Ittifoq polkovnigi Abel Streytning Alabama va Jorjiyaga bosqini boshlanadi

Ittifoq polkovnigi Abel Streytning Alabama va Jorjiyaga bosqini boshlanadi


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Ittifoq polkovnigi Abel Streyt Alabama va Jorjiya shimoliga Chattanuga, Tennessi va Atlanta o'rtasidagi G'arbiy va Atlantika temir yo'lini kesish maqsadida reydni boshlaydi. Konfederatsiya generali Neytan Bedford Forrest Streytning butun buyrug'ini Rim, Jorjiya yaqinida qo'lga kiritganida reyd tugadi.

Reja Streyt va general Grenvil Dodjni Tennessi markazidan Alabama shtatining shimoli -g'arbiy qismiga ko'chirishni talab qildi. Dodge Alabama shtatining Tuskumbiya shtatiga qarshi hujum uyushtiradi, Streyt esa 2000 ga yaqin askarini shimoliy Alabama va Jorjiyaga olib ketadi. Streyt o'z odamlarini otlar o'rniga xachirlar bilan jihozladi, chunki u o'zlarini janubiy Appalachilarning tog'li hududlariga yaxshiroq moslashganini sezdi. Xachirlar Nashvilga yomon ahvolda kelganida, ekspeditsiya deyarli muammoga duch keldi. Konfederativ otliqlar otryadi kirib keldi va xachirlarning tiqilib qolishiga olib keldi va ularni yig'ish uchun ikki kun kerak bo'ldi.

Ekspeditsiyaning birinchi qismi yaxshi o'tdi. Dodge Tuskumbiyani egalladi va Streyt sharqdan Gruziyaga qarab davom etdi. Ammo 29 aprelda Streyt qo'mondonligiga general Natan Bedford Forrest otliqlarining bir qismi hujum qildi. Streytning odamlari ta'qib qilayotgan isyonchilar uchun tuzoq tuzdilar va bu yaxshi ishladi. Neytan Bedfordning ukasi, kapitan Uilyam Forrest boshchiligidagi Konfederativ otliq otryadi o'zini ikki tomondan o'qqa tutdi. Uilyam Forrest yaralandi va federallar o'z missiyasini davom ettirdilar.

Ammo endi general Neytan Bedford Forrest Staytning izidan ketayotgan edi va u bunga yo'l qo'ymasdi. Yankilar dushman hududda edilar va isyonchilar bir necha bor mahalliy aholidan muhim ma'lumotlarni oldilar, bu ularga ustunlikka erishishga imkon berdi. Nihoyat, Forrest charchagan Ittifoq qo'shinlariga duch keldi. 3 may kuni ular sulh bayrog'i ostida taslim bo'lish shartlarini muhokama qilishdi. Forrestda atigi 600 kishi bor edi, bu Streytning yarmidan kamini tashkil qiladi. Ammo Forrest o'z odamlarini o'rmon bo'ylab tarqatdi. U Streyt bilan uchrashganida, mavjud bo'lmagan bo'linmalardan kelgan kurerlar hisobotlar bilan chiqishdi. Streyt o'lja oldi va taslim bo'lishga rozi bo'ldi. Konfederatlar nihoyat Yanki qurollarini yig'ish uchun paydo bo'lganida, ittifoq polkovnigi uni ayyor Forrestda bo'lganini tushundi.


1863 yil boshida, Grant bo'linmasining Korinf bo'limi komandiri general -mayor Charlz Xamilton oxir -oqibat Grieron reydiga aylanishni taklif qildi. Keyinchalik, Hamilton buyukroq shon -sharafga ega bo'ladigan buyruqni sotib olishni talab qilganligi sababli, Hamilton iste'foga chiqishni taklif qildi. Grant tezda qabul qilindi. [3]

Amerika fuqarolar urushining G'arbiy teatrida Konfederatsiyaning otliq askarlari general -leytenant Neytan Bedford Forrest va Brig kabi qo'mondonlarning hujumlarida. General Jon Xant Morgan Ittifoq ekspeditsiyalarini, ya'ni Parker chorrahasidagi jangda, Forrest Brig ostida Ittifoqning uch yuz askarini asirga olgan. General Jeremiya C. Sallivan, lekin o'z buyrug'iga tegishli bo'lgan barcha artilleriya qurollarini yo'qotdi. [4] Konfederatsiya bosqinchilarining e'tiborini Viksburg qamalidan uzoqlashtirish vazifasi bolalik chog'ida boshidan bir tepganidan keyin otlarni yoqtirmagan sobiq musiqa o'qituvchisi polkovnik Benjamin Grieronga yuklandi. Grieronning otliq brigadasi Illinoysning 6- va 7 -chi va 2 -chi Ayova otliq polklaridan iborat edi.

Grieron va uning 1700 otliq askari, Konfederatsiya formasida, asosiy kuch skautlari bo'lib, dushmanlik hududi orqali (Tennessi janubidan, Missisipi shtati orqali va Ittifoq tasarrufidagi Baton-Rujga, Luiziana shtati) 970 km masofani bosib o'tishdi. , marshrutlar bo'ylab oldin Ittifoq askarlari bormagan. Ular temir yo'llarni yirtib tashlashdi, chorrahalarni yoqishdi, qullarni ozod qilishdi, Konfederatsiyaning omborlarini yoqishdi, lokomotivlarni va komissarlik do'konlarini vayron qilishdi, ko'priklar va estakadalarni yirtishdi, binolarni yoqishdi va qurbonlarini o'n barobariga etkazishdi. uning qaerdaligi, niyati va yo'nalishi haqida. Bosqin paytida Grieron brigadasi qurbonlari soni uchtasi, etti nafari yaralangan va to'qqiz kishi bedarak yo'qolgan. Yo'lda beshta kasal va yarador qoldirildi, davom etish uchun juda kasal.

Konfederatsiya general -leytenanti Jon C. Pemberton, Viksburg garnizoni qo'mondoni, otliqlari kam edi va Grieronni to'xtatish uchun hech narsa qila olmasdi.

1863 yil 21 aprelda Konfederatsiyaning otliq qo'shinlari qo'mondoni general -mayor Neytan Bedford Forrest Alabama shtatida boshqa bir ittifoqchi reyd polkovnik Abel Streytni yaxshi ta'minlanmagan va yomon rejalashtirilgan reyddan so'ng (Streight's Raid) qo'lga oldi.

Garchi ko'plab boshqa Konfederativ otliq bo'linmalar Grieronni shtat bo'ylab kuchli ta'qib qilishgan bo'lsa -da (ayniqsa, Uirt Adams va Robert V. Richardson boshchiligida), ular bosqinni to'xtata olishmadi. [1] Grieron va uning askarlari kun bo'yi egarda charchab, oxir-oqibat Luiziana shtatining Ittifoqi tomonidan ishg'ol qilingan Baton-Rujga bordilar. [5] Pemberton askarlarining butun bo'linmasi Vicksburg-Jekson temir yo'lini qochib qutuluvchi Grierondan himoya qilish uchun bog'langan, general-mayor Uilyam T. Shermanning Viksburgning shimoli-sharqidagi fintlari (Snyder Bluff jangi) bilan birga, qurshovga olingan Konfederatlar. Grantning Missisipi sharqida, Bruinsburgda, Vicksburg ostiga qo'nishiga qarshilik ko'rsatish uchun zarur bo'lgan kuchlarni yig'a olmadi.

Kino Ot askarlariJon Ford tomonidan rejissyor, bosh rollarda Jon Ueyn, Uilyam Xolden va Konstans Towers va Garold Sinklerning xuddi shu nomdagi romani - Grieron reydining badiiy variantlari.


Lovina Makkarti Streyt

Lovina Makkarti Streyt (1830-1910) fuqarolar urushi davomida G'arbiy teatrda turmush o'rtog'i, ittifoq brigadasi generali Abel Streit bilan birga bo'lgan. Streight Streight ’s Raid orqali Tennessi va Alabama shimoli orqali mashhur. CSA generali Neytan Bedford Forrest Ittifoqning otliq qo'shinlarini o'rab olib, Streyt va uning brigadasining ko'p qismini Libbi qamoqxonasiga olib borganida, Streyt keyinchalik qochib ketganidan so'ng, uning vazifasi buzildi. U o'z buyrug'iga tiklandi va urush muvozanati uchun xizmat qilishni davom ettirdi.

Tasvir: Lovina Makkarti Streytning portreti Indiana shtatida joylashgan

Lovina Makkarti 1830 yilda Nyu -Yorkning Shtuben okrugida tug'ilgan. Abel Streyt ham 1828 yil 17 -iyunda Nyu -Yorkning Stuben okrugida tug'ilgan, lekin yoshligida Ogayo shtatining Cincinnati shahriga ko'chib o'tgan. Lovina Makkarti 1849 yil 14 yanvarda Abel Streytga uylandi. Ularning bitta farzandi bor edi, Jon Streyt. 1859 yilga kelib ular Indiana shtatining Indianapolis shahrida istiqomat qilishdi, u erda Streyt kitoblar va xaritalar nashriyoti bo'lgan. U ham muallif edi AQSh hukumatidagi o'n sakkiz yuz oltmish bir inqiroz, 1861 yilda nashr etilgan.

Fuqarolar urushi boshlanganda, Abel Streyt 1861 yil sentyabr oyida Kumberlend armiyasiga biriktirilgan ellik birinchi Indiana piyoda polkovnigi sifatida Ittifoq armiyasiga qo'shildi. Uning ahvolidagi aksariyat xotinlar uyda erlarining urushdan qaytishini kutishgan, lekin Lovina emas. U erini erlariga ergashtirdi, u o'z odamlarini janubga olib bordi va u bilan besh yoshli o'g'lini olib keldi.

Lovina bir nechta janglarning guvohi bo'lgan, kasallarni emizgan va jang maydonida va dala kasalxonalarida o'lgan. Uning rahmdilligi va jasorati unga "ellik birinchining onasi" unvonini berdi. ’. Urush paytida Konfederatsiya qo'shinlari Lovinani uch marta qo'lga olishdi, ikki marta uni mahbuslarga almashishdi. Aytilishicha, u uchinchi marta etagiga yashirilgan qurolni urib qamoqdan qochgan.

Streight ’s reyd
Garchi u oxir -oqibat brigada generali unvoniga erishgan bo'lsa -da, Abel Streyt harbiy qo'mondon sifatida unchalik muvaffaqiyatli bo'lmadi. 1862 yil iyul oyida Streyt Alabama shtatining federal ishg'ol kuchlari tarkibida xizmat qildi. Qisqa vaqt ichida u shimoliy Alabama shtatining ittifoqchilari bilan tez -tez muloqot qilib, ko'pchilikni federal armiyaga jalb qilgan, lekin ularning sonini juda oshirib yuborgan. Ko'p federal harbiy qo'mondonlar va prezident Avraam Linkoln tomonidan tarqatilgan bu noto'g'ri tushuncha, Ittifoqning rejalashtirilgan reydlari boshlanishidan bir necha oy oldin xavf ostida qoldi.

1863 yilda polkovnik Streyt general Jeyms A. Garfildga Alabama kasaba uyushmalari bilan birgalikda janubga bostirib kirish uchun kuch yig'ish rejasini taklif qildi. Streightning maqsadi Tennessi Konfederatsiyalari armiyasini ta'minlaydigan Chattanuga va Atlanta o'rtasidagi G'arbiy va Atlantika temir yo'lini buzish edi. Garfild ruxsat berdi.

Streight ’s kuchlari tez yurish va hujumlar uchun mos keladigan taxminan 1700 askarni o'z ichiga olishi kerak edi. Ammo, asosan, urush vaqtining etishmasligi tufayli, Streight ’s brigadasi yaqinda Tennessi g'arbiy fermalaridan, shu jumladan, 1 -Alabama otliq otliqidagi (AQSh) ittifoqchilarning ikkita kompaniyasidan sotib olingan kalta va buzilmagan xachirlarga o'rnatildi.

Qolgan polk general Missisipi shtatining Korinf shahridan general Grenvil Dodj ostida, general Uliss S. Grant va Tennessi armiyasi boshchiligida xizmat qilar edi. Dodge ’ ning vazifasi Streytni Tennessi shtatidan qayiqda, so'ngra shimoliy Alabama shtati orqali Gruziyaga qarab ketayotganda ekranga chiqarish edi.

1863 yil 19 aprelda Streight ’s brigadasi Nashvilda bir nechta qayiqqa o'tirdi, ular kuchni Tennessi daryosi bo'ylab janubga olib ketishdi va Missisipi shtatining Eastport shahrida tushishdi. O'sha oqshom tiqilinch 400 ga yaqin xachirni atrofdagi qishloqlarga tarqatib yubordi, chunki Streyt Eastportda xachir yuborilishini kutdi.

Ikki kundan so'ng, 21 aprelda, Streyt Dodge va uning 8000 otliq askarlari bilan uchrashdi va Alabama shtatining Tuskumbiya tomon yo'l oldi. Yurish paytida CSA generali Neytan Bedford Forrest bo'linmasidan ajralib chiqqan jangchilar federal harakatlarga to'sqinlik qilishdi.

Streight ’ erkaklar minadigan ko'plab xachirlar buzilmagan, qarigan yoki chavandozlarini tez -tez to'xtab turmasdan uzoq masofalarga olib keta olmas edilar. Konfederatsiyalar brigadani haqorat qilishdi, ularni Jekass otliqlari deb atashdi. Qishloqda xachirlarni minib yurgan askarlarni kuzatib turgan tomoshabinlar zavqlanib, erkaklarni sharmanda qilib, harakatlarini sekinlashtirdilar.

Streyt 26 -aprel kuni kechqurun Tuskumbiya shahridan chiqib ketayotganda, kuchli yomg'ir yo'llarni deyarli o'tib bo'lmaydigan qilib qo'ydi va uni Alabama shtatidagi Hope tog'ida rejadan tashqari to'xtashga majbur qildi. U erda Dodj Streytga ikkalasi oldindan rejalashtirilganidek Moultonda uchrashmasligini ma'lum qildi. Dodjning xabar berishicha, uning buyrug'i Forrestni shimolga uzoqlashtirgan va shu tariqa Streytga reydni bezovta qilmasdan davom ettirish uchun yo'l ochgan.

Biroq, Dodge ’ ning harakatlari Forrestni to'xtatmadi. Streyt sharqqa qarab harakatlanar ekan, quruq ob -havo va Konfederatsiyaning bir nechta yuk vagonlarini qo'lga kiritishi ularning kayfiyatini ko'targanligi sababli, uning buyrug'ining ma'naviyati vaqtincha yaxshilandi. Biroq, Ittifoq skautlari Konfederatsiyalarni o'ng va chap qanotlari bo'ylab harakatlanayotganini ko'rgach, butun buyruqni o'rab olish bilan tahdid qilib, kayfiyat o'zgardi.

Streight ’ ning brigadasi Sand tog'iga etib keldi, u erda uni Forrest otliqlari ushlab oldi. 1863 yil 30-apreldagi "Kunduzgi jang" paytida Streight va uning odamlari Forrestning yetmish uchinchi Illinoys va Ellik birinchi Indiana boshchiligidagi bir qator ayblovlar bilan uni orqa tomondan o'rab olishga urinishlariga to'sqinlik qilishdi.

Bir necha soat o'tgach, Forrest Streightga hujumni davom ettirdi, uning odamlari otdan tushishdi va Xog tog'i bo'ylab tizmani egallab olishdi. Yana Streight ’ ning odamlari bir qancha hujumlarni qaytarishdi va keyin tez yurish bilan yurishni qayta boshlashdi, bu esa ularga Blountsvill yaqinidagi Forrest otliqlarining bir qismini pistirmaga solish imkonini berdi.

Streyt va Alabama shtatlarining Gadzden shtati erkaklarining ittifoq kuchlari ortida turishi, Straytning charchagan qo'shinlari va xachirlarini dam olishiga to'sqinlik qildi. Va ularning doimiy yugurishi Forrest skautlariga Streight kuchini ikki mildan ko'proq masofadan aniqlash imkonini berdi.

2 -may kuni tushdan keyin Streyt Forrestdan oldin Qora Krikdan o'tdi (Gadzdendan uch mil narida) va yaqin atrofdagi yagona ko'prikni yoqib yubordi, bu esa Konfederatsiyaning ta'qibiga to'sqinlik qildi. Ko'p o'tmay, Streight o'zining otliq qo'shinlari Forrestdan uzoqlasha olmasligini tushundi va u Gruziyaning Rim shahriga etib borishi kerak edi. U erda Streyt shoshilinch tayyorlangan ko'krak ishlari orqasidan jang qilmoqchi edi.

Bilmasdan, ikki mahalliy fuqaroning harakatlari uning rejalarini puchga chiqardi. Ko'prik yordamida shishgan Qora Krikdan o'tolmadi, Forrest yo'lboshchi topish uchun yaqin atrofdagi uyga yo'l oldi. U 16 yoshli Emma Sansomni topdi, uning ko'rsatmasi bilan u fordni kesib o'tdi va Streight ’s kuchiga etib keldi.

Bu orada, Gadzden shahrida yashovchi Jon Uizdom 67 mil masofani bosib o'tib, Rimga yaqinlashib kelayotgan Ittifoq qo'shinlari haqida ogohlantirdi. Uning xatti -harakatlari natijasida Rim aholisi Coosa daryosidan o'tadigan muhim ko'prikni egallash uchun yuborilgan Streight otliq qo'shinlarini qaytarib yubordi va shu bilan shaharga boradigan yagona yo'lni to'sib qo'ydi. Keyin Streyt boshqa o'tish joyini qidirish uchun g'arbga burildi, lekin oxir -oqibat qidiruvdan voz kechdi.

Alabama shtatidagi Sidar Bluffda Streyt juda zarur dam olish uchun to'xtadi. Uning ko'plab otliq askarlari ko'plab xachirlarning o'lishi sababli yurishgan. Forrest otliqlari Streyt va uning 1700 bosqinchilarini o'rab olishdi. Raqibidan ko'ra, dushmanga ko'ra, yo'q qilinishi mumkin emas, Streight o'z buyrug'ini 1863 yil 3 mayda topshirdi.

Muzokaralar chog'ida Forrest, Konfederatsiyaning otliq askarlari qo'shni tizma bo'ylab Streyt va undan tashqarida bir necha marta aylana bo'ylab sayohat qilib, uning brigadasidan ancha ko'p bo'lgan Streightning ishonchini yana bir bor tasdiqladi.

