O'rta asrlarda va'zlar Eski Ahd yoki Yangi Ahd mavzulariga bag'ishlanganmi?

O'rta asrlarda va'zlar Eski Ahd yoki Yangi Ahd mavzulariga bag'ishlanganmi?

Ular ko'pincha Yangi Ahd mavzulariga yoki Eski Ahd mavzulariga bag'ishlanganmi?


Agar so'ralsa, bu savolga javob berishga arziydigan savolga aylanishi mumkin bo'lgan google -ning juda oddiy natijalari bor: http://hcl.harvard.edu/libraries/houghton/collections/early_manuscripts/preaching/


Agar xato qilsam, meni to'g'rilang, lekin men va'zlar Uyg'onish davri Girolamo Savonarola va protestant islohotigacha rivojlangan deb o'ylamayman. Shu paytgacha, menimcha, katolik xizmatlari faqat etti marosimni bajarish edi. Umuman olganda, men faqat ibodatlar o'qiladi deb ishonaman.


Qachon bir tomonlama monolog va'z birinchi marta cherkov yig'ilishlarining odatiy xususiyatiga aylandi?

Albatta, Iso ko'p monolog va'zlarni va'z qilganLekin men payqadimki, Iso odatda deyarli hamma cherkovlar kabi va'z qilmagan. U hech qachon va'z qilmagan, yoki hech bo'lmaganda kamdan -kam hollarda va'z aytgan, hatto kichik va'z aytgan, yoki masalni keyin muhokama qilish va savollarsiz o'tkazgan. Ehtimol, "tog'dagi va'z" bundan mustasno, chunki u hozirgi standartlarga ko'ra deyarli hech kim javob bermay, qisqa va'zaning uzunligi.

Bugungi kunda ko'pchilik protestant cherkovlarida bir tomonlama va'z bor, u erda bir kishi va'z o'qiydi, keyin va'zdan keyin Rabbiyning kechki ovqatidan keyin, ibodatlar, e'lonlar yoki boshqa tadbirlar tinglovchilar tomonidan savollar yoki cheklangan qiyinchiliklar yoki munozaralarga zamin ochilmasdan o'tadi. Buni xushxabarda yoki Havoriylarning ishlarida topib bo'lmaydi.

Bu. Menga tushunarli bo'lib, va'z qilishning interaktiv uslubi Iso tomonidan qabul qilingan, bu biz o'qitish, interaktiv ma'ruza yoki muloqot va'ziga o'xshash bo'lishi mumkin.

Men ilgari Masih davridagi ibodatxonada ma'ruzachi so'zini tugatgandan so'ng interaktiv munozara bo'lganini o'qiganman. Yangi Ahdda biz "ruhoniy bo'lmagan" a'zolarga navbatma -navbat o'rnidan turib gapirishlari uchun berilgan qoidalarni topamiz (1 Kor 14:29). Bundan tashqari, dastlabki cherkovlar uy cherkovlari bo'lgani uchun, men hech qanday ma'ruzachi shaxsiy nutqdan qutulib ketishi mumkin, deb o'ylayman, keyin hech qanday munozara, munozara yoki savollar bo'lmaydi. Havoriylar kitobida xushxabar juda ko'p ta'sir o'tkazgan. Men ham eshitganmanki, Martin Lyuter va'zdan keyin har qanday savolga juda yumshoq va saxovatli javob bergani bilan mashhur bo'lgan.

Xo'sh, qachon monolog va'z odatiy holga aylandi?

Javobda madaniy tafovutlar ham bor. O'sha paytda ko'cha va'zini hech kim yoqtirmasdi va shogird o'qituvchilarining munosabatlari ham mashhur edi. Hatto Iso bolaligida ma'badga tashrif buyurganida ham, uning donoligidan hayratga tushishgani, bizning hozirgi madaniyatimizda kam uchraydigan, odamlarning o'zaro ta'sir o'tkazish imkoniyatini ko'rsatadi. Mening savolim aslida jiddiy tarixiy va ob'ektiv tahlilni talab qiladi.


Xristian apokrifasi Iso haqida bizga nimani o'rgatadi? Mash'al uchun podkast

Bu erda muhokama qilish uchun “ "Apokrif Iso" va#8221professor Devid Brakke, t.f.d.

Quyidagi transkript o'qilishi uchun biroz tahrir qilingan.

Apokrif nima?

Ajoyib kurslar: Dovud, bu mavzuda yangi bo'lgan odamlar uchun, Apokrif nima va ular bizga Iso haqida nima deyishadi?

Devid Brakk: Apokrifa, asosan, siz Yangi Ahdda uchrashadigan bir xil belgilar va odamlar bilan shug'ullanadigan, erta nasroniy adabiyoti to'plamidir. Ular xushxabar, havoriylarning xatlari yoki sarguzashtlari, lekin ularning umumiy jihati shundaki, ular Yangi Ahdda yo'q.

Yangi Ahd tuzilganda, 300 ’ -larda eng qat'iy tarzda, bu asarlarning hech biri kiritilmagan. Ular bizga Iso va uning havoriylari haqidagi dastlabki ikki -besh asrdagi masihiylar Iso haqidagi tasavvurlarga ega bo'lishadi. Xristianlikda juda ta'sirli bo'lgan, lekin Yangi Ahdda mavjud bo'lmagan g'oyalar.

Ajoyib kurslar: Ular, asosan, Yangi Ahddan olingan natijalarga o'xshaydi. Nega ular chetda qolishdi? Ular bid'atchi yoki kufr deb hisoblanganmi?

Devid Brakk: Qadimgi davrlarda biz Apokrifada o'qigan ba'zi yozuvlar bid'atchi yoki bir oz pravoslav deb hisoblanar edi, xristianlarning asosiy xristianlik haqiqati deb o'ylamaydigan fikrlari bor edi.

Ularning aksariyati Yangi Ahdga kiritilmagan, chunki Yangi Ahdni birlashtirgan nasroniylar, bu havoriylar yoki havoriylarni biladigan odamlar tomonidan avvalgi davrda yozilgan deb o'ylamaganlar.

Ajoyib kurslar: Agar men dindor xristian e'tiqodiga mansub odam bo'lsam, ehtimol bu mavzuni haqoratli deb bilamanmi?

Men bu adabiyotda nasroniylarni xafa qiladigan ko'p narsa bor deb o'ylamayman. Ularning hech biri rasmiy xristian adabiyoti emas.

Ajoyib kurslar: Siz apokrifa atrofida biroz tortishuvlar borligini aytgan edingiz. Bu bahs -munozaralarga sabab bo'ladimi?

Devid Brakk: Apokrifa haqidagi ilmiy munozaralarga sabab bo'ladigan narsa bu Apokrifani qanday aniq belgilash, biz bu atamani ishlatganda nimani anglatishi va unga nima kiritilishi kerak va nima kiritilmasligi, chunki xristian adabiyoti hozirgacha davom etmoqda.

Agar biz faqat adabiyot, musiqa, san'at va hatto Iso va Yangi Ahdda bo'lmagan havoriylar tasvirlangan filmlar haqida o'ylayotgan bo'lsak, u hozirgi kungacha davom etadi.

Yangi Ahd Apokrifasi haqida gapirganda, masalaning bir qismi u qachon to'xtaydi? Siz nimani kiritishingiz va kiritmasligingiz kerak? Uning bir qismi siz kiritgan narsalar haqidagi oddiy ilmiy bahsdir.

Apokrifaning alohida asarlarida, odatda, Yangi Ahdda bo'lmagan Iso yoki havoriylar haqidagi ma'lumotlarga kirishga ruxsat beradimi yoki yo'qmi, ko'pincha tortishuvlar bo'ladi, bu haqiqatan ham to'g'ri.

Bunga yaxshi misol Tomas Xushxabari, qaysi Isoning Yangi Ahdda ko'rinmaydigan ko'p narsalarni muhokama qiladi. Olimlar orasida shunday savol tug'iladi: Bularni kitobda qiling Tomas Xushxabari Isoga qaytmoqchimisiz? Tarixchilar bu borada kurashadilar. Hamma ham rozi emas.

Shaxsiy matnlar haqida tortishuvlar bor, keyin "Apokrifa" ni tashkil etuvchi barcha masala bor.

Ajoyib kurslar: Apokrif nasroniylik haqidagi zamonaviy e'tiqod va tushunchalarni qanday shakllantirdi?

Devid Brakk: Erta nasroniylik haqida biz bilgan ba'zi g'oyalar va narsalar, aslida, Yangi Ahddan emas, balki Apokrifadan kelib chiqadi. Bu eng keng tarqalgan g'oyalarning ba'zilari, Butrusni tepaga xochga mixlash kabi narsalardir. Har bir masihiy bu g'oyadan xabardor emas, lekin ko'p masihiylar buni bilishadi va ular Butrus bilan bo'lgan voqea deb o'ylashadi, lekin Yangi Ahd bizga bu haqda hech narsa demaydi. Bu aslida apokrif matnida uchraydi Butrusning harakatlari.

Biz Isoning oilasi, Maryam va Yusuf haqida o'ylaydigan an'anaviy narsalarning ko'pi, masalan, Yusuf Maryamdan ancha katta yoki Isoning aka -uka va opa -singillari aslida Jozefning oldingi nikohdan bolalari va boshqalar. bu fikrlarning hammasi Yangi Ahdda emas, balki Apokrifda topilgan. Iso va uning havoriylari haqida haqiqat deb o'ylagan ko'p narsalar aslida apokrif adabiyotidan olingan.

Ajoyib kurslar: Xristianlarning shahvoniylik va nikohga bo'lgan munosabati Iso vafotidan keyingi birinchi asrlarda shakllangan edi. Apokrifadan ular haqida nimani bilib olamiz?

Devid Brakk: Apokrifada odamlar turmushga chiqayotgani yoki uylanmaganligi haqida ko'plab hikoyalar mavjud.

Biz havoriylarning apokrifik harakatlari deb ataydigan narsalarning ko'pi, bu havoriylarning so'zlarini va'z qilish uchun yuborganidan so'ng, havoriylarning sarguzashtlari haqidagi hikoyalar, ayollarning nasroniylikni qabul qilib, keyin erlarini tashlab ketishga yoki ular bilan jinsiy aloqa qilmaslikka qaror qilishlarini tasvirlaydi. , yoki hech qachon birinchi navbatda turmushga chiqmang.

Ba'zi apokrifiy xushxabar, ayniqsa, yo'qolgan xabar Misrliklarning xushxabari, Iso Masihiylarning turmush qurish va ko'paytirish to'g'ri yoki yo'qligi masalalarini muhokama qildimi? Xristian Apokrifasi nasroniylar qanday qilib diniy bitimlar emas, balki ular qanday munozara qilishayotganiga qaraydi. Tweet qilish uchun bosing Apokrif matnlari bizga nasroniylik - bu uylanish, oila qurish va bu nima qilish kerak, degan masihiylar bilan bu masalalar bo'yicha xristian munozaralariga kirish imkonini beradi.

Boshqa nasroniylar, "Xristianlik bu dunyodan ajralib, ma'naviy va samoviy masalalarga e'tibor qaratish, turmush qurish, oila qurish va shunga o'xshash ishlarni qilmaslikdir", deb bahslashadi. ”

Xristian apokrifasi - bu nasroniylar bu masalalarni qanday bahslashayotganini ko'rib chiqishning qiziqarli usuli, chunki, albatta, ular ilohiy dalillar keltiradigan diniy risolalar emas, aksincha, ular bu g'oyalarni qiziqarli tarzda o'ynaydigan hikoyalar.

Erta nasroniylikda ayollarning o'rni

Ajoyib kurslar: Apokrifa bizga erta nasroniylikdagi ayollarning o'rni haqida nimalarni aytib berishi mumkin. Siz hikoyalar haqida gapirganda, men bu haqda o'ylardim Pavlusning xushxabari va Tekla.

Devid Brakk: Bilasizmi, apokrif adabiyoti - bu xristianlar ko'pincha Yangi Ahdda ko'zga tashlanmaydigan yoki u erda ko'rinmaydigan belgilar va odamlar haqida o'ylashi mumkin bo'lgan joy va bu belgilarning ko'pchiligi ayollardir.

Ichida Pavlusning harakatlari, deb nomlangan qism bor Pol va Tekla harakatlari unda Pavlusning uylanish fikridan voz kechgan, ayniqsa, fidoyi shogirdi Tekla bor. U Pavlusga ergashish niyatini buzdi va oxir -oqibat Pol uni Xudoning kalomini o'qituvchi va voiz qilib yubordi.

Bunday matnda biz ko'rgan narsalar, ba'zi nasroniylar ayollar va'z qilishi va ta'lim berishi mumkinligiga ishonishgan. Yana bir bor, matn bunga dalil keltirmaydi ’. Bu ayollar nima qilishi kerakligi haqidagi teologik diskvalifikatsiya emas. Buning o'rniga, taniqli ayolning bunday narsalar bilan shug'ullanishi haqida hikoya qilinadi.

Ayollarning roli - bu apokrif adabiyoti bizga erta nasroniylik olamiga kirish yo'lini beradigan boshqa sohadir, uni boshqa adabiyot turlari ko'rmaydi.

Tomas Xushxabari

Ajoyib kurslar: Ayniqsa, qiziqtirgan apokrifiy asar - bu Tomas Xushxabari, siz aytasiz, nasroniylik tomonidan qabul qilinmagan “yo'lni ifodalaydi. Siz bu bilan nima demoqchisiz?

Devid Brakk: Yangi Ahddan biz o'rgangan xushxabarlardan birinchi farqi shundaki, u Iso haqida hech qanday hikoya qilmaydi. Iso haqiqatan ham hech narsa qilmaydi. Buning o'rniga, u hamma narsani o'rgatadi. Bu faqat Isoning so'zlari to'plami.

Agar siz o'qiyotgan bo'lsangiz Tomas Xushxabari, siz Iso va uning xizmatlari haqida hech narsa bilmas edingiz va, eng avvalo, Tomas Xushxabari Siz Iso qanday o'lgani, Pontiy Pilat ostida xochga mixlangani va odamlarning gunohlari uchun o'lgani haqida hech narsa bilmayapsiz.

Buni nima qiladi Tomas Xushxabari nasroniylik ichidagi najot uchun har xil yo'l. Bu Yangi Ahd xushxabaridan va xristian an'analarining ko'pchiligidan farq qiladi Tomas Xushxabari Iso xochda ular uchun o'lib odamlarni qutqarishini o'rgatmaydi. Buning o'rniga, Iso odamlarga haqiqatni, Xudo va o'zlari haqidagi bilimlarni Uning so'zlari orqali ochib beradi.

Siz Isoning so'zlarini eshitib, o'qib va ​​ularni tushunishga harakat qilib qutqarilasiz. Siz Isoning o'limi va tirilishiga ishonib, najot topmaysiz. Bu najot nimani anglatishini va Masih nima qilgani haqida juda boshqacha tushuncha.

Yangi Ahdga Tomas Xushxabarini kiritmaslik va uning o'rniga boshqa xushxabarlarni kiritish orqali, xristianlik rahbarlari, shubhasiz, sirli yo'lni emas, balki o'sha yo'nalishda ketishni tanladilar. Tomas Xushxabari ifodalaydi.

Pontiy Pilatning hikoyasi

Ajoyib kurslar: Siz Pontiy Pilatni eslatdingiz. Apokriflarning ba'zilari uni, hatto Isoni o'limga yuborgan Rim gubernatori, avliyo sifatida tasvirlashadi. Nega xristianlik g'oyalari shakllanayotgan bo'lsa ham, nega xristianlar bunday narsa yozishadi?

Devid Brakk: Bu Pilat haqida juda qiziq narsa. Siz uni Iso haqidagi hikoyaning buyuk yovuzi deb bilasiz deb o'ylar edingiz, chunki u Isoni o'ldirishni buyurgan edi, lekin aslida Iso hikoyasining buyuk yovuzi Isoga xiyonat qilgan Yahudadir. Isoning yomon shogirdi.

Ikkinchidan, o'sha paytdagi yahudiy rahbarlari nasroniylarga yomon odamlar sifatida qaraydilar. Xristianlarning fikricha, yahudiylar bu ularning Masihligini tan olishlari va uni Pilatga topshirmasliklari kerak edi.

Nima bo'ladi, xristianlar Pilatni avvaliga qandaydir noaniq tarzda ko'rishadi. Ular Isoni o'ldirgani noto'g'ri bo'lganini ko'rishadi, lekin ular aytishadi: "Ha, uning boshqa chorasi yo'q edi". Yahudiy va Yahudo uni shunday ahvolga solib qo'yishdi. ”

Vaqt o'tishi bilan va biz xristianlikning ikkinchi, uchinchi va to'rtinchi asrlariga etib borganimizda, tobora ko'proq masihiylar Pilat o'z xatosini tushungan bo'lishi kerak deb o'ylay boshladilar. Yoki u imonsizlar, yahudiy bo'lmaganlar, rimliklar, Pilat kabi g'ayriyahudiylar oxir -oqibat nasroniy bo'lishlari haqidagi fikrni ifodalaydi.

Borgan sari ular Pilatni juda ijobiy tarzda taqdim eta boshlaydilar va ba'zi apokrifiy matnlarni, ayniqsa 300 va 400 va 400 -lardan, oxir -oqibat Iso Xudoning O'g'li ekanligini tan olib, qilgan ishidan pushaymon, tavba va Xudo tomonidan kechirilishi, qandaydir avliyolik bilan harakat qilishi va Xudo tomonidan o'z xatosini ko'rib tavba qilgan kishi sifatida tan olinishi.

300 va 400 -yillarda xristianlik Rim imperiyasining rasmiy diniga aylangani, buning bir qismi. Masihiylar Pilat kabi Rim imperator amaldorlarini ijobiy nuqtai nazardan ko'rsatish zarurligini tobora ko'proq sezishdi. Pilat mavjudotlari xristianlikka dastlab qarshilik ko'rsatgan, lekin oxir -oqibat nasroniylikni qabul qilib, uni qabul qilgan Rim imperiyasini ifodalaydi.

Yahudo Xushxabari

Ajoyib kurslar: Siz Pontiy Pilatning qanday qilib yomon odam bo'lgani haqida gapirdingiz, lekin aslida yomon odam - Yahudo. The Yahudo Xushxabari yaqinda kashf qilindi. Yahudiya Xushxabarini kashf qilish nega uzoq davom etdi va bu jarayon qanday paydo bo'ldi?

Devid Brakk: Xo'sh, biz har doim borligini bilardik Yahudo Xushxabari chunki taxminan 180 yil atrofida, Arenavirus ismli nasroniy episkopi bu haqda gapiradi va gnostiklar yozganligini aytadi, lekin bizda yo'q edi.

Shubhasiz, nima bo'lganida, nasroniy ulamolar uni nusxalashni to'xtatgan. Hech kim o'qishni xohlamadi. Bu Yangi Ahdga kiritilmagan. Bu gnostik edi, shuning uchun odamlar unchalik qiziqish bildirishmadi, shuning uchun bir paytlar u adashdi.

Shuningdek, antik davrning bir nuqtasida, ehtimol uchinchi asrda, u asl yunon tilidan kopt tiliga tarjima qilingan, bu Misr tili, qadimgi Misr tili, va bu tarjimani kopt tilida o'z ichiga olgan ko'milgan yoki qoldirilgan. Misr qabrida yoki g'orida, albatta, hech qachon yomg'ir yog'maydi, shuning uchun qo'lyozmalar asrlar davomida hech kim tomonidan topilmasa, u erda o'tirishlari mumkin.

Biz ishonamizki, bu bitta kopt tarjimasi, bu bitta nusxasi Yahudo Xushxabari, ehtimol 70 va#807 -yillar oxirida topilgan. Nima bo'ldi, uni qo'lga olgan odamlar, albatta, buning uchun ko'p pul olishni xohlashdi.

Ular har xil odamlar bilan muzokaralar olib borishga harakat qilishdi, ular haqiqatan ham millionlab dollarni tashkil qilishdi, lekin bunday qo'lyozmaga qiziqqan yoki ega bo'lishni xohlaydigan muassasalarda bunday pul yo'q.

2000 yildan keyingina, Maecenas jamg'armasi Yahudani o'z ichiga olgan kodeksni olish uchun pul yig'di va uni boshqa olimlarga taqdim etish uchun ishladi. Ular buni qilishlari uchun ancha vaqt kerak bo'ldi.

Qo'lyozma uni sotib olmoqchi bo'lgan odamlarni qidirish bo'yicha olib borilgan uzoq muzokaralar davomida katta zarar ko'rganligi sababli, biz 2006 yilgacha uni qisman ko'ra olmadik.

Qo'rqinchli voqealardan birida, qadimiy buyumlar sotuvchisi, qo'lyozmani muzlatgichga qo'yib, uni yaxshiroq saqlaydi, deb o'yladi. Bu qo'lyozma papirus bo'lgani uchun u o'simlik materiallarini yaxshi ko'radi, shuning uchun hammasi papirusdagi suvni muzlatib qo'ydi. Keyin uni tortib, eritib bo'lgach, hammasi botqoq bo'lib qoldi. Bu qo'lyozma bilan sodir bo'lgan voqea haqiqatan ham dahshatli edi.

Ajoyib kurslar: Bu ajoyib hikoya. Biz qidirayotgan Apokrifa bormi?

Devid Brakk: Xo'sh, albatta ha. Biz o'nlab yo'qolgan matnlarning qadimgi va o'rta asr odamlarining ismlarini bilamiz, to'g'rimi? Biz biladigan ko'p narsalar bor, bizda yo'q bo'lgan har xil xushxabar, harakatlar va xatlar va boshqalar.

Ehtimol, bularning ba'zilari kopt tiliga yoki boshqa narsaga tarjima qilingan bo'lishi mumkinmi yoki Misrning biron bir g'orida yoki qabrida kashf qilinishini kutishganmi? Bu, albatta, mumkin. Ular aniqlanmaguncha, biz bilmaymiz.

Biz ushbu matnda o'rganadigan narsalarni aniq topdik, aks holda biz ularni o'rgana olmadik va ularning saqlanishi yuzlab qo'lyozmalarni o'z ichiga oladi. Shunga o'xshash narsa Jeyms Proto-XushxabariBu, Isoning onasi Maryamning tug'ilishi va bolaligi haqida hikoya qiladi, u ko'plab qo'lyozmalarda saqlanib qolgan, chunki u Yangi Ahdda bo'lmagan bo'lsa -da, xristian tarixi davomida mashhur bo'lgan. Ammo boshqa apokrifiy asarlar faqat bitta yoki ikkita qo'lyozmada saqlanib qolgan, yoki ular parcha -parcha bo'lib qolgan va biz ularni aniqlashga va yig'ishga harakat qilishimiz kerak.

Bu kurs ustida ishlayotganda, men saqlanib qolgan qo'lyozmalar tez -tez parchalanib, kutubxonalarga tarqab ketganda, bu adabiyotni qayta tiklash uchun ko'p mehnat qilgan ko'plab olimlarning hayratiga sazovor bo'ldim. Bu sinfda biz ko'rib chiqadigan ba'zi narsalarni o'qiy olishimiz juda ajoyib.

Ajoyib kurslar: Apokriflarning ko'pchiligi qalbakilardir, lekin qalbaki qalbaki xristian adabiyotida ancha keng tarqalgan edi. Nima sababdan? Siz bu holatni tushuntirib bera olasizmi?

Devid Brakk: Ha. Aytmoqchimanki, bu haqda o'ylaganingizda va ilk nasroniy adabiyoti haqida bilib olganingizda, ajablanarli narsalardan biri - erta masihiylar qancha soxta narsalar ishlab chiqarganligidir. Ko'p masihiylar o'z nomidan emas, balki havoriy yoki boshqa taniqli shaxs nomidan yozishni afzal ko'rishgan. Bu erta nasroniylikda juda keng tarqalgan edi.

Soxta asarlar soni, ko'plari apokrifik, lekin ba'zilari Yangi Ahdda bor, juda katta. Xristianlar nima uchun bunday qilishdi? Shubhasiz, eng asosiy sabab shundaki, agar siz boshqa odamlar o'qishini xohlagan asarni yozmoqchi bo'lsangiz va uning g'oyalariga jiddiy qarashlarini xohlasangiz, ehtimol siz ular mening ishimni juda yaxshi qabul qilishini tushundingiz. Agar men o'z ismim bilan yozganimdan ko'ra, Sent -Pol nomidan yozsam, jiddiyroqdir. ” Bu qalbakilashtirishning bir sababi - siz yozayotgan matnga odamlar ko'proq o'qishi uchun ko'proq vakolat berishdir.

Shuningdek, biz nasroniylikning juda muhim xususiyatiga ega bo'lamiz, ya'ni birinchi bir necha asrlarda nasroniylar o'zlarining eng qadimgi odamlariga, asl havoriylariga juda hurmat va hurmat bilan qarashgan. Agar siz haqiqatan ham o'z fikrlaringizni boshqa masihiylar bilan turli g'oyalar va narsalar haqida bahslashishda to'g'ri deb da'vo qilmoqchi bo'lsangiz, unda siz asl havoriylar o'rgatgan narsani aytish juda muhim edi. Asl havoriy nomidan biror narsani soxtalashtirish - buning bir usuli edi.

Butrus uchun apokalipsis

Ajoyib kurslar: Dante oshiqlari Apokrifada Dante va undan oldingi do'zax sayohatlari borligini bilish qiziq bo'lishi mumkin. Jahannam. Siz ularni ozgina ta'riflay olasizmi?

Devid Brakk: Erta xristianlik ikkita matn, ya'ni Butrusga vahiy va Vahiy yoki Pol uchun apokalipsis, va bu nomlar bilan har xil matnlar bor, lekin bu ikkalasiga do'zaxda nima bo'layotgani, nima uchun odamlar u erda azob chekayotgani va ular qanday jazolar bardoshli va hokazo.

Butrus uchun apokalipsis yoki Butrusga vahiy Ehtimol, u ikkinchi asrda yozilgan va o'sha erda muallif har xil, xususan, butparastlar, do'zaxda azob chekayotgan va o'z jinoyatiga yarasha jazoga ega bo'lgan nasroniylarni tasvirlaydi. Bilasizmi, masalan, agar ular jinsiy axloqsiz va hokazo bo'lsa, ular sochlariga osilgan bo'lishi mumkin. Ular o'zlari qilgan jinoyatga mos keladigan tarzda azob chekishadi.

Dantega haqiqatan ham ta'sir ko'rsatgan matn - bu ’ lar Polning apokalipsisiyoki lotin tilida " Visio Pauli, “Paul ’s vizyoni, ”, bizning fikrimizcha, 300 ’ ning oxirida yozilgan. Bu xristianlar orasida juda mashhur bo'lib ketdi, chunki bu do'zaxning ko'rinishi bo'lib, unda do'zaxda azob chekayotgan va jazolanayotgan odamlarning ko'pchiligi butparastlar yoki yahudiylar yoki xristian diniga ishonmaganlar emas, balki nasroniylarning o'zlari, yomon ishlar qilgan xristianlar, ayniqsa ularning a'zolari. o'z ishini to'g'ri bajarmaydigan ruhoniylar va bid'atchilar.

Shunga qaramay, u har qanday turdagi jazolar turini batafsil tasvirlab beradi. Bu xristianlarga sizning qanchalik yaxshi ekanligingiz yoki cherkovda qanchalik muhimligingiz muhim emasligini aytishga xizmat qiladi. Siz o'z ishingizni to'g'ri bajarishingiz va yaxshi bo'lishingiz kerak, aks holda siz jazolanasiz.

Bu matn, bu Polning apokalipsisi 300 -yillarning oxiridan boshlab juda mashhur bo'ldi. Ehtimol, u yunon tilida yozilgan bo'lishi mumkin, lekin u lotin tiliga tarjima qilingan va ko'plab qo'lyozmalarda uchragan va u Dante uchun mavjud bo'lgan va uning do'zax versiyasi uchun o'ziga xos yadro bo'lib xizmat qilgan. Jahannam.

Albatta, Dante ko'p gunohlarni o'ylab topdi Polning apokalipsisi, lekin har bir gunohkor o'z jinoyatiga yarasha do'zaxda jazolanadi, degan asosiy g'oya mantiqan ham, juda ta'sirli va haqiqatan ham Dante uchun asos bo'lib xizmat qiladi. Jahannam.

Apokrif davom etmoqda

Ajoyib kurslar: Apocrypha asarlarini yozish davri qachon to'xtadi yoki hech qachon tugaganmi?

Devid Brakk: Bu hech qachon bo'lmagan va bu masalalardan biri. Biz bu kursni hozirgacha davom ettirishimiz mumkin edi. Biz o'qiyotgan apokriflarning aksariyati Yangi Ahd tuzilishidan oldin yozilgan, shuning uchun bu 100 ’ va 200 ’ dagi matnlar.

Hali rasmiy Yangi Ahd yo'q edi, shuning uchun odamlar Iso va havoriylar haqida nasroniy adabiyotini chiqarishda davom etishdi. Ular Yangi Ahdda bo'lmagan, Yangi Ahdda bo'lmagan, chunki Yangi Ahd bo'lmagan adabiyotlarni yozayotganlarini haqiqatan ham tan olishmadi.

Yangi Ahd tuzildi, lekin bu nasroniylarning Yangi Ahd qahramonlari haqida yangi adabiyot yaratishda davom etishiga to'sqinlik qilmadi. O'sha paytda ular haqiqatan ham Yangi Ahdga asoslanishayotganini bila boshladilar: uni to'ldirish, to'ldirish.

O'rta asrlarda sizda bor narsa, masalan, Eski va Yangi Ahddagi voqealar ijro etiladigan sirli o'yinlar, lekin ular har doim Injilda bo'lmagan materiallar bilan to'ldiriladi, chunki siz bilasizki, Bibliya yo'q 8217t bizni qiziqtirgan ko'p narsalarni aytadi va bu har xil belgilar haqida batafsil ma'lumot bermaydi.

Bunday adabiyotni yozish davom etardi, hatto hozirgi odamlar ham Iso va havoriylar haqida roman yozishni davom ettirmoqdalar. Ular spektakllar yozadilar. Ular filmlar yaratadilar, ularning hech biri Yangi Ahdda yozilganlarni aks ettirmaydi, lekin ularning hammasi o'z hikoyalarini tasavvur bilan kengaytiradi.

Bu kurs sizni xristian tasavvurining hayratlanarli unumdorligi bilan tanishtiradi.


Isoning boshlanishi va rsquo jamoat xizmati

Luqo 3:23 da shunday deyilgan: & ldquoIso jamoat xizmatini boshlaganida, taxminan 30 yoshda edi. . Tavsiya etilgan tug'ilgan sanaga 30 ni qo'shsak, biz A. D.ni olamiz 24. Bu to'g'ri emas, chunki Iso va rsquo xizmat Yahyo cho'mdiruvchi paydo bo'lganidan keyin boshlangan. Ammo Luqo 3: 1-3da Yahyo va Pilat Yahudiya hokimi bo'lgan paytda, imperator Tiberiya Qaysar hukmronligining 15-yilida, Jon va rsquosning omma oldida paydo bo'lishi sanasi ko'rsatilgan. Pilat milodiy 26 dan milodiy 36 gacha gubernator bo'lgan va Tiberiyaning 15 -yili milodiy 27 -yilga to'g'ri keladi. Shuning uchun Iso miloddan avvalgi 27 -yilgacha o'z xizmatiga kirmagan. Agar biz Yuhannoning boshlanishiga qadar ko'p vaqt bo'lmagan deb hisoblasak. xizmat va Isoning xizmatining boshlanishi & rsquo xizmatining boshlanishi, keyin Iso 27 yoki 28 da boshlangan. U xizmatining boshida taxminan 33 yoshda bo'lardi.


Tarix xronologik emas

An'anaviy amerikalik ta'limotni tanqidchilari, har yili K-8da Amerika tarixining 200 yillik tarixiga e'tibor qaratganini va 6000 yillik insoniyat tarixining qolgan bir qismini o'rta maktabda o'qiganini to'g'ri kuzatishdi. Shubhasiz, bu tarixan savodsiz kattalar avlodidan avlodga ishlab chiqarilgan rejadir.

Klassik ta'lim, tarixni qasos bilan qaytardi! Darhaqiqat, klassik o'qituvchilar tarix fanidan o'quv dasturini isloh qilishning boshida bo'lib, bu tamoyillarga urg'u berishgan:

• Tarix xronologik tarzda o'qitilishi va faqat Amerika tarixidan ko'ra, butun insoniyat tarixini ta'kidlashi kerak.
• Tarixni haqiqiy kitoblar va tarjimai hollar yordamida o'qitish kerak.

Klassik tarixning odatiy o'quv dasturi quyidagicha ko'rinishi mumkin:

1 -sinf: Eski Ahd va Misr
2 -sinf: Gretsiya va Rim
3 -sinf: O'rta asrlar
4 -sinf: Uyg'onish va islohotlar
5 -sinf: Amerika va zamonaviy dunyo

Ota -onalar va o'qituvchilar ushbu rejadagi tartibni ko'rishlari mumkin va ular o'z farzandlari va o'quvchilari o'zlari hech qachon erishmagan tarix oqimi haqidagi tasavvurni rivojlantirishi mumkin deb o'ylaydilar.

