Edmund Kartrayt

Edmund Kartrayt


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Eslatib o'tamiz, Edmund Kartrayt, Marnxemdan katta er egasining o'g'li, Nottingem, 1743 yilda tug'ilgan. Uning akasi Jon Kartrayt keyinchalik parlament islohotlari harakatining etakchilaridan biriga aylangan edi. Oksford universitet kollejida o'qiganidan so'ng, Kartrayt Lestershirdagi Goadbi Marvud cherkovining rektori bo'ldi.

1784 yilda Kartrayt Richard Arkraytga tegishli zavodga tashrif buyurdi. Ko'rganlaridan ilhomlanib, u to'quv tezligi va sifatini yaxshilaydigan dastgoh ustida ishlay boshladi. Unga yordam berish uchun temirchi va duradgorni ishga yollagan Kartrayt dastgoh deb atagan narsasini ishlab chiqarishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. U 1785 yilda o'z mashinasiga patent oldi, lekin bu bosqichda u yomon ishladi.

1787 yilda Kartrayt Donkasterda to'quv fabrikasini ochdi va ikki yildan so'ng dastgohlarini haydash uchun Jeyms Vatt va Metyu Boulton ishlab chiqaradigan bug 'dvigatellaridan foydalana boshladi. To'quvchining qo'l va oyoqlari bilan qilingan barcha operatsiyalar endi mexanik tarzda bajarilishi mumkin edi. Kartrayt ishlagan to'quvchilarning asosiy vazifasi dastgohdagi uzilgan iplarni tuzatish edi. Garchi bu dastgohlar hozir yaxshi ishlayotgan bo'lsa -da, Kartrayt kambag'al tadbirkor edi va oxir -oqibat bankrot bo'ldi.

Endi Kartrayt o'z e'tiborini loyihalarga qaratdi va jun tarash mashinasi (1790) va spirtli dvigatel (1797) uchun patent oldi.

1799 yilda Manchester kompaniyasi Kartraytning 400 ta dastgohini sotib oldi, lekin ko'p o'tmay ularning fabrikasi yonib ketdi, ehtimol ishsiz qolishdan qo'rqqan ishchilar. Bu voqea boshqa ishlab chiqaruvchilarga Cartwright mashinalarini sotib olmaslikka ta'sir qildi.

19 -asrning boshlariga kelib, zavod egalarining katta qismi Kartvayt dastgohining o'zgartirilgan versiyasidan foydalangan. Kartrayt nima bo'layotganini bilgach, u tovon puli talab qilib, Jamoatlar palatasiga murojaat qildi. O'zgartirilgan elektr dastgohidan katta pul ishlab topganlardan biri bo'lgan Robert Peel kabi ba'zi deputatlar uning da'vosini qo'llab -quvvatladilar va 1809 yilda parlament unga 10 000 funt miqdorida bir martalik ovoz berdi.

Edmund Kartrayt 1823 yilda vafot etgan Kent fermasida nafaqaga chiqqan.


Edmund Kartrayt - Tarix


XVII asr Kartrayt oilasining nasl -nasabi to'g'risida memorandum.

KARTRAYTlar oilasi haqidagi dastlabki yozuvlar XVI asrga to'g'ri keladi. O'sha paytda Ossington va Ordsallda oilaning ikkita asosiy filiali bo'lganga o'xshaydi, va tez -tez o'zaro nikohlar va qarindoshlik to'g'risidagi hujjatli da'volar kabi ko'plab dalillar mavjud bo'lib, bu filiallar kelib chiqishi taxminini qo'llab -quvvatlaydi. umumiy ajdod. Ma'lum bo'lishicha, bu ajdod Ma Ku yoki Koga uylangan ma'lum bir Xyu Kartrayt edi, va ro'yxatlardan ko'rinib turibdiki, bu ismli oila 16 -asrda Ordsallda yashagan.

XVII asrning eski oilaviy nasl -nasabidan olingan yuqoridagi eslatmada, Edmund Kartraytning (ehtimol Norvelllik) Anne Krenmer bilan nikohi natijasida Kentning ba'zi boy cherkov erlari sotib olingan. Ossington turar joyi o'z qaynotasi, arxiyepiskop orqali, lekin Torotonning so'zlariga ko'ra, Ossington malikasi ma'lum bir Richard Endryusga berilgan va Edmund Kartraytning Agnes Endryus bilan keyingi nikohi natijasida Ossington o'z uyiga o'tgan. Kartraytlar oilasining mulki.

Taxminan 1540 yilga borib taqaladigan Ordsall cherkovining reestrlari suvga cho'mish haqidagi yozuvlarga, shuningdek, bu erda bir nechta oilalar bo'lgan ko'rinadi, lekin ro'yxatga olish kitoblarida mavjud bo'lgan kartvaytlarning dafn marosimlariga to'la. ularning qanchalik bog'liqligini va qanchalik darajada ekanligini aniqlashning iloji yo'q. Qizig'i shundaki, 1585 yildan keyin Kartrayt yozuvlari to'satdan to'xtatildi va bu oilaviy migratsiyaning sababini ko'rsatadigan hech qanday yozuv topilmadi. Ular Southwell yaqinidagi Edingli va Normantonga joylashgandek tuyuladi va Wheatleyda tashkil etilgan 1614 yilgi tashrifda Kartvaytlar oilasi ham tilga olinadi, lekin Uitli Ordsalldan uncha uzoq bo'lmagan bo'lsa -da, bu dalil yo'q. Oilaning Ordsall Kartraytlar bilan aloqasi bor edi.

Kartvaytlar oilasining Ordsoll filialiga har qanday nur sochadigan birinchi hujjat oltinchi Edvard hukmronligi davriga to'g'ri keladi va bitta Aleksandr Kartraytning irodasi, Whitehouses, Ordsall, sh. Notts., Dehqon, 1551 yil 18 -martda va 1552 yil 12 -mayda Yorkda isbotlangan. Ordsalli kambag'allarga har xil xayriya meroslaridan tashqari, hozirgi kunda juda kulgili ko'rinadigan narsalar, masalan, "Sharqiy Retforddagi Almshausdagi yomonlik & quot va Sharqiy Retfordda 4 -dagi Castlegate of Southend shahrida yashovchi kambag'allarga & quot; u oiladan begonalashmaslik sharti bilan Ordsalldagi bir necha gektar erni o'g'illari Aleksandr, Jorj, Tomas va Gregoriga qoldirdi. . Xotini Izabel va uning o'g'li Gregoriga, har 4 ta ho'kiz va temir bilan bog'langan o'g'li Tomas, bir akr arpa va sigir, o'g'li Jorjga 2 ta buqa va boshqalarga, o'g'li Aleksandrga esa 2 ta buqa, 2 ta qo'ylar va boshqalar, qizi Izabel esa 20 ta belgi, to'shak va ko'rpa -to'shaklar bilan kifoyalanishi kerak edi. Noma'lum sabablarga ko'ra, u o'z mol -mulki qoldig'ini xotini va kenja o'g'li Gregoriga qoldirgan va shu tariqa uni voris qilib qo'ygan.