Taslim bo'lgandan keyin Forrestdan 500 kishi paydo bo'lganida, Streyt jahli chiqib, taslim bo'lishidan qasos olishini talab qildi, lekin Forrest rad etdi. Mag'lubiyat, ayniqsa, Alabama shtatining birinchi otliq askarlari (AQSh) uchun juda achchiq bo'ldi, ular o'z davlatlari va bo'linish qaroriga qaramay, Ittifoqni himoya qilish uchun o'z oilalari va uylarini xavf ostiga qo'yishdi.

Konfederatlar Streytni va uning brigadasining ko'p qismini Virjiniya shtatining Richmond shahridagi Libbi qamoqxonasiga olib ketishdi. Mashaqqatli sayohat paytida, uning ko'p to'yib ovqatlanmagan askarlari kasallikka chalingan va ko'plari keyinchalik qamoqda vafot etib, jami 200 ga yaqinini yo'qotgan.

Streight ’s Raid - etkazib berishning etarli emasligi, federal qo'mondonlar o'rtasidagi aloqaning yomonligi, Konfederatsiya kuchlari va mahalliy ittifoqchilarning bo'rttirib baholanishi va omadsizlik oqibatida halokatli muvaffaqiyatsizlik. Yo'l davomida mahalliy aholi Streightga to'sqinlik qildi, Forrest esa o'z hududining afzalligi va mahalliy xalqning hamdardligi va yordamiga ega edi.

Oxir -oqibat, bosqinchilar Tennessi armiyasi ta'minot liniyalarini ishdan chiqara olmadilar va 1863 yilning yozida va kuzida G'arbiy Gruziya va Tennessi shtatlaridagi janglarga ta'sir qilmadilar. 8217 yillar qahramonligi uning afsonaviy maqomini yanada oshirdi.

Alabama shtati va Konfederatsiya urush paytida qahramon Emma Sansomni sotib oldi, uning ekspluatatsiyalari keyinchalik janubiy erkaklar yo'qotgan urush paytida Konfederatsiya ayollarining qurbonliklari va hissalarini ta'kidlagan postbellum tushunchalarini kuchaytiradi. Gadsden shahri 1906 yilda Sansomga haykal o'rnatdi.

1864 yil 9 -fevralda, to'qqiz oylik qamoqda o'tirgandan so'ng, Abel Streyt va boshqa 107 askarlar qamoqxonalar ostidan tunnel orqali qochib ketishdi va qo'lga olishdan qochib, ozodlikka yo'l olgan 59 kishidan biri edi. Streyt dushman hududini kesib o'tdi va qaytib kelgach, Ittifoq qo'mondonlariga hisobot berdi.

Oxir -oqibat, Streight IV Korpusning 1 -brigadasi, 3 -bo'linmasi qo'mondonligiga topshirildi. U Tennessi shtatidagi Franklin va Nashvill janglarida qatnashgan. Streyt 1865 yil 13 martda ko'ngillilar armiyasida brigadir general lavozimiga ko'tarildi va 1865 yil 16 martda armiyadan iste'foga chiqdi.

Rasm: General Abel Streight

Urushdan so'ng, Streyt darhol nashriyot faoliyatini tikladi. 1866 yilda u Lovina bilan Indianapolisning Vashington ko'chasida yangi uy qurdi, lekin 1876 yilga kelib ular Indianapolisdan ikki mil sharqda joylashgan Milliy yo'lda ko'chmas mulkka ega bo'lishdi. U, shuningdek, yog'och ishlab chiqarish bilan shug'ullangan va katta er egalik qilgan.

1876 ​​yilda Streyt ikki yillik muddatga Indiana shtati senatida muvaffaqiyatli qatnashdi. 1880 yilda u respublikachi Indiana gubernatorligiga nomzod sifatida qatnashdi, ammo mag'lubiyatga uchradi. 1888 yilda u yana shtat senatori etib saylandi.

Abel Streyt 1892 yilda Indianapolisda vafot etdi, va Lovina erini uyining old maysazoriga dafn etishdi. U dafn marosimida shunday dedi: “ Endi men uning qaerdaligini bilaman. ” U har yili ellik birinchi polkning uchrashuvini uyushtirdi va askarlar uning uyiga yig'ilib, shtat yarmarkasi paytida uning maysazoriga qarorgoh qo'yishdi.

Lovina, shuningdek, spiritizmni qabul qildi va o'liklarning ruhlari tiriklar bilan muloqot qilishi mumkinligiga ishondi. Har kim ruhiy xabarlarni olishi mumkin, lekin rasmiy muloqot seanslari (seanslar) vositachilar tomonidan o'tkaziladi. Spiritualizm 1840 -yildan 1920 -yillarga qadar a'zolik cho'qqisiga chiqdi.

Lovinaning yagona farzandi Jon 1905 yilda ellik yoshida vafot etdi.

Lovina Makkarti Streyt 1910 yil 5 -iyunda vafot etdi va to'liq harbiy sharaf bilan Indianapolisdagi Crown Hill qabristoniga dafn qilindi. Uning dafn marosimiga besh ming kishi tashrif buyurdi, shu jumladan ellik birinchi Indiana ko'ngillilaridan oltmish to'rt kishi.

Abel Streytning jasadi oilaviy uyning old maysazoridan chiqarildi va xotinining yoniga dafn qilindi. Lovina bu uchastkani 1902 yilda sotib olgan va Ralf Shveyga xotinining yodgorlik uchun bronza byustini yasashni buyurgan.

Lovina Streyt ’s, 1902 yilda topshirilgan, uning mol -mulki va mol -mulkini keksa ayollar uchun uy -joy qurish maqsadida jamoat ishonchli vakillari boshqarishi shart.

Uning besh qarindoshi Lovinaning hujjatga imzo chekkanida aqli raso emasligini aytib, vasiyatnomaga qarshi chiqishdi. Lovinaning do'stlari bunga rozi bo'lmadilar va ish 1912 yilda sudga yuborildi. Lovinaning qarindoshlari tomonidan aytilgan ekssentrikliklarning isboti uning erining qabriga sayr qilish, yorqin kiyim kiyish va bolalar bilan raqsga tushish edi. Hakamlar hay'ati Lovinaning aqli raso emasligiga rozi bo'ldi va sudya vasiyatnomani haqiqiy emas deb topdi. Lovinaning merosxo'rlari uyni 1915 yil 30 dekabrda sotishgan.


Streyt reyd

1863 yil 19 apreldan 3 maygacha G'arbiy va Atlantika temir yo'llarining bir qismini yo'q qilish uchun AQSh armiyasi polkovnigi Abel D. Streyt tomonidan olib borilgan "Abel D. Streyt Streight's Raid" fuqarolar urushi kampaniyasi Konfederativ Armiyani mag'lub etishning federal urinishlariga deyarli ta'sir ko'rsatmadi. Tennessi shtatidan. Uning asosiy ahamiyati hozirgi Gadzden shahri yaqinidagi Emma Sansom yordamida Konfederatsiya generali Natan Bedford Forrestning Streyt va uning odamlarini qo'lga kiritishi atrofida o'sgan afsonalarda yotadi. Grenvil Dodj 1863 yil mart oyida AQSh armiyasi general -mayori Uilyam Stark Rozekrans Streightga Alabama shimolida va Gruziyaning shimoli -g'arbiy qismida reyd o'tkazish uchun vaqtinchalik brigada tashkil etishni buyurdi, u erda Tennessi shtatining Konfederativ armiyasidan biri bo'lgan G'arbiy va Atlantika temir yo'llarini uradi. Gruziyaning shimoli -g'arbiy qismida joylashgan arteriyalar. Streyt brigadasida Birinchi G'arbiy Tennessi va Birinchi Alabama (AQSh) otliq polklari, Uchinchi Ogayo, Ellik birinchi Indiana, Yetmish uchinchi Illinoys va Sakkizinchi Illinoys piyoda polklari bor edi, ularning umumiy soni taxminan 1700 askar edi. Otlar yo'qligi sababli, Streight piyodalarining ko'pchiligi yaqinda Tennessi g'arbiy fermalaridan sotib olingan temperamentli xachirlarni o'rnatdilar. Ko'p xachirlar buzilmagan, qarigan yoki chavandozlarini tez -tez to'xtab turmasdan uzoq masofalarga olib keta olmas edilar. Qishloqlarda xachirlarni minib yurgan federal askarlarning katta qismini tomosha qilgan tomoshabinlar, erkaklarni sharmanda qilib, harakatlarini sekinlashtirdilar. Reyd paytida Konfederatsiyalar brigadaga haqoratlar qilib, ularni "Jackass otliqlari" deb atashdi. Shubhasiz, otlarning yo'qligi qo'shinlarning ruhiyatiga salbiy ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Filipp Roddi Mules yagona muammo emas edi. Reydning muvaffaqiyati Brigga ham bog'liq edi. General Grenvil Dodj, Streytning harakatlarini General Forrest qo'mondonlik qilgan Konfederatsiya otliqlaridan, shuningdek, Tennessi armiyasi tarkibidagi polkovnik Filipp Roddi boshchiligidagi otliqlardan ko'rish qobiliyatiga ega. 1863 yil 19 aprelda Streyt brigadasi Nashvilda bir nechta qayiqqa o'tirdi, ular kuchni Tennessi daryosi bo'ylab janubga olib ketishdi va Missisipi shtatining Eastport shahrida tushishdi. O'sha oqshom tiqilinch brigadaning 400 ga yaqin xachirini atrofdagi qishloqlarga tarqatib yubordi, chunki Streyt Eastportda xachir yuborilishini kutdi. Ikki kundan so'ng, Streyt Dodge va uning 8000 otliq askarlari bilan uchrashdi va Kolbert okrugidagi Tuskumbiya tomon yo'l oldi. Yurish paytida Forrest bo'linmasidan ajralib chiqqan jangchilar federal harakatlarga to'sqinlik qilishdi. Tuskumbiyada Streyt va Dodj ajralishdi, Streyt Lourens okrugidagi Moulton tomon yo'l oldi va Dodge Forrest va Roddining chalg'itishi umidida shimolga qarab harakatni skrining qildi. Streyt 26 -aprel kuni kechqurun Tuskumbiya shahridan chiqib ketayotganda, kuchli yomg'ir yo'llarni deyarli o'tib bo'lmaydigan qilib qo'ydi va uni Lourens okrugidagi Hope tog'ida rejadan tashqari to'xtashga majbur qildi. U erda Dodj Streytga ikkalasi oldindan rejalashtirilganidek Moultonda uchrashmasligini ma'lum qildi. Dodjning xabar berishicha, uning buyrug'i Forrestni shimolga haydab yuborgan va shu tariqa Streytga reydni shovqinsiz davom ettirish uchun yo'l ochgan. Ammo Dodjning harakatlari "Jackass brigadasi" ni yaqindan kuzatib borgan Forrestni to'xtatmadi. Emma Sansom 2 -may kuni tushdan keyin Streyt Forrestdan oldin Black Creekni (Gadzdendan uch mil narida) kesib o'tdi va yaqin atrofdagi yagona ko'prikni yoqib yubordi. Ko'p o'tmay, Streight o'zining otliq qo'shinlari Forrestdan uzoqlasha olmasligini tushundi va Gruziyaning Rim shahriga etib borishi kerak edi. U erda, Streight, shoshilinch ravishda tayyorlangan ko'krak ishlari ortidan, raqib hisoblaganlar bilan kurashmoqchi edi. Bilmasdan, ikki mahalliy aholining harakatlari uning rejalarini barbod qildi. Ko'prik yordamida shishgan Qora Krikdan o'tolmadi, Forrest yo'lboshchi topish uchun yaqin atrofdagi uyga yo'l oldi. U 16 yoshli Emma Sansomni topdi, uning ko'rsatmasi bilan u fordni topdi, uni kesib o'tdi va Streytning kuchiga etib oldi. Bu orada parom operatori Jon Vizdom Gadzden shahridagi Coosa daryosida o'z paromini yoqib yuborgan qo'shinlarning oldiga keldi va 67 mil uzoqlikda Rimga yugurdi va u erda aholini yaqinlashayotgan AQSh qo'shinlari haqida ogohlantirdi. Uning xatti -harakatlari natijasida Rim aholisi Kouza daryosidan o'tadigan muhim ko'prikni egallash uchun yuborilgan Streytning otliq qo'shinlarini qaytarishdi va shu bilan shaharga boradigan yagona yo'lni to'sib qo'yishdi. Keyin Streyt boshqa o'tish joyini qidirib g'arbga, markazga burildi. Ammo uning charchagan buyrug'i qidiruvdan voz kechdi. Neytan Bedford Forrest Sidar Bluffda Streytning odamlari juda zarur dam olish uchun to'xtashdi. Ko'plab otliq askarlar ko'plab xachirlarning o'lishi sababli yurishgan. Eng yomoni, yaqinda bo'lib o'tgan to'qnashuvda askarlar o'q -dorilarining asosiy qismi suvga tushgani uchun yaroqsiz bo'lib qolganini bilib olishdi. U erda Sidar Bluffda Forrest va uning 500 odami Streyt va uning odamlarini o'rab olishdi. Mumkin bo'lgan qirg'inlarga duch kelmasdan, Streyt o'z buyrug'ini topshirishga qaror qildi. Muzokaralar davomida Forrest, Streytning konfederatsiyalari uning brigadasidan ancha ko'p degan noto'g'ri tasavvurini yana bir bor tasdiqladi. Hiyla -nayrangni kuchaytirish uchun Forrestning artilleriyasi bir necha bor aylanib yurib, qo'shni tizma bo'ylab Streytning nazaridan chiqib ketdi. 1863 yil 3 -mayda Streyt taslim bo'ldi va o'zini raqib raqib tomonidan qo'lga olinganiga ishondi. Taslim bo'lgandan keyin Forrestning kichik bo'linmasi paydo bo'lganda, Streyt jahl bilan o'z odamlaridan taslim bo'lishlarini talab qildi, lekin Forrest rad etdi. Bu mag'lubiyat, ayniqsa, o'z shtatlari bo'linish qaroriga qaramay, o'z oilalari va uylarini xavf ostiga qo'yib, AQShni himoya qilish uchun birinchi Alabama otliq askarlari (AQSh) uchun achchiq bo'ldi. Konfederatlar Streytni va uning brigadasining ko'p qismini Virjiniya shtatining Richmond shahridagi Libbi qamoqxonasiga olib ketishdi. Mashaqqatli sayohat paytida, uning ko'p to'yib ovqatlanmagan askarlari kasallikka chalingan va ko'plari keyinchalik qamoqda vafot etgan, jami qariyb 200 kishi yo'qolgan. 1864 yilda Streyt va boshqa 107 mahbus tunnellarning murakkab tizimi orqali qochib ketishdi.

Streight's Raid - bu etkazib berishning etarli emasligi, federal qo'mondonlar o'rtasidagi yomon aloqa, Konfederatsiya kuchlari va mahalliy ittifoqchilarning bo'rttirib baholanishi va omadsizlik natijasida yuzaga kelgan tubsizlik. Neytan Bedford Forrest va ozgina darajada Emma Sansom reydni bostirgan deb hisoblansa -da, uning muvaffaqiyatsizligi Konfederatsiyaning harakatlariga federal hamkasblarining baxtsiz hodisalariga qaraganda kamroq ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Oxir -oqibat, bosqinchilar Tennessi armiyasini etkazib berish liniyalarini ishdan chiqara olmadilar va 1863 yilning yozida va kuzida G'arbiy Gruziya va Tennessi shtatlarida bo'lib o'tgan janglarga ta'sir qilmadilar va ular sharmandali mag'lubiyatni boshdan kechirdilar. Alabama shimolida va G'arbiy G'arbda Forrestning qahramonliklari haqidagi hikoyalar uning afsonaviy maqomini yanada oshirdi. 1908 yilda Rim shahri Konfederatsiyaning otliq askari va Ku Kluks Klanning birinchi buyuk sehrgarini sharaflash uchun topshirilgan birinchi haykalni bag'ishladi. Alabama va Konfederatsiya shtatlari urush paytida qahramon Emma Sansomni sotib oldi, uning ekspluatatsiyasi keyinchalik janubiy erkaklar yo'qotgan urush paytida Konfederatsiya ayollarining qurbonliklari va hissalarini ta'kidlagan postbellum tushunchalarini kuchaytiradi. Gadsden shahri 1906 yilda Sansomga yodgorlik o'rnatdi. Kalemman okrugining Vinemont shahridagi "Crooked Creek" fuqarolar urushi muzeyi janjal joyini saqlaydi va uning tarixini sharhlaydi.

Hurst, Jek. Neytan Bedford Forrest: tarjimai holi. Nyu -York: Vintage Press, 1993 yil.