Va ular tez -tez bizga kelishadi va nima uchun quyida ko'rsatilgan o'quv dasturimiz qat'iy xronologik tartibda emasligini so'rashadi:

1-2-sinf: Injil va Amerika tarixidan hikoyalar
3 -sinf: Eski Ahd va yunon afsonalari
4 -sinf: Eski Ahd va Rimning mashhur odamlari
5 -sinf: Yangi Ahd va O'rta asrlarning mashhur erkaklari
6 -sinf: Qadimgi tarixni qayta ko'rib chiqish va Gretsiyaning mashhur erkaklari

"Nega siz tarixni xronologik tarzda o'rgatmaysiz?" Va "8221" degan savolga biz har doim shunday javob beramiz: "Biz qilamiz! ” Biz nashr etadigan har bir matn va o'quv qo'llanma, xoh Rim, Gretsiya, xoh O'rta asrlar, tarixni o'rgatadi. o'sha davr xronologik tarzda. Agar siz bir yil ichida o'rta maktab va kollejda o'tkaziladigan jahon tarixining so'rov kursini o'rgatsangiz, biz sizga tarixning barcha davrlarini xronologik tartibda o'rgatishingizni maslahat beramiz.

Ammo, agar siz turli yillarda tarixning turli davrlarini o'rgatayotgan bo'lsangiz, unda xronologiyadan ustun turadigan boshqa fikrlar ham bor. Nima uchun biz tarixning ayrim davrlarini yildan-yilga tartibsiz o'qitamiz, degan savolga javob berish uchun men ushbu maqoladagi 1-2-sinflar uchun o'quv dasturimizdan boshlayman va keyingi maqolada 3-6-sinflar bilan tugataman.

Highlands Latin School/Memoria Press tarixining ko'lami va ketma -ketligini loyihalashtirish uchun biz yuqorida sanab o'tilganlarga quyidagi ikkita tamoyilni qo'shdik:

1 -tamoyil: Birinchi sinf o'quvchilari tarixni xronologik tartibda o'rganishga tayyor emaslar. Darhaqiqat, bu yoshdagi tarixni o'rganish o'tmishdagi muhim odamlar va voqealar haqidagi qiziqarli hikoyalarni o'qish yoki tinglashdan iborat bo'lib, odamlar kashshof, ritsar yoki rim askarlari bo'lgan, yoki odamlar temir yo'l qurgan, piramidalar yoki qal'alar.

Jahon tarixidan hikoyalarni tinglash natijasida olingan bilimlar qimmatlidir. Ammo vaqt - bu juda mavhum tushuncha va tarixning turli davrlari o'rtasidagi xronologik munosabatlar yosh talabalarda juda zaif va umuman muhim narsa emas.

Lekin siz baribir so'rashingiz mumkin: "Agar tarix xronologiyasi boshlang'ich sinflar uchun juda rivojlangan bo'lsa ham, nima uchun baribir tarixni to'g'ri tartibda o'rgatmaysiz? Boshqa tartibni o'rgatish uchun jiddiy sabablar bormi? ” Va javob: "Ha bor. ”

2 -tamoyil: Biz tarixni bolaga moslashtirishimiz kerak, bolani tarixga moslashtirishimiz shart emas. Boshqacha qilib aytganda, "Bilim" ordeni har doim ham "O'rganish tartibi" bilan bir xil emas. Bilim tartibi ba'zi mavhum printsiplarga asoslanadi, masalan, xronologiya, mantiq, murakkablik va boshqalar. O'rganish tartibi tanishdan notanishga, ma'lumdan noma'lumga, oddiydan murakkabga o'tadi. Ta'lim tartibi mavzuni ochib, uning asosiy tartibini talabalar tushunishi va tushunishi uchun ochib berishi kerak. Buni aytishning yana bir usuli - mazmun va ko'nikmalar bo'lishi kerak yoshga mos.

Xo'sh, boshlang'ich sinflarda xronologiyadan qanday omillar ustun turadi? Tanishdan notanishga, ma'lumdan noma'lumga o'tish. Bizning fikrimizcha, 1-2-sinflar uchun ota-onalar, o'qituvchilar va o'quvchilarga tanish bo'lgan ikkita tarixiy davr-Muqaddas Kitob va Amerika tarixidan hikoyalar. Ko'pchilik o'quvchilar maktabga Muqaddas Kitob hikoyalarini erta yoshdan boshlab kelishadi va Amerika tarixi ularning atrofida.

Bundan tashqari, bu hikoyalar adabiyot bilan, masalan, "Kichik uy" kitoblari, shuningdek o'qish, imlo, musiqa va san'at bilan boshqa ko'plab o'zaro bog'liqliklarni ta'minlaydi. Boshlang'ich maktabda o'qish, yozish, orfografiya va arifmetikaga ustuvorlik beriladi. Bu ko'nikmalar juda muhim bo'lgani uchun, tarix va fan kabi ikkinchi darajali fanlarga oz vaqt qoldi. Bo'sh vaqt yosh talabalar boshqa fanlar bo'yicha o'rganayotganlarini birlashtiradigan yoki bog'laydigan tarkibga bag'ishlanishi kerak.

O'tmishdagi o'qituvchilar K-4-da chayqalishni o'rgatish va K-8-da Amerika tarixidan boshqa hech narsani xato qilishgani uchun, bu biz kichkintoylarga Misr, Rim va Gretsiya haqida ta'lim berib, to'g'rilashimiz kerak degani emas. Qachonki o'zimizning Amerika o'tmishimiz haqidagi hikoyalar yoshga mos keladigan bo'lsa.

Jahon tarixi uzoq vaqt davomida e'tiborsiz qoldirilgani, biz amerikalik o'tmishni unutib, qadimgi odamlarga etib borishimiz kerak degani emas. Agar o'quvchilar 1-2-sinflarda Amerika tarixidan bu ajoyib hikoyalarni o'qimasalar, qachon o'qishadi? Qachon bizning bolalarimiz Laura kabi sariyog 'tayyorlaydilar, yoki bobomda tovuqli uy quradilar yoki makkajo'xori qo'g'irchog'ini yasaydilar? Ular Vashingtonning Delaverni kesib o'tishi yoki gilos daraxtini kesgani haqida qachon o'qiydilar? Birinchi va ikkinchi sinf o'quvchilariga bola bo'lishga ruxsat berish kerak. Qaysar va Tsitseron haqida keyinroq o'qishga ko'p vaqt bor.

Although we do not include ancient world history in our formal school curriculum for grades 1-2, we do encourage parents who desire enrichment reading for their children, to read some of the fine storybooks of world history, such as those written by Susan Wise Bauer, and picture books published by Usborne and Dorling Kindersley.

But if you are intimidated or do not feel you have the time in your school or homeschool to study ancient history in grades 1-3, do not be concerned that you are failing to teach history chronologically. There are many stories from America’s past to fill up your available history time, and Benjamin Franklin and Kit Carson are much more age appropriate than Caesar and Cicero for this age anyway.

At Highlands Latin and Memoria Press, we recommend that students copy and memorize beautiful passages of Scripture with the Memoria Press copybooks and listen to Bible stories from your favorite Bible story book. For history we recommend Stories of Great Americans for Little Americans by Edward Eggleston, and the many beautifully illustrated storybooks from American history. In addition, work with globes and maps and learn basic world geography: continents, oceans, major countries, etc. This is quite enough for the primary-age child to learn. This is a reasonable and doable curriculum for parents, teachers, and students.

Understanding the chronology of world history is an important goal. At Highlands Latin, we have developed a curriculum and timeline that we believe achieve this goal by laying a good foundation beginning in the third grade. In a subsequent article, I will explain how our scope and sequence for grades 3-6 uses age appropriate materials to help students develop an understanding of history—chronologically!

Originally Published in The Classical Teacher Summer 2008 edition.


Why and when did Christians start constructing special buildings for worship?

The New Testament speaks of a large church in Jerusalem meeting together in a public space (e.g., the outer court of the temple in Acts 2:46) and in smaller groups in houses (e.g., the house of Mary, mother of Mark, in Acts 12:12). This practice must have been carried on in many cities of the Roman empire. For the most part, the church was dependent on members or supporters (patrons) who owned larger houses, providing a place for meeting. In Rome, there are indications that early Christians met in other public spaces such as warehouses or apartment buildings. Even when there were several meeting sites in a city, the Christians had the sense of being one church. They maintained unity through organization (from the second century on, beginning at different times in different places, one bishop in a city became the center of unity for orthodox Christians there) and symbolic gestures (in Rome, the eucharistic bread was sent from the bishop's church to other assemblies).

Before Emperor Constantine recognized Christianity as a legal religion in 313, corporate ownership of property by the church could be legally ambiguous. It seems that the first property owned by the Roman church were the catacombs. These were not places of meeting, however, but burial sites.

Unless claims for recent discoveries of early Christian meeting places are confirmed, the earliest building certainly devoted to Christian use is at Dura Europos on the Euphrates River in eastern Roman Syria. It was a house that came into Christian possession and was remodeled in the 240s. Two rooms were combined to form the assembly room, and another room became a baptistery&mdashthe only room decorated with pictures. Dura was destroyed by the Sassanian Persians in 256, .

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Most students are eager to get into the action of Revelation as soon as possible. Therefore they tend to skip over chapters two and three in the Book of Revelation without realizing their importance. But the churches give us an almost inexhaustible storehouse of wisdom and knowledge. The seven churches are representative of the church as a whole the number seven symbolizing completion or perfection.

The primary role of these letters concerns what was actually happening in each of the seven local churches that existed during the time of John’s writing. Secondly, their representative character reflect the conditions of the congregation, as well as the individuals within each assembly, found throughout its history. The third emphasis explains their prophetical nature. Many scholars see in the churches seven periods or ages existing from Pentecost until the Rapture.

Ephesus, meaning "desirable," was the backslidden church. The key phrase in this letter is thou art fallen. Although they were commended for their zeal and devotion, their many good works, and the testing of the spirits of those who claimed to to apostles, there was still something lacking in their spiritual perfection. It’s easy for us to forget what’s truly important in the Christian life, until like the Ephesian assembly, we’ve fallen from our first love.

As victors we are promised access to the tree of life symbolizing the eternal and abundant reality found in Jesus Christ. Ephesus represents the apostolic church of the first century.

Smyrna, suggesting "bitter," is associated with the word myrrh and pictures the persecuted church of the second and third centuries under the pagan empire of Rome. According to church history, as many as five million Christians may have been martyred for their faith during this period. Rather than place a pinch incense on the altar and claim allegiance to Rome, they were willing to face losing their earthly possessions as well as their lives.

If we are faithful unto death, we are assured a crown of life. We can be confident as overcomers that the second death will not have any power over us.

Pergamos, denoting "elevated," or "thoroughly married," prefigures the worldly church that began with Constantine and extended to the seventh century. Many view Satan’s seat or throne (Rev. 2:13) as a reference to Pergamos being the center of Caesar worship. Yet there were many in this assembly who remained faithful to the Lord and hadn’t denied the faith.

The doctrine of Balaam has to do with the danger of compromise. Some in this church were tolerating sin in their very midst! Whenever the believer is involved with the world, he is in danger of spiritual adultery.

As triumphant believers, we are promised a threefold encouragement: (1) we will be given to eat of the hidden manna (2) we will be furnished a white stone and, (3) we will be granted a new name written in that stone.

Thyatira, signifying "continual sacrifice," foreshadows the Papal Church of the Middle Ages. In the letter to Pergamos we note the rise of the papacy, while in the Thyatiran assembly we recognize the height of popedom.

There was a serious condition in this congregation involving a woman called Jezebel who was teaching her disciples to commit fornication and to eat food that had been sacrificed to idols. She was a modern counterpart of the Jezebel of the Old Testament who was teaching the servants of God to compromise.

There was also a remnant in this assembly who had not yielded to the immorality and idolatry described as the depths of Satan.

Our promise as conquerors relates to the millennial kingdom, where we will reign and rule with Christ. The "morning star" is none other than Jesus Himself. I might add that according to one well-known Christian author, sexual sin is one of the greatest problems in the church today, involving both leaders as well as laypersons!

Sardis, symbolizing "to escape," depicts the church that existed after the Reformation. Although the movement started as a great work of the Spirit through men such as Luther, Wycliffe, and others, it soon turned into a cold, formalistic, and lifeless movement

The Lord saw them as having a name they were trying to live yet they were, in fact, spiritually dead. Sometimes it’s easier for us to lean on our past glories and reputations of yesteryear! Twice the city of Sardis had fallen due to carelessness and their failure to watch! As a chiild of God a state of vigilance is necessary in every area of life.

In every assembly there is what we preachers call the "faithful few." If you’re part of this group the Lord has given you a threefold pledge: (1) you will be clothed in white raiment (2) your name will not be blotted out of the book of life and, (3) the Lord will confess your name before the Father and His angels.


Reading the Bible in the Middle Ages

For earlier medieval Christians, the Bible was the book of guidance above all others, and the route to religious knowledge, used for all kinds of practical purposes, from divination to models of government in kingdom or household. This book's focus is on how medieval people accessed Scripture by reading, but also by hearing and memorizing sound-bites from the liturgy, chants and hymns, or sermons explicating Scripture in various vernaculars. Time, place and social class determined access to these varied forms of Scripture. Throughout the earlier medieval period, the Psalms attracted most readers and searchers for meanings.

This book's contributors probe readers' motivations, intellectual resources and religious concerns. They ask for whom the readers wrote, where they expected their readers to be located and in what institutional, social and political environments they belonged why writers chose to write about, or draw on, certain parts of the Bible rather than others, and what real-life contexts or conjunctures inspired them why the Old Testament so often loomed so large, and how its law-books, its histories, its prophetic books and its poetry were made intelligible to readers, hearers and memorizers. This book's contributors, in raising so many questions, do justice to both uniqueness and diversity.


Were sermons in the Middle Ages devoted to Old Testament or New Testament subjects? - Tarix

Arxeologik va Injil tadqiqotlari orqali Injilning tarixiy ishonchliligini ko'rsatishga bag'ishlangan xristian apologetika vazirligi.

Tadqiqot mavzulari

Tadqiqot toifalari

Injil arxeologiyasidagi ajoyib kashfiyotlar
Qadimgi qo'lyozmalar, tarjimalar va matnlar
Kitob va video sharhlar
Yoshua davrida Kan'onning bosib olinishi va qozilar davrining boshlanishi miloddan avvalgi 1406-1371 yillar
Zamonaviy muammolar
Bag'ishlanganlar
Haqiqat TV uchun qazish
Miloddan avvalgi 932-587 yillardagi Isroil va Yahudaning bo'linadigan monarxiyasi
Miloddan avvalgi 1446-1406 yillar Muso davrida Chiqish va sahroda yurish
Nuh suv toshqini. Miloddan avvalgi 3300 yil
Ta'sischi burchagi
Umumiy apologetika
Kelib chiqishlarini o'rganish
Qozilar davrida Isroil eramizdan avvalgi 1371-1049 yillar
Birlashgan monarxiya eramizdan avvalgi 1049-932 yillar
Vazirlik yangiliklari
Yangi Ahd davri milodiy 25-100 yillar
Miloddan avvalgi 2166-1876 yillar patriarxal davr
Video/audio
Muqaddas Kitobni yaxshiroq o'rganish uchun tushunchalar
Bibliya arxeologiyasi nima?
Yangi Ahddagi odamlar, joylar va narsalar
Ibroniy Injilidagi odamlar, joylar va narsalar
ABR Media
Va'da qilingan er kundaliklari
Bibliyadagi arxitektura va tuzilmalar
Qadimgi Yaqin Sharqshunoslik
Injil xronologiyasi
Turin kafani
Doniyor 9: 24-27 loyihasi
Misrshunoslik
Xirbet al-Maqotir qazish ishlari 1995-2000 va 2008-2016 yillar
Bibliyadagi tanqid va hujjatli gipoteza
Shilo
Yaratilish va ilk odam davri. Miloddan avvalgi 5500 yil
Eramizdan avvalgi 1876-1446 yillar Misrda Isroil istiqomat qilgan
Miloddan avvalgi 587-334 yillardagi Bobil surgunlari va Fors davri
Miloddan avvalgi 400-eramizning 25-asrlararo davri
Miloddan avvalgi 100-450 yillar
Ahd sandig'i
Rabbimiz Iso Masih va Havoriylarning hayoti va xizmati, milodiy 26-99
Tall al-Hammam dala hisobotlari
Qadimgi dunyo tangalari
Xirbet al-Maqotir tadqiqot maqolalari

Outreach

This article was first published in the Fall 2002 issue of Bibliya va Spade.

The names Tyre and Sidon were famous in the ancient Near East. They are also important cities in the Old and New Testaments. Both are now located in Lebanon, with Tyre 20 mi south of Sidon and only 12 mi north of the Israel-Lebanon border. Today each is just a shadow of their former selves.