1574 yilda Gregorining irodasi Yorkda isbotlandi. U "Ordsall cherkovining Sotheyle dafn qilinishini" xohladi va rafiqasi Elizabetga qoldirdi. O'n to'qqiz yil, va undan keyin & quot; O'g'il Jorj & quot; ga o'tish kerak edi, shuningdek, Edmund Kartrayt, Murxaus, Laxton sh. Notts., 1580 yil 23 -iyulda & funt 6 13s yillik annuitet qoldiradi. 4d., Ossington turar joyidan, uning o'g'li Jorjgacha, lekin ichki dalillarga ko'ra, 1612 yilda shunday vasiyatnoma tuzgan Ordsall dehqonining "O'g'li Jorj o'g'li" aynan shunday aniq ko'rinadi: "ALLOH nomi bilan Omin, mart oyining sakkizinchi va yigirmanchi kunlari, Angliya cherkovining hisob -kitobiga ko'ra, bir ming olti yuz o'n ikki Normantonlik Jorj Kartrayt va Sautuell cherkovida va Nott Gentleman grafligida yaxshi va mukammal xotirada (rahmat) Xudo buning uchun) va shu bilan birga, hozirgi hayotning o'limi va noaniqligini hisobga olgan holda, bu mening oxirgi vasiyatnomamni quyidagi tarzda tuzadi va belgilaydi. & Quot; U Normanton va Upton Kirklington va Ordsollda o'z chodirlarini qoldiradi. . Uilyam Kartraytning fe'l -atvori va o'g'lining o'g'li, merosxo'ri va merosxo'ri qonuniy ravishda tug'ilishdi va uni qizi Frensisga, keyin esa jiyani Richard Denmanga, Ordsallga berishdi. Ko'rinib turibdiki, Jorj Kartrayt bolalari go'dakligida o'lik kasallikka chalingan edi, chunki u rafiqasi bilan "o'g'li" ning tarbiyasi borasida bir qancha ko'rsatmalarni qoldirgan, chunki u oz vaqtida va haqiqiy dinda bo'lmagan va qo'rqmagan. ALLOH va fuqarolik jamiyatida, o'z darajasiga ko'ra, yaxshi naslchilikni o'rgansa, Kembrij yoki Oksford universitetlaridan birida, xuddi shu kursga borishga to'g'ri kelsa, u mening ishonchli va sevimli sevgilimga o'xshaydi. frendes Jon Chaworth, Sowthwell afsd esquier oqsoqoli va Uilyam Kartrayt, Edtli amakivachchasi, Nott afsd Gent grafligida. Men o'zimga ishonganim uchun, bu mening oxirgi vasiyat va vasiyatimni haqiqiy va qonuniy ifoda etaman.

Southwell sobori registrlari Jorj Kartrayt 1612 yil 8 sentyabrda, qirq yoshida dafn etilganligini ko'rsatadi.

Uilyam Kartrayt, otasining o'qishi haqida qayg'urgani uchun rahmat aytganga o'xshaydi, va u polkovnik Kartvayt bo'lishi kerak edi, u qattiq qirollikchi sifatida Nottingem qal'asini qamal qilishda faol qatnashgan, o'zi boshchilik qilgan. hujumlar haqida. U doimiy ravishda polkovnik Xatchinsonning "Xotiralarida" tilga olinadi va Xatchinson xonim uni yoqtirmasdi.

Oilaning yana bir a'zosi, Ossington filiallaridan biri, Edingli yaqinidagi Hexgrave Parkdagi ser Xyu Kartrayt ham qirol tarafida edi. Qirol Charlz uchun oxirgi qal'a bo'lgan Pontefract qal'asi general Lambertga topshirilganda, Sir Xyu va uning o'g'li kapitan Kartrayt Donkasterdagi dumaloq bosh general Reynsboroning o'limiga aloqador bo'lishi kerak edi. Umumiy amnistiya xavfli ashaddiy jinoyatchilar bo'lib, ularni dushmanlarining qasosidan qutqarish uchun ularni maxfiy palatada bir oylik muhiti bilan berkitib qo'yishdi, tintuv tugagach, ular qochishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi va yo'l olishdi. Birinchisi 1668 yilda vafot etgan va jasadi Angliyaga olib kelingan Antverpen Metvold cherkoviga dafn qilindi. Norfolk. Bloomfild va Parkinning & quot; Norfolk tarixi & quot; da. men, p. 510, biz o'qiymiz: & quot; Birlik stolining yo'lakchasida bir nechta marmar qabr toshlari loydan yasalgan. . . va shunday yozilgan: "Bu erda Nottingemlik ser Xyu Kartraytning jasadi, Knt, 74 yoshda va 1668 yil Domda edi".

Ser Xyu Kartrayt, kavaler, d. 1668. & quot; Ajdod & quot; ruxsati bilan qayta ishlab chiqarilgan

Ser Xyu Kartraytning birinchi rafiqasi uning amakivachchasi, Edingli Uilyam Kartraytning qizi Meri edi, lekin uning surgun paytida ikkinchi xotini Ansliga yozilgan va u Norfolkning Momford shahri bo'lgan bo'lishi kerak .

