Shimoliy Irlandiya Birlashgan Qirolligiga aylandi.
      • Shundan so'ng Buyuk Britaniyada Shotlandiya, Uels va Shimoliy Irlandiyada assambleyalar, parlamentlar va hukumatlar topshirildi.
      • Biroq, Angliya Buyuk Britaniya hukumatining to'liq hokimiyati ostida qoldi va hech qanday boshqaruvga ega emas edi.
      • Bu vaziyat tufayli G'arbiy Lotin muammosi deb nomlangan siyosiy masala yaratildi, unda Shimoliy Irlandiya, Uels va Shotlandiya deputatlari (parlament a'zolari) faqat Angliyaga tegishli bo'lgan masalalar bo'yicha ovoz berishdi, Angliya deputatlari esa. topshirish tufayli Shimoliy Irlandiya, Uels va Shotlandiya masalalari bo'yicha ovoz bera olmadi.
      • Buyuk London ham hokimiyatni topshirgan.
      • Boshqaruv nuqtai nazaridan Angliya quyidagi hududlarga bo'linadi:
        • To'qqizta hukumat idorasi
        • Mahalliy hokimiyat hududlari bo'lgan metropoliten va poytaxt bo'lmagan okruglar
        • Marosim yoki geografik okruglar

        25. Angliya madaniyati faktlari

        • Angliya madaniyati inglizlarning o'ziga xos ijtimoiy xulq -atvori, me'yorlari va an'analarini anglatadi.
        • Ba'zida ingliz madaniyati va Buyuk Britaniyaning butun madaniyatini farqlash qiyin.
        • Biroq, Angliya madaniyati Angliya-Sakson davridan buyon Buyuk Britaniyaning boshqa qismlaridan o'ziga xos xususiyatlarga ega.
        • Angliya madaniyati o'ziga xos san'at, arxitektura, tillar, kiyim -kechak buyumlari, oshxonalar, folklor, adabiyot, musiqa, ijro san'ati, sport, falsafa, ramzlar, diniy marosimlar va bayramlarni o'z ichiga oladi.

        26. Angliya taomlari haqidagi faktlar

        • Yakshanba kuni qovurilgan baliq, chiplar va qovurilgan bo'g'inlar inglizlarning eng mashhur taomlari hisoblanadi.
        • Olma pirogi - o'rta asrlardan beri iste'mol qilinadigan an'anaviy ingliz taomlari.
        • 1850 -yillarda dunyodagi birinchi qattiq shokoladni ixtiro qilgan ingliz Xosep Fray edi.
        • Dunyodagi eng ko'p iste'mol qilinadigan qulay taom bo'lgan oddiy sendvich ingliz zodagonlari sharafiga nomlangan Jon Montagu sendvichning 4 -chi grafi bo'lgan. U qimor o'yinlariga shunchalik ishtiyoqi bor ediki, bir kuni u o'yin stolida o'yinni to'xtatmaslik uchun ikkita bo'lak non orasiga mol go'shti ilonini qo'yishni buyurdi.
        • XIX asrda Londonda muzqaymoq shu qadar mashhur ediki, shaharda katta muz devorlari qazilgan va ularni to'ldirish uchun boshqa mamlakatlardan muz olib kelingan.

        27. London haqida faktlar Angliya

        • London - Angliya va Buyuk Britaniyaning poytaxti va eng yirik shahri.
        • London, shuningdek, Buyuk Britaniyaning 8.136 million aholisi bo'lgan eng yirik shahri (2011 yilgi aholini ro'yxatga olish ma'lumotlariga ko'ra).
        • Big Ben, Londonning eng mashhur sayyohlik joylaridan biri, minoraning nomi emas, balki minora ichidagi qo'ng'iroqning nomi.
        • Londonda panjabiy, urdu va benqal tillarida 300 ga yaqin tilda gaplashadi.
        • Rimliklar Londonda yashagan birinchi odamlar edi.
        • Mingyillik gumbazi, uni "Gumbaz" deb ham atashadi, bu dunyodagi eng katta tuzilma.
        • London - 1908, 1948, 2012 yillarda uch marta Olimpiada o'tkazgan dunyodagi birinchi shahar.
        • London hayvonot bog'i 1829 yilda ochilgan dunyodagi birinchi jamoat hayvonot bog'i edi.

        28. Angliyadagi mashhur narsalar - Angliya nima bilan mashhur

        • Angliya ko'p narsalar bilan mashhur
          • Uzoq tarix
          • Qirol oilasi
          • Mashhurlar
          • Pablar
          • Tarixiy joylar va qal'alar
          • Ta'lim institutlari
          • Sport
          • Musiqa
          • Iqlim

          29. Angliya haqida g'alati faktlar

          • Britaniya imperiyasi butun tarixi davomida dunyoning 22 mamlakatidan tashqari barcha mamlakatlarini bosib oldi.
          • Angliya shtamplar o'z nomiga ega bo'lmagan dunyodagi yagona mamlakatdir.
          • Angliyada konvertga qirolichaning boshi teskari bo'lgan pochta markasini qo'yish xiyonat deb hisoblanadi.
          • Qirolicha Buyuk Britaniyaning atrofidagi barcha kitlarning egasi.
          • Angliyaning birinchi telefon lug'ati 1880 yilda atigi 248 nom va manzil bilan nashr etilgan.

          30. Angliya haqida qiziqarli faktlar - Angliya haqida qiziqarli faktlar

          • 1519 yilda Vinchester shahri Angliya poytaxti sifatida tanlandi.
          • Taxminan 1760 yilda sanoat inqilobi boshlanganidan so'ng, birinchi sanoatlashgan davlat Angliya bo'ldi.
          • Angliya va Frantsiya orasidagi masofa atigi 50,45 km va ikkala mamlakat ham suv osti tunneli orqali bog'langan.
          • Bu ingliz olimi Tim Berners-Li edi, u Internetning butunjahon tarmog'ini (WWW) ixtiro qildi.
          • Uilyam Shekspir "Romeo va Juletta" va boshqa mashhur mumtoz asarlarni yozgan ingliz yozuvchilaridan eng hukmroni edi.
          • Vindermere ko'li - Angliyadagi eng katta ko'l, uning maydoni 14,73 km².
          • Vindsor qal'asi - dunyodagi eng qadimgi qirollik qarorgohi, uning egalari hali ham yashaydilar.
          • Angliyaning Lids shahri - Yevropaning eng yomg'irli shaharlaridan biri.