The port of ancient Sidon is believed to have been located in this area. The Sea Castle in the harbor today was originally built as a Crusader fort to protect the harbor. It is believed the Castle sits over the site of the Phoenician temple to Melkart.
-Michael Luddeni
Sidon, called Saida today (Arabic for 'fishing'), was named after the firstborn son of Canaan (Gn 10:15) and probably settled by his descendants. The northern border of ancient Canaan extended to Sidon (Gn 10:19). Later, Jacob spoke of it as the boundary of Zebulun (Gn 49:13) and Joshua included it as part of the land promised to Israel (Jos 13:6). Sidon was included in the inheritance of Asher, on its northern boundary (Jos 19:28), but it was not taken by that tribe in conquest (Jgs 1:31, 3:3). Settled from the beginning as a port city, Sidon was built on a promontory with a nearby offshore island that sheltered the harbor from storms. Twenty miles south of Sidon, in the middle of a coastal plain, Tyre (called Sour in Arabic today) was constructed on a rock island a few hundred yards out into the Mediterranean (Ward 1997:247). In fact, the city took its name from this rock island. Tyre comes from the Semetic sr (Hebrew Sor, Arabcha Sur, Babylonian Surru, Egyptian Doktor,) meaning rock.

Located at the foot of some of the Lebanese mountain's southwestern ridges and near the gorge of the ancient Leontes River (the modern Litani), the rich and well-watered plain became the fortified island's primary source or food, water, wood and other living essentials. Apparently the island was fortified first and called Tyre, while the coastal city directly opposite was settled later. It was originally called Ushu in cuneiform texts (Ward 1997:247) and later Palaetyrus ('old Tyre') in Greek texts (Jidejian 1996:19).

The Canaanites

Historical and archaeological evidence indicate both cities were settled by the early second millennium BC and were important seaports long before the Israelites settled in Canaan. Yet, while Sidon was mentioned many times during the Canaanite and early Israelite periods in the Bible, Tyre first appeared as part of Asher's western boundary (Jos 19:29). Specifically called a 'fortified city' in this passage, it was noted as a significant landmark. Tyre does not appear again in the Bible until Hiram, king of Tyre, sends cedar, carpenters, and masons to build David's house (2 Sm 5:11).

While both cities are mentioned in a number of second millennium BC extra-Biblical documents, the most interesting accounts come from the Amarna Letters. Actual letters from the kings of both cities were found among the Amarna Letters (ca. 1350 BC). Zimrida, king of Sidon wrote one (EA [El Amarna] 144, ) or maybe two (EA 145) of the Amarna Letters. Abi-Milki, king of Tyre, sent ten letters to the Egyptian Pharaoh (EA 146-155).

Although the dates of Homer's Iliad va Odisseya are still in dispute, only Sidon and Sidonians are mentioned (17 times: Iliad 6.290-91 23.743-44 Odisseya 4.83, 84, 618 13.272, 285 14.288, 291 15.118, 415, 417, 419, 425, 473). Yet the failure to mention either Tyre or Tyrians may not be significant. At least some of Homer's usage appears to relate the term Sidonian with Phoenicians in general (see also 1 Kgs 5:6 Jidejian 1996:60). It would seem that during the second millennium BC, Sidon was the pre-eminent of the two port cities. It also appears, during the first millennium BC, that Tyre eclipsed Sidon.

This murex shell was fished out of the Mediterranean Sea by a local fisherman and given to ABR director Dr. Bryant Wood when he visited Tyre. Still found in the Mediterranean today, the ancients collected thousands of these mollusks to produce just one ounce of purple dye. It was such a costly process that purple clothing was considered a symbol of wealth and royalty. - Michael Luddeni

The Phoenicians

While Tyre and Sidon were considered Canaanite during the second millennium BC, scholars call the Lebanese coast after the time of the Israelite Conquest of Canaan, Phoenecia. 'Phoenicia' was the name given to the region by the Greeks, from their word for purple. The ancient world's purple dye industry developed from extracting a fluid from a Mediterranean mollusk, the murex. Finikiya sohilidagi odamlar nafaqat bu sohani rivojlantirdilar, balki bu qimmatbaho tovarni O'rta er dengizi bo'ylab etkazib berishga ixtisoslashgan.

Beginning with David, the Tyrian connection became prominent. Hiram, king of Tyre, offered cedar trees, carpenters and masons to build David's palace (2 Sm 5:11). To what extent cedars were used in David's house is unclear, but David did consider his abode to be a palace of cedar (2 Sm 7:2), and God seemed to agree (2 Sm 7:7). Later David utilized the help of Sidonians and Tyrians to provide cedar trees for the Temple (1 Chr 22:4).

Hiram also offered to bring cedars down from the mountains and float them down the Mediterranean coast to Joppa for Solomon's royal construction projects (1 Kgs 5:8-11 2 Chr 2:16), which included both his palace and the Temple. Interestingly, while Hiram continued to be the dominant Lebanese contact, Solomon spoke of the woodworking skills of the Sidonians (possibly just a generic term for Phoenicians?) and builders from Gebal, known by the Greeks as Byblos (1 Kgs 5:18).

Ethbaal was the father of Jezebel and king of Sidon (1 Kgs 16:31). Many scholars follow Josephus (Apionga qarshi 1.121-24 Antiquities 8), who was quoting Menander, and identify Ethbaal with Ithbaal (Hebrew 'Man of Baal'), priest of Astarte who killed the king of Tyre and seized the throne (Jidejian 1996:73, 306). In fact, during many periods, the king of one city seemed to be considered king of the other city by outsiders.

Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, besieged Tyre for 13 years (585-572 BC), but the precise historical facts of its outcome are still unclear. He evidently did not conquer the city, but it may have surrendered conditionally to him. Both Jeremiah (27:3-11) and Ezekiel (26:7-14) spoke of this event. Apparently both Tyre and Sidon surrendered to Nebuchadnezzar, based on a fragmentary Babylonian administrative document which mentions the kings of Tyre and Sidon as receiving rations from the royal Babylonian household (Pritchard 1969a: 308).

In the days of Ezra and Zerubbabel, the Jews returning from captivity also sent to the men of Sidon and Tyre for cedars to build the Second Temple. Again cedars were floated from Lebanon along the Mediterranean coast to Joppa, where they could be brought overland to Jerusalem (Ezr 3:7).

The golden age of Sidon was still to come. Beyond its prominence in the second millennium BC, Sidon's greatest days did not come until after the days of Nebuchadnezzar. The port city reached its peak of power through its worldwide trade in the murex dye and glass industries. At the same time, it continued to be among the eastern Mediterranean's leaders in shipbuilding and shipping.

Buyuk Aleksandr

While Tyre seemed to withstand Nebuchadnezzar, it was not prepared for Alexander 250 years later. Although every Phoenician city to the north, including Sidon, welcomed Alexander, Tyre would only agree to surrender nominally to him. They would not allow him entrance to the city, which was exactly what Alexander intended to do. Not be denied, after only a seven-month siege of the island city, he did what no one else had ever considered possible. Utilizing stones, timber, dirt and debris from the mainland, Alexander constructed a causeway out into the Mediterranean. At last he reached the island, breached the city wall and slew or put into slavery the defiant Tyrians. An amazing feat, Tyre was changed forever.

The city of Tyre was originally an island which Alexander the Great later joined to the mainland by a causeway. In time the causeway was enlarged by rubble and sand deposits washed up by waves. This 1873 map shows Tyre as it was in 322 BC, and later as a peninsula stretching out into the Mediterranean Sea. Evidence of Tyre's ancient harbors can still be seen on the peninsula's north and south sides.

Ezekiel referred to this event long before it happened. While also mentioning that God would send Nebuchadnezzar against the city (Ez 26:7), he spoke of the LORD's promise to destroy Tyre, scrape her dust from her, make her smooth like the top of a rock and a good place for spreading out nets to dry (Ez 26:4, 14). Ezekiel also pointed out that Tyre's world-wide trade would cease with this event (Ez 27 and 28). Illustrating Ezekiel's description of Tyre's destruction, Jidejian (1996:13-14) noted that over the past three centuries, Tyre has served as a 'quarry' for the whole coast. Her stones may be found as far away as Beirut (40 mi north) and Akko (25 mi south in Israel).

Ezekiel also prophesied of God's judgment against Sidon (Ez 28:20-24). God promised pestilence, blood in her streets and death by sword (Ez 28:23). Sidon incurred the wrath of the Persian King Artaxerxes who beat the city into submission. This may have been the event Ezekiel described.

The New Testament Period

By virtue of its submission to Alexander, Sidon under the Greeks enjoyed relative freedom and an advanced cultural life. In the early days of the Roman Empire, Sidon even had enough autonomy to have its own senate and mint its own coins. Unfortunately for archaeologists, the area of ancient Sidon remains occupied today and only minimal archaeological evidence for New Testament Sidon is available.

Meanwhile, Tyre also recovered from Alexander's devastation. In 126 BC, now a peninsula extending into the Mediterranean, Tyre became a Roman province and later the capital of Rome's Syria-Phoenician province.