Etovax okrugi

Dunyodagi eng uzun hovli sotuvi Shtatning shimoli -sharqiy burchagida joylashgan Etovax okrugi XIX asrdan beri Alabama shtatining sanoat markazi bo'lib kelgan. Bu Alabama Power Company asoschisi Uilyam Patrik Layning tug'ilgan joyi. Gadsden shahri fuqarolar urushida ham, Ikkinchi jahon urushida ham muhim rol o'ynadi va har yili dunyodagi eng uzun hovlilar savdosining boshlang'ich nuqtasi bo'lib, ko'p shtatli, uch kunlik tadbir bo'lib, 690 mildan oshadi va Addisonda tugaydi. Michigan Okrug olti kishidan iborat saylangan komissiya tomonidan boshqariladi va tarkibiga 13 ta jamoalar kiradi.
  • Tashkil etilgan sanasi: 1866 yil 7 -dekabr
  • Maydoni: 542 kvadrat kilometr
  • Aholisi: 103,363 (2016 yilgi aholini ro'yxatga olish bahosi)
  • Asosiy suv yo'llari: Coosa daryosi
  • Asosiy avtomobil yo'llari: I-59, AQSh 431, AQSh 278, AQSh 411, AQSh 11
  • Viloyat o'rindig'i: Gadsden
  • Eng katta shahar: Gadsden
Etovax okrug sud binosi Etovax okrugi 1866 yil 7 -dekabrda Alabama shtati qonun chiqaruvchi organi akti bilan Cherokee va DeKalb grafliklaridan tashkil topgan. Viloyat 1866 yilda tashkil etilgan bo'lib, Konfederatsiya generali Devid V. Bayning sharafiga Bayn okrugi deb nomlangan. Keyingi yili esa, rekonstruksiya paytida respublikachilar nazorati ostidagi shtat hukumati tomonidan bekor qilindi. Bir yil o'tgach, graflik Etovax okrugi sifatida qayta tashkil etildi, uning ismi o'sha paytda "qutulish mumkin bo'lgan daraxt" degan ma'noni anglatuvchi cherokiy so'z sifatida tanlangan. Ismning kelib chiqishi ehtimoli ko'proq italva, bu cherokees, creeks va boshqa janubi -sharqiy qabilalarning muskog tilida "shahar" degan ma'noni anglatadi. Emma Sansom haykali Hozirgi Etovax okrugidagi birinchi aholi punkti Coosa daryosidagi Double Springs deb nomlangan shaharda joylashgan. Double Springs 1845 yil 4 -iyulda kapitan Jeyms Lafferti bu erga birinchi paroxodni boshqarganida o'zgartirildi. Mahalliy aholi uning sharafiga shaharga "Lafferti qo'nishi" deb nom berishni taklif qilishdi, lekin Lafferti rad etdi. Buning o'rniga, Gadsden nomi Janubiy Karolinadan polkovnik Jeyms Gadsden sharafiga, Gadsden Xarid qilish bilan mashhur. 1863 yil 2 -mayda Ittifoq polkovnigi Abel Streytning Alabama shtati bo'ylab yurishi paytida, Jon Vizdom ismli mahalliy dehqon, Konfederatsiya generali Neytan Bedford Forrest tomonidan ta'qib qilinayotgan Streyt qo'shinlari oldidan yugurib, mashhur bo'lib ketdi. shahar aholisini Ittifoq qo'shinlarining kelishi haqida ogohlantirish. Emma Sansom ismli qiz, Strayt qo'shinlarini qo'lga olish uchun Forrest va uning odamlarini Qora Krik bo'ylab olib borganida, reyd paytida mahalliy qahramonga aylandi. Big Wills Creek 1903 yilda Gadzden shahrida istiqomat qiluvchi Uilyam Patrik Lay o'zining birinchi Gidroelektrostantsiyasini Big Wills Creekda qurdi va Attalla shahrini elektr bilan ta'minladi. U 1906 yilda Alabama Power Company kompaniyasini tashkil qildi. Gadsden Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida Gadsden qurol -yarog 'zavodi to'plar uchun qobiq ishlab chiqarish uchun qurilganida muhim harbiy markazga aylandi. 1945 yilgi urush oxirigacha zavod 16 milliondan ortiq qobiq ishlab chiqargan. 1942 yilda AQSh Alabama shtatidagi birinchi Kimyoviy Urush Markazini (CWC) tashkil etish uchun Etovadagi va Sent -Kler okrugidagi 36,300 gektar maydonni egalladi. Kamp Sibert nomi bilan tanilgan, u birliklarni o'qitish markazi va CWC uchun almashtirish o'quv markazi sifatida xizmat qilgan. 1945 yilda o'chirilgan Kamp Sibert Ikkinchi Jahon Urushida qatnashgan CWS qo'shinlarining 45 foizidan ko'prog'i uchun mashg'ulot maydoni edi. 1963 yilda Etovax okrugi fuqarolik huquqlari bo'yicha ishchi Uilyam Attalla yaqinida o'ldirilganida milliy ommaviy axborot vositalarining e'tiborini tortdi. H. Nili Genri Leyk 2016 yilgi aholini ro'yxatga olish ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, Etovax okrugi aholisi 103,363 edi. Ulardan 81,3 foizi o'zlarini oq tanli 15,4 foizini afro -amerikaliklar va 3,6 foizini ispan, 1,5 foizini ikki yoki undan ortiq irqlar, 0,7 foizini osiyolik, 0,5 foizini tubjoy amerikaliklar va 0,1 foizini gavayi yoki Tinch okeani deb atashgan. Orollik. Gadzden okrugidagi aholi soni 36,856 ga yaqin edi. Okrugning boshqa shaharlari - Rainbow City, Attalla, Glencoe, Hokes Bluff, Sardis City, Southside, Altoona, Ridgeville va Mountainboro. Uy xo'jaliklarining o'rtacha daromadi 40 478 dollarni, umuman davlat uchun 44 758 dollarni, jon boshiga to'g'ri keladigan daromad esa 21 287 dollarni, shtat uchun 24 736 dollarni tashkil etdi. Gadzendagi Respublika po'lati, tepalik va tepaliklar tufayli, hech qachon qishloq xo'jaligining kuchi bo'lmagan. Buning o'rniga, okrugning tabiiy resurslari va katta ishchi kuchi uni Alabamadagi eng muhim sanoat markazlaridan biriga aylantirdi. 1845 yilda Big Wills Creek qirg'og'ida joylashgan Coosa Furnace okrugda qurilgan birinchi temir o'choqqa aylandi. 1895 yilda Alabama shtatidagi Dwight Mill tashkil etildi va 1953 yilda ishlab chiqarish avjida 2600 kishi ish bilan ta'minlandi. The mill, which included a village, eventually closed after a series of labor disputes in 1959. In 1900, Underwood Coal Company was organized and later purchased by Alabama Steel. At one point, the company had 11 mines in operation near the town of Altoona. In 1929, Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company constructed a plant in Gadsden. At the turn of the twenty-first century it remained the largest employer in the county, with 2,550 workers. On October 5, 2006, U.S. Steel workers went on strike at the plant, which left approximately half the workers without jobs. As of August 2007, Goodyear announced that it would spend close to $125 million to upgrade the plant. The second largest employer, Gulf States Steel, organized in 1903 and by 1998 employed 1,900 workers. In 2000, the company declared bankruptcy and closed.
  • Educational services, and health care and social assistance (23.8 percent)
  • Manufacturing (19.3 percent)
  • Retail trade (11.2 percent)
  • Arts, entertainment, recreation, and accommodation and food services (8.6 percent)
  • Construction (6.5 percent)
  • Professional, scientific, management, and administrative and waste management services (5.5 percent)
  • Transportation and warehousing, and utilities (5.5 percent)
  • Other services, except public administration (5.4 percent)
  • Public administration (4.7 percent)
  • Finance and insurance, and real estate, rental, and leasing (4.2 percent)
  • Wholesale trade (2.8 percent)
  • Information (1.9 percent)
  • Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and extractive (0.7 percent)
Etowah County Map Comprising approximately 542 square miles, Etowah County lies in the northeastern area of the state, wholly within the Cumberland Plateau physiographic section. It is bounded to the east by Cherokee County, to the south by Calhoun and St. Clair Counties, to the west by Blount and Marshall Counties, and to the north by DeKalb County.

Silver Lakes Gadsden is home to one of the state's most breathtaking geographic features, Noccalula Falls, a 90-foot waterfall. Every August, the World's Longest Yard Sale begins in Gadsden and in Alabama runs along the scenic Lookout Mountain Parkway. The three-day event attracts thousands of shoppers and yard-sale vendors to the area. The area also features Silver Lakes, a golf course on the famed Robert Trent Jones Golf Trail. Lake H. Neely Henry features some of the area's best fishing, including crappie and largemouth, spotted, and striped bass. The Etowah Heritage Museum hosts exhibits relating to county history as well as a research library and a heritage tree park.

Etowah County Centennial Commission. A History of Etowah County, Alabama. Birmingham: Roberts and Son, 1968.


Streight's Raid

History of Alabama in 1863

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Streight's RaidBy Robert L. Willett

The men of the 1st Alabama Cavalry (USA) played a dual role in the raid that was conducted by Union Colonel Abel D. Streight in April 1863. The raid had a mission to cut the Confederate railroad that ran between Atlanta and Chattanooga, supplying General Braxton Bragg's army located in Tennessee.
While Streight's Provisional Brigade, four regiments of infantry mounted on balky and unbroken Yankee mules, included two companies of the 1st Alabama Cavalry, the rest of the regiment was serving under General Grenville Dodge in Corinth, Mississippi. Streight's cavalry was in the Army of the Cumberland while Dodge's command was under General Ulysses Grant's Army of the Tennessee. Dodge's mission was to screen Streight as he moved from Tennessee by boat, landing in Eastport, Mississippi and then moving overland toward Georgia. Dodge ran into several skirmishes with Confederate cavalry, but joined Streight near Eastport on April 21. Shortly after, Dodge retreated to Corinth while Streight set out for his objective, Rome, Georgia.
The raid was a disaster from the beginning. In Tennessee, Confederate cavalry legend Nathan Bedford Forrest discovered the raiders shortly after Dodge left the scene, and with four veteran regiments of cavalry began his pursuit on the poorly mounted Union raiders. The 1st Alabama scouts as the rearguard were under almost constant pressure from Forrest, and in spite of gallant conduct by the brigade exhaustion and lack of rations forced Streight to surrender to Forrest on May 3, 1863 near Cedar Bluff, Alabama.
In the week of the raid, the 1st Alabama Cavalry lost sixteen men killed, wounded, or missing. Captain David Smith, leader of the Streight Alabama companies was kept in Confederate prisons until finally released in early 1865. He died in the hospital in Annapolis, Maryland on April 18, 1865, nine days after Appomattox.


Sansom was born on June 2, 1847, near Social Circle, Georgia, to Micajah and Levina Vann Sansom, a niece of Cherokee leader James Vann. Around 1852, she and her family moved to a farm just outside Gadsden, Alabama. Her father died in 1858, by which time there were twelve children in her family. [1]

In April 1863, Confederate Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest was ordered into northern Alabama to pursue Union Colonel Abel Streight, who had orders to cut off the Confederate railroad near Chattanooga, Tennessee. On May 2, 1863, Streight arrived just outside Gadsden and prepared to cross Black Creek. Because the creek was swollen due to rain, Streight realized that if he destroyed the bridge he could get a few hours respite from the pursuit of Forrest. Seeing the nearby Sansom farmhouse, he rode upon it and demanded some smoldering coal, which he could use to burn the bridge. When Forrest's men arrived at the site, they found the burned out bridge and came under fire from Streight's men.