          31. Bolalar uchun Angliya faktlari video


          Qirolicha haqiqatan ham sizning 100 yilligingizda kartani yuboradimi? Buyuk Britaniya haqidagi bilimlaringizni Buyuk Britaniya haqidagi 10 ta fakt bilan sinab ko'ring. SkyFlok hozirda mijozlarimiz uchun Buyuk Britaniyada 4 ta xavfsiz bulutli joyni va#8217 qulayliklarini taklif etadi.

          1. Londonning transport tizimi siz o'ylagandan kattaroq bo'lishi mumkin

          London dunyodagi eng qadimgi transport tizimlaridan biriga ega va#8211, shuningdek, eng yiriklaridan biri. London metrosining 270 ta ishlaydigan stantsiyalari 400 dan ortiq eskalator bilan faxrlanadi (eng uzuni Shimoliy Londondagi Anxelda), lekin hozirda ishlatilmaydigan yana 40 ta bekat bor - va bu biz mashhur qizil avtobuslar haqida gapirmasdan oldin.

          2. Stounxenj Piramidalarga qaraganda ancha katta

          To'g'ri, Angliyaning janubida joylashgan va Buyuk Britaniyaning eng mashhur sayyohlik joylaridan biri Stonehenj miloddan avvalgi 3000 -yillarda yaratilgan, deb ishonilgan, ya'ni u Misr piramidalaridan eski.

          3. Qirolicha sizni tug'ilgan kuni bilan tabriklashi mumkin

          Siz 100 yoshga to'lgan odamlar qirolichadan telegramma olishlari haqida eshitgan bo'lishingiz mumkin. Zamonaviy kunda, bu shaxsiylashtirilgan kartadir va bu sizning yuzinchi tug'ilgan kuningiz bilan chegaralanib qolmaydi, siz ham 105 yoshingiz va 105 yoshingizdan keyin har bir tug'ilgan kuningiz uchun ariza topshirishingiz mumkin.

          4. Qirolichaning pasporti yo'q

          Qirolicha Yelizaveta II rasmiy vazifalar bilan 100 dan ortiq mamlakatlarga tashrif buyurdi, lekin ajablanarlisi shundaki, unga pasport kerak emas. Chunki Britaniya pasportlari qirolicha nomiga berilgan.

          5. Buyuk Britaniya Buyuk Britaniya emas

          Bu odatda xato, lekin Buyuk Britaniya va Buyuk Britaniya aslida ikki xil narsadir. Buyuk Britaniya Shimoliy Irlandiyani o'z ichiga oladi –, lekin Buyuk Britaniya kiritmaydi.

          6. London dunyodagi eng katta kutubxonaga ega

          Londonning King ’s Cross -dagi qudratli Britaniya kutubxonasi katalogida 170 milliondan ortiq buyumlar mavjud.

          7. Golf - Shotlandiyaning milliy sport turi

          Bu sport 15 -asrda Sent -Endryusda ixtiro qilingan. 1457 yilda uni qirol Jeyms II taqiqlagan, chunki u kamondan o'q otishni to'xtatgan edi. Shotlandiya hali ham dunyodagi eng yaxshi "havolalar" kurslariga ega.

          8. Shotlandiyada ham mashhur yirtqich hayvon bor

          Loch Ness yirtqich hayvon ("Nessi" nomi bilan mashhur) Buyuk Britaniyaning eng katta ko'li Loch Nessda yashaydi. Bu jonzot, albatta, mifologik bo'lsa -da, ko'p odamlar uni so'nggi o'n yilliklarda ko'rgan deb da'vo qilishgan.

          9. Qirollik to'ylari - rasmiy bayramlar

          Buyuk Britaniya yaxshi marosimni yaxshi ko'radi va bu, albatta, qirollik to'ylaridan katta foyda keltiradi. Oxirgi yirik voqea 2011 yilda shahzoda Uilyam Ketrin Middltonga uylanganida sodir bo'lgan. Ularning to'y kuni umumxalq bayrami deb e'lon qilindi, bu esa qo'shimcha dam olish kuni edi.

          10. Qadimgi tillar hali ham keng tarqalgan bo'lmasa ham gaplashadi –

          Buyuk Britaniyada hozirgi kungacha rasman tan olingan to'rtta kelt tili mavjud. Bular Shotlandiya Gael, Irland Gael, Uels va Breton.


          Buyuk Britaniya geografiyasi:

          • Buyuk Britaniya - materik Evropaning shimoli -g'arbida joylashgan orollar guruhi.
          • Ular Fransiyadan La -Mansh kanali orqali ajralib turadi.
          • Angliya Buyuk Britaniyaning umumiy maydonining yarmidan ko'pini tashkil qiladi.
          • Buyuk Britaniyaning shimoli va g'arbiy qismi chuqur vodiylar bilan ajratilgan tog 'tizmalari bilan qoplangan. Aksincha, Angliyaning janubi asosan tepaliklardan iborat.
          • Hayvonlar va o'simliklarning gullab -yashnashi uchun turli xil landshaftlar va yashash joylari mavjud. Bunga mustahkam tog'lar, bir nechta ko'llar, baland jarliklar, botqoqliklar, plyajlar va o'rmonzorlar kiradi.

          Tarkibi

          Milliy statistika boshqarmasi ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, Buyuk Britaniyaning umumiy maydoni 248,532 kvadrat kilometrni (95,960 kvadrat milya) tashkil etadi, bu Buyuk Britaniya orolini, Irlandiya (Shimoliy Irlandiya) ning shimoliy-sharqiy oltidan bir qismini va ko'plab kichikroq orollarni o'z ichiga oladi. Bu dunyodagi orollar soni bo'yicha 7 -o'rinni egallaydi. [2] Angliya - Buyuk Britaniyaning eng katta mamlakati, 132,938 kvadrat kilometr (51,330 kvadrat milya), Buyuk Britaniyaning umumiy maydonining yarmidan ko'pini tashkil qiladi. Shotlandiya 80,239 kvadrat kilometr (30,980 kvadrat milya) bilan ikkinchi o'rinda, Buyuk Britaniya maydonining uchdan bir qismini egallaydi. Uels va Shimoliy Irlandiya ancha kichikroq bo'lib, mos ravishda 21,225 va 14,130 kvadrat kilometrni (8200 va 5460 kvadrat milya) egallaydi. [5]

          Buyuk Britaniya mamlakatlari maydoni quyidagi jadvalda keltirilgan. Eng yirik mamlakat bo'lgan Angliya maydoni haqidagi ma'lumotlar ham mintaqalarga bo'linadi.

          23.837 km 2
          19,120 km 2
          19.096 km 2
          15,627 km 2
          15 420 km 2
          14.165 km 2
          12998 km 2
          8.592 km 2
          1,572 km 2

          1,709,400 km 2 maydonni egallagan Britaniya Antarktida hududi geografik jihatdan Buyuk Britaniyaning chet eldagi eng katta hududi, undan keyin Folklend orollari 12173 km 2 maydonni egallaydi. Qolgan o'n ikkita chet el hududi 5,997 km 2 maydonni egallaydi.

          Birlashgan Qirollikka juda o'xshash er maydonlari bo'lgan boshqa mamlakatlar orasida Gvineya (biroz kattaroq), Uganda, Gana va Ruminiya (hammasi biroz kichikroq) bor. Buyuk Britaniya er maydoni bo'yicha dunyoda 80 -o'rinda, Evropada 10 -o'rinda (agar Evropaga Rossiya qo'shilsa).

          Buyuk Britaniyaning jismoniy geografiyasi juda katta farq qiladi. Angliya asosan pasttekisliklardan iborat bo'lib, tepalik yoki tog'li erlar faqat Tees-Exe chizig'ining shimoli-g'arbiy qismida joylashgan. Tog'li hududlarga Leyk okrugi, Pennines, Shimoliy York Moors, Exmoor va Dartmoor kiradi. Odatda pasttekisliklar pasttekisliklardan o'tadi, ko'pincha bo'r va tekisliklardan iborat. Shotlandiya Buyuk Britaniyadagi eng tog'li mamlakat bo'lib, uning fizik geografiyasi Shotlandiya materikini Helensburgdan Stonexavengacha kesib o'tuvchi Tog'li chegara yorig'i bilan ajralib turadi. Yorug'lik chizig'i shimolda va g'arbda tog'li hududlarni, janubda va sharqda pasttekisliklarni ajratib turadi. Tog'lar asosan tog'li bo'lib, Shotlandiya tog'li landshaftining ko'p qismini o'z ichiga oladi, pasttekisliklarda esa tekisliklar, ayniqsa Markaziy pasttekisliklar bo'ylab, tog'lar va releflar janubiy tog'larda joylashgan. Uels asosan tog'li, janubiy Uels shimoliy va o'rta Uelsga qaraganda kamroq tog'li. Shimoliy Irlandiya asosan tepalikli landshaftdan iborat bo'lib, uning geografiyasi Buyuk Britaniyadagi eng katta suv havzasi bo'lgan 388 kvadrat kilometr (150 kvadrat milya) da Morne tog'lari va Lough Neagni o'z ichiga oladi. [12]

          Buyuk Britaniyaning umumiy geomorfologiyasi tektonik va iqlim o'zgarishi, xususan shimoliy va g'arbiy hududlardagi muzliklarni o'z ichiga olgan kuchlarning kombinatsiyasi natijasida shakllandi.

          Buyuk Britaniyadagi eng baland tog '(va Britaniya orollari) - Ben Nevis, Grampian tog'larida, Shotlandiya. Eng uzun daryo - Uelsdan Angliyaga oqadigan Severn daryosi. Er yuzasi bo'yicha eng katta ko'l - Shimoliy Irlandiyadagi Lough Neagh, lekin Shotlandiyaning Loch Nessi eng katta hajmga ega.

          Jismoniy geografiya tahrirlash

          Buyuk Britaniyaning geologiyasi murakkab va xilma -xil bo'lib, natijada u uzoq vaqt davomida turli xil plastinka tektonik jarayonlariga bo'ysunadi. Kenglik va dengiz sathining o'zgarishi cho'kindi ketma-ketlik tabiatining muhim omillari bo'lib, kontinental ketma-ket to'qnashuvlar uning geologik tuzilishiga ta'sir ko'rsatdi, asosiy yorilish va buklanishlar har bir orogeniya (tog 'qurish davri) merosi bo'lib, ko'pincha vulqon faolligi bilan bog'liq. mavjud jinslar ketma -ketligining metamorfizmi. Bu voqealarga boy geologik tarix natijasida Buyuk Britaniya turli xil landshaftlarni namoyish etadi. [13]

          Prekambriygacha bo'lgan tahrir

          Britaniya orollaridagi eng qadimgi jinslar-Lyuis gnayslari, Shotlandiyaning uzoq shimoli-g'arbida va Hebridda (boshqa joylarda bir nechta mayda chiqindilar bilan) topilgan metamorfik jinslar, ular kamida 2700 Ma (Ma = million yil oldin) . Gneyslarning janubi va sharqida Shimoliy -G'arbiy Tog'lar va Shotlandiyadagi Grampian tog'larini tashkil etuvchi tog 'jinslarining murakkab aralashmasi joylashgan. Bu, asosan, Iapetus okeanining zaminidagi gnays ustidan 1000 Ma va 670 Ma gacha cho'kkan cho'kindi jinslarning qoldiqlari.

          Paleozoy tuzatish

          520 -da, hozirgi Buyuk Britaniya ikki qit'aga bo'lingan, Shotlandiyaning shimolida, Laurentiya qit'asida, ekvatordan taxminan 20 ° janubda, mamlakatning qolgan qismi Antarktida aylanasi yaqinidagi Gondvana qit'asida joylashgan edi. . Gondvanada Angliya va Uels asosan vulqon orollari bilan qoplangan sayoz dengiz ostida qolib ketishdi. Bu orollarning qoldiqlari Angliyaning markaziy qismida joylashgan bo'lib, uning ko'p joylarida mayda chiqishlar kuzatilgan.

          Buyuk Britaniyaning 500 millionga yaqin janubi, Shimoliy Amerikaning sharqiy qirg'og'i va Nyufaundlendning janubi-sharqiy qismi Gondvanadan ajralib chiqib, Avaloniya qit'asini tashkil etdi, u 440 yilga kelib taxminan 30 ° janubga burildi. Bu davrda Uelsning shimolida vulqon faolligi kuzatildi. Bu vulqonlarning qoldiqlari hanuzgacha ko'rinib turibdi, bunga bir misol 510 yilgacha bo'lgan Robell Favr. Borrowdale vulqonlari deb nomlanuvchi ko'p miqdordagi vulkan lavalari va kullari ko'l tumanini qamrab olgan va buni haligacha Helvellin va Skafell Pike kabi tog'lar ko'rinishida ko'rish mumkin.

          425-400 yillar oralig'ida Ma Avalonia Boltiq qit'asi bilan birlashgan va quruqlik Laurentiya bilan 20 ° janubda to'qnashib, Buyuk Britaniyaning janubiy va shimoliy yarmini birlashtirgan. Natijada paydo bo'lgan Kaledoniya Orogeniyasi Buyuk Britaniyaning shimoli va g'arbiy qismida Alp tipidagi tog 'tizmalarini yaratdi.

          Qit'alar o'rtasidagi to'qnashuv Devon davrida ham davom etib, ko'tarilish va keyinchalik eroziyaga olib keldi, natijada pasttekislik va dengizlarda ko'plab cho'kindi jinslar qatlamlari cho'kindi. Qadimgi Qizil Qumtoshi va Devonda topilgan zamonaviy vulqon va dengiz cho'kindilari shu jarayonlardan kelib chiqqan.

          Taxminan 360 million Buyuk Britaniya ekvatorda yotar edi, u Rey okeanining iliq sayoz suvlari bilan qoplangan edi, shu vaqt ichida Mendip tepaligida va Derbishir cho'qqilarida joylashgan karbonli ohaktosh yotqizilgan edi. Keyinchalik daryo deltalari vujudga keldi va cho'kindi cho'kmalar botqoq va yomg'irli o'rmonlar tomonidan kolonizatsiya qilindi. Aynan shu muhitda Britaniyaning ko'mir zaxiralarining ko'pchiligining manbai bo'lgan ko'mir choralari shakllandi.

          Taxminan 280 yil atrofida, materik plitalarining to'qnashuvi natijasida, Angliya janubi-g'arbiy qismida katta deformatsiyaga sabab bo'lgan, Variskan orogenezining tog 'qurilishi davri sodir bo'ldi. Variskan burmalarining umumiy maydoni sharqdan g'arbga, janubiy Pembrokeshirdan Kentgacha. Bu davr oxirida granit Devon va Kornuoll toshlari ostida hosil bo'lgan, hozir Dartmoor va Bodmin Murda ochilgan.

          Karbon davrining oxiriga kelib, Yerning turli qit'alari birlashib, Pangea super-qit'asini hosil qildi. Buyuk Britaniya Panjeyaning ichki qismida joylashgan edi, u erda issiq qurg'oqli cho'l iqlimi bo'lgan, tez -tez suv toshqini bo'lib, cho'kindi jinslar yotqiziqlarini hosil qilgan.

          Mezozoy tuzatish

          Panjeya Trias davrida cho'kib ketganda, Buyuk Britaniya ekvatordan uzoqlashib, shimoldan 20 ° dan 30 ° gacha. Janubdagi Frantsiyadagi Variskan tog'larining qoldiqlari yo'q qilindi, natijada Yangi Qizil qumtosh qatlamlari Angliyaning markaziy qismiga yotqizildi.

          Pangeya yura davri boshida ajrala boshladi. Dengiz sathi ko'tarildi va Britaniya Evrosiyo plastinkasida shimoldan 31 ° dan 40 ° gacha siljidi. Buyuk Britaniyaning ko'p qismi yana suv ostida qoldi va cho'kindi jinslar cho'kindi va hozirda Angliya hududining katta qismini Yorkshirning Klivlend tepaligidan Dorsetdagi Yura davriga qadar topish mumkin. Bularga qumtoshlar, ko'kalamzorlar, Kotsvold tepaliklarining oolitik ohaktoshi, Oq ot vodiysining koralli ohaktoshi va Portlend oroli kiradi. Yosunlar va bakteriyalar dengiz tubining loyi ostiga dafn etilishi natijasida Shimoliy dengizda neft va tabiiy gaz paydo bo'ldi.

          Zamonaviy qit'alar paydo bo'lgach, bo'r Atlantika okeanining shakllanishini ko'rdi va asta -sekin Shimoliy Shotlandiyani Shimoliy Amerikadan ajratdi. Yer serhosil tekislik hosil qilish uchun bir necha marta ko'tarilgan. Taxminan 20 million yil o'tgach, dengizlar Buyuk Britaniyaning ko'p qismi yana dengiz ostiga tushmaguncha, yana quruqliklarni suv bosa boshladi, lekin dengiz sathi tez -tez o'zgarib turardi. Bo'r va shag'al Buyuk Britaniyaning ko'p qismiga yotqizilgan, hozirda ular Dover va Etti opa -singillar oq jarliklarida, shuningdek Solsberi tekisligini tashkil qiladi.

