Themistocles xronologiyasi

Themistocles xronologiyasi

  • v. Miloddan avvalgi 524 yil - mil. Miloddan avvalgi 460 yil

    Afinalik general va davlat arbobi Themistoklning hayoti.

  • Miloddan avvalgi 493 yil

    Themistocles Afinada archon qilingan.

  • Miloddan avvalgi 490 yil 11 sentyabr

    Yunon hoplitlarining birlashgan kuchi marafonda forslarni mag'lub etdi.

  • v. Miloddan avvalgi 483 yil

    Themistocles afinaliklarni o'z parkini sezilarli darajada kengaytirishga ko'ndirdi, bu esa ularni Salamisda qutqarib, ularning kuch manbaiga aylandi.

  • Miloddan avvalgi 480 yil

    Themistocles tomonidan qo'zg'atilgan Pirey qal'alari qurib bitkazildi.

  • Miloddan avvalgi 480 yil avgust

    Termopil jangi. Qirol Leonidas va boshqa yunon ittifoqchilari boshchiligidagi 300 spartalik Xerxes I boshchiligidagi forslarni uch kun ushlab turishdi, lekin mag'lub bo'lishdi.

  • Miloddan avvalgi 480 yil avgust

    Yunon va fors Xerxes I flotlari o'rtasidagi Artemision jangining hal qiluvchi kurashi. Yunonlar Salamisga chekinishdi.

  • Miloddan avvalgi 480 yil sentyabr

    Themistocles boshchiligidagi Yunon dengiz floti Fors Xerxes I ning bosqinchi armadasini mag'lub etgan Salamis jangi.

  • Miloddan avvalgi 479 yil

    Kserksning fors qo'shinlari yunon kuchlari tomonidan Plataeyada mag'lubiyatga uchrab, Forsning Yunonistondagi imperatorlik ambitsiyalariga barham berdi.

  • v. Miloddan avvalgi 471 yil

    Umumiy va davlat arbobi Themistokl ovozdan chiqarib tashlandi va Afinadan quvg'in qilindi.

  • v. Miloddan avvalgi 460 yil

    Afg'onistonlik surgun davlat arbobi Temistokl Magnesiyada kasallik, zahar yoki o'z joniga qasd qilish oqibatida vafot etadi.

  • Miloddan avvalgi 411 yil

    Afinalik general Temistokl Kosda istehkomlar quradi.


300: Imperiyaning yuksalishi

300: Imperiyaning yuksalishi Bu Noam Murro rejissyorligi, ssenariysi va prodyuseri Zak Snayder tomonidan yozilgan 2014 yildagi Amerika epik aksiyalar filmi. Bu 2007 yilgi filmning davomi 300Bu filmning asosiy voqealaridan oldin, davomida va keyin sodir bo'ladi va Artemisium va Salamis jangiga asoslangan. [7]

Rollarda Lena Xedey, Piter Mensax, Devid Venxem, Endryu Tiran, Endryu Pleavin va Rodrigo Santoro birinchi filmdagi rollarini, Sallivan Stapleton, Eva Grin, Xans Matheson va Kallan Mulvey bilan birga qayta ijro etishadi. 2014 yil 7 martda 3D va IMAX 3D formatida chiqarilgan. [8] [9] Filmning balli Junkie XL tomonidan tuzilgan. [10]

Film tanqidchilar tomonidan aksiyalar ketma -ketligi, musiqa, kinematografiya, vizual effektlar va Grinning ijrosini maqtagan, biroq hikoyani tanqid qilib, haddan tashqari oshirib yuborilgan sharhlarga bag'ishlangan. U butun dunyo bo'ylab 110 million dollarlik byudjetdan 337 million dollardan ko'proq daromad oldi. [6]


Brutsellyoz tarixidan darslar

Biz hozir brutsellyoz deb biladigan kasallik birinchi marta 1850 -yillarda Maltada topilgan. Bu Qrim urushidan keyin orolda xizmat qilayotgan ingliz tibbiy xodimlarining e'tiboriga tushdi. Britaniya harbiy xizmatchilarida kasallikni yo'q qilish oson edi, lekin Malta fuqarolariga etib borish juda qiyin edi. O'nlab yillar mobaynida malta tilida ko'proq infektsiya yuqtirildi, chunki nazorat choralari befarq edi va ko'pincha bajarilmadi. Doktor Temistokl Zammitning ishi shuni ko'rsatdiki, yuqtirilgan echkilar brutsellyoz bilan kasallangan va ularning sutidan foydalanishni taqiqlash samarali bo'ladi. Orolga pasterizatsiya 30 -yillarning 30 -yillariga qadar, arzon, kichik steril idishlar ishlab chiqarish mumkin bo'lgunga qadar joriy etilmagan. Odamlar issiq havosiz sharoitda gavjum bo'lganda, jinsiy aloqa va nafas olish yo'li bilan ham yuqish mumkin edi. Kasallikka qarshi kurashda muvaffaqiyat qozonish uchun hayvonlarni oqilona, ​​qattiq nazorat qilish va yuqtirganlarni yo'q qilish kerak bo'ladi, lekin bilimli jamoatchilik yordam berishga tayyor bo'lmasa muvaffaqiyatsiz bo'ladi. Maltada oilaviy foydalanish uchun saqlanayotgan yolg'onchi podalar va mayda podalarni nazorat qila olmaslik cheezets (mayda pishloq) sotilishi oqibatida epidemiyaga olib keldi. 2005 yilda, Zammit kashf qilinganidan qariyb bir asr o'tgach, Malta nihoyat brutsellyozdan xalos bo'ldi.


Siyosiy va harbiy martaba

Fon

Themistocles Afinada qo'zg'olon davrida o'sgan. Zolim Peisistratos miloddan avvalgi 527 va 160 yillarda vafot etgan va hokimiyatni o'g'illari Gipparx va Gippiylarga topshirgan. [9] Gipparx miloddan avvalgi 514 va 160 yillarda o'ldirilgan va bunga javoban Gippiy paranoyaga aylanib, o'z kuchini saqlab qolish uchun tobora chet ellik yollanma askarlarga tayanishni boshlagan. [10] Qudratli, ammo surgun qilingan odamning boshi (faqat Gerodotga ko'ra - 525/4 yillarga bo'linadigan Archon ro'yxatida bu davrda Afinada o'z lavozimini egallab turgan Kleisten, Alkmaonid ko'rsatilgan) Alkmeonidlar oilasi, Kleisten, ag'darishni rejalashtirgan. Gippiya va Afinaga qaytish. [11] Miloddan avvalgi 510 va 1601 yillarda u Sparta qiroli Kleomen Ini Afinaga hujum qilishga ko'ndirdi va u Gippiyani ag'darishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. [11] Biroq, keyinchalik Afinaning boshqa olijanob ("eupatrid") oilalari Kleistensni rad etishdi va Kleomenning yordami bilan Isagorani arxon qilib saylashdi. [11] Shaxsiy nuqtai nazardan, Kleistens Afinaga qaytishni xohlagan, lekin u, ehtimol, Afinaning spartalik mijozlar davlatiga aylanishiga yo'l qo'ymaslikni xohlagan. Boshqa zodagonlardan ustun kelib, u afina xalqiga siyosiy hokimiyat xalqqa sarmoya kiritadigan radikal dasturni - "demokratiya" ni taklif qildi. [11] Afina xalqi shu tariqa Isagorani ag'darib tashladi, Kleomenes boshchiligidagi spartaliklarning hujumini qaytardi va o'z rejasini amalga oshirish uchun Klifenni Afinaga qaytishga taklif qildi. [12] Demokratiyaning o'rnatilishi Afinani tubdan o'zgartirishi kerak edi:

"Shunday qilib, afinaliklar to'satdan o'zlarini katta kuchga aylantirdilar. Ular tenglik va so'z erkinligi nimaga erishishi mumkinligini aniq isbotladilar" [13].