Forrest rode to the Sansom house and asked whether there was another bridge across the creek. Emma Sansom, then 16 years old, told him that the nearest bridge was in Gadsden, 2 miles away. Forrest then asked if there was a place where he could get across the creek. Emma told him that if one of his men would help saddle her horse, she would show him a place that she had seen cows cross the creek, and that he might be able to cross there. He replied that there was no time to saddle a horse and asked her to get on his horse behind him. As they started to leave, Emma's mother objected, but relented when Forrest assured her that he would bring the girl back safely. Emma then directed Forrest to the spot where he could cross the river. Some accounts of the skirmish indicate that the two came under fire from Union soldiers, who subsequently ceased fire when they realized that they had been firing on a teenage girl. After taking Emma back to her home, Forrest continued his pursuit of Streight, whom he was able to capture near Cedar Bluff on the following day. [1]

Emma's actions are noteworthy in that openly aiding Confederate forces could have subjected her and her family to prosecution (or even death) from the Union Army.

Sansom married Christopher B. Johnson on October 29, 1864, and moved to Texas in late 1876 or early 1877. She died August 9, 1900 in Upshur County, Texas, and is buried in Little Mound Cemetery. [1]

The actual crossing site was approximately 75 yards north of the point where modern Tuscaloosa Avenue crosses Black Creek in Gadsden.

In 1907, a monument was constructed in Gadsden at the western end of the Broad Street bridge across the Coosa River in honor of her actions. When the residents of Alabama City, Alabama (later annexed into Gadsden) built a high school in 1929, they named it in her honor. With the consolidation of the three Gadsden city high schools at the end of the 2006 school year, General Forrest Middle School was closed and Emma Sansom High School became Emma Sansom Middle School.


The Raid

Grierson and his 1,700 horse troopers, some in Confederate uniforms serving as scouts for the main force, rode over 600 miles (970   km) through hostile territory (from southern Tennessee, through the State of Mississippi and into Union-held Baton Rouge, Louisiana), over routes no Union soldier had traveled before. They tore up railroads and burned crossties, freed slaves, burned Confederate storehouses, destroyed locomotives and commissary stores, ripped up bridges and trestles, burned buildings, and inflicted ten times the casualties they received, all while detachments of his troops made feints confusing the Confederates as to his actual whereabouts, intent and direction. Total casualties for Grierson's Brigade during the raid were three killed, seven wounded, and nine missing. Five sick and wounded men were left behind along the route, too ill to continue.

Confederate Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton, commander of the Vicksburg garrison, had few cavalry and could do nothing to stop Grierson.

On April 21, 1863, Confederate cavalry commander Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest, had captured another Union raider, Col. Abel Streight, in Alabama following a poorly supplied and poorly planned raid (Streight's Raid).

Although many other Confederate cavalry units pursued Grierson vigorously across the state (most notably those led by Wirt Adams and Robert V. Richardson), they were unsuccessful in stopping the raid. [1] Grierson and his troopers, exhausted by days in the saddle, ultimately rode into Union-occupied Baton Rouge, Louisiana. [5] With an entire division of Pemberton's soldiers tied up defending the vital Vicksburg-Jackson railroad from the evasive Grierson, combined with Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman's feint northeast of Vicksburg (the Battle of Snyder's Bluff), the beleaguered Confederates were unable to muster the forces necessary to oppose Grant's eventual landing below Vicksburg on the east side of the Mississippi at Bruinsburg.


Kentucky and the Civil War

My thanks to Rick Price and to Larry Muse for taking me to sites, and telling me background, of a sadly neglected action of America's greatest war. My day together with them was enjoyable and informative. Any errors in this blog are my own.

While I was in Alabama to give a talk on John Hunt Morgan's Great Ohio Raid, I had a chance to learn of a little-known action that eerily foreshadowed and paralleled it: Abel D. Streight's Alabama Raid. Like Morgan's Raid, Streight's involved a daring (some would say, "rash") penetration of enemy territory in hope of destroying vital resources, the capture of the raider's whole command, and the escape of its senior officers in a stunning jailbreak.

In the spring of 1863, after General Braxton Bragg had won and then lost the Battle of Murfreesboro, his Confederate Army of Tennessee was sitting at Tullahoma, Tennessee, southeast of Nashville. At Nashville itself, Major General William Rosecrans, commanding the Union Army of the Cumberland, was looking for a way to drive Bragg from Tullahoma so that Rosecrans could seize the key Confederate railroad crossing of Chattanooga, Tennessee, and open a route to the key Confederate manufacturing center of Atlanta, Georgia.

Rosecrans accepted a daring strategy modeled on highly successful Confederate cavalry raids led by the geniuses John Hunt Morgan, Nathan Bedford Forrest, and Joseph "Fighting Joe" Wheeler. Rosecrans planned to send a column of cavalry into the Deep South on a raid to destroy the Western and Atlantic Railroad, vital for supplying the Army of Tennessee, on a line from Eastport, Mississippi, to Rome, Georgia. If the railroad were destroyed, Bragg would have to retreat from Tullahoma into northern Georgia and abandon Chattanooga.

The strategy was a brainchild of an unlikely soldier, Colonel Abel D. Streight of Indiana. Like many another Federal officer in the war, he had no prewar military experience. Born in New York, he'd moved first to Cincinnati, Ohio, and then to Indianapolis, Indiana, where he made a living as a lumber merchant and as a publisher. Did he become a publisher to use paper made from his lumber? History doesn't say.

Streight proposed his raid to Brigadier General (and future president) James A. Garfield, Rosecrans's chief of staff, who recommended it to his superior. Rosecrans accepted the plan with a key change to it: because of wartime shortages, Streight and his 1,700 men would be riding, not horses, but mules. The change in steeds would be the first of many misfortunes to dog Streight. Trying to make lemonade from lemons, Streight christened his command "The Lightning Mule Brigade." As things would turn out, there'd be more mule than lightning.

Streight's command took a circuitous route to its mission's start. Setting out from Nashville on April 7, he traveled on foot or by riverboat first to Fort Henry, in northwestern Tennessee, and then due south to Eastport, Mississippi, on the Tennessee River, which he reached on April 19. On the road east from there, Streight's movements were guarded at first by cavalry led by Brigadier General Grenville M. Dodge, namesake of Dodge City, Kansas.

Streight met no significant opposition as he traveled east along the line of the Tennessee for nearly a week. During this time, he destroyed a major railroad depot and other military targets at Tuscumbia, Alabama. East of there, at Day's Gap, Streight, on April 30, ran into Confederate cavalry led by Brigadier General Nathan Bedford Forrest. Streight's men drove off Forrest's assault on the Federal rearguard, but, as Federal cavalry would dog Morgan through Indiana and Ohio, Forrest's cavalry dogged Streight's command for the rest of its ride east.

Streight and Forrest clashed several times daily on the road to Gadsden, Alabama, which Streight reached on May 2. There, stealing a march on Forrest, Streight burned the bridge across Black Creek. Finding another crossing of this deep, swiftly flowing stream would, Streight hoped, delay Forrest long enough to let Streight and his command reach Rome, Georgia, with no further opposition.

Streight reckoned without a fifteen-year-old girl named Emma Sansom. When Forrest rode onto the Sansom farm to ask whether there were another bridge nearby, Emma volunteered to show Forrest another crossing of the creek. Riding in the saddle behind Forrest, she led him and his men to a cattle crossing that her family used. This would lead Forrest again into Streight's rear.

Some say that Emma and Forrest came under fire from Federal sharpshooters posted on a wooded bluff east of the creek others dispute this part of Emma's story. I can testify from my visit to the most likely spot for the crossing that it looked to me like a lovely spot for sharpshooters. A high, wooded ridge overlooking a ford &mdash what could be better than?

In any case, Emma Sansom became a local hero in Gadsden. Her family's graves and a prominent monument to her stand today in the median of U. S. 431 in downtown Gadsden. Forrest's crossing of Black Creek with Emma's aid is commemorated in memorial signage near the crossing's likely point. Because of changes in the creek bed over the past one hundred and fifty years, it may be impossible for us moderns to determine the exact site of Emma's ford.

The next day, Forrest brought Streight to bay at Cedar Bluff, east of Gadsden in northeastern Alabama's hill country. A pair of sharp ridges running parallel to each other let Forrest pull off one of the deceptions he was notorious for. Sending his horse artillery to deliver rapid fire from widely scattered points, and moving his men quickly about to appear and disappear beyond the ridge lines, Forrest, who had less than five hundred effectives on hand, convinced Streight, who still had nearly fifteen hundred effectives, of Forrest's having superior numbers. To these, Streight surrendered his command.

According to an eyewitness account, Streight, learning of Forrest's deception, angrily demanded that Forrest return Streight's weapons so that he and Forrest could finish battle on honorable terms. Forrest, showing perhaps more practicality than chivalry, laughingly refused Streight's demand. The site of the surrender is memorialized by a roadside marker.

From Cedar Bluff, Streight was taken as a prisoner of war to Richmond, Virginia, where he was kept in a wing of Libby Prison reserved for Federal officers. Oddly, there crossed Federal lines a rumor that Streight had, contrary to the laws of war, been confined to a civilian prison in Rome, Georgia.