          Senozoyik tahrir

          63 va 52 oy oralig'ida Buyuk Britaniyadagi oxirgi vulqon jinslari paydo bo'ldi. Bu vaqtda asosiy portlashlar Bristol kanalidagi Gigantlar ko'chasi va Lundi orolining bazalt ustunlari bo'lgan Antrim platosini keltirib chiqardi.

          Taxminan 50 million Evropada sodir bo'lgan Alp tog'lari orgeni Angliyaning janubidagi qatlamlarning katlanishiga javobgar bo'lib, London havzasi senklinalini, janubda Weald-Artois antiklinalini, Shimoliy Downlarni, Janubiy Downlarni va Chiltern tepaliklarini ishlab chiqardi.

          Shimoliy dengiz vujudga kelgan davrda Britaniya ko'tarildi. Bu ko'tarilishlarning ba'zilari Kaledoniya va Variskan Orogeniyalaridan ancha oldin qolgan zaiflik chizig'ida edi. Keyin ko'tarilgan joylar eroziyaga uchradi va London cho'kindi kabi boshqa cho'kmalar Angliya janubiga yotqizildi.

          Oxirgi 2 million yil ichida sodir bo'lgan katta o'zgarishlarni yaqinda sodir bo'lgan muzlik davri amalga oshirdi. Eng og'ir - Angliya muzliklari, muzligi qalinligi 1000 m (3300 fut) gacha, janubgacha London va Bristolgacha etib borgan. Bu taxminan 478,000 dan 424,000 yil oldin sodir bo'lgan va Temza daryosining hozirgi yo'nalishiga burilishi uchun javobgardir. So'nggi 10 000 yil oldin tugagan Devensian muzliklari paytida muz varaqasi janubga Vulverxempton va Kardiffgacha etib borgan. Muzdan qolgan xususiyatlar orasida Shotlandiyaning g'arbiy sohilidagi fyordlar, Leyk okrugining U shaklidagi vodiylari va Norvegiyaning Oslo viloyatidan olib kelingan va qirg'oqqa yotqizilgan tartibsizliklar (tosh bloklari) bor. Yorkshir

          Amongst the most significant geological features created during the last twelve thousand years are the peat deposits of Scotland, and of coastal and upland areas of England and Wales.

          At the present time Scotland is continuing to rise as a result of the weight of Devensian ice being lifted. Southern and eastern England is sinking, generally estimated at 1 mm (1/25 inch) per year, with the London area sinking at double the speed partly due to the continuing compaction of the recent clay deposits.

          Mountains and hills Edit

          The ten tallest mountains in the UK are all found in Scotland. The highest peaks in each part of the UK are:

          • Scotland: Ben Nevis, 1,345 metres
          • Wales: Snowdon (Snowdonia), 1,085 metres
          • England: Scafell Pike (Cumbrian Mountains), 978 metres
          • Northern Ireland: Slieve Donard (Mourne Mountains), 852 metres

          The ranges of mountains and hills in the UK include:

          • Scotland: Cairngorms, Scottish Highlands, Southern Uplands, Grampian Mountains, Monadhliath Mountains, Ochil Hills, Campsie Fells, Cuillin
          • Wales: Brecon Beacons, Cambrian Mountains, Snowdonia, Black Mountains, Preseli Hills
          • England: Cheviot Hills, Chilterns, Cotswolds, Dartmoor, Lincolnshire Wolds, Exmoor, Lake District, Malvern Hills, Mendip Hills, North Downs, Peak District, Pennines, South Downs, Shropshire Hills, Yorkshire Wolds
          • Northern Ireland: Mourne Mountains, Antrim Plateau, Sperrin Mountains

          The lowest point of the UK is in the Fens of East Anglia, in England, parts of which lie up to 4 metres below sea level.

          Rivers and lakes Edit

          The longest river in the UK is the River Severn (220 mi 350 km) which flows through both Wales and England.

          The longest rivers in the UK contained wholly within each of its constituent nations are:

          • England: River Thames (215 mi 346 km)
          • Scotland: River Tay (117 mi 188 km)
          • N. Ireland: River Bann (76 mi 122 km)
          • Wales: River Tywi (64 mi 103 km)

          The largest lakes (by surface area) in the UK by country are:

          • N. Ireland: Lough Neagh (147.39 sq mi 381.7 km 2 )
          • Scotland: Loch Lomond (27.46 sq mi 71.1 km 2 )
          • England: Windermere (5.69 sq mi 14.7 km 2 )
          • Wales: Llyn Tegid (Bala Lake) (1.87 sq mi 4.8 km 2 )

          The deepest lake in the UK is Loch Morar with a maximum depth of 309 metres (Loch Ness is second at 228 metres deep). The deepest lake in England is Wastwater which achieves a depth of 79 metres (259 feet).

          Loch Ness is the UK's largest lake in terms of volume.

          Artificial waterways Edit

          As a result of its industrial history, the United Kingdom has an extensive system of canals, mostly built in the early years of the Industrial Revolution, before the rise of competition from the railways. The United Kingdom also has numerous dams and reservoirs to store water for drinking and industry. The generation of hydroelectric power is rather limited, supplying less than 2% of British electricity, mainly from the Scottish Highlands.

          Coastline Edit

          The UK has a coastline which measures about 12,429 km. [14] The heavy indentation of the coastline helps to ensure that no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters.

          The UK claims jurisdiction over the continental shelf, as defined in continental shelf orders or in accordance with agreed upon boundaries, an exclusive fishing zone of 200 nmi (370.4 km 230.2 mi), and territorial sea of 12 nmi (22.2 km 13.8 mi).

          The UK has an Exclusive Economic Zone of 773,676 km 2 (298,718 sq mi) in Europe. However, if all crown dependencies and overseas territories are included then the total EEZ is 6,805,586 km 2 (2,627,651 sq mi) which is the 6th largest in the world.

          Inlets Edit

          Headlands Edit

          The geology of the United Kingdom is such that there are many headlands along its coast. A list of headlands of the United Kingdom details many of them.

          Islands Edit

          In total, it is estimated that the UK is made up of over one thousand small islands, the majority located off the north and west coasts of Scotland. About 130 of these are inhabited according to the 2001 Census.

          The largest island in the UK is Great Britain. The largest islands by constituent country are Lewis and Harris in Scotland (841 square mi), Wales' Anglesey (276 square mi), the Isle of Wight in England (147.09 square mi), and Rathlin Island in Northern Ireland (roughly 6 square mi)

          Iqlim tahriri

          The climate of the UK is generally temperate, although significant local variation occurs, particularly as a result of altitude and distance from the coast. In general the south of the country is warmer than the north, and the west wetter than the east. Due to the warming influence of the Gulf Stream, the UK is significantly warmer than some other locations at a similar latitude, such as Newfoundland.

          The prevailing winds are southwesterly, from the North Atlantic Current. More than 50% of the days are overcast. [15] There are few natural hazards, although there can be strong winds and floods, especially in winter.

          Average annual rainfall varies from over 3,000 mm (118.1 in) in the Scottish Highlands down to 553 mm (21.8 in) in Cambridge. The county of Essex is one of the driest in the UK, with an average annual rainfall of around 600 mm (23.6 in), although it typically rains on over 100 days per year. In some years rainfall in Essex can be below 450 mm (17.7 in), less than the average annual rainfall in Jerusalem and Beirut.

          The highest temperature recorded in the UK was 38.7 °C (101.7 °F) at the Cambridge University Botanic Garden in Cambridge, on 25 July 2019. [16] The lowest was −27.2 °C (−17.0 °F) recorded at Braemar in the Grampian Mountains, Scotland, on 11 February 1895 and 10 January 1982 and Altnaharra, also in Scotland, on 30 December 1995.


          Tarkibi

          The "UK" is an abbreviation of United Kingdom, which derives from when its Kingdom had been United.

          Species of humans have lived in Britain, for almost a million years. The occupation was not continuous, probably because the climate was too extreme at times for people to live there.

          Archaeological remains show that the first group of modern people to live in the British Isles were hunter-gatherers after the last ice age ended. [16] The date is not known: perhaps as early as 8000Miloddan avvalgi but certainly by 5000Miloddan avvalgi. They built mesolithic wood and stone monuments. Stonehenge was built between 3000 and 1600Miloddan avvalgi. [17] Celtic tribes arrived from mainland Europe. Britain was a changing collection of tribal areas, with no overall leader. Julius Caesar tried to invade (take over) the island in 55Miloddan avvalgi but was not able to do so. The Romans successfully invaded in 43AD. [18]

          Written history began in Britain when writing was brought to Britain by the Romans. Rome ruled in Britain from 44AD to 410AD. They ruled the southern two-thirds of Great Britain. The Romans never took over Ireland and never fully controlled Caledonia, the land north of the valleys of the River Forth and River Clyde. Their northern border varied from time to time, and was marked sometimes at Hadrian's Wall (in modern England), sometimes at the Antonine Wall (in modern Scotland).

          After the Romans, waves of immigrants came to Britain. Some were German tribes: the Angles, Saxons and Jutes. Others were Celts, like the Scoti, who came to Great Britain from Ireland. English and Scots are Germanic languages. They developed from Old English, the language spoken by the Anglo-Saxons of Anglo-Saxon England, an area stretching from the River Forth to the River Tamar.

          O'rta asrlarni tahrirlash

          A later wave of immigration was that of the Vikings, during the Early Middle Ages' Viking Age. During the Viking invasion of Britain, they set up their own kingdom in north-western England, which the Anglo-Saxons named the "Danelaw", after the Danes who lived there and controlled the land. Vikings from Scandinavia also controlled most of the islands which are now part of Scotland, including the Outer Hebrides, the Inner Hebrides, and the Northern Isles (the Shetland Islands and the Orkney Islands).

          After a long period when Anglo-Saxon England was split into various kingdoms, it was made into one kingdom by Æthelstan (Athelstan) in 945AD. In the 13th century, the lands of Wales were unified by force with England by the wars of Edward I of England ("Edward Longshanks").

          Early Modern history Edit

          Union of the Crowns Edit

          There were hundreds of years of fighting between both kingdoms of Great Britain. In 1603, when Queen Elizabeth I of England died, her closest relative was King James VI of Scotland. He became king of England and Ireland as well as king of Scotland. The kingdoms of England, Ireland, and Scotland had the same monarch ever since. James VI and I was the first to be named "King of Great Britain", and he ordered the design of the Union Jack. The Union Jack has been the British national flag ever since.

          Union of 1707 Edit

          In 1707, the Parliaments of England and Scotland agreed the Treaty of Union, which joined the two countries into one country called the United Kingdom of Great Britain under Queen Anne with the Acts of Union 1707. This union merged Scotland and England into one kingdom. England and Scotland kept their own laws, with English law in England and Wales and Scots law in Scotland. The division between the Church of Scotland and the Church of England continued. Ireland and Great Britain continued to have the same king, but Ireland did not become part of the new kingdom in 1707.

          Modern history Edit

          Union of 1801 Edit

          Scotland and England had already independently had much influence over Ireland since 1200. In 1800 laws were passed in the parliaments of Great Britain and Ireland to merge the two kingdoms and their two parliaments. The country was then called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The Union Jack was changed so that the flag of Saint Patrick (a red saltire) shows Ireland to be a part of the country.

          In 1922 much of Ireland became independent from the United Kingdom as the Irish Free State (now called Ireland). However, six northern counties (called Northern Ireland) are part of the United Kingdom. The country was renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in 1927.

          The new Parliament of Northern Ireland set up in the 1920s stopped working in the 1970s, because of The Troubles. However, devolution started again with the Northern Ireland Assembly after the Belfast Agreement (the "Good Friday Agreement") in 1998. Devolution in Scotland and Wales started the Scottish Parliament and the Welsh Parliament the same year.

          The UK is north-west off the coast of mainland Europe. Around the UK are the North Sea, the English Channel and the Atlantic Ocean. The UK also rules, usually indirectly, a number of smaller places (mostly islands) around the world, which are known as British Overseas Territories. They were once part of the British Empire. Examples are Gibraltar (on the Iberian Peninsula next to the Strait of Gibraltar) and the Falkland Islands (in the south Atlantic Ocean).

          In the British Isles, the UK is made up of four different countries: Wales, England and Scotland and Northern Ireland. [19] [20] The capital city of Wales is Cardiff. The capital city of England is London. The capital city of Scotland is Edinburgh and the capital city of Northern Ireland is Belfast. Other large cities in the UK are Birmingham, Bristol, Manchester, Liverpool, Newcastle upon Tyne, Leeds, Sheffield, Glasgow, Southampton, Leicester, Coventry, Bradford and Nottingham.

          The physical geography of the UK varies greatly. England consists of mostly lowland terrain, with upland or mountainous terrain only found north-west of the River Tees-River Exe line. The upland areas include the Lake District, the Pennines, the North York Moors, Exmoor, and Dartmoor. The lowland areas are typically traversed by ranges of low hills, frequently composed of chalk, and flat plains. Scotland is the most mountainous country in the UK and its physical geography is distinguished by the Highland Boundary Fault which goes across the Scottish mainland from Helensburgh to Stonehaven. The Royal Observatory, Greenwich is the is the defining point of the Prime Meridian.

          The weather of the United Kingdom is changeable and unpredictable. Summers are moderately warm, winters are cool to cold. Rain falls throughout the year, and more on the west than the east because of its northerly latitude and the warm water from the Atlantic Ocean's Gulf Stream. The usually moderate prevailing winds from the Atlantic may be interrupted by Arctic air from the north-east or hot air from the Sahara.

          The United Kingdom is reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It has met some Kyoto Protocol targets. It has signed the Paris Agreement. The British government want the UK to be carbon neutral by the year 2050. [21]

          The United Kingdom is a parliamentary democracy based on a constitutional monarchy. The people of the United Kingdom vote for a members of Parliament to speak for them and to make laws for them. Queen Elizabeth II is the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and is the head of state. The government, led by the Prime Minister, governs the country and appoints cabinet ministers. Today, the Prime Minister is Boris Johnson, who is the leader of the centre-right Conservative Party.

          Parliament is where laws are made. It has three parts: the House of Commons, the House of Lords, and the Queen. The House of Commons is the most powerful part. It is where Members of Parliament sit. The Prime Minister sits here as well, because they are a Member of Parliament.

          Scotland has its own devolved Parliament with power to make laws on things like education, health and Scottish law. Northern Ireland and Wales have their own devolved legislatures which have some powers but less than the Scottish parliament. The Parliament of the United Kingdom is sovereign and it could end the devolved administrations at any time. The UK is a unitary state and not a federation of states.

          Parliament Edit

          The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the legislature, the political assembly that makes laws and decides tax. The British people are represented by members of parliament (MPs) in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom. MPs are chosen in elections. The MPs in the House of Commons decide who will be the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. The prime minister decides who will be in the British Government (Her Majesty's Government). The government is not controlled by the king or queen, but by Parliament. In Britain, Parliament is made up of the House of Commons and the House of Lords.

          Unlike the House of Commons, the people in the House of Lords are not elected. The people who sit in the House of Lords are called peers. Most peers are appointed by the government. There are some who are hereditary peers (who inherit their peerages from ancestors or other family members). Certain bishops in the established Church of England also attend the House of Lords. (The Church of England is the national church in England. The Church of Scotland does not have bishops, and neither Wales nor Northern Ireland have an established national church.) Together, the two houses make a bicameral legislature, in which the House of Commons has more power. In the past, the House of Lords had more power. Before the 20th century, the prime minister was often a member of the House of Lords. As the House of Lords lost its powers, as political reforms tried to improve democracy, the House of Commons became more powerful and the prime minister started always to be a member of the House of Commons.

          After the English Civil War during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector, and the monarchy ended for a time. The British Isles were a republic, which Cromwell named the "Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland". Although the monarchy was restored after his death, the Crown slowly became the secondary power, and Parliament the first. Until the early twentieth century, only men who owned property could vote to choose MPs. In the nineteenth century, more people were given suffrage. In 1928, all men and women got the vote: this is called universal suffrage.

          Almost all members of Parliament belong to political parties. The biggest parties are the Conservative Party, Labour Party, the Scottish National Party and the Liberal Democrats. Members of the same party agree to work together. A party with more than half the seats (a majority) forms the government. The leader of the party becomes the prime minister, who then chooses the other ministers. Because the government has a majority in Parliament, it can normally control what laws are passed.

          The British parliament is in Westminster, in London, but it has power over the whole of the United Kingdom. Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland each have their own parliaments as well, and these have more limited powers. (England does not have a separate parliament.) Scotland has the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood in Edinburgh. Wales has the Welsh Parliament in Cardiff. Northern Ireland has the Northern Ireland Assembly at Stormont in Belfast. There are also parliaments in the Isle of Man and in Jersey and Guernsey (the Channel Islands), which are all island states for which the UK has some responsibility in international law. Man, Jersey, and Guernsey are "crown dependencies". Some British Overseas Territories have their own legislatures.

          The United Kingdom has one of the most advanced militaries in the world, alongside such countries such as the USA and France, and operates a large navy (Royal Navy), a sizable army, (British Army) and an air force (Royal Air Force).

          From the 18th century to the early 20th century, the United Kingdom was one of the most powerful nations in the world, with a large and powerful navy (due to the fact it was surrounded by sea, so a large navy was the most practical option). This status has faded in recent times, but it remains a member of various military groups such as the UN Security Council and NATO. It is also still seen as a great military power.

          The United Kingdom is a developed country with the sixth largest economy in the world. It was a superpower during the 18th, 19th and early 20th century and was considered since the early 1800s to be the most powerful and influential nation in the world, in politics, economics (For it was the wealthiest country at the time.) and in military strength.

          Britain continued to be the biggest manufacturing economy in the world until 1908 and the largest economy until the 1920s. The economic cost of two world wars and the decline of the British Empire in the 1950s and 1960s reduced its leading role in global affairs. The United Kingdom has strong economic, cultural, military and political influence and is a nuclear power. The United Kingdom holds a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council, and is a member of the G8, NATO, World Trade Organization and the Commonwealth of Nations. The City of London, in the capital, is famous as being the largest centre of finance in the world.

          William Shakespeare was an English playwright. He wrote plays in the late 16th century. Some of his plays were Romeo va Julietta va Makbet. In the 19th century, Jane Austen and Charles Dickens were novelists. Twentieth century writers include the science fiction novelist H. G. Wells and J. R. R. Tolkien. The children's fantasy Harry Potter series was written by J. K. Rowling. Aldous Huxley was also from the United Kingdom.

          English language literature is written by authors from many countries. Eight people from the United Kingdom have won the Nobel Prize in Literature. Seamus Heaney is a writer who was born in Northern Ireland.

          Arthur Conan Doyle from Scotland wrote the Sherlock Holmes detective novels. He was from Edinburgh. The poet Dylan Thomas brought Welsh culture to international attention.

          The nature of education is a devolved matter in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. They, and England, have separate, but similar, systems of education. They all have laws that a broad education is required from ages five to eighteen, except for in Scotland where school departure is allowed from the age of sixteen. Pupils attend state funded schools (academy schools, faith schools, grammar schools, city technology colleges, studio schools) and other children attend independent schools (known as public schools).

          There have been universities in Britain since the Middle Ages. The "ancient universities" started in this time and in the Renaissance. They are: the University of Oxford, the University of Cambridge, the University of St Andrews, the University of Glasgow, the University of Aberdeen, and the University of Edinburgh. These are the oldest universities in the English-speaking world.

          The University of Cambridge, the University of Oxford, and London universities (University College London, the London School of Economics, King's College London and Imperial College London) collectively form the Golden Triangle of universities in the south east of England. A broader group of twenty universities form the Russell Group of research universities.

          The BBC is an organisation in the United Kingdom. It broadcasts in the United Kingdom and other countries on television, radio and the Internet. The BBC also sells its programmes to other broadcasting companies around world. The organisation is run by a group of twelve governors who have been given the job by the Queen, on the advice of government ministers.

          Road traffic in the United Kingdom drives on the left hand side of the road (unlike the Americas and most of Europe), and the driver steers from the right hand side of the vehicle. The road network on the island of Great Britain is extensive, with most local and rural roads having evolved from Roman and Medieval times. Major routes developed in the mid 20th Century were made to the needs of the motor car. The high speed motorway (freeway) network was mostly constructed in the 1960s and 1970s and links together major towns and cities.

          The system of rail transport was invented in England and Wales, so the United Kingdom has the oldest railway network in the world. It was built mostly during the Victorian era. At the heart of the network are five long distance main lines which radiate from London to the major cities and secondary population centres with dense commuter networks within the regions. The newest part of the network connects London to the Channel Tunnel from St Pancras station. The British Rail network is part privatised, with privately owned train operating companies providing service along particular lines or regions, whilst the tracks, signals and stations are owned by a Government controlled company called Network Rail. In Northern Ireland the NI Railways is the national railway. The system of underground railways in London, known as the Tube, has been copied by many other cities.

          Most domestic air travel in the United Kingdom is between London and the major cities in Scotland and the North of England and Belfast. London-Heathrow is the nation’s largest airport and is one of the most important international hubs in the world. Other major airports with principal international service include London-Gatwick, Birmingham, Manchester and Glasgow. An extensive system of ferry networks operates.

          Major languages spoken in the United Kingdom other than English include Polish (500,000 approximate number of speakers in the United Kingdom), Eastern Panjabi or Punjabi (471,000), Bengali (400,000), Urdu (400,000), Cantonese (300,000), Greek (200,000), Southwestern Caribbean Creole English (170,000). [22]


          You’ll probably have read some of her books, too. J. K. Rowling, best known as the author of the Harry Potter series of books, has sold more than 400m copies in 55 languages around the world.

          The United Kingdom was the first country to use postage stamps. The first stamp was known as the Penny Black and was issued in May 1840. It’s not as cheap to send a letter as it once was, however – the price of a first-class stamp is now 65p, or a second class stamp is available for 56p.


          Big Ben is the official name of the bell, not the tower.

          One of the most important London facts you have to remember before you visit is that the iconic clock tower attached to the Palace of Westminster is not the Big Ben . The name Big Ben officially refers to the bell inside the tower, and not the tower itself. However, in more common usage, the name also extends to the tower. In the past, people referred to the tower as the “Clock Tower.” Its official name was then changed to “Elizabeth Tower” in 2012, marking the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II. Although it’s one of the most-visited tourist attractions in London, the interior of the Elizabeth Tower isn’t open to overseas visitors.

          Source: Pixabay


          Nation Facts .

          The United Kingdom is located on the continent of Europe, and includes England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The country is a sovereign state whose capital is London. All of the United Kingdom has a population of 63.1 million people, while London is home to 8.1 million people. Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) is fully surrounded by water, with the Atlantic Ocean on its west, the North Sea on its north, the English Channel to the south and the Irish Sea to the west. The Irish Sea connects Great Britain to Northern Ireland. The flag of the United Kingdom is comprised of a white and red symmetric cross with an X behind the cross. Royal blue encompasses the background of the flag. The United Kingdom uses the pound sterling as their official currency through the entire country. There is no official religion in the country, but most people follow some form of Christianity. The official language of the country is English, with numerous different dialects spoken throughout the four countries.


          Videoni tomosha qiling: Uinston Cherchill


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