Demokratiyaning dastlabki yillari

Afinadagi yangi boshqaruv tizimi ilgari hokimiyatga ega bo'lmagan Temistokl kabi erkaklar uchun katta imkoniyatlarni ochib berdi. [14] Bundan tashqari, demokratiyaning yangi institutlari ilgari hukumatda ahamiyatsiz bo'lgan ko'nikmalarni talab qilar edi. Themistocles o'zini yangi tizimning ustasi ekanligini isbotlashi kerak edi "u jang qila olardi, tarmoqqa kira oladi, aylana oladi. Va eng muhimi, u o'zini qanday ko'rinishini ko'rsatishni bilardi". [14] Themistocles Afinaning bozorning past qismi bo'lgan Ceramicusga ko'chib o'tdi. Bu harakat uni "xalq odami" sifatida ko'rsatdi va oddiy fuqarolar bilan osonroq muloqot qilish imkonini berdi. U yangi vakolatli fuqarolar orasida qo'llab -quvvatlash bazasini yaratishni boshladi:

"U kambag'allarni hayratda qoldirdi va ular, odatda, mehribonlik bilan uni qaytarib olishdi. Tavernalar, bozorlar, iskala bo'ylab sayohat qilib, hech bir siyosatchi tuval deb o'ylamagan joylarni tomosha qilib, bitta saylovchining ismini unutmaslikka ishonch hosil qildi. ko'zlarini tubdan yangi saylov okrugiga qaratdi "[14]

Biroq, u Afina zodagonlarini begonalashtirmaslikka harakat qildi. [14] U qonun bilan shug'ullana boshladi, Afinada shu tarzda jamoat hayotiga tayyorgarlik ko'rgan birinchi odam. [14] Oddiy xalq xizmatida ishlatilgan advokat va hakamlik qobiliyati unga yana mashhurlik keltirdi. [15]

Archonship

Miloddan avvalgi 494 va 160 -yillarda Themistokl 30 yoshga to'lgan bo'lishi mumkin, bu unga Afina magistratura institutining eng balandi bo'lgan arxon bo'lishga imkon berdi. [14] Ommabopligi tufayli, u, ehtimol, bu lavozimga nomzod bo'lishga qaror qildi va keyingi yil (miloddan avvalgi 493 va 160 yillar) eng yuqori hukumat idorasi bo'lgan Archon Eponymous etib saylandi. [14] Themistoklning arxonizmida uning karerasida Afinaning dengiz kuchlari taraqqiyotining asosiy mavzusi boshlandi. Uning rahbarligi ostida afinaliklar Phalerumdagi mavjud inshootlarni almashtirish uchun Pireyda yangi port qurishni boshladilar. [14] Afinadan uzoqroqda joylashgan bo'lsa -da, Pirey uchta tabiiy portni taklif qildi va ularni mustahkamlash oson edi. [16] Afina asosan miloddan avvalgi V asrda dengiz kuchiga aylanishi kerak bo'lganligi sababli, Temistoklning siyosati Afina va haqiqatan ham Yunoniston kelajagi uchun katta ahamiyatga ega bo'lishi kerak edi. Dengiz kuchini rivojlantirishda, Themistocles, ehtimol Afinaning uzoq muddatli istiqbollari uchun muhim deb hisoblagan harakat yo'nalishini qo'llab-quvvatlagan bo'lishi mumkin. [14] Biroq, Plutarx nazarda tutganidek, dengiz kuchlari oddiy fuqarolarning ommaviy safarbarligiga tayangan.tet) eshkak eshuvchilar kabi, bunday siyosat ko'proq afinaliklarning qo'liga ko'proq kuch berdi va shu tariqa Temistoklning qo'liga o'tdi. [16]

Aristid bilan raqobat

Marafondan so'ng, ehtimol 489 yilda, jang qahramoni Miltiades Parosni egallashga urinishda og'ir yaralangan. Qobiliyatsizligidan foydalanib, kuchli Alcmaeonid oilasi uni jinoiy javobgarlikka tortishdi. [17] Afinalik zodagonlar va umuman, yunon aristokratlari, bir odamni ustun ko'rishdan nafratlanishardi va bunday manevrlar odatiy hol edi. [17] Miltiadesga "Afina xalqini aldash" jinoyati uchun katta miqdorda jarima solindi, lekin bir necha hafta o'tgach, uning jarohati tufayli vafot etdi. [17] Bu ta'qibdan so'ng, Afina xalqi Klifen islohotlarining bir qismi bo'lgan, lekin hozirgacha foydalanilmayotgan demokratiyaning yangi institutidan foydalanishni tanladi. [17] Bu "ostracizm" edi - har bir Afina fuqarosi kulolchilik bo'lagiga yozishi kerak edi (ostrakon) o'n yil muddatga surgun qilinishni xohlagan siyosatchi nomi. [17] Bu Miltiadesning ta'qibidan kelib chiqqan bo'lishi mumkin va afinaliklar zodagon oilalar o'rtasida bunday kuch o'yinlarini to'xtatishga urinishgan. [17] Shubhasiz, keyingi yillarda (miloddan avvalgi 487 va 1601 yillar) taniqli oilalarning boshliqlari, shu jumladan, alkimoniylar surgun qilingan. [17] Shunday qilib, Afinadagi siyosatchining karerasi yanada qiyinlashdi, chunki aholining noroziligi surgunga olib kelishi mumkin edi. [17]

Kuchli kambag'allar orasida mustahkam o'rnashgan Themistokl, Miltiades vafotidan keyin qolgan bo'shliqni to'ldirish uchun tabiiy ravishda harakat qildi va o'sha o'n yil ichida Afinadagi eng nufuzli siyosatchi bo'ldi. [17] Biroq, zodagonlarning qo'llab -quvvatlashi Temistoklning buyuk raqibi - Aristidga aylanadigan odam atrofida birlasha boshladi. [18] Aristid o'zini Themistoklga qarama -qarshi, yaxshi, halol va buzilmas deb atadi va uning izdoshlari uni "adolatli" deb atashadi. [18] Plutarxning ta'kidlashicha, ular o'g'il bolaga bo'lgan muhabbat uchun raqobatlashgandan keyin boshlangan: "ular Ceosning go'zal Stesilausining mehr -muhabbati uchun raqib edilar va hamma narsadan ham ehtirosli edilar". [19]

O'n yil davomida Temistokl Afinaning harbiy -dengiz kuchlarini kengaytirish tarafdori bo'lishda davom etdi. [17] Afinaliklar, bu davr mobaynida, forslarning Yunonistonga bo'lgan qiziqishi Doro o'g'li va uning vorisi Kserks I Yunonistonga bostirib kirishga tayyorgarlikni tugatmaganligini aniq bilishgan. [20] Themistocles, yunonlar bo'lajak hujumdan omon qolish uchun, fors dengiz flotiga qarshi turishga umid qila oladigan yunon dengiz flotini talab qilishini tushundilar va shuning uchun u afinaliklarni bunday flot qurishga ko'ndirishga harakat qildi. [14] [17] Aristidlar chempioni sifatida zeugitlar (yuqori, "hoplit-sinf") bunday siyosatga keskin qarshilik ko'rsatdi. [18]

Miloddan avvalgi 483 va 160 -yillarda Lauriumdagi Afina konlarida katta miqdordagi yangi kumush tikuv topilgan. [21] Themistocles kumushni 200 triremli yangi flot qurish uchun ishlatishni taklif qildi, Aristides esa uni Afina fuqarolari o'rtasida taqsimlashni taklif qildi. [22] Themistocles, afinaliklar uchun harakat qilish juda xavflidir, deb o'ylab, Fors haqida gapirishdan qochishdi va ularning e'tiborini Ejinaga qaratdilar. [21] O'sha paytda Afina eginliklar bilan uzoq davom etgan urushga kirgandi va flot qurish afinaliklarga ularni dengizda mag'lub etishiga imkon beradi. [21] Natijada, Temistoklning harakati osonlikcha amalga oshirildi, garchi trirem tipidagi atigi 100 ta harbiy kema qurilishi kerak edi. [21] Aristid yuz ko'rishdan bosh tortdi, aksincha Themistocles faqat 100 kema qurilganidan mamnun emasdi. [22] Qishda qurilgan ikkita lager o'rtasidagi keskinlik, shuning uchun miloddan avvalgi 482 va 16060 yillardagi ostrasizm Themistocles va Aristides o'rtasidagi to'g'ridan -to'g'ri raqobatga aylandi. [22] Birinchi referendum sifatida ta'riflanganidek, Aristidlar chetlatildi va Temistokl siyosati ma'qullandi. [22] Haqiqatan ham, forslarning yaqinlashib kelayotgan bosqinlarga tayyorgarligidan xabardor bo'lib, afinaliklar Themistocles dastlab so'raganidan ham ko'proq kema qurish uchun ovoz berishdi. [22] Fors bosqini oldidan Temistokl shu tariqa Afinadagi eng yirik siyosatchi bo'ldi. [15]

Yunonistonga ikkinchi fors bosqini

Miloddan avvalgi 481 va 160-yillarda Gretsiyaning shahar-shtatlari kongressi bo'lib o'tdi, uning davomida 30 ga yaqin [ iqtibos kerak ] shtatlar bo'lajak bosqinga qarshi ittifoq tuzishga rozi bo'lishdi. [23] Bu ittifoqda spartaliklar va afinaliklar birinchi o'ringa chiqib, forslarning qasam ichgan dushmanlari edilar. [24] Spartaliklar quruqlik qo'shinlari qo'mondonligini da'vo qilishdi va yunon (bundan keyin "ittifoqchilar" deb ataladi) flotida Afina hukmronlik qilar ekan, Temistokl dengiz kuchlari qo'mondonligini da'vo qilishga urindi. [25] Biroq, boshqa dengiz kuchlari, shu jumladan Korinf va Egina, afinaliklarga buyruq berishdan bosh tortishdi va Temistokl pragmatik tarzda ortga chekinishdi. [25] Buning o'rniga, kelishuv sifatida, spartaliklar (ahamiyatsiz dengiz kuchlari), Evribiyad shaxsida, dengiz kuchlariga buyruq berishlari kerak edi. [26] Ammo Gerodotdan ko'rinib turibdiki, Temistokl flotning haqiqiy etakchisi bo'ladi. [27]

"Kongress" miloddan avvalgi 480 va 160 yil bahorida yana uchrashdi. Salonikalik delegatsiya ittifoqchilarga Tessaliya chegarasidagi Temp vodiysida to'planishini va shu tariqa Kserksning harakatiga to'sqinlik qilishni taklif qildi. [28] Spartalik polemarx Evenet va Themistokl qo'mondonligi ostida 10 ming hoplitdan iborat kuch Temp vodiysiga yuborildi, ular ishonishicha, fors qo'shinlari o'tishi kerak. Biroq, u erga borganida, Makedoniyalik Aleksandr I vodiyni boshqa yo'llar orqali chetlab o'tish mumkinligi, Kserks qo'shinlarining katta qismi va yunonlar orqaga chekinishlarini ogohlantirdi. [29] Ko'p o'tmay, ular Kserks Gellespontdan o'tgani haqidagi xabarni oldilar. [28]

Themistocles endi ikkinchi strategiyani ishlab chiqdi. Gretsiyaning janubiga (Boeotiya, Attika va Peloponnes) boradigan yo'l Kserks armiyasidan Termopilaning juda tor dovonidan o'tishni talab qiladi. [30] Forslarning Termopilani dengiz orqali chetlab o'tishiga yo'l qo'ymaslik uchun, forslarning ko'pligiga qaramay, yunon hoplitlari tomonidan osonlikcha to'sib qo'yilishi mumkin edi, Afina va ittifoqchi dengiz flotlari Artemisium bo'g'ozlarini to'sib qo'yishi mumkin edi. [30] Biroq, Tempe buzilishidan so'ng, spartaliklar yana Peloponnesdan yurishga tayyor bo'ladimi -yo'qmi noma'lum edi. [31] Spartaliklarni Attikani himoya qilishga ko'ndirish uchun, Temistokl ularga afinaliklar ittifoqning muvaffaqiyati uchun zarur bo'lgan hamma narsani qilishga tayyor ekanligini ko'rsatishi kerak edi. Qisqasi, butun Afina floti Artemisiumga yuborilishi kerak.

Buning uchun har bir mehnatga layoqatli afinalik erkak kemalarni boshqarishi kerak edi. Bu o'z navbatida afinaliklar Afinadan voz kechishga tayyorgarlik ko'rishlari kerakligini anglatardi. [31] Afinaliklarni bu kursga ko'ndirish, shubhasiz, Themistokl karerasidagi eng muhim voqealardan biri edi. [32] Gollandiyada bo'lgani kabi:

"U qanday aniq notiqlik cho'qqilariga erishdi, qanday hayajonli va esda qolarli iboralarni talaffuz qildi, biz bilishning iloji yo'q, faqat uning yig'ilishga ta'siri bilan biz uning elektr va jonlantiruvchi sifatini aniqlay olamiz - Themistocles" Jasoratli takliflar ovozga qo'yilgach, ratifikatsiya qilindi. Afina xalqi, o'z tarixidagi eng katta xavf -xatarga duch kelib, o'zlarini dengizning begona elementiga birdaniga bag'ishladi va o'z ambitsiyalari ko'p bo'lgan odamga ishondi. uzoq vaqtdan beri juda qo'rqib ketgan edi. " [31]

Uning takliflari qabul qilindi, Themistocles Afina ayollari va bolalarini Peloponnes ichida xavfsiz holda Troezen shahriga yuborish to'g'risida buyruq berdi. [33] Keyin u Ittifoqdoshlar yig'iniga borishga muvaffaq bo'ldi va u o'z strategiyasini Gretsiyani himoya qilishga to'liq bag'ishlangan Afina floti bilan taklif qildi, boshqa ittifoqchilar uning takliflarini qabul qilishdi. [30]

Artemisium jangi

Shunday qilib, miloddan avvalgi 480 yil avgustda, fors qo'shinlari Fessaliyaga yaqinlashganda, ittifoqchi flot Artemisiumga suzib ketdi va Ittifoq qo'shinlari Termopilaga yo'l olishdi. [34] Themistocles o'zi Afina flotining kontingentini boshqarib, Artemisiumga yo'l oldi. Nihoyat, fors floti Artemisiumga ancha kechikkanidan so'ng etib kelganida, Gerodot ham, Plutarx ham eng ilhomlantiruvchi qo'mondon emas deb taxmin qilgan Eurybiades jang qilmasdan suzib ketishni xohlagan. [27] [35] O'sha paytda Temistokl flot Artemisiumda qolishi uchun mahalliy xalqdan katta pora oldi va qolgan qismini cho'ntak qilib, Eurybiadesga qolish uchun pora berdi. [36] Shu paytdan boshlab, Themistocles, Artemisiumdagi ittifoqchilarning sa'y-harakatlariga ko'proq yoki kamroq rahbarlik qilgan ko'rinadi. [35] Uch kun davom etgan jangda ittifoqchilar Fors flotining katta flotiga qarshi turishdi, lekin katta yo'qotishlarga duch kelishdi. [37] Biroq, bir vaqtning o'zida termopila jangining forslarga yutqazilishi ularning Artemisiumda bo'lishining ahamiyatsizligiga olib keldi va shu tariqa ittifoqchilar evakuatsiya qilindi. [38] Gerodotning so'zlariga ko'ra, Themistokl fors floti suv ichish uchun to'xtab qolishi mumkin bo'lgan har bir joyga xabar qoldirgan, fors flotidagi ioniyaliklardan nuqson yoki hech bo'lmaganda yomon kurashishni so'ragan. [39] Hatto bu ishlamasa ham, Themistocles aftidan, Kserks hech bo'lmaganda ioniyaliklardan gumon qila boshlaydi va shu tariqa fors saflarida ixtilof sepadi. [39]

Salamis jangi

Termopiladan so'ng, Boeotiya forslarning qo'liga o'tdi, ular Afinaga bora boshladilar. [40] Peloponnes ittifoqchilari endi Korinf Istmusini himoya qilishga tayyorlanishdi va shu tariqa Afinani forslarga topshirishdi. [41] Artemisiumdan Ittifoqchi floti Salamis oroliga suzib ketdi, u erda Afina kemalari Afinani yakuniy evakuatsiya qilishga yordam berdi. Peloponnes kontingentlari armiya bilan kuch to'plash uchun Istmus sohiliga suzib ketmoqchi bo'lishdi. [42] Biroq, Temistokl ularni Salamis bo'g'ozida qolishga ishontirishga harakat qilib, Artemisium "yaqin sharoitdagi jang bizning foydamizga" darslarini chaqirdi. [42] Butun Afina xalqi bilan birga Sitsiliyaga surgun qilish bilan tahdid qilib, oxir -oqibat xavfsizligi Afina dengiz flotiga ishongan boshqa ittifoqchilarni o'z rejasini qabul qilishga ko'ndirdi. [43] Shuning uchun, hatto Afina forslar qo'liga o'tib, Fors dengiz floti Salamis sohiliga etib kelganidan keyin ham, Ittifoq floti bo'g'ozda qoldi. Ko'rinib turibdiki, Themistokllar Fors dengiz flotiga zarar etkazadigan va Peloponnes xavfsizligini kafolatlaydigan jangga kirishni maqsad qilgan. [42]

Bu jangni boshlash uchun, Themistocles ayyor va noto'g'ri ma'lumotlarning ayyor aralashmasini ishlatib, Kserksning istiloni tugatish istagini psixologik jihatdan ishlatgan. [44] Kserksning xatti -harakatlari shuni ko'rsatadiki, u miloddan avvalgi 480 va 160 -yillarda Yunonistonni bosib olishni tugatmoqchi edi va buning uchun unga ittifoqchi flot ustidan hal qiluvchi g'alaba kerak edi. [45] Themistocles Xerxesga xizmatkor Sitsinni yubordi va xabarida "Themistocles" qirol tarafida ekanligini va sizning ishlaringiz ellinlar emas, sizning ishingiz ustunligini afzal ko'radi "deb e'lon qildi. [46] Themistocles ittifoqchilar qo'mondonlari kurash olib borayotganini, Peloponneziyaliklar o'sha kecha evakuatsiya qilishni rejalashtirayotganini va g'alaba qozonish uchun forslarning bo'g'ozlarni to'sib qo'yish kerakligini da'vo qilishdi. [46] Bu hiyla -nayrangni amalga oshirayotganda, Temistokl Fors flotini bo'g'ozga jalb qilmoqchi bo'lganga o'xshaydi. [44] Xabarning ikkinchi darajali maqsadi ham bor edi, ya'ni ittifoqchilar mag'lubiyatga uchragan taqdirda, afinaliklar, ehtimol, Xerxesdan qandaydir rahm -shafqat olishar edi (topshirishga tayyorligini bildirgan holda). [44] Qanday bo'lmasin, aynan Kserks eshitishni xohlagan yangilik edi. Ko'rinib turibdiki, Kserks o'ljani oldi va fors floti blokirovka qilish uchun yuborildi. [47] Balki o'ziga ishongan va qarshilik ko'rsatishni kutmagan Fors harbiy -dengiz floti bo'g'ozga suzib kirgan, [48] faqat ittifoqchi -dengiz floti jangga tayyor ekanini bilgan. [49]

Gerodotning yozishicha, Fors harbiy -dengiz kuchlari manevrlarini boshlagandan so'ng, Aristid Ittifoq lageriga Aeginadan kelgan. [50] Aristidlar, Afinani forslarga qarshi birlashishi uchun, Termistokl buyrug'i bilan boshqa quvg'in qilingan afinaliklar bilan birga, surgundan qaytarib olindi. [50] Aristid Temistoklga aytdiki, fors floti ittifoqchilarni o'rab oldi, bu esa Temistoklni juda xursand qildi, chunki u forslar uning tuzog'iga kirganini endi bilardi. [51] Ittifoq qo'mondonlari bu yangilikni noaniq qabul qilganga o'xshaydi, shuning uchun Gollandiya ular hamma vaqt Temistoklning hiyla -nayrangiga qo'shilgan deb taxmin qiladi. [52] Qanday bo'lmasin, ittifoqchilar jangga tayyorgarlik ko'rishdi va Temistokl kemalarga chiqishdan oldin dengizchilarga nutq so'zladilar. [53] Keyingi jangda, bo'g'ozdagi tor sharoit ancha katta Fors dengiz flotiga to'sqinlik qildi, bu esa tartibsizlikka uchradi va ittifoqchilar mashhur g'alabani qo'lga kiritishdi. [54]

Salamis ikkinchi fors bosqini va umuman Yunon-Fors urushidagi burilish nuqtasi edi. [55] Jang Fors istilosini tugatmagan bo'lsa -da, u butun Yunonistonni bosib olinmasligini ta'minlab berdi va miloddan avvalgi 479 va 160 yillarda ittifoqchilarga hujum qilishga ruxsat berdi. Bir qator tarixchilar Salamisni insoniyat tarixidagi eng muhim janglardan biri deb hisoblashadi. [56] [57] [58] Temistokl Afinaning harbiy-dengiz kuchlarini uzoq vaqtdan beri himoya qilgani ittifoqchilar flotiga qarshi kurashishga imkon bergani va uning strategiyasi Salamis jangini keltirib chiqargani uchun, Plutarx kabi, mubolag'a bo'lmaydi. "The Gistolani qutqarishga erishishda eng ko'p yordam bergan odam" deb hisoblangan. [21] [35]

Miloddan avvalgi 480/479 va#160 -yillar kuz -qish

Ittifoqchilarning Salamisdagi g'alabasi Yunonistonga bo'lgan tahdidni tugatdi va Kserks endi qo'shinlarining bir qismi bilan Osiyoga qaytdi va o'z generali Mardoniusni bosib olishni tugatishga harakat qildi. [59] Mardonius Boeotiya va Fessaliyada qishladi va afinaliklar shu tariqa forslar tomonidan yoqib yuborilgan va qishlangan shaharlariga qaytishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi. [60] Afinaliklar va shaxsan Temistokllar uchun qish sinovli bo'ladi. Peloponneziyaliklar Istmusning shimolida fors qo'shinlari bilan jang qilish uchun yurishdan bosh tortishdi, afinaliklar ularni sharmanda qilishga urinishdi, ammo muvaffaqiyatsiz bo'ldi. [61]

Qish mavsumida ittifoqchilar Korinfda o'z yutuqlarini nishonlash uchun yig'ilish o'tkazdilar va yutuqlari uchun mukofotlar berishdi. [62] Ammo, ehtimol, afinaliklar Salamisdagi rolini va ittifoqchilarning shimolda yurishlarini talab qilishdan charchab, ittifoqchilar fuqarolik yutug'i uchun mukofotni Eginaga berishdi. [61] [63] Bundan tashqari, admirallarning hammasi ikkinchi o'rinda Themistoklga ovoz berishgan bo'lsa-da, lekin ular birinchi o'rinda o'zlari uchun ovoz berishgan, shuning uchun hech kim shaxsiy yutuqlari uchun mukofotni qo'lga kiritmagan. Bunga javoban, Afina flotining xavfsizligi uchun muhimligini tushunib, ehtimol Temistoklning nafosatini massajlashga intilib, spartaliklar Temistoklni Spartaga olib kelishdi. [61] [63] U erda u "donoligi va zukkoligi uchun" maxsus mukofotiga sazovor bo'ldi va hamma tomonidan yuqori baholandi. [63] [64] Bundan tashqari, Plutarx navbatdagi Olimpiya o'yinlarida:

"[Themistocles] stadionga kirganida, tomoshabinlar kun bo'yi ishtirokchilarni unga qarashga e'tibor bermadilar va begonalarga tashrif buyurganlarini qarsaklar bilan ta'kidladilar, shunda u ham xursand bo'ldi va do'stlariga hozir yig'ib olganini tan oldi. Hellas uchun qilgan mehnatining hosilini to'la -to'kis ". [63]

Qishda Afinaga qaytib kelganidan so'ng, Plutarxning yozishicha, Themistokl Yunon floti Pagasae qishlagan paytda shaharga taklif qilgan:

"Bir paytlar Themistokl [Afina] odamlariga ma'lum bo'ldiki, ular buni oshkor qila olmas edi, lekin bu shahar uchun foydali va foydali bo'lardi va ular faqat Aristidlarga nima ekanligini eshitib o'tishni buyurdilar. Demistokl Aristidga aytdi: uning maqsadi ellinlar konfederatsiyasining harbiy -dengiz stantsiyasini yoqish edi, shuning uchun afinaliklar eng buyuk bo'lardi va hamma xo'jayinlar edi, keyin Aristidlar xalq oldiga kelib, qilgan ishlari haqida gapirib berishdi. Themistokllar bundan boshqa hech kim manfaatliroq bo'lmasligi va adolatsizlik qilmaslikni maqsad qilgan. Afinaliklar buni eshitib, Temistokl o'z maqsadidan voz kechishga qaror qilishdi. [65] [66]