This rumor would shape John Hunt Morgan's life when he was taken prisoner at the end of his Great Ohio Raid in July. Federal authorities used the rumor as cover for housing Morgan as a common criminal in the Ohio State Penitentiary in Columbus. There, he tried to move Federal authorities to exchange him for Streight. When it became clear to Morgan that no exchange would take place, he and six of his officers tunneled out of the penitentiary and made their way back to Confederate lines.

What Morgan did in Columbus, Streight would do better in Richmond. Early in 1864, Streight and one hundred and seven other men tunneled out of Libby Prison. Streight made his way back to Union lines, where he received command of a brigade in an army being assembled around Nashville by Major General George Thomas. Streight would take part in the Battles of Franklin and Nashville and would, after the war, serve as a state senator in Indiana.


About the Faculty

Brian Steel Wills is a professor of history at Kennesaw State University outside of Atlanta. He is also the Director for the Center for the study of the Civil War Era. In addition to the biography on Forrest, he is also the author of the most recent biography General George Henry Thomas, As True as Steel. Another of his books is The War Hits Home: The Civil War in Southeastern Virginia. Last but certainly not least is his entertaining book Gone with the Glory: The Civil War in Cinema. Each of Brian’s works reveal an expansive view of history and its potential. His interpersonal interactions have proven him to be a popular and engaging speaker. You will enjoy your time with him.

Norm Dasinger is an Alabama businessman who has been completely immersed in history his entire life. Son of a father who was the National Chairman of the Sons of Confederate Veterans and a member of both Union and Confederate heritage/legacy groups and Revolutionary War heritage groups, Dasinger has led numerous tours in Alabama, Georgia, and Tennessee—often mixing the themes to maximize the experience for his clients. Norm is a member of the Blue and Gray Education Society and is a frequent contributor to the BGES Dispatches electronic publications. Norm is a man who walks his talk!


Textbook ‘Know Alabama’ Justified Slavery, Praised Confederacy to Schoolchildren

The textbook Know Alabama. Source: Scott Morris

As the Freedom Riders crossed the South in their fight for civil rights, schoolchildren in Alabama were reading about the bright side of slavery and the contributions of the Ku Klux Klan.

They were taught these lessons from “Know Alabama,” the standard fourth-grade history textbook in the state’s public schools. The book informed baby boomers and Generation Xers from the mid-1950s through the 1970s. Some of those students became the teachers who taught subsequent generations.

Both white and Black children were instructed from “Know Alabama” that plantation life was a joyous time and slaves were generally contented. They read that Confederates were brave heroes, and Reconstruction was a terrible time when carpetbaggers, scalawags and illiterate Blacks corrupted the state.

Today, with factions across Alabama caught up in a clash over the meaning of Confederate monuments and symbols, many are debating the true history of the South. Is it the version that Black Lives Matter protesters shout in the public square or the story taught in Southern schools during and after the fight over segregation?

The search for answers starts with the primary author of “Know Alabama.”

Frank L. Owsley grew up on a sprawling farm near Montgomery where his father profited by renting land to Black sharecroppers. A history professor at Vanderbilt University, Owsley was a member of the Twelve Southerners, or Southern Agrarians, who wrote a pro-Southern manifesto titled “I’ll Take My Stand.”

Critics say the group romanticized Lost Cause ideology and ignored the evils of slavery.

“Owsley was a dyed-in-the-wool racist who described the slaves as ‘savages’ and ‘cannibals,’ and who defended the South against what he saw as overly aggressive reconstructionists who wanted to give black civil rights and destroy Southern culture,” said Gordon Harvey, professor and history department head at Jacksonville State University. “When a racist writes your state history, you are going to get a warped portrayal of slavery and a celebration of the old South.”

The other authors were John Craig Stewart, former professor and director of creative writing at University of South Alabama in Mobile, and Gordon T. Chappell, professor and head of the Department of History and Political Science at Huntingdon College in Montgomery.

Harvey said an inaccurate picture of slavery, the Civil War and Reconstruction persists today because of textbooks such as “Know Alabama.” He knows this first hand because he was an Alabama fourth-grader in 1976-77 when the textbook was still in the classrooms.

“What we believe is seeded by teachers and parents, and also reinforced by them,” Harvey said. “If you are taught that slavery was good and the slaves were really freed after the war, then you will grow up with that internalized.

“The problem is that we have done a poor job of teaching teachers who teach our students about the complexities of history, the ills of slavery, and that slavery and the slaveholders had no redeeming values whatsoever. Further, we have failed to draw the line from slavery and emancipation to the issues African Americans face today.”

Best Of Times On The Plantation

At many points, contents of the 1961 edition of “Know Alabama” thunder into the age of Black Lives Matter with all the subtleness of a Confederate cavalry charge. At other points they hide like a wisteria-covered antebellum ruin, inviting closer scrutiny.

Now we come to one of the happiest ways of life in Alabama before the War Between the States.

This is “Know Alabama’s” introduction to slavery.

The authors do not explore what life was like with no freedom, with the ever-present threat of losing a loved one to the slave trade or of being whipped. They do not mention being worked from sunup to sundown in the Alabama heat to enrich a white planter.

“Now suppose you were a little boy or girl and lived in one of the plantation homes many years ago,” the book states as it takes its young audience on a romantic trip through antebellum times.

The Negro cook whom you call “Mammy” comes in bringing a great tray of food. You have known her all your life and love her very much. She was your nurse when you were a baby.

A page from Know Alabama. Source: Scott Morris

As with most other happily submissive slaves in this state-sanctioned version of history, Mammy smiles when she serves her masters.

The white boy in this historical fiction rides off on a horse alongside his father to observe slaves in the fields.

Most of them were treated kindly. There were a few masters who did not treat their slaves kindly. The first thing any good master thought about was the care of his slaves. … Many nights you have gone with your mother to the “quarters” where she cared for some sick person. She is the best friend the Negroes have, and they know it. …

As you ride up beside the Negroes in the field, they stop working long enough to look up, tip their hats and say, “Good morning, Master John.” You like the friendly way they speak and smile they show bright rows of white teeth.

“How’s it coming, Sam?” your father asks one of the old Negroes.

“Fine, Marse Tom, jes fine. We got ‘most more cotton than we can pick.” Then Sam chuckles to himself and goes back to picking as fast as he can.

After you return home for dinner and awake from your afternoon nap, it’s time to play “Indian” with a Black boy named “Jig.”

The authors of “Know Alabama” named the boy the shortened version of “jigaboo,” which Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines as an “insulting and contemptuous term for a black person.”

The textbook explains “he got that name because he dances so well when the Negroes play their banjos.”

Jig comes up and says, “Let me play.”

And you say, “All right, but you be the captive Indian.”

“That will be fun,” Jig says, and he goes off gladly to be the Indian, to hide and to get himself captured.

Better Off A Slave?

Harvey said the description of slavery in books like “Know Alabama” is far from accurate.

“In these texts, slavery is depicted as a benign, almost benevolent, system that gave the slaves a better life than that which they had in their native lands,” he said. “Except, of course, the nagging detail that they were held in bondage, worked to death and repeatedly raped by slave owners.”

Sandwiched between the chapter in “Know Alabama” on slavery and a section on the Civil War is the biography of former Alabama slave Maria Fearing. After the U.S. victory in the Civil War, a free Fearing attended what was then called Talladega College for Negroes. Later, she went to Central Africa as a missionary.

While fourth-graders learned of Fearing’s achievements, they also received an inferred lesson: Slavery in the South saved Blacks from the poverty and savagery of Africa, where they were in danger of being eaten by cannibals.

Fearing’s mistress, Amanda Winston, told her about “the naked, barefoot children in Africa, who knew nothing about the true God.” Later, the authors say the African children were half-starved, with lice in their hair and sores all over their bodies.

Sometimes children, who had been kidnapped by cannibal tribes, were rescued by the missionaries.

The textbook points out that in Fearing’s last years she returned to the plantation where she was born to live with her nephew.

War Between The States

The authors of the 1961 edition of “Know Alabama” never used the term “Civil War.” In every reference, they taught children to call it the “War Between the States.”

Gaines M. Foster, a history professor at Louisiana State University, writes in The Journal of the Civil War Era that it matters what history calls the war. He said people in the North generally called it “the Rebellion” until they accepted the name “Civil War” in an attempt to appease the South and reunite the country.

In the first decades of the twentieth century, the major champion of the Lost Cause, the United Daughters of the Confederacy, campaigned for War Between the States to be the name of the war. They believed it testified to the legality of secession and therefore the existence of a Confederate nation. Indeed, the UDC argued that the “States” in the name referred not to the individual states but to the “United States” and the “Confederate States” — two independent nations.”

The UDC influenced and vetted the contents of school history textbooks and library books, including “Know Alabama,” according to historians. Even today, the UDC refers to the Civil War as the War Between the States.

The textbook describes slavery as a system of labor. The North did not have as much need for unskilled farm labor, the authors explain, and “did not fully understand the ways that slaves worked in the South.”

The Southerners had a right under the law to own slaves, and the Southern states had a right under the law to leave the United States. Many Southerners did not want to leave the Union. But when Abraham Lincoln was elected president in 1860, the South felt that they had to leave the Union to keep their rights.

Harvey said the book portrays the war as a grand crusade for states rights, for freedom, to preserve the Southern lifestyle and protect the homeland from aggressive Northern attack.

“Of course, if you read the secession proclamations of each Southern state, you will see slavery as the primary reason they are seceding,” he said.

Harvey said he compares the stated causes of the Civil War to an apple pie.