The site of the ancient mainland city became a large and ornate Roman necropolis. Here also was built a typical Roman hippodrome, the best preserved in the world today. An east-west colonnaded street, a huge triple-bay triumphal arch and a water aqueduct also extended from this area toward the sea.

On the island of Tyre, near the site of the ancient Egyptian (southern) port today sits impressive ruins from the Roman and Byzantine periods. These include a western extension of the colonnaded street from the mainland site, the agora (market place), an unusual arena, and a huge bathhouse.

Thus, New Testament Tyre and Sidon were prosperous Roman port cities. Yet there was great spiritual hunger in the region. Early in Jesus' ministry, people from Sidon and Tyre heard about the things He did. They came to see Him (Mk 3:8) and be healed by Him (Lu 6:17).

Later in His ministry, Jesus visited the region of Sidon and Tyre. There He healed the Canaanite (Syrophoenician) woman's daughter (Mt 15:21-28 Mk 7:24-31). This was the same area where God sent Elijah when the widow fed him (1 Kgs 17:9). Elijah's visit was to the port city of Zaraphath (Serepta to the Greeks and modern Sarafand), almost mid-way between Sidon and Tyre. Both these Old and New Testament visits to the region may be a reminder that the Promised Land extended as far north as Sidon. While full of non- Israelites, it was still part of Israel's inheritance.

Jesus pronounced judgment on Chorazin and Bethsaida suggesting that if the pagan cities of Tyre and Sidon had experienced what Chorazin and Bethsaida did, they would have long ago repented in sackcloth and ashes (Mt 11:21-24).

The inhabitants of Sidon and Tyre offended Herod Agrippa I and came to visit him at Jerusalem. While both were significant Roman cities on the eastern Mediterranean, their leaders felt the need to keep in Herod's favor. This visit was the occasion of Herod's death at God's hand (Acts 12:20-23).

When Paul returned to Palestine from his third missionary journey, he sailed into Tyre. He met with a group of disciples there and spent seven days in the city (Acts 21:3-7). He probably walked the colonnaded street, passing the hippodrome.

After his arrest in Jerusalem and imprisonment in Caesarea, Paul was taken as a prisoner to Rome. From Caesarea his ship stopped at Sidon and Paul was allowed to meet with a group of disciples in that city (Acts 27:3).

Sidon and Tyre Today

The hippodrome at Tyre is the best preserved in the world. Once seating 20,000 spectators, the course is 480m (525 yds) long. Primarily constructed for chariot races, as in the movie Ben Hur, the ends of this racing oval were marked by turning stones called metae which still sit in place. The tight high-speed turns at the metae created the most exciting and dangerous part of the race, often leading to dramatic collisions and spills. Modern Tyrians use the hippodrome today as a jogging course.
-Michael Ludden men

Sidon was the scene of heavy fighting during Lebanon's civil war and it's situation only deteriorated during the subsequent 22-year Israeli occupation. Even today, there is only one hotel and few restaurants for tourists. With numerous hammams (Turkish baths), souqs (markets) and mosques, it feels like an old world city. There is little industry and the port services only a minimal number of local fishing vessels.

Unfortunately, because the ancient port area has continued to be inhabited over the millennia, there is little archaeological evidence or Bronze and Iron Age Sidon. Ruins of the Castle of St. Louis on a hill south of the port are believed to sit over the ancient acropolis. Just south of the castle is Murex Hill, once ancient Sidon's garbage dump. The mound was formed by tens of thousands of crushed murex shells from the city's famed purple dye industry.

Today Tyre is a depressed city that suffered greatly during Lebanon's civil war and Israel's subsequent occupation of southern Lebanon. The modern isthmus that joins the island to the mainland holds streets of houses and shops. There is a picturesque fishing harbor on the north side of the isthmus, adjoining a lively souq. The administrative center for a number of nearby villages and towns, Tyre has a number of unplanned squatter settlements. As important as any industry to modern Tyre are the Greek and Roman archaeological remains which cover the ancient mainland city of Palaetyrus, the accumulated isthmus and the island city.

Our visit to Lebanon gave me a new appreciation of many Biblical passages. I never really considered the rich historical connections Tyre and Sidon had with Scripture. Outside of modern Israel, it is easy to forget that God specifically mentioned these cities as part of the Promised Land. Even in the New Testament, Jesus and Paul took the time to minister to the people of these cities. Not Israelite by population and pagan by religious practice, God continued to bring to them a witness of His love and power.

Bibliografiya

Jidejian, N. 1996 Tyre Through the Ages. Beirut: Librairie Orientale.

Josephus. 1992 The Works of Josephus. Trans. W. Whiston, from Latin. Peabody MA: Xendrikson.

Pritchard, J. B., ed. 1969a Eski Ahdga oid qadimgi Yaqin Sharq matnlari, third edition. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Pritchard, J. B. 1969b The Ancient Near East in Pictures, second edition. Princeton: Princeton University Press

Ward, W. A. 1997 Tyre. Pp. 247-50 in the Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Ancient Near East 5, tahr. E. M. Myers. Nyu -York: Oksford universiteti matbuoti.


​This resource is suitable for second level up to the senior phase and will be particularly useful to those studying the Scots Language Award.

​How to use this learning and assessment resource to improve practice

Scots is one of the three indigenous languages of Scotland and forms an integral part of our heritage and cultural life. It plays a vital role in children’s and young people’s learning about Scotland.
- Have your studies of Scotland featured Scots language?

The ‘3-18 Literacy and English Review’ recognises that Scots can make a strong contribution to the development of children’s and young people’s literacy skills.
- Have you explored how learning Scots can often improve your learners’ development of their wider literacy skills?

Including Scots as part of Curriculum for Excellence can help motivate some learners and their families by showing them that the language they use at home is valued:
- Have you explored how using Scots in learning settings can often improve learners’ engagement and attainment?

Both the SQA Scots Language Award and Scottish Studies Award have seen increased uptake since being launched:
- Has your school considered offering either Award to learners?

Download(s)

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Audios

The audios in the zip file above are made up of readings in Scots from various eras in Scotland's history.

These recordings were done in partnership between Education Scotland and The Royal Conservatoire of Scotland RCS. The performers reading are current and former students at the RCS. They were coached by Jean Sangster, Head of Voice and the Centre for Voice in Performance at RCS. The readings were recorded in the RCS Recording Studio by Recording Studio Engineer Bob Whitney.

The Royal Conservatoire of Scotland is ranked number three in the world for performing art education.

What is the Scots language?

1. The Scots Language Today, read by Simon Hall

The beginnings of the Scots Language - Scots during the Middle Ages

2. From the Statutes of the Scottish Parliament, read by Adam Stevenson, BA Acting

3. John Barbour – The Brus, read by Katie Barnett, BA Musical Theatre

4. William Dunbar – My Heid Did Yak, read by Euan McCormack, BA Musical Theatre

5. Robert Henryson – The Preaching of the Swallow, read by Emma Hindle, BA Acting

Scots during Renaissance and Reformation times

6. John Knox – The History of the Reformation, read by Michael Abubakar, BA Acting

7. James VI – Reulis and Cautelis, read by Nicholas Ralph, BA Acting

8. James VI – Counterblast Against Tobacco, read by Nicholas Ralph, BA Acting

Scots in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries

9. William Drummond – Sleepe, Silence Child, read by Megan McGuire, BA Musical Theatre

10. Robert Ayton – To View Thy Beauty Well, read by Michael Abubakar, BA Acting

11. Robert Fergusson – Auld Reikie, read by Ainsley Jordan, BA Acting

12. Robert Burns – Address to the Deil, read by Duncan Brown, BA Musical Theatre

Scots in the Romantic Age and Victorian times

13. Sir Walter Scott – Old Mortality, read by Ainsley Jordan, BA Acting

14. James Hogg – Confessions of a Justified Sinner, read by Christopher Marshall, BA Musical Theatre

15. Janet Hamilton – Oor location, read by Emma Hindle, BA Acting

16. The Scotchman Journal, read by Katie Barnett, BA Musical Theatre

Scots in the twentieth century

17. Charles Murray – A Sough O’ War, read by Euan McCormack, BA Musical Theatre

18. Hugh MacDairmid – A Drunk Man Looks at the Thistle, read by Duncan Brown, BA Musical Theatre

19. Sydney Goodsir Smith – The Grace of God and The Meth Drinker, read by Adam Stevenson, BA Acting

20. Hamish Henderson – The Freedom Come All Ye, sung by Megan McGuire, BA Musical Theatre

21. WL Lorimer – The New Testament in Scots, read by Christopher Marshall, BA Musical Theatre


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