Miloddan avvalgi 479 va 160 yillar bahor -yoz

Ammo, Afina demokratiyasidagi ko'plab taniqli shaxslar bilan bo'lganidek, Temistoklning vatandoshlari ham uning muvaffaqiyatiga hasad qilishdi va, ehtimol, maqtanishdan charchashdi. [61] [67] Ehtimol, miloddan avvalgi 479 yil boshida Temistokl uning buyrug'idan mahrum qilingan, Ksantipp Afina floti va Aristid quruqlik qo'shinlarini boshqarishi kerak edi. [61] [68] Temistokl, shubhasiz, kampaniyaning qolgan qismida siyosiy va harbiy jihatdan faol bo'lgan bo'lsa -da, qadimgi manbalarda uning miloddan avvalgi 479 yildagi faoliyati haqida hech narsa aytilmagan. [69] O'sha yilning yozida, afinalik ultimatum olganidan so'ng, Peloponneziyaliklar nihoyat qo'shin yig'ishga va iyun oyida Afinani qayta egallab olgan Mardoniusga qarshi yurish qilishga kelishib oldilar. [70] Hal qiluvchi Plataea jangida ittifoqchilar Fors qo'shinini yo'q qilishdi, xuddi shu kuni Ittifoq floti Mikale jangida fors flotining qoldiqlarini yo'q qildi. [71] Bu egizak g'alabalar ittifoqchilarning g'alabasini yakunladi va Yunonistonga Fors xavfini tugatdi. [71]

Fors istilosining oqibatlari

Miloddan avvalgi 479 va 160 -yillardagi Themistocles mashhurligining sababi nima bo'lishidan qat'i nazar, bu uzoq davom etmadi. Diodor ham, Plutarx ham uni tezda afinaliklar foydasiga tiklangan deb taxmin qilishadi. [16] [72] Darhaqiqat, miloddan avvalgi 479 yildan keyin, u nisbatan mashhur davrga ega bo'lganga o'xshaydi. [73]

Bosqindan so'ng, afinaliklar o'z shaharlarini Temistokl rahbarligida qayta qurishni boshladilar. [16] Ular Afina istehkomlarini qayta tiklashni xohlashdi, lekin spartaliklar Istmusdan shimolda forslar qal'a sifatida foydalana olmaydigan joy qoldirilmasligi kerak deb e'tiroz bildirishdi. [72] Themistocles fuqarolarni istehkomlarni iloji boricha tezroq qurishga undadi, keyin spartaliklar qo'ygan ayblovlarga javob berish uchun Spartaga elchi sifatida bordi. U erda u hech qanday qurilish ishlari olib borilmayotganiga ishontirdi va o'z ko'zlari bilan Afinaga elchilar yuborishga undadi. [74] Elchilar kelganida, afinaliklar qurilishni tugatgan, keyin esa istehkomlar borligidan shikoyat qilganda, Sparta elchilarini hibsga olgan. [74] Shu tarzda kechiktirib, Themistocles afinaliklarga shaharni mustahkamlash uchun etarli vaqt berdi va shu tariqa Afinani qayta mustahkamlanishining oldini olishga qaratilgan har qanday spartalik hujumni bartaraf etdi. [74] Bundan tashqari, spartaliklar o'z elchilarini ozod qilish uchun Temistoklni vatanlariga qaytarishlari shart edi. [16] [74] Biroq, bu epizodni spartaliklar Temistoklga bo'lgan ishonchsizlikning boshlanishi sifatida ko'rish mumkin, bu esa uni ta'qib qilish uchun qaytadi. [16]

Themistocles ham endi o'zining dengiz siyosatiga qaytdi, [16] va o'z davlatining hukmron mavqeini oshiradigan shuhratparast tashabbuslar. [75] U yana Pireydagi port majmuasini kengaytirdi va mustahkamladi va "Afinani shaharni Pireyga, quruqlikni dengizga mahkamladi". [16] Themistocles, ehtimol Afinani Egey dengizidagi hukmron dengiz kuchiga aylantirishni maqsad qilgan. [75] Darhaqiqat, Afina eramizdan avvalgi 478 va 160 yillarda Afina rahbarligi ostida Egey orollari va Ioniya dengiz kuchlarini birlashtirgan Delian Ligasini tuzadi. [76] Themistocles savdogarlar va hunarmandlar uchun soliq imtiyozlarini joriy qilib, odamlarni jalb qilish va Afinani yirik savdo markaziga aylantirish uchun shaharga savdo qilish uchun. [77] Shuningdek, u afinaliklarga dengiz masalalarida hukmronligi davom etishini ta'minlash uchun yiliga 20 triremani qurishni buyurdi. [77] Plutarxning xabar berishicha, Themistokl, shuningdek, dengiz kuchlarining to'liq hukmronligini ta'minlash uchun boshqa ittifoqchi dengiz flotlarining qirg'oqdagi kemalarini yashirincha yo'q qilishni taklif qilgan, ammo Aristid va Afina kengashi tomonidan bekor qilingan. [78]

Kuz va surgun

Ko'rinib turibdiki, o'n yil oxiriga kelib, Themistokl dushman yig'a boshladi va mag'rur bo'lib ketdi, vatandoshlari uning obro'si va qudratiga hasad qilishdi. [16] [67] Rodiyalik shoir Timokreon tuhmatli ichkilikbozlik qo'shiqlarini bastalab, o'zining eng notiq dushmanlaridan biri edi. [79] Ayni paytda, spartaliklar unga qarshi faol ish olib bordilar va Simonni (Miltiadesning o'g'li) Themistoklga raqib qilib ko'rsatishga harakat qilishdi. Bundan tashqari, spartalik general Pausaniyaning xiyonati va sharmandaligidan so'ng, spartaliklar bu ayblovlardan ozod bo'lgan Temistoklni syujetga jalb qilishga urindilar. [73] Afinaning o'zida, u Artemidaning muqaddas joyini, epitet bilan qurib, ma'qulligini yo'qotdi Aristobul ("yaxshi maslahatchi") uyi yaqinida, Yunonistonni fors bosqinidan qutqarishdagi o'z roli haqida ochiq -oydin ma'lumot. [67] Oxir -oqibat, miloddan avvalgi 472 yoki 471 va#160 yillarda u shafqatsizlikka uchradi. [67] [80] O'z -o'zidan, bu Temistokl Plutarxning so'zlari bilan aytganda, noto'g'ri ostrasizm qilgan, degani emas edi.

"Bu jazo emas, balki tanqidchilarni kamsitishni yoqtiradigan hasadgo'ylikni tinchlantirish va yengillashtirishning bir yo'li edi.

Themistokl dastlab Argosda surgunda yashash uchun ketdi. [80] [81] Biroq, endi ular Temistoklni abadiy tushirish uchun eng yaxshi imkoniyatga ega ekanliklarini anglab, yana Pistaniyaning xiyonatida Temistoklning ishtirokida ayblanishdi. [80] Ular uni Afinada emas, balki "Yunonlar Kongressi" da sudlashini talab qilishdi, garchi u oxir -oqibat Afinaga sudga chaqirilgan bo'lsa kerak. [80] [81] Balki, bu sinovdan omon qolishga umidlari yo'qligini tushunib, Temistokl avval Kerkiraga, keyin Molossiya shohi Admetga qochib ketdi. [82] [83] Themistoklning parvozi, ehtimol, ayblovchilarni aybiga ishontirish uchun xizmat qilgan va Afinada xoin deb e'lon qilingan, uning mol -mulki musodara qilinadi. [84] Shuni ta'kidlash kerakki, Diodor ham, Plutarx ham ayblovlarni yolg'on deb hisoblashgan va faqat Temistoklni yo'q qilish maqsadida qilingan. [80] [81] Spartaliklar Admetusga o'z elchilarini yuborishdi, agar ular Yunonistonning hammasi, agar ular Temistoklni taslim qilmasalar, molossiyaliklar bilan urush olib borishadi, deb qo'rqitishgan. [83] Biroq, Admetus Themistoclesning qochishiga ruxsat berib, unga katta oltin berib, yo'lda yordam berdi. [83] Keyin Temistokl Gretsiyadan qochib ketdi, shekilli, hech qachon qaytmadi va shu tariqa uning siyosiy karerasini yakunladi. [83] [85]


Xulosa

Birinchi umumiy kestirib artroplastikadan beri 1891 yildan boshlab, harakatlarning yaxshi diapazoni, barqarorligi va eng muhimi, adekvatlikni ta'minlaydigan takrorlanadigan texnikani ta'minlash uchun jarrohlik texnikasini takomillashtirishdan tortib texnologiya yutuqlariga qadar (protez dizayni va materiallari bo'yicha) tadqiqotlar ishlab chiqildi. hayot davomiyligi. Kestirib artroplastika oluvchilarning o'rtacha yoshi pasaygani sayin, bu kabi mulohazalar yuqori faol bemorlarda implantning umr ko'rish davomiyligini oshirish uchun katta ahamiyatga ega bo'ladi. To'liq son artroplastikasining 100 yildan ortiq tarixiga qaramay, bemorning barcha xususiyatlariga mos keladigan texnika va material hali haqiqat emas.


Themistokl (eramizdan avvalgi 524-460 yillar)

Themistocles (eramizdan avvalgi 524-460 yillar)-Afinaning buyuk dengiz rahbari, 480 yilda Xerks I Gretsiyaga bostirib kirishda muhim rol o'ynagan, lekin ko'plab afina rahbarlari singari umrini muhojirlikda tugatgan (yunon-fors urushlari) . Themistokl aristokratik Lycomidlar oilasining a'zosi va Afinalik bo'lmagan kanizak Neoklning o'g'li edi. Before 508 he wouldn't have qualified as an Athenian citizen, but in that year Cleisthenes passed a law making all free men in Athens into citizens.

He entered the historical record in 493 when he was elected as Archon, the chief judicial and civilian position in Athens. During his time as Archon he began to move Athen's harbour from the indefensible beaches at Phaleron to the more easily defended Piraeus. This would later prove to be of great value to Athens, especially after the city was linked to the port by the Long Walls.

In 490 the Athenian army defeated the Persians at Marathon. This greatly increased the prestige of the army, but Themistocles believed that Athens needed a powerful fleet if she was to be truly safe from attack. His first attempts to get the size of the fleet increased from 70 triremes failed, but he did at least manage to survive the period of political turmoil after Marathon that saw Miltiades, the commanding general in the battle, die in disgrace in 489 and the period of ostracisms of 487-483.

In 483 he had another chance to increase the fleet, when a rich seam of silver was found at Laurium near Sunium. He was able to convince the Athenian Assembly not to divide the profits between the citizens, but instead to increase the size of the fleet up to 200 triremes.

In 480 the Persian king Xerxes I began his massive invasion of Greece. Fortunately the Persians moved very slowly, allowing the Greeks to organise their resistance. Themistocles was able to win the Spartans over to a policy of forward defence, partly by agreeing to put the Athenian ships under Spartan command. The Greek forces then moved north, looking for a suitable defensive position. They eventually settled on Thermopylae for the army, while the fleet took up a position nearby at Artemisium off the north coast of the island of Euboea. The resulting battle of Artemisium saw the Greeks defeat a Persian attempt to outflank them. On the following night the Persian outflanking force was destroyed in a storm. When battle was renewed both sides suffered losses, but the key fighting came at Thermopylae, where after three days the Persians were eventually able to get past the Greek blockade.

The Greek fleet had to withdraw before it was cut off, and pulled back around Attica to the island of Salamis, west of Athens. As the Persians marched on Athens, the Athenians evacuated the city, and so when it fell to the Persians it was unoccupied. The Persians sacked the city, but this didn&rsquot get them any nearer to victory.

Themistocles was aware that the Persian ships were lighter and more manoeuvrable than the triremes, and also more numerous. He realised that the best hope of victory was to fight the Persians in the narrow straits between Salamis and the mainland, where the heavier Greek ships and armoured soldiers would have the advantage. His biggest problem was that many of his fellow Greeks wanted to pull back further, perhaps to Argos. In order to trigger a battle before this could happen Themistocles sent a message to Xerxes suggesting that he was interested in changing sides and that the Greek fleet might be about to retreat. Xerxes was tricked into ordered a full-scale attack on the Greek position, and in the resulting battle of Salamis lost a key part of his fleet. With control of the sea lost, Xerxes realised that his army was now dangerously exposed and decided to retreat north. He left a force in Thessaly under his brother-in-law Mardonius, and then returned to his court.

Although Themistocles had played a crucial part in the victory at Salamis, he still wasn't in favour with the Areopagus, the council of nobles that controlled the war effort, and he wasn't given a command in 479. He did manage to get the demolished walls of Athens rebuilt, despite Spartan opposition, but his other political efforts all failed.

Soon afterwards he was ostracized and forced into exile in Argos. He was then forced to flee from there after the Spartans accused him of being involved with Pausanias in a plot with the Persians. With Athens and the Peloponnese now closed to him, Themistocles fled to Persia, where he was welcomed by Xerxes's son and heir Artaxerxes I and appointed as governor of some of the Greek cities still ruled by the Persians.

Themistocles's reputation suffered after the war, probably because he was a prominent support of the democracy while the historian Herodotus and the philosopher Plato, both of whom wrote on him, were aristocrats and supporters of a more aristocratic form of government. Away from Athens his role in the Greek victory was more fully appreciated, and he was given a formal ovation in Sparta.


Battle of Marathon.

The Persians were threatening Athens, which had supported the Ionian revolt with a punitive expedition, and Miltiades, who had first-hand experience of the Persians, was chosen, from 493 onward, as one of the 10 generals of the Athenian land forces. (Unlike Themistocles, he was still thinking in terms of land warfare and of an agreement with Sparta, which was favoured by the Athenian landowners, the peasantry, and the rural middle class.) In the summer of 490 bc the Persians landed at Marathon. The Athenians were faced with the choice of marching out and confronting them there or waiting for them at Athens the decision was to be made by the Assembly. Miltiades was well aware of the power of the Persian cavalry, which, once out on the open plain, would wreak havoc. He was also anxious for a quick decision, because there were factions within Athens which would have welcomed a Persian victory in order to advance their own political ambitions. His arguments persuaded the Assembly, and the Athenian forces set out. A runner was sent to Sparta, to seek the support of the Spartan army, but the Spartans replied that they would participate only at the conclusion of a religious festival six days later. A conflict then arose among the 10 Athenian generals over whether to wait or to attack the Persians immediately. The deciding vote was cast by the polemarchos (supreme military commander) Callimachus, whom Miltiades was able to persuade to immediate action. The operational command of the army was to be held for one day in turn by each of the 10, but the four who had supported Miltiades surrendered their right to command to him.

Occupying the foothills surrounding the bay, Miltiades waited for a favourable moment to attack. He chose a time when the Persian cavalry was nonoperational, either because it reembarked for a possible direct attack on Athens or because of some other circumstance the reason for its absence is uncertain. Charging a mile across the Marathon plain, Miltiades’ forces engaged the Persian infantry, killing some 6,400 men (and capturing 7 ships) at a cost of 192 Athenian dead. The rest of the Persian force quickly embarked and put out to sea.

Following the defeat of the Persians at Marathon, Miltiades set out in the spring of 489 bc with a fleet of 70 ships on an expedition to conquer those islands that had supposedly sided with Persia. His mission was not a success, and on his return to Athens there was an outcry of indignation, ably exploited by his rivals, the Alcmaeonids. Miltiades, dying of gangrene from a leg wound suffered in a mishap, was fined 50 talents, although the death penalty had been demanded. He probably died soon after in prison.

The tragic outcome of his life, however, did not cloud the judgment of Miltiades’ historical role. His fellow citizens never forgot that it was to his initiative and leadership that they owed their victory over the Persians.


At first, Hippias attempted to work with his opponents, the Alcmaeonidae, but his Ancient Greek Rulers became harsher with the advancement of the Persians. In 510 B.C. he was overthrown by the Alcmaeonidae and the Spartans and went into exile. He lived at the court of Darius and was with the Persian forces at Marathon.

Hipparchus

Hipparchus (c.555514 B.C) was an Athenian political figure and the younger son of Pisistratus. After the death of his father, he was closely associated with his brother Hippias, autocrat of Athens, in ruling the Athenian city-state. Under Hippias, he was a patron of the arts and sponsored poets like Anacreon and Simonides. He was assassinated by Harmodius and Aristogiton because of his personal vices.

Themistocles

Themistocles (c.525462 B.C) was an Athenian statesman and also a naval commander. He was elected one of the three archons in 493 B.C. In succeeding years, many of his rivals were eliminated by ostracism and he became the chief figure of Athenian politics. He persuaded the Athenians to build up their navy.

Although the Greek fleet was entrusted to a Spartan, Themistocles determined its strategy, thus bringing about the decisive victory of Salamis and the retreat of Xerxes to Persia.

A purported copy of Themistocles’ decree to evacuate Athens, discovered at Troezen in 1959, indicates that the evacuation, as well as the battle of Salamis, was not hastily planned but was a measure carefully conceived months before to trap the Persians at Salamis.

Themistocles dedicated his reign to strengthen the navy and the fortifications. Around 471, after his opponents came to power, he was exiled. In his last few years, he lived in Persia, where King Artaxerxes made generous provision for him.

Cimon

Cimon was an Athenian general, statesman and the son of Miltiades. He fought at Salamis Between 478 to 477 he helped Aristides from the Delian League. He conquered Skiros, pacified Asia Minor, and in 468 defeated the Persian sea and land forces on the Eurymedon River.