& quot; 1666 yil 19 sentyabrda javob bering.
Mening eng aziz quvonchim va bu dunyodagi yagona mamnuniyatim,

Sizga minnatdorman, men hozir bu xabar orqali sizdan 22 avgust kuni maktub oldim, bundan oldin men sizdan birinchi iyuldan buyon hech qanday xabar olmaganman. Xudo xohlasa, men sizni yozyapman, Xudo xohlasa, men sizni oktyabr oyining oxirida, Kallisda kutaman, agar Xudo menga ruxsat bersa, men sizni xafa qilmayman. Agar siz, yosh Gallant 1, Parij qarorini qabul qilgan bo'lsangiz, men mamnunman, chunki men o'z xohishimga ko'ra, Frantsiyani, qayerga borsam, xohlagan joyimda yashashni yaxshi ko'raman. Lekin men sizdan tez -tez eshitishni xohlayman, chunki haqiqatan ham sizdan bir parcha qog'oz men uchun juda ma'qul, va sizdan tashqari, men xabar olgunga qadar vaziyatlar va qarorlar o'zgarishi mumkin. . . Men o'g'limdan Gentlemanning 2 -sonli qarorini va unga tashrif buyuradigan vaqtimni aniq olib tashlamayman, chunki men sakkiz kun ichida u erda bo'la olaman va Kallis bilan 8 kundan oshiq bo'lishni xohlamayman. Sizni u erda kutib olishimdan oldin. Ishonchim komilki, o'g'lim yaxshi biladi yoki yaxshi biladi, keyin Frantsiyadagi uchburchaklar qanday bo'lishini men bilaman, va bu vaqtda Archduke Ispaniya qo'shinlari bilan Parijning yigirma ingliz milida, va ot partiyalari har kuni Rades qiladi. Parij darvozalariga, lekin men bu qarorlarni o'zgartirish yoki ularni qo'rquvga solish uchun yozmayapman, chunki men qo'rqmayman, lekin men bir tomondan yoki boshqasidan xavfsiz o'tib keta olaman. Frantsiya, va hech qanday armiyadan qirq yoki ellik mil uzoqlikda kelmaydi. Siz shakar olib kelish haqida yozasiz, menimcha, buni qilmaslik kerak, chunki men bilaman, ular Angliyadan shakar yuborishadi, yaxshi non - 18 tiyin, Kurents - 4 tiyin, ingliz pulini hisoblagandan keyin - 5 tiyin. Vayt, men ham o'ylamaymanki, odam uchun ari emas, tasma, paypoq va yungli keng kiyimdan boshqa narsalarni olib kelishdan ko'ra arzonroq bo'lishi kerak, bundan tashqari, biz bilamizki, biz har bir kilogramm yuk uchun to'lashimiz kerak. Kallisdan Parijgacha 4 pens, chunki u biz kabi vagondan o'tishi kerak, va biz o'zimiz Kallikdan Parijgacha bo'lgan har bir kishi uchun to'pponcha to'lashimiz kerak, bundan tashqari barcha mol -mulkingiz uchun 4 tiyin funt to'laysiz, va bu menga qimmatga tushadi. Bu joy, men Kallitsiyadaman, bu sayohat nimaga teng.


Edmund Kartrayt

Kunduzi Edmund Kartrayt Lestershirda Angliya cherkovining vaziri sifatida Xudoga ishladi. Ammo u o'ziga vaqt ajratganida, u o'zining boshqa ishtiyoqiga - mohir ixtirochiga aylandi.

1743 yilda Nottingemda tug'ilgan Kartrayt juda og'ir davrlarda yashagan. Sanoat inqilobi endigina kuchga kira boshladi va Angliyaning shimoli -g'arbiy qismida mashinaga ishlov beriladigan paxta etkazib berish hajmi oshdi - aslida o'sha paytda qo'lda ishlagan charchagan to'quvchilar bilan shug'ullanish mumkin edi.

Kashshof Richard Arkrayt ishlayotgan yigiruv fabrikasiga tashrifidan so'ng, Kartrayt bu muammoni o'ylab topdi va 1785 yilda suv bilan ishlaydigan birinchi dastgohni patentladi. Bu juda qo'pol edi, lekin u dizaynni asta-sekin takomillashtirdi va 1788 yilga kelib, u har qanday dastgohdan ko'ra ancha katta ishlab chiqarishga ega bo'lgan to'quv mashinasini yaratdi. 1789 yilda u 20 jun ishchisining ishini bajaradigan jun tarash mashinasini ham patentladi.

U Donkasterda yigiruv va to'quvchilik uchun o'z fabrikasini qurdi, lekin mexanik dahosiga qaramay - va bug 'dvigateli quvvat bilan ta'minlanganiga qaramay - 1793 yilda bankrot bo'ldi.

Yaxshiyamki, hikoyaning baxtli oxiri bor. 1809 yilda Britaniya hukumati paxta sanoatidagi xizmatlarini nihoyat tan oldi va unga 10 000 funt sterling - o'sha paytdagi boylik bilan mukofotladi. 1823 yilda Kartrayt nihoyat Kentda vafot etdi.


Edmund Kartrayt

E.dmund Kartrayt otlar, suv g'ildiragi yoki bug 'dvigateli bilan ishlaydigan mexanik to'quv dastgohini ixtiro qilgan. 1791 yilga kelib, bu mashinani malakasiz odam boshqarishi mumkin edi (odatda bola), u an'anaviy usulda usta to'quvchi bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan vaqtda dastgohda uch yarim baravar ko'p material to'qishi mumkin edi. Bu ixtiro Angliyada rivojlanayotgan to'qimachilik sanoatida inqilob qildi.

Boy er egasining o'g'li Kartrayt 1743 yilda Angliyaning Nottingem shahrida tug'ilgan. Oilasi boy bo'lgani uchun u nufuzli maktablarda o'qishga muvaffaq bo'lgan, oxiri Oksford universitet kollejini tamomlagan. O'qishni tugatgandan so'ng, u Lestershirdagi Goadbi Marvud cherkovining rektori bo'ldi. Garchi u o'zi yoqtirgan kasbda ishlagan bo'lsa -da, Kartrayt yangi to'qimachilik sanoatida ro'y berayotgan ixtirolarga qiziqardi.

1784 yilda Kartrayt Richard Arkraytga tegishli zavodga tashrif buyurdi (1732-1792). Arkrayt ip va ip yigirishga qodir mashinalarni loyihalashtirdi va qurdi, lekin to'qish hali ham mustaqil uy to'quvchilari tomonidan amalga oshirildi. Kartrayt Arkrayt ixtirosidan ilhomlanib, matoning haqiqiy to'quv tezligi va miqdorini yaxshilaydigan kuchli to'quv dastgohi ustida ishlay boshladi. Kartvaytning birinchi dastgohi qo'pol va samarasiz edi - birinchi navbatda, u dastgohlarning qurilishi va ishlashi bilan tanish emas edi. Asl mashina yomon ishlaganiga qaramay, u patent oldi. Mahalliy temirchi va duradgorni maslahatchi sifatida ishga joylashtirgandan so'ng, u yana ikkita prototip qurdi va 1790 yilga kelib keng naqshli matodan to'qish mumkin bo'lgan to'quv dastgohini qurib bitirdi. To'quvchining qo'llari va oyoqlari bajarishi mumkin bo'lgan barcha operatsiyalar endi mexanik tarzda bajarilishi mumkin edi.

Kartrayt 1786 yilda o'z dastgohlari uchun zavod qurgan edi. Bungacha yangi tashkil etilgan fabrikalar faqat ip va ip ishlab chiqarardi. To'qimachilarga iplar, ish o'rinlari va yuqori ish haqining doimiy ta'minlanishi kafolatlangan. Quvvat dastgohining ishga tushirilishi mashinalar o'z xizmatlarini almashtirib berishidan (to'g'ri) qo'rqqan mahalliy to'quvchilarni xavotirga soldi. 1791 yil mobaynida uning fabrikasi yonib ketdi, ehtimol mahalliy ishsiz to'quvchilar guruhi. (1799 yilda Manchester, Angliya) kompaniyasi Kartvaytning 400 ta dastgohini sotib oldi, lekin ko'p o'tmay ularning fabrikasi boshqa baxtsiz mahalliy to'quvchilar tomonidan yoqib yuborildi.)

Bir paytlar gullab-yashnayotgan to'quvchilar oxir-oqibat ish topishda katta qiyinchiliklarga duch kelishdi va ishlaganlar avvalgilaridan ancha kam maosh olishga majbur bo'lishdi. 1807 yilda 130 mingga yaqin kishi fabrikalarda eng kam ish haqini qo'llab -quvvatlash to'g'risidagi petitsiyaga imzo chekdilar. Mahalliy hokimiyat, bir to'quvchi o'ldirilgan, qolganlari og'ir jarohat olgan.

Yong'in va ishchilarning tartibsizliklaridan so'ng, Kartrayt moliyaviy qiyinchiliklarga duch keldi, chunki boshqa ko'plab biznes egalari Kartvaytdan texnika sotib olmaydilar. U bu muammolarni yengil mo'ynali mashinani ixtiro qilish orqali bartaraf etishga harakat qildi, ammo mahalliy malakali ishchilar ham bunga qarshi chiqishdi. Oxir -oqibat u bankrot bo'ldi va patentlarini va fabrikalarini sotishga majbur bo'ldi. 1800 -yillarning boshlariga kelib, zavod egalarining katta qismi Cartwright elektr dastgohining o'zgartirilgan versiyasidan foydalangan. Kartvayt patentini yo'qotib, Jamoatlar palatasiga uning dizaynidan foydalangan holda boshqalarga kompensatsiya to'lashni so'radi. Uning da'vosi qo'llab -quvvatlandi va 1809 yilda unga 10 000 funt mukofot berildi. U fermer xo'jaligida nafaqaga chiqdi va u erda o'zining ixtirochilik qobiliyatini qishloq xo'jaligida qo'llaniladigan texnikani takomillashtirishda qo'lladi. U o'roqni ixtiro qildi, chorvachilik, go'ngni o'g'it sifatida ishlatish haqida risolalar va insholar yozdi. U 1823 yilda vafotigacha yangi qishloq xo'jalik ixtirolarini ishlab chiqishda davom etdi.

Ushbu maqolaga iqtibos keltiring
Quyidagi uslubni tanlang va bibliografiya matnini nusxa ko'chiring.


Milliy biografiya lug'ati, 1885-1900/Kartvayt, Edmund

CARTWRIGHT, EDMUND, D.D. (1743–1823), taniqli dastgoh ixtirochisi, 1743 yil 24 aprelda tug'ilgan, Uilyam Kartraytning Marnxemdagi to'rtinchi o'g'li, Nottingemshir, bu erda oila avlodlar davomida joylashib kelgan. Katta akalaridan biri mayor Jon Kartrayt edi [q. v.] U Ueykfild gimnaziyasida dastlabki ta'limni oldi va o'n to'rt yoshida Oksford universitet kollejiga o'qishga kirdi. Qachonki, u magistralikni tugatmasdan, Magdalenada qatnashish uchun nomzod bo'lishni xohlaganida, chaqiruv (Kartvayt, Xotira, San'at jamiyatiga o'qing, p. 6) unga "B.A." ni olish huquqini beruvchi akt qabul qilingan. asosiy vaqtdan oldin daraja. Uni qabul qilib, 1764 yilda u Magdalalikning do'sti etib saylandi, 1766 yilda MA davom etdi. U yoshligidan versifer bo'lib, 1772 yilda anonim tarzda "Armine va Elvira afsonaviy she'rini" nashr etdi. 1773 yilda nashr etilgan anonim she'rlar to'plamida qayta nashr etilgan. "Shotlandiya chegarasi minstrelsi" ning uchinchi qismiga prefiks qilingan qadimiy balladalarni taqlid qilish haqidagi inshoda ser Uolter Skott "Armine va Elvira" haqida gapiradi. Dugald Styuart tomonidan "go'zal asar" sifatida tan olingan. Buyurtma olib, Donkasterda meros bo'lib qolgan ayolga uylanganidan so'ng, Kartrayt Ueykfild yaqinidagi Bramptonning abadiy merosiga taqdim etildi. 1779 yilda u Lestershirshir shtatidagi Gadbi Marvud rektori bo'ldi va amerikalik mustamlakachilar bilan urush haqidagi "Tinchlik shahzodasi" nomli anonim nashr qildi. Goadby Marwoodda u o'zining glebli erlarida qishloq xo'jaligi tajribalarini o'tkazdi, "Oylik sharh" ga o'z hissasini qo'shdi va 1772 yilda Belvayrdagi Rutland gersogining ruhoniysi sifatida qo'shnisi bo'lgan Krebb bilan yaqin munosabatda bo'ldi. Kartrayt 1786 yildan to o'limigacha Linkolnning ajdodlari edi.

1784 yilda Kartrayt Kromforddagi Arkwright [qarang Arkwright, ser Richard] paxta yigiruv fabrikalari yaqinidagi Matlokka ta'tilga tashrif buyurdi. U erda Kartrayt tasodifan aytdi: Arkrayt to'quv fabrikasini kashf qilish uchun o'z aqlini ishga solishi kerak edi, va to'qish dastgohini yasash avtomatik shaxmat qurishdan ko'ra qiyin bo'lmaydi, deb aytdi. -o'yinchi. Ushbu suhbatdan zamonaviy kuch-quvvat dastgohi paydo bo'ldi, keyinchalik hisob-kitoblarga ko'ra, Cartwright tomonidan "Britannica entsiklopediyasi" da paxta ishlab chiqarish haqidagi maqolaning ishtirokchisiga berilgan (Bainesning "Paxta ishlab chiqarish tarixi" da chop etilgan, 229-bet). - 30).

Uyga qaytganidan ko'p o'tmay, Kartrayt oddiy dastgohning ishlashini ko'rmasdan, elektr dastgohini qurdi. Uning qo'pol dastgohi qo'lda to'quv dastgohining o'rnini bosa olmadi. Shunga qaramay, u 1785 yil 4 -aprelda patent oldi va o'sha yili Donkasterga ko'chib o'tdi, u erda, ehtimol, xotiniga tegishli bo'lgan mulkka ega bo'ldi. Qo'l ustaxonasining ishini o'rganib, 1786 yilda - she'rlarining yangi nashri (ko'pincha oddiy) chiqqandan so'ng, u Manchesterga tashrif buyurib, o'zining takomillashtirilgan mashinasining modelini mohir ishchilar tomonidan qurilgan va tanqid qilingan va yordam so'ragan. mahalliy ishlab chiqaruvchilar. Bu umiddan hafsalasi pir bo'lib, 1786 yil 30 oktabr va 1787 yil 18 avgustda yana ikkita patent olib, o'z dastgohini yanada takomillashtirish uchun Donkasterda to'quv va yigiruv fabrikasini qurdi. Quvvat dastgohi o'sha erda ishlagan, hozirda ishlatilayotgan ota-ona edi va unda oddiy to'quvchining qo'llari va oyoqlari uchun aqlli mexanizm almashtirildi (qarang: uning qismini chizish, takomillashtirish 1790 yilda patentlangan. C ilovasi Kartrayt xotirasi, uning qizi va uning ta'rifi, 64-6 -betlar, shuningdek, uning rasmlari, 1790 yilgi spetsifikatsiyadan ko'chirma, Barlou, To'qimachilik tarixi, 236–8 -betlar). Kartvayt birinchi dastgoh emas edi, lekin u birinchi bo'lib keng matoni, masalan, kalikoni, amaliy maqsadlarda to'qdi (Barlou, 229-bet).

Yorkshir asrlar davomida jun ishlab chiqarishning asosiy joyi bo'lib kelgan va Donkasterda Kartrayt junni tarash mashinasini ixtiro qilgan, bu uning narxini pasaytirishga katta hissa qo'shgan. Bu uning dastgohidan ko'ra o'ziga xos ixtiro edi. Junni qo'l bilan tarashning hech qanday usuli, 1789 yilda Kartrayt birinchi marta junni tarash mashinasi uchun patent olganida, o'ylab topilganga o'xshaydi. U 1790 yilda ikkinchi va uchinchi patentni, 1792 yilda to'rtinchi patentni olganidan so'ng, uning tuzilishini o'zgartirdi. U mexanik harakatni qo'lda almashtirdi. Hatto rivojlanishining dastlabki bosqichlarida ham bitta mashina yigirma taroqchining ishini qo'lda bajargan va bitta dastgohdan foydalangan holda ishlab chiqaruvchi 1100 ta tejashga qodir edi.l. yiliga (rasmlar va tavsiflarga qarang) Xotira, 98-100 -betlar va Jeymsda, Yomon ishlab chiqarish tarixi, bu erda uning boshlang'ich qiymati haqorat bilan aytiladi). Uni ishlatishga qarshi arizalar jami palataga ellik mingga yaqin odamdan tushdi. Ularning qarama-qarshiliklari shunchalik qo'rqinchli bo'lib tuyuldiki, Kartrayt qarshi iltimosnomada bir yilda ishlatiladigan mashinalari sonini cheklashga tayyorligini bildirdi. Jamoatlar palatasi bu masalani o'rganish uchun qo'mitani tayinladi va jun tikuvchilarning g'azabidan hech narsa chiqmadi.Jamoat palatasi jurnallari, xlix. 322 Kartvayt, Xotira, San'at jamiyatiga o'qing, p. 43).

Aytishlaricha, Kartraytning Donkaster zavodi cheklangan miqyosda, 1788 yoki 1789 yillarda bug 'dvigateli o'rnatilgunga qadar bo'lgan.Crabbe hayoti, o'g'li tomonidan, 1847, p. 38). 1791 yilda Manchester kompaniyasi Kartrayt bilan to'rt yuzta elektr dastgohlarini ishlatish uchun shartnoma tuzdi va tegirmon qurdi, ularning bir qismi bug 'dvigateli bilan ishlangan, ish haqining yarmini tejagan. qo'lda to'quvchilarga. Manchester tegirmonini, ehtimol, ishchilar yonib ketishidan qo'rqib, yoqib yuborishdi. Bu falokat ishlab chiqaruvchilarning tajribani takrorlashiga to'sqinlik qildi. Kartraytning Donkasterdagi muvaffaqiyatiga qarshilik va uning dastlabki bosqichidagi jarayonlarining qimmatligi to'sqinlik qildi. 1793 yilga kelib, 30 mingga yaqin mablag 'sarflandil., u chuqur qarzga botgan edi. U Donkasterdagi ishlaridan voz kechdi, o'z mol -mulkini kreditorlarga berdi, ularning manfaatlari uchun patent huquqlarini akalari Jon va Charlzga o'tkazdi va uning umidlarini yo'q qilishda his -tuyg'ularini qattiq sonetda yozdi.

1793 yilda Kartrayt Londonga ko'chib o'tdi, u erda, keyinchalik Kolizey egallagan kichik bir uyda, 1795 yil 14 aprelda patentlangan "geometrik g'ishtlar" bilan xona qurdi, uning narxi ularning umumiy ishlatilishiga to'sqinlik qiladi. U yangi bug 'dvigatelini qurdi, u 1797 yilda patent oldi va unda alkogol to'liq yoki qisman suv bilan almashtirildi (Tredgolddagi rasmlarga qarang, Bug 'dvigateli, i. 34-5). Endi u Robert Fulton bilan yaqinlikni o'rnatdi va u bilan navigatsiyaga bug'ni qo'llash tajribalarida hamkorlik qildi. Kartrayt Britaniya hukumati Fultonga suv osti kemalarida kemalarni portlatish sirini yashirgani uchun beriladigan kompensatsiya shartlarini hal qilish uchun tayinlangan hakamlardan biri edi. 1799 yilda Kartrayt bir muddat San'at jamiyati kotibligiga nomzod bo'lgan va "yodgorlik" tayyorlagan, keyinchalik avtobiografik tafsilotlarni nashr etgan. U 1786 yilda Linkolnning ajdodlari etib tayinlangan (Le Neve, Fasti, ii. 207) Turlou tomonidan, keyin episkop qarang.

1800 yilda Kartraytning jun tarash mashinasi patentiga bir necha yil qoldi. Bu asta -sekinlik bilan qo'llanila boshlandi, lekin buzilishlarga qarshilik ko'rsatish tez -tez va qimmatga tushardi. U parlamentga o'z patentini o'n to'rt yilga uzaytirishni so'rab murojaat qildi va "ishi" ni tarqatdi, u o'z ixtirolari va ulardan yo'qotishlari haqida hikoya qildi. Jamoatlar palatasi qo'mitasi surishtiruvidan so'ng, 1801 yilda patentni o'n to'rt yilga uzaytirgan qonun loyihasi qabul qilindi. Patent muddati uzaytirilgach, Kartrayt o'z ixtirosi bilan yutqazdi. Kartrayt yana e'tiborini qishloq xo'jaligini yaxshilashga qaratdi. 1793 yilda undan ser Jon Jon Sinklerga yozgan maktubi paydo bo'ldi va 1801 yil iyun oyida u qishloq xo'jaligi kengashining chorvachilik haqidagi inshosi uchun mukofot oldi. 1800 yilda Bedfordning to'qqizinchi gersogi unga Voburndagi tajriba fermasini boshqarishni berdi. Gersog keyingi bahorda vafot etdi va Kartrayt dafn marosimining va'zini aytdi, u ruhoniydan noto'g'ri deb tan olingan va Charlz Jeyms Foksga yozilgan "Christianus Laicus" imzolangan maktubida. Bedfordning o'ninchi gersogi o'z xizmatlarini 1807 yilgacha saqlab qoldi. O'sha yili Kartvayt tomonidan o'n besh yoshli lord Jon Rassellga yozilgan mehribon didaktik "Maktublar va Sonetlar" jildi paydo bo'ldi. Voburnda bo'lganida, Kartrayt qishloq xo'jaligini yaxshilashni g'ayrat bilan qo'llab -quvvatlagani uchun uni San'at jamiyati va qishloq xo'jaligi kengashidan ajratib oldi. 1806 yilda Oksford universiteti unga B.D. va D.D. ilmiy darajalariga ega bo'lgan va u Bedford gersogining uy cherkovi lavozimida ishlagan. U kamida 1808 yilgacha Gadbi Marvud rektori bo'lib qoldi.

1804 yilda Kartraytning elektr dastgohi uchun patentining amal qilish muddati tugadi. Donkaster fabrikasidan voz kechganidan keyin bir necha yillar davomida uning dastgohi deyarli ishlatilmadi, lekin uni takomillashtirish bilan u asta-sekin qandaydir foyda keltirdi. Taxminan 1806 yil Kartrayt o'z ixtirosini Lancashire ishlab chiqaruvchilari uchun katta daromad manbaiga aylandi. U Manchesterdagi do'stiga g'azablangan maktub yozdi. 1807 yil avgustda Manchesterning ellikta mashhur firmalari bosh vazir sifatida Portlend gersogining xotirasiga imzo chekishdi va hukumatdan Kartraytning elektr dastgohini ixtiro qilgani uchun mamlakatga ko'rsatgan xizmatlarini katta e'tirof etishini so'rashdi. Kartvayt Jamoat palatasiga iltimos bilan murojaat qildi, u 1809 yil 10 iyunda unga 10 000 ovoz berdil.

Kartrayt endi mustaqil bo'ldi. U Sevenoaks va Tunbridj o'rtasidagi Gollanderda kichik fermer xo'jaligini sotib oldi va umrining oxirigacha uni etishtirish va qishloq xo'jaligi va umuman foydali ixtirolar bilan shug'ullandi. Uning sakson uchinchi yilida u nashr etmagan Qirollik jamiyatiga Quyosh atrofidagi sayyoralar harakati haqidagi yangi nazariyani o'z ichiga olgan qog'ozni yubordi. Hollanderda u kambag'allarga mehribon va magistr sifatida faol edi. Krebning o'g'li Kartraytni "muloyim, xushmuomala, ammo hazil va ruhga to'la", deb aytadi. U 1823 yil 30 oktyabrda Xastingsda vafot etdi va Battle cherkovida dafn qilindi. uning oilasi uning xotirasiga devoriy yodgorlik o'rnatdilar. Kartrayt bir nechta bolalarni qoldirdi, ular orasida Edmund, Ernli Elizabet rektori, ruhoniy Jon Penrozning rafiqasi, yoshroq tarixiy adabiyotning xonim Markxem nomi bilan mashhur Frensis Doroti [q. v.], amakisi biografi, mayor Kartrayt va Meri, Genri Eustatius Striklendning rafiqasi, shubhasiz, otasining noma'lum nashr etilgan, lekin uning yozuvchisi imzo qo'ygan kirish so'zining muallifi. 'M. S. '


Rev. Edmund Kartrayt

BOSHQARMALARNI MUHOFAZA QILISh MUHOFIRI TANQID QILADI.

Quvvat dastgohini ixtiro qilgan Edmund Kartrayt 1760 yilda o'n to'rt yoshida Oksford universitet kollejiga o'qishga kirgunga qadar Veykfilddagi bepul maktabda Jon Langxorn tomonidan o'qitilgan. 1764 yilda u Magdalen kollejining a'zosi bo'ldi (M.A. 1766, milodiy 1806 yil). Kartvayt merosxo'rga uylandi, har oyda bir marta ko'rib chiqildi va Brampton, Yorkshir va Gadbi Marvud, Lestershershir va Linkolnning prebendari (1786) rektori edi. Armine va Elvira she'ri to'qqizinchi nashrga yetdi, garchi Kartrayt o'zining mexanik ixtirolari va qishloq xo'jaligi tajribalari bilan mashhur bo'lgan.

Konstantiya, Eleganiya xonim Langxorn xonim xotirasiga. 1768.
Armine va Elvira, afsonaviy ertak. 1771.
She'rlar. 1773.
Tinchlik shahzodasi va boshqa she'rlar. 1779.
Taniqli odamlarga sonet. 1783.
She'rlar, yangi nashr. 1786.
San'at, ishlab chiqarish va tijoratni rag'batlantirish jamiyati o'qigan yodgorlik. marhum ser Uilyam Jonsdan kelgan xatlarni o'z ichiga olgan ilova bilan. 1800.
Xutba va'z qilindi. Bedford gersogining tanaffusidan keyin. 1802.
Misr etishtirishni kengaytirish vositalari haqida. 2 jild, 1803 yil.
Xatlar va sonetlar, axloqiy va boshqa qiziqarli mavzular. 1807.
Va'z. 1808 yilda va'z qilgan.

Veykfild maktabi
Oksford universitet kolleji
Magdalen kolleji Oksford
Kollej talabasi
San'at bakalavri
San'at ustasi
Ilohiylik doktori


Edmund Kartrayt - Tarix

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N.B. References to ‘The Auctioneer’ and ‘The Auctioneers’ include Rupert Toovey & Co. Ltd., its directors, employees, consultants, servants and agents.

IMPORTANT NOTICE TO BIDDERS AND BUYERS

1. Your attention is drawn to our terms and conditions.

2. We operate a Paddle Bidding System. All prospective purchasers intending to bid in the room must first obtain a bidding paddle from the office. All new prospective purchasers intending to bid in the room must complete a Paddle Registration Form to be handed to the office before the commencement of the sale in order to obtain a bidding paddle. Proof of identity, proof of address and valid credit or debit card details will be required from all new prospective purchasers.

3. A Buyer’s Premium at the rate of 22.5% plus VAT (27% inclusive of VAT) will be charged on the hammer price of each lot purchased.

4. We are pleased to execute commission bids for those unable to attend the sale. Commission Bidding Forms are available in the front reception and should be handed in to the office. Commission bids may also be left via our website, up to midnight on the day prior to the sale at the latest. We can also arrange for prospective purchasers to bid by telephone but prior arrangements must be made at least one day before the sale. Telephone bidding is subject to availability of telephone lines and is only available on lots carrying a lower catalogue estimate of at least £300 (e.g. catalogue estimate £300-500). Bids placed by telephone, fax, e-mail, via our website or via other websites are accepted only at the sender’s risk. We do not accept responsibility for any consequences arising from neglect or default in executing or failure to execute commission bids or telephone bids. Proof of identity, proof of address and/or valid credit or debit card details will be required from all commission and telephone bidders.

5. Whilst an indication of damage is given in some instances, an absence of such advice does not imply that a lot is free from defect. Prospective purchasers are advised to inspect in detail any lot on which they intend to bid, to satisfy themselves as to the condition of the lot and as to whether or not in their judgement the lot accords with the description. Our porters will be pleased to assist in making any lot more accessible for a detailed inspection.

6. Your attention is drawn to the Catalogue Amendments sheets available at the office and at the saleroom counters throughout view days and sale days. Descriptions and estimates of extra lots, entered in the sale subsequent to the catalogue going to press, and amendments to catalogue descriptions and/or estimates are advised on these sheets. As changes to catalogue descriptions and estimates are made throughout the week of the sale, it is important for prospective buyers to check the latest version of the Catalogue Amendments sheet prior to the sale for any changes which may affect lots on which they intend to bid.

7. Electrical Goods. Those lots in this sale which were once operated by electricity may not comply with statutory requirements and are offered for sale for display and historical research purposes only these lots are not suitable for connection to the mains electricity supply. It is imperative that anyone wishing to use these goods for their original purpose have them checked by a qualified electrician prior to use.

8. Payment for all purchased lots must be made by 5.00 pm on the Wednesday following the sale at the latest. Payment is accepted in Pounds Sterling by cash, cheque, bank draft or telegraphic bank transfer. Purchasers will be held liable for any expenses arising from their method of payment. Goods paid for by cheque will not be released to clients unknown, or known clients at the auctioneers’ discretion, until their cheques have been cleared. Cheque clearance takes eight bank processing days from the day of paying-in.
Payment is also accepted by debit and credit cards bearing the ‘VISA’, ‘V PAY’, MasterCard’ and ‘Maestro’ symbols. A surcharge of 3% plus VAT (3.6% inclusive of VAT) of invoice total is payable by the buyer if paying by credit card or by V PAY card. There is no surcharge if payment is made by debit card, with the exception of V PAY.
Card-not-present transactions: the maximum debit or credit card payment accepted when the cardholder is not present is £2,500. Multiple card-not-present payments to cover an invoice total in excess of £2,500 are not accepted. Card-not-present transactions are subject to our compliance requirements and are only accepted from buyers whose cards are registered to a verifiable address in the United Kingdom. It is not possible to make card-not-present payments by V PAY card.

9. All purchased lots must be cleared from the saleroom by 5.00 pm on the Wednesday following the sale at the latest. No lots may be cleared without first being paid for in full. On sale days, clearing is not permitted whilst the auction is in progress, only at the conclusion of each morning and afternoon session. Thereafter, we are open for clearing on the Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday following the sale between 9.00 am and 5.00 pm. Any lots not collected by 5.00 pm on the Wednesday following the sale may be removed to store and be subject to removal expenses and storage charges payable by the buyer, as detailed in the conditions of business printed at the back of this catalogue. (Goods awaiting collection subject to cheque clearance may not incur storage charges during the cheque clearance period.)

10. Carriage of purchased lots. It is the buyer’s responsibility to arrange for the collection of purchases by a third-party carrier, if necessary, within the timescale detailed in (9) above. We do not provide a carriage service ourselves but, if required, we can provide contact details for third-party carriers who may be able to assist.

Packing & posting of purchased lots. We do not undertake either the packing or the despatch by post/courier/shipper of any purchased lots ourselves. Buyers requiring these services may choose to contact the specialist worldwide posting and shipping company Mail Boxes Etc., who can be contacted at Guildford (Tel: 01483 453131, E-mail: [email protected]), Horsham (Tel: 01403 265005, E-mail: [email protected]) or Brighton (Tel: 01273 706020, E-mail: [email protected]).

No lots will be released to a third-party carrier without first being paid for in full.


Cartwright oli radikaaliaktivisti John Cartwrightin nuorempi veli. [1] Hän kävi kuningatar Elisabetin perustamaa koulua Wakefieldissä ja opiskeli Oxfordin yliopistossa, ja hänestä tuli Englannin kirkon kappalainen. Uransa hän aloitti Goadby Marwoodin seurakuntapappina Leicestershiressä. Vuonna 1783 hän oli vanhempana pappina Lincolnin tuomiokirkossa Lincolnshiressä.

Cartwright keskittyi kudonnan mekanisointiin. Kehruukone ja teollinen valmistus oli jo olemassa. Hän suunnitteli ensimmäisen kutomakoneensa vuonna 1784 ja patentoi sen 1785, mutta se osoittautui arvottomaksi. Vuonna 1789 hän patentoi uudenlaiset kangaspuut, jotka toimivat perustana hänen myöhemmille keksinnöilleen. Jotta kangaspuiden mekanisointi olisi taloudellisesti järkevää, yksittäisen koneen ei pitäisi vaatia omaa käyttäjää tai koneen tuottavuuden pitäisi olla huomattavasti suurempi kuin normaalien kangaspuiden. Cartwrightia avusti kehitystyössä Zach Dijkhoff -niminen vanhempi mies.

Cartwright lisäsi kangaspuihin positiivisen irrotusliikkeen, loimilankojen ja kudelangan pysäytyksen ja loimenlankojen asetuksen kangaspuiden ollessa toiminnassa. Hän aloitti kutomon Doncasterissa, käytti näitä kangaspuita ja huomasi niissä monia puutteita. Hän yritti parantaa koneen toimintaa monin tavoin, kuten lisäämällä akselin, jossa oli epäkeskisiä pyöriä vaikuttaakseen loimirimoihin (niisivarsiin) eri tavalla, parantamalla lyöntimekanismia, lisäämällä pysäytysmekanismin lopettamaan toiminnan, kun sukkulan ei onnistunut saapua sukkulapesään, estämällä sukkulan kiertyminen sen ollessa pesässä ja kiristämällä kangasta automaattisesti toimivilla ohjaimilla. Cartwrightin tuotantolaitos joutui ulosmitatuksi omistajiltaan 1793.

Vuonna 1791 Cartwright sai suostuteltua Grimshaw'n veljekset mukaan rakentamaan Manchesteriin suurta tehdasta, joka olisi ollut varustettu hänen kutomakoneillaan. Tehdas kuitenkin paloi vuonna 1791 useiden uhkausten jälkeen todennäköisesti tuhopolttona, jonka takana oli kangaspuiden käyttäjien pelot. Muut sijoittajat olivat uhkausten vuoksi haluttomia lähtemään Cartwrightin projekteihin mukaan. [1] [2]

Vuonna 1792 Cartwright sai viimeisen kutomateknisen patentin, jossa esiteltiin useilla sukkulapesillä varustetut kangaspuut ruutukuvioiden ja vinoraitojen tekemistä varten. Hänen työnsä olivat kuitenkin tuloksettomia, sillä tuli ilmeiseksi, ettei millään, vaikka kuinka täydellisellä mekanismilla voisi onnistua niin kauan kuin loimilankojen asetus oli mahdollista vain kudonnan keskeydyttyä. Hänen yrityksensä tehdä loimiasetus kudonnan aikana epäonnistuivat. Vuonna 1803 tämän ongelman ratkaisi William Radcliffe avustajansa Thomas Johnsonin kanssa keksimällä loimikehyksen ja lisäämällä räikkämekanismin kankaan siirtoon.

Vuonna 1809 Cartwright sai parlamentilta 10 000 Englannin punnan palkinnon keksinnöistään. Vuonna 1821 hänet valittiin Royal Societyn jäseneksi. [3]

Cartwright patentoi myös villankarstauskoneen vuonna 1789 ja köydenpunontakoneen vuonna 1792. Hän myös suunnitteli höyrykoneen, joka toimi alkoholilla veden sijasta. [2]

Cartwright osti parlamentilta saamillaan palkintorahoilla pienen maatilan Hollanderista lähellä Sevenoaksia Kentissä. Hän kuoli Hastingsissa 30. lokakuuta 1823. [1] [2]


CARTWRIGHT, Hugh (by 1526-72), of London and West Malling, Kent.

b. by 1526, 1st s. of Edmund Cartwright of Ossington, Notts. by Agnes, da. of Thomas Cranmer of Sutton Notts. tarbiyalash. ?Trinity Hall, Camb. 1534. m. Jane, da. of Sir John Newton alias Cradock of East Harptree Som. and Henham, Glos., s.p.2

Ofislar o'tkazildi

Surveyor, ct. augmentations, Kent 1550-4 j.p. Kent 1558/59-d. commr. Rochester bridge 1571.3

Biografiya

Hugh Cartwright was the nephew of Archbishop Cranmer. His return to the first Parliament of Edward VI’s reign was doubtless the archbishop’s work: in what appears to have been his first experience of the Commons he was chosen by a recently enfranchised Cornish borough where the Arundells of Lanherne were supreme. Presumably through his work in the augmentations he became known to Sir Thomas Arundell during the late 1540s, and this link explains his choice of seat. Arundell was dead by the time the next Parliament was called and Cartwright was not re-elected for Mitchell, nor is it likely that he was found a seat elsewhere. He was not to reappear in the Commons until after Cranmer’s execution, and although he lived near Rochester he may then have relied on the patronage of his neighbours the Brookes, to whom he was later related by marriage. Cartwright attracted some kind of notice during this Parliament as his name was one of a group marked with a circle on a list of its Members.4

In May 1549 Cartwright joined with William Hyde, then augmentations surveyor in Kent, in the purchase for £710 of former monastic lands in the county. The property included the chapel of Womenswould, for defacing which, and removing the lead, Cartwright and Hyde were complained of in the Star Chamber by the inhabitants of the parish. Cartwright in his answer asserted that the chapel was not the parish church, as the plaintiffs alleged, and that he had been granted by the King ‘all the lead, timber, stone, glass, iron and bells of the same chapel and also the mansion house of the curate there’, which he had lawfully taken into his possession. The court found in favour of the plaintiffs and ordered Cartwright to tile the church: for persistent refusal to obey this decree he was in November 1552 imprisoned and fined £50. Cartwright succeeded Hyde as surveyor of Kent in June 1550.5

Although his fortunes were thus bound up with the Reformation, Cartwright demonstrated his loyalty to Mary by supporting the crown against Sir Thomas Wyatt II in 1554. He was placed on the commission of the peace for Kent in the first year of Elizabeth’s reign and in 1564 Archbishop Parker described him as conformable. He appears to have played little part in the life of the county and may, indeed, have spent some of his time in Nottinghamshire, where he had inherited his father’s manor of Ossington. But it was as of West Malling, esquire, that he sued out a general pardon in 1553 and this was still the way in which he described himself when he came to make his will on 10 Dec. 1571, leaving to his wife all his household stuff and all the profits of the dissolved abbey of West Malling. The income from the rest of his lands, except the third from the manor of Ossington due to the Queen, he left to his brother Thomas Cartwright until William, Thomas’s son and Hugh’s heir, became 21. He appointed Thomas and William Cartwright the executors of his will, which was sealed and delivered on 6 Feb. 1572 and proved on 5 July 1572. In a case in the court of requests, however, Jane Cartwright was described as an executor, with Thomas Cartwright, of her late husband. William Dabridgecourt, acting on behalf of William Cartwright, the Queen’s ward, contested the validity of the inventory of Hugh Cartwright’s possessions.6


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