“You can argue way of life, states rights and agrarian lifestyle, etc., but each of those causes has slavery as a central ingredient,” he said. “Like trying to eat apple pie without having a bite of apple in each slice.”

Southern Heroes, Northern Fools

Lke the sports editor of a small-town newspaper, it is clear whose team the authors of “Know Alabama” prefer.

The army of soldiers in gray grew larger and larger. Soon they were one of the best armies the world has ever known. The Southern men were brave fighters and their generals — Robert E. Lee and “Stonewall” Jackson — were two of the greatest war leaders ever known. The North had more men, guns, and more food than the South. In four years of war, this “more” of everything finally caused the South to lose.

Know Alabama illustration of the story of Emma Sansom with Nathan Bedford Forrest.

The textbook devotes six full pages to Streight’s Raid across north Alabama, a comparably minor Union military operation that involved about 1,600 men. The raid ended in a humiliating surrender by Union troops to Confederate Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest, an early leader of the Ku Klux Klan. This is the raid that elevated Emma Sansom of Gadsden to folk heroine status for showing Forrest a shallow spot where his men could ford a creek.

The story revels in Forrest’s success at tricking Union Col. Abel Streight into surrendering, despite the fact that Streight had 1,000 more men.

That is how the big raid of the “Yankees” in north Alabama ended. When all the guns were taken over by his own soldiers, General Forrest laughed out loud and said to his men, “Take a rest, boys.”

To make sure students fully understood who was brave and who was cowardly, the authors asked the following study questions:

Why did Colonel Streight tell his men to run when General Forrest caught up with them?

Why did Colonel Streight’s men hide?

How did General Forrest prove his bravery?

How did General Forrest fool Colonel Streight?

What lesson can be learned in Colonel Streight’s defeat by General Forrest?

“Know Alabama” also celebrates “great men from Alabama in the War Between the States.” These men include the “gallant” John Pelham of Alexandria, who was killed in Virginia, and Admiral Raphael Semmes, who lost his ship Alabama to the Union Navy.

There are no brave, gallant or heroic Yankees in “Know Alabama.” Instead, “they

stole jewelry, silver, and clothing. They sometimes killed people who would not tell where their money was hidden.”

Reconstruction Of The Reconstruction

After the Civil War and President Lincoln’s assassination, many leaders did not want to be “kind” to the South, according to “Know Alabama.” The textbook said activities during Reconstruction caused more bad feelings in the South than the war itself.

The book is particularly critical of the Freedmen’s Bureau, established to help newly freed Blacks find jobs and become citizens. Carpetbaggers and scalawags operated the Freedmen’s Bureau in Alabama, the book says.

“Carpetbaggers” were those people from the North who came to the South to live after the war. … Most of them were not honest men, and they came to steal and cheat people. They wanted to make money out of the helpless white and Negro Southerners. … The “scalawags” were Southerners who turned against their own people in the South.

Under the headline “THE TERRIBLE CARPETBAG RULE,” the textbook teaches schoolchildren that the carpetbaggers and scalawags tried to turn Blacks against their white friends.

They told them that the men who had been their masters were their enemies. They told the Negroes that they would soon own all the land.

The book stated that a new government formed in Alabama in October 1867 required people who wanted to vote to swear they had never helped the Confederacy in any way. At the same time, it said, the carpetbaggers told thousands of Blacks how to vote.

The state legislature in Montgomery was made up of carpetbaggers, scalawags and Negroes. The Negroes were nearly all field workers. They could not read and write. They did not know what it meant to run a government. The carpetbaggers used the Negroes to carry out their own plans, which were not for the good of the people.

Saved By The Klan

While “Know Alabama” considers carpetbaggers “terrible,” it has no such criticism of the Ku Klux Klan.

The loyal white men of Alabama saw they could not depend on the laws or the state government to protect their families. They knew they had to do something to bring back law and order, to get the government back in the hands of honest men who knew how to run it.

About this time, a group of men formed the Ku Klux Klan in Pulaski, Tennessee. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest was the first grand wizard.

The Klan did not ride often, only when it had to. But whenever some bad thing was done by a person who thought the carpetbag law would protect him, the white-robed Klan would appear on the streets. They would go to the person who had done the wrong and leave a warning. Sometimes this warning was enough, but if the person kept on doing the bad, lawless things the Klan came back again.

They held their courts in the dark forests at night they passed sentence on the criminals and they carried out the sentence. Sometimes the sentence would be to leave the state.

The textbook says no one knew who the Klansmen were or where they came from because they were sworn to secrecy.

After a while, the Klan struck fear in the hearts of the carpetbaggers and other lawless men who had taken control of the state. Many of the carpetbaggers went back north. Others who stayed in the South behaved themselves. The Negroes who had been fooled by the false promises of the carpetbaggers decided to get themselves jobs and settle down to make an honest living

Many of the Negroes in the South remained loyal to the white Southerners. Even though they had lately been freed from slavery, even though they had no education, they knew who their friends were. They knew that the Southern white men who had been good to them in the time of their slavery were still their friends. … Many of them helped to make the other Negroes understand they must be honest and keep the laws if they wanted to stay in the South.

When federal troops left and white men had restored order, the book states, there was no more need for the Klan.

“Know Alabama” does not mention the Jim Crow era that followed the departure of federal troops. Blacks were forbidden to vote and were stripped of any political influence. They were terrorized and became the victims of 340 known lynchings in Alabama from 1877 to 1950, according to the National Memorial for Peace and Justice in Montgomery.

Evolution of ‘Know Alabama’

“Know Alabama” underwent revisions through the years, with the most notable changes coming after complaints in 1970 by Black parents and criticism in the U.S. Senate that was reported in the national media.

The 1970 edition of “Know Alabama” stops using the UDC’s preferred name for the Civil War. It no longer introduces the chapter on slavery as “one of the happiest ways of life in Alabama before the War Between the States.”

Now we come to another way of life in Alabama before the Civil War. This is life as it was lived on the big plantations.

The textbook still uses the planter’s son to tell the story of antebellum life, but eliminates the Mammy and Jig characters. The same illustration of Mammy serving the family dinner, however, appears in the later book.

The newer edition still states most slaves were treated kindly, but it drops the part about the plantation owner’s wife being the slaves’ best friend. Then, it adds a new paragraph.

Most black people probably did not like being in a system of slavery. Most wanted their freedom. However, all but the most intelligent made the best of the situation and seemed to be fairly content.

The 1970 edition also includes a new chapter about free Blacks who lived in Alabama, particularly in Tuscaloosa County. The textbook says 80 free Blacks lived in the county in 1860.

The laws of the city and county of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, were in many cases just and fair to free Negroes.

Tuscaloosa County was also the site of seven lynchings after the Civil War.

The textbook retains the story of former slave Maria Fearing, who became a missionary to Africa. But it no longer describes the children of Africa as barefoot, naked, and covered in sores and lice.

In addressing the Civil War, the book states “wars have many causes. Slavery was only one of the causes of the Civil War.”

Much of the section on Reconstruction and the “terrible carpetbagger rule” remains intact, but it no longer claims whites had been good to slaves and had treated them as friends.

The later edition acknowledges the KKK “sometimes used violence and fear so that Alabama might be rid of the control of the carpetbaggers.” Instead of saying the Klan rode “only when it had to,” the book says it mobilized only when its members “thought they had to.”

Coming after forced integration of public schools and the civil rights movement, the textbook also makes additional statements to distance the KKK of Forrest’s day from the Klan of the modern era. It’s the good Klan, bad Klan argument.

There is no connection between the Ku Klux Klan of this period and similarly named organizations which were formed in the South in the 20 th Century. The primary purpose of the latter organizations was to gain political control and to maintain white supremacy. Violence and threats of violence often occurred as the Klan attempted to secure these ends.

Harvey said historians debate whether there were different Klans.

“Regardless, the Klan was at its start, as it was in the ‘50s and ‘60s and beyond, a terrorist paramilitary organization designed to fight back against Reconstruction forces in the South, force blacks when they had a vote to vote against their interests, and to harm and kill them when they dared disobey the rules of segregation,” Harvey said.

He said the Klan was designed to intimidate and kill free blacks in the South after the Civil War.

“Let’s not forget that Forrest was the man who ordered the Fort Pillow massacre, where his CSA troops gunned down federal troops, most of whom were free blacks, after they surrendered,” Harvey added.

Knowing the Real Alabama

The three authors of “Know Alabama” are no longer alive to defend their ideology and influence over tens of thousands of schoolchildren.

Owsley suffered a fatal heart attack in 1956 while conducting research in England, according to the Encyclopedia of Tennessee.

“Across a distinguished career, his work retained a singular theme,” the publication states. “Ending a lecture series presented to the University of Georgia’s faculty and students in 1938, he relished their applause because, in his words, ‘it was the rebel yell that I heard.’”

The effects of “Know Alabama” continue about 65 years after the state introduced it into fourth-grade classrooms, according to historians.

Harvey said that when we begin telling the truth about history, we might move forward as a society to deal with our “original sin” — slavery and racism.

“Until we come to terms in an open way and acknowledge what we have done — as a nation that dares defend our freedoms — to people of color who merely want freedom to exist and not be discriminated against or killed, then we will never fulfill the promise of America,” Harvey said.


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Izohlar:

  1. Macnicol

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  2. Tatilar

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  3. Benes

    Tasdiqlanaman. I join all of the above.

  4. Risley

    Ba'zan xuddi shunday ... shunday tasodifiy tasodif



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