On the death of Aristides, he led the Athenian aristocratic and pro-Spartan party and was its chief statesman in succession to Themistocles. He was later sent into exile, from which he was recalled in 451 to conclude a peace with Sparta.

Cleisthenes

Cleisthenes was an Athenian statesman. He was the head of his family, the Alcmaeonidae, after the exile of Hippias, and with Spartan, help had made himself undisputed ruler of Athens by 506 B.C.

He established a more democratic constitution by weakening the clan system and the local parties and by organizing the districts into political rather than social divisions. The Alcmaeonidae thus became leaders of a democratic party.An attempt of his rival, Isagoras, to overturn the reforms of Cleisthenes after Cleisthenes had been sent into exile failed, and Cleisthenes was recalled.

Pericles

Pericles was a member of the Alcmaeonidae family through his mother who was Cleisthenes, a niece. He first came to prominence as an opponent of the Areopagus (462) and as one of the prosecutors of Cimon, whom he replaced in influence. From then on he was the popular leader in Athens.

When he was in Athens between campaigns, Pericles carried through a number of reforms which advanced democracy. As a result, all officials in Athens were paid salaries by the state and every office was opened to most citizens.

He was a great patron of the arts and encouraged drama and music. Under his direction monuments like the Parthenon and the Propylaea on the Acropolis were constructed. Pericles established colonies at Thurii in Italy and at Amphipolis. He was one of the participants in the events that led to the Peloponnesian War.


Themistocles

Themistocles ( / θ ə ˈ m ɪ s t ə k l iː z / Greek: Θεμιστοκλῆς [tʰemistoklɛ̂ːs] "Glory of the Law" [3] c. 524–459 BC) [1] [2] was an Athenian politician and general. He was one of a new breed of non-aristocratic politicians who rose to prominence in the early years of the Athenian democracy. As a politician, Themistocles was a populist, having the support of lower-class Athenians, and generally being at odds with the Athenian nobility. Elected archon in 493 BC, he convinced the polis to increase the naval power of Athens, a recurring theme in his political career. During the first Persian invasion of Greece he fought at the Battle of Marathon [4] (490 BC) and was possibly one of the ten Athenian strategoi (generals) in that battle. [ citation needed ]

In the years after Marathon, and in the run-up to the second Persian invasion of 480–479 BC, Themistocles became the most prominent politician in Athens. He continued to advocate for a strong Athenian Navy, and in 483 BC he persuaded the Athenians to build a fleet of 200 triremes these proved crucial in the forthcoming conflict with Persia. During the second invasion, he effectively commanded the Greek allied navy at the battles of Artemisium and Salamis in 480 BC. Due to his subterfuge, the Allies successfully lured the Persian fleet into the Straits of Salamis, and the decisive Greek victory there was the turning point of the war. The invasion was conclusively repulsed the following year after the Persian defeat at the land Battle of Plataea.

After the conflict ended, Themistocles continued his pre-eminence among Athenian politicians. However, he aroused the hostility of Sparta by ordering the re-fortification of Athens, and his perceived arrogance began to alienate him from the Athenians. In 472 or 471 BC, he was ostracised, and went into exile in Argos. The Spartans now saw an opportunity to destroy Themistocles, and implicated him in the alleged treasonous plot of 478 BC of their own general Pausanias. Themistocles thus fled from Greece. Alexander I of Macedon (r. 498–454 BC) temporarily gave him sanctuary at Pydna before he traveled to Asia Minor, where he entered the service of the Persian king Artaxerxes I (reigned 465–424 BC). He was made governor of Magnesia, and lived there for the rest of his life.

Themistocles died in 459 BC, probably of natural causes. [1] [5] His reputation was posthumously rehabilitated, and he was re-established as a hero of the Athenian (and indeed Greek) cause. Themistocles can still reasonably be thought of as "the man most instrumental in achieving the salvation of Greece" from the Persian threat, as Plutarch describes him. His naval policies would have a lasting impact on Athens as well, since maritime power became the cornerstone of the Athenian Empire and golden age. Thucydides assessed Themistocles as "a man who exhibited the most indubitable signs of genius indeed, in this particular he has a claim on our admiration quite extraordinary and unparalleled". [6]


Battle of Artemisium, 480 BC

The battle of Artemisium (August 480 BC) was an inconclusive naval battle that was fought on the same three days as the battle of Thermopylae, and that ended when the Greek fleet retreated after learning of the Persian victory at Thermopylae (Greco-Persian Wars).

In 490 the Emperor Darius had sent an army across the Aegean to punish Eretria and Athens for their support of the Ionian Revolt. The Persians had been defeated at the battle of Marathon (490 BC), and Darius had died before he could launch a fresh invasion. His successor Xerxes decided to lead a massive invasion of Greece in person. He also decided not to risk another expedition across the Aegean, but instead to carry out a massive joint operation, leading a vast army and fleet along the coasts of Thrace and Thessaly and south to Athens.

Many Greek communities decided to accommodate the Persians, but a powerful coalition, led by Sparta and Athens, decided to resist. The Greek allies met at the Isthmus of Corinth and decided to make a stand at Tempe in Thessaly. It soon became clear that this position could easily be outflanked, and so they decided to defend the narrow pass of Thermopylae, at the southern border of Thessaly. The fleet was to defend the straits between Magnesia and the island of Euboea, with their initial base at the beach of Artemisium, near a shrine to Artemis.

According to Herodotus the Persians had 1,207 triremes at the start of their expedition - 300 from Phoenicia and Palestine, 200 from Egypt, 150 from Cyprus, 100 from Cilicia, 30 from Pamphylia , 50 from Lycia, 30 from the Dorian cities of Asia, 70 from Caria, 100 from Ionia, 17 from the Aegean islands, 60 from Aeolia and 100 from the Hellespont. Each ship carried a mix of Persian, Median and Sacian marines. Herodotus's vast figure of two million fighting men in the land army is normally dismissed as entirely unrealistic, but the size of the Persian fleet is perhaps more realistic.

The Persians suffered heavy losses before they ever clashed with the Greeks. As they sailed down the coast of Magnesia, they anchored between Casthanaea and Cape Sepias. The size of the Persian fleet acted against them, making it difficult for them to find any suitable harbours. According to Herodotus on this occasion they were moored eight-deep all along the beach. Overnight a powerful north-easterly storm hit the dangerously exposed Persian fleet. 400 warships and an unknown number of supply ships were lost during the three day storm. Another fifteen ships were lost when they sailed too far and inadvertently ran into the Greek fleet. If Herodotus's initial figure is to be believed, these loses brought the Persian fleet down to just under 800 ships (if all the lost warships were triremes), assuming none had been lost on the long journey from Asia Minor and along the coasts of Thrace and Thessaly. However they also received 120 reinforcements from Thrace, so may have had 920 ships.

According to Herodotus the Greeks had 271 triremes at the start of the battle. Athens provided 127 ships in her own contingent, with crews from Athens and Plataea. Corinth provided 40 ships, the Megarians 20, Chalcis provided 20 crews but the ships came from Athens. The Aeginetans provided 18 ships, the Sicyonians 12, the Lacedaemonians 10, the Epidaurians 8, the Eretrians 7, the Troezenians 5, the Styrians 2 and the Ceans 2 triremes and 2 penteconters. The Opuntian Locrians provided 7 penteconters. The fleet was commanded by the Spartan Eurybiades son of Euryclidas, after the other allies refused to follow an Athenian leader. The Athenian leader Themistocles, who had played a key part in building up the Athenian fleet, commanded the Athenian contingent and played a major part in ensuring that the fleet stood and fought.

After the storm the Persians continued south to Aphetae, at the southern tip of Magnesia. The Greek reaction suggests that they still had an apparently overwhelming numerical advantage, as both Eurybiades and Adeimantus, commander of the large Corinthian contingent, decided to withdraw. The Euboeans asked for time to evacuate their families from the island, but Eurybiades turned them down. The Euboeans then turned to the Athenian naval leader Themistocles, in one of the most controversial incidents of the battle (at least to modern eyes). Themistocles was offered thirty talents of silver to convince the fleet to stay. He bribed Eurybiades with five talents and Adeimantus with three talents, keeping the remaining twenty two talents himself. To modern eyes this looks like corruption, but it was clearly unremarkable behaviour at the time, and Herodotus says that both of the bribed leaders assumed the money had been sent from Athens for that purpose.

On the first day of the battle the Persians sent a detachment of 200 ships around Euboea to cut off the Greek line of retreat. The Greeks were informed of this move by a deserter, Scyllias of Scione, and attacked the temporarily weakened main Persian fleet (although if Herodotus's figures are right they were still outnumbered by two-to-one).

The Persians reacted to the Greek attack by forming into a ring and surrounding them. The Greeks responded by forming a circle and fighting with their sterns pointing towards the centre. The Greeks captured 30 ships during the first day of the battle. Their losses aren't recorded.

They intended to sail south that night to destroy the Persian detachment, but were kept in port by a massive storm that caught the Persians without shelter and destroyed most of the detachment.

On the second day 53 Athenian ships joined the fleet, bringing the total up to over 300. They also brought news of the Persian disaster, presumably having sailed through the same seas. The Persians were perhaps down to no more than 560-680 ships, but still outnumbered the Greeks.

There was some fighting on the second day, in which the Greeks defeated a Cilician contingent in the Persian fleet.

On the third day the Persians attacked at about noon. The Greeks fought in a half-moon formation. Both sides suffered heavy losses in this fighting. The Greeks just about held their own, but began to realise that they would probably have to retreat to avoid heavier losses. Meanwhile the Persians had outflanked the Greek position at Thermopylae, and during the day the last Greek rearguard was destroyed. The commanders of the fleet realised that they needed to retreat from Artemisium, and pulled back to the straits of Salamis, where they hoped the narrow waters would allow them to take advantage of their heavier ships. While they were moving south Themistocles stopped at every source of fresh water and had a message carved into the rocks asking the Ionian Greeks to desert the Persians.

A number of famous Greeks fought at Artemisium. Amongst them was the Aeschylus, the first great Athenian writer of tragic plays


Biografiya

Eleftherius and Helen Adamopoulo were the parents of a Greek family who lived in Alexandria, Egypt. Eleftherius was an author, successful banker and had a double qualification in Chemistry and Helen was a headmistress of a school. In 1945, Themistocles was born. Seeing developments that would have dire consequences for foreigners in Egypt, in 1956, Eleftherius and Helen immigrated with their family - including their son, Themistocles - to Melbourne, Australia. Themistocles, because of the social stigma of Greeks at the time, grew up wishing to fit into wider Australian society.

Due to the Adamopoulo's being Greeks from a non-Greek country, they were considered to be Greeks by Anglo-Celtic Australian society, and outsiders within the Greek community. As such, Eleftherius became a labourer, and Helen worked in factories. However, in a few years, Helen was recognised by Melbourne University, becoming a teacher at Presbyterian Ladies College, and Eleftherius was recognised by local industries, becoming an industrial chemist.

Early life

Themistocles went to high school at Williamstown High School, being gifted in academic areas, and getting a result good enough to win a scholarship to Melbourne University. He began a Bachelor of Commerce degree in 1964, and then formed a music group similar to the Beatles and the Rolling Stones known as The Flies. This caused a two-year deferment in his university studies while he pursued the music industry, including records, Top 10 songs, a fan club and supporting the Beatles on their Australian tour.

However, he decided that this was not to be a permanent occupation, and returned to university in a Bachelor of Arts course, studying philosophy, political science and history. His readings, and perspectives on human rights, social justice and minority groups, were formed during this period, and are acknowledged by himself to have affected the way he lives his religion today. At 22, he became a tutor at Melbourne University.

Conversion

However, at the time, he held a strict athiestic view that he later recognised as contradictory. Themi attributes his conversion to anti-establishment ideas that happened in greater society, such as the opposition to the Vietnam War, and to Timothy Leary's influence in exploring counter-cultural concepts in spiritual terms. This anti-establishment focus was brought to bear on Nietzsche and Marx, and Themi was to look at various religions, looking for truths in them that could be useful in an ideal world. Undergoing a Christian mystical experience, Themi then accepted Christianity as the path to God.

He did not immediately go to the Greek Orthodox Church of his parents, but first held a belief in Christ while looking for the denomination that could best understand his experience. Through reading the Bible and the life of St Francis of Assisi, Themi began to sell his property, give to the poor, and resign from his tutorship in political science. Speaking to one or two Greek Orthodox priests in Melbourne, he asked about God and was told not to inquire into God. Finding this unsatisfactory, he then went to other churches, finding in the Presbyterian church interesting people willing to discuss God and accommodate his previous experiences, people who accepted and greatly respected him. However, he began to ask why he was born a Greek and baptised Orthodox, and looked again at Orthodoxy.

Pity for the state of the Orthodox Church in Melbourne in the early seventies led him to join the Church - there was no teaching of Christ, Sunday schools, youth groups or Bible study groups, but rather joining together as a common identity of Greeks. Themi felt sorry for these people, whom he had already learnt more about the Bible than. He was immediately accepted due to being Greek, and received permission to begin a Sunday school.

Return to the academic world

Themi, after beginning a Masters of Education, transferred to a Diploma of Education for teaching at technical schools to continue his new-found association and identification with the working class. He went on to teach at Richmond Technical School, Essendon Technical School and Preston Technical School, all in the heartlands of the working class. However, his unwavering and spoken commitment to Christ meant that he was transferred from school to school, finally resigning from Lalor High School due to frustration at the continued restriction of his freedom of speech.

After this, due to the lack of Orthodox seminaries at the time, he took up studies at a Catholic theological school. He was advised by Archbishop Stylianos, the then-new Greek Orthodox Archbishop of Australia, to study at Corpus Christi College, Melbourne. He then went on to study at Holy Cross, Massachusetts, beginning a Masters of Theological Studies and concurrently studying at Harvard Divinity School. After this, he undertook a Master of Theology at Princeton Divinity School, and completed a Ph.D. at Brown University with his thesis entitled Endurance, Greek and Early Christian: The Moral Transformation of the Greek Idea of Endurance, From the Homeric Battlefield to the Apostle Paul, explaining how endurance changed from the Greek philosophical concept of something that one could do on their own, to St Paul's transformation into endurance being something a gift of God in Christ.

Fr Themistocles, by this time a tonsured monk usually called 'Br Themi', returned to Australia and, in 1986, was one of the founding lecturers at St Andrew's Greek Orthodox Theological College, Sydney, Australia he was also teaching at Macquarie University and University of Sydney.

Kenya

After considerable time lecturing, Fr Themi began to wish to personally act out his theology, and due to his being born in Africa he decided to return there in 2000, utilising his academic ability at the Orthodox Patriarchal Ecclesiastical School "Archbishop Macarius III" in Nairobi, Kenya.

Ordained and elevated in Kenya to the rank of Archimandrite, he conducted liturgies and preached in various parishes in Kenya, but his primary focus is on teaching people in Kenya to earn a living on their own. With the blessing of Archbishop Makarios, Fr Themistocles established the Saint Clement of Alexandria Philanthropic Education Centre. Through the centre, he set up a school for unemployed women to learn tailoring and dressmaking in November 2001, then a computer school for unemployed youth in 2002 in September of that year, he then set up a pre-school and primary school for children in slum areas, giving them free education, food and clothing.

In January 2003, the Teachers' College was established. This grew into the Saint Clement of Alexandria Orthodox College of Africa, currently consisting of an education department and a business/information technology department, teaching for minimal cost to break the cycle of depression. Future plans include a nursing and pharmacy school furthermore, serious negotiations are underway with the University of Thessalonica towards the creation of a Paediatric Medical School within the College. Fr Themistocles envisaged an Orthodox University of Africa.

Syerra -Leone

In January 2008, with the blessing of His Beatitude Patriarch Theodoros of Alexandria and sponsored by the international charity 'Paradise Kids 4 Africa' (PK4A), Fr Themi moved from Kenya to Sierra Leone, where he involved himself in similar activities that he had initiated in Kenya. As of 2009, there are 9 building projects in progress, including a missionary residence and 3 places of worship (including the Cathedral of St Eleftherios), as well as providing many feeding programs for the hungry.

Negotiations with the government in March 2008 led to Fr Themi having responsibility for two schools, with a total of 3500 students and 90 staff and in May, grants were received from two Greek missionary societies, the Orthodox Missionary Fraternity and the Missionary Alliance of St. Cosmas the Aetolian - one grant to build infrastructure for one of the schools, and the other to begin construction of a Teachers' College. Work began on the Teachers' College before the end of that month, and construction has begun on housing for the disabled and victims of the war.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Fan Edit 300: Earth and Water - Themistocles and GorgoLeonidas and the Ephors