Edinburg shartnomasi - tarix

Edinburg shartnomasi - tarix

1559 yilda Shotlandiya qirolichasi Meri o'zini Angliya qirolichasi deb e'lon qildi. Keyingi yili Shotlandiyadagi frantsuz qo'shinlari Maryamning da'vosini katoliklarning noqonuniy deb hisoblagan Elizabetga qarshi da'vo qilishga harakat qilmoqdalar (Elizabet Genri va Enn Boleinning o'g'li edi katoliklar tomonidan bekor deb hisoblangan). Frantsuz qo'shinlari Leytga shikoyat qilishdi va frantsuzlar Shotlandiya ishlariga aralashuvlarini to'xtatib, Edinburg shartnomasini imzolashga majbur bo'lishdi.

Garchi frantsuz tarixi keng ma'noda ming yildan ko'proq vaqtni o'z ichiga olsa-da, uning siyosiy birligi milliy davlatning asosini o'rnatgan Lui XI hukmronligidan (o'rta asrlarning oxirigacha xos bo'lgan sulolali, transmilliy tashkilot emas). . Qadimgi rejimning oxirgi kunlarida faqat aristokratlar va olimlar qirollikning ko'p qismida frantsuz tilida gaplashar edilar, chunki aholining qariyb uchdan ikki qismi turli xil mahalliy tillarda gaplashar edi, ular ko'pincha lahjalar deb atalardi. Bundan buyon Erik Xobsbavning ta'kidlashicha, frantsuz milliy davlati 19-asrda chaqiruv yo'li bilan tashkil etilgan, bu fransuz fuqarolarining o'zaro aloqalarini hisobga olgan holda, turli hududlardan kelgan va 1880-yillarda, ehtimol tug'ilish bilan parallel ravishda qabul qilingan Uchinchi respublikaning qonunlari. Evropa millatchiligi. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Evropa tahrirlash

Britaniya tahrirlash

Angliya va Frantsiyada uzoq vaqtdan beri davom etayotgan nizolar bor, ular Xastings jangidan oldin, Fathchi Uilyam ingliz taxtini egallagan paytga to'g'ri keladi. Angliya qiroli bo'lishidan oldin, Uilyam bir necha bor yolg'onchi bilan ziddiyat topdi va qo'shni fiflarni zabt etdi. Mamlakatlar o'rtasidagi munosabatlar hatto uchinchi salib yurishida ham ziddiyatlarga to'la edi. O'rta asrlardagi to'qnashuvlar davri Yuz yillik urush paytida, Plantagenet uyi frantsuz taxtini egallash uchun muvaffaqiyatsiz kurashganida va deyarli barcha frantsuz xoldinglaridan ayrilganida avjiga chiqqan, natijada kelajakda ingliz qirollari ingliz tilida ko'proq madaniyatli bo'lishgan. (Ilgari ular asosan frantsuz tilida so'zlashar va ko'p vaqt frantsuz qal'alarida yashar edilar. Frantsiya qiroli Filipp bilan janjali bilan mashhur bo'lgan Richard Arslon, umrining ko'p qismini Frantsiyada o'tkazdi va hukmronligining olti oyini ham o'tkazdi. Angliyada qirol.)

Aksincha, Shotlandiya va Frantsiya o'rtasidagi munosabatlar umuman yaxshi edi. 1295 yildagi Auld Alliance shartnomasi Shotlandiya va Frantsiya o'rtasida ingliz hujumi sodir bo'lgan taqdirda o'zaro qo'llab -quvvatlashni nazarda tutgan. Bu 1560 yilda Angliya, Shotlandiya va Frantsiya o'rtasida Edinburg shartnomasi bilan almashtirildi.

Britaniya va Frantsiya o'rtasidagi ziddiyatlarning zamonaviy tarixi Buyuk Britaniyaning 18 -asr boshlarida Evropada asosiy savdo va dengiz kuchi sifatida paydo bo'lishi va Frantsiya ustunligiga tahdid solishi bilan bog'liq. Frantsiyaning shunga o'xshash ambitsiyalari bilan dushmanlik va strategik ziddiyat ikki davlat o'rtasidagi munosabatlarning o'ziga xos xususiyatiga aylandi. 1688 yildagi ulug'vor inqilob va 1815 yildagi Napoleonning yakuniy kapitulyatsiyasi o'rtasidagi vaqt Britaniyada hukmron mustamlakachi hokimiyat kim bo'lishini aniqlash uchun uzoq davom etgan frantsuz-ingliz mojarosi sifatida qabul qilindi. Ikkinchi yuz yillik urush). Buyuk Britaniyaning Katolik cherkoviga bo'lgan dushmanligi, Ispaniyaning Katolik Habsburg bilan oldingi mojarolari, frantsuzlarga bo'lgan munosabatni kuchaytirdi, chunki Frantsiya ham katolik hokimiyati sifatida qaraldi va ingliz xalqining aksariyati protestant edi. Angliya va keyinchalik Buyuk Britaniya kontinental Evropa davlatlariga qo'shilib, Lui XIV va Napoleon urushlari davrida frantsuzlarning gegemonlik haqidagi ambitsiyalariga qarshilik ko'rsatdilar. Britaniya Fransiyaning Amerika inqilobiy urushiga aralashuvidan ham norozi edi. Takroriy to'qnashuvlar 20 -asr boshlarida Imperial Germaniyani mag'lub etish ittifoqi tomonidan faqat va qisman yengilgan ikki xalq o'rtasida chuqur o'zaro qarama -qarshilikni keltirib chiqardi.

Britaniyadagi ziddiyatning o'lchamlari strategik darajada madaniy edi. Haqiqatan ham, ingliz millatchiligi, o'z bosqichlarida, asosan, Frantsiyaga qarshi hodisa edi va unga bo'lgan munosabat, turli jang maydonlarida kim g'olib bo'lganidan tashqarida edi:

  • XVII va XVIII asrlarda ingliz millatchilarining o'sib borayotgan guruhi frantsuz madaniyati va tilini hurmat qilishdan norozi bo'lishdi. [2]
  • Frantsiya zamonaviy davrning eng qudratli katolik davlati bo'lgan va 1534 yildagi Buyuklik aktidan buyon Britaniyada "anti-katolik" tuyg'ular keng tarqalgan edi.
  • Frantsuzlarga qarshi kayfiyatning jamiyat bo'ylab tarqalishi, Hartlepoolmonkey askarlarining apokrifik hikoyasi bilan ifodalanadi, frantsuzlarning so'zma-so'z g'ayriinsoniy ekanligiga ishonish, ularni go'yoki frantsuz bostirib kirgan deb o'ylab, maymunni qatl qilishiga olib keldi. Hikoya munozarali asosga asoslangan bo'lib, unda qatnashganlar hech qachon frantsuzni ko'rmagan. [iqtibos kerak]

Robert Graves Birinchi Jahon Urushidan ko'p o'tmay, Oksford universitetida bakalavr sifatida yozgan:

XVIII asr o'zining mashhur bo'lmaganligi uchun asosan frantsuzlikka bog'liq edi. Aksariyat sobiq askarlarda frantsuzlarga qarshi tuyg'u deyarli obsesyonga teng edi. Asablari qimirlab ketgan Edmund shu payt aytardi: "Men uchun endi hech qanday narxda urush bo'lmaydi! Frantsuzlardan tashqari. Agar ularga qarshi urush bo'lsa, men o'qdek ketaman". Nemisparastlik tuyg'usi tobora kuchayib bordi. Urush tugashi va nemis qo'shinlari mag'lubiyatga uchrashi bilan biz nemis askarini Evropadagi eng samarali jangchi sifatida tan olamiz. Ba'zi magistrantlar hatto biz noto'g'ri tomondan kurashganmiz, deb ta'kidlashdi: bizning tabiiy dushmanlarimiz frantsuzlar edi.

Germaniya tahrirlash

18-asr oxirida frantsuzlarning Germaniyaga hujumidan boshlab, Frantsiya Germaniyaning asrlar davomida raqibiga aylandi. Nemis millatchilik harakatining kuchayishi Frantsiyani eng katta dushmani deb bildi, chunki Frantsiya nafaqat Napoleon urushlari paytida G'arbiy Germaniyaning ko'p qismini bosib oldi, balki Germaniyaning birlashgan imperiyasi g'oyasiga eng qattiq qarshilik ko'rsatgan va Germaniyaning ko'p bo'linib qolishini xohlagan. alohida davlatlar.

Bu vaqtda, deb atalmish afsona irsiy adovat (Nemis: Erbfeindschaft) paydo bo'ldi, unga ko'ra, Rim frantsuzlari va german nemislari Teutoburg o'rmonidagi jangdan buyon antitetik dushmanlar bo'lgan, bu tarixiy bo'lmagan tarix. 19-asrda, frantsuzlarga qarshi kayfiyat Germaniya siyosiy nutqida odatiy holga aylandi, hatto ular o'rtasidagi chuqur madaniy o'zaro bog'liqlikni hech qachon butunlay o'chirib bo'lmaydi. (Ioxann Volfgang fon Gyote o'zining "Faust I" dostonida bu masala bilan kulgili: O'ylaymanki, bu Frantsiyaning eng yaxshi vakili. "Haqiqiy nemis erkak frantsuzni yoqtirmaydi, lekin u sharob ichishni yaxshi ko'radi.")

Bir qancha nemis millatchilarining madhiyalari frantsuzlarga qarshi yozilgan Die Wacht am Rhein. 1871 yilda Frantsiya-Prussiya urushida Germaniya g'alaba qozonganidan so'ng, hal qiluvchi Sedan jangining yilligi Germaniya imperiyasida yarim rasmiy milliy bayramga aylandi.

Ikki jahon urushida frantsuz-nemis adovatining avjiga chiqqanidan so'ng, ular XX asrning ikkinchi yarmida o'zaro dushmanlikdan faol voz kechishdi. Bu rivojlanishning eng ko'zga ko'ringan ramzi - hukumat rahbarlari Fransua Mitteran va Gelmut Kolning 1984 yilda Verdundagi harbiy qabristonda bo'lib o'tgan marosimda bir -birlarining qo'llarini ushlab turgan rasmidir. Hozirgi kunda Germaniya va Frantsiya yaqin siyosiy sheriklar va bir -biri bilan chambarchas bog'langan ikki xalqdir. Birlashgan frantsuz-nemis televizion tarmog'i Arte 1992 yilda tashkil etilgan.

Irlandiya tahrirlash

Tarixiy jihatdan, frantsuz va irlandlar o'rtasidagi munosabatlar odatda ijobiy bo'lgan, chunki ikkala xalq ham umumiy din, rim -katoliklik va umumiy protestant dushmani Angliya (keyinchalik Buyuk Britaniya) bilan bo'lishgan. XVI -XIX asrlarda frantsuz qirollari Irlandiya va Shotlandiyadagi ingliz taraqqiyotiga qarshi tez -tez Irlandiya va Shotlandiya manfaatlarini qo'llab -quvvatladilar.

So'nggi paytlarda, Frantsiya va Irlandiya Respublikasi o'rtasida siyosiy va iqtisodiy masalalarda irland frankofobiyasi namoyon bo'lishiga olib kelgan bir qancha janjallar bo'lgan. Ulardan biri Irlandiya 2008 yilda o'tkazilgan referendumda Lissabon shartnomasini rad etganida va Nikola Sarkozi aytganidek, Irlandiya "yana ovoz berishi kerak" [3] - xuddi keyingi yili bo'lgani kabi. Yana bir manba bu Irlandiyaning korporativ soliqqa tortish stavkasining pastligi va frantsuzlarning Xalqaro Valyuta Jamg'armasi/ Evropa Ittifoqining kredit kelishuvi bo'yicha foiz stavkasini pasaytirishga qarshilik ko'rsatishi, Irlandiya bu stavka bo'yicha "harakat qilmaguncha" aralashuv sifatida qabul qilingan. [4]

Irlandiyadagi frankofobiya ikki mamlakat o'rtasida bo'lib o'tgan bahsli Jahon chempionatining pley -off o'yini ortidan avj olib, Frantsiyaning Dublindagi elchixonasi oldida norozilik namoyishiga olib keldi. [5] Irlandiya korxonalari ushbu imkoniyatdan unchalik xafagarchiliksiz foydalanishdi, aksiyalar Fransiya darvozasiga kiritilgan har bir gol uchun chegirmalar va Fransiyani turnirdan chetlatilishini nishonlash uchun maxsus qisqartirishlar bilan. [6] [7]

Italiya tahrirlash

1282 yil 30 -mart dushanba kuni, Palermo tashqarisidagi Muqaddas Ruh cherkovida, kechki namozda (vespers), frantsuz sitsiliyalik ayolni bezovta qildi. Bu yagona voqea keyingi olti hafta mobaynida 4000 frantsuzni qirg'in qilishga olib keldi va Frantsiyada tug'ilgan Anjou qiroli Charlz I hukumati orol ustidan nazoratni yo'qotdi.

Ispaniya tahrirlash

Goya Napoleon davrida yarim orol urushlarining zo'ravonligi tasvirlangan bir nechta mashhur rasmlarni chizdi. Xususan, yarim orol urushi paytida frantsuzlarning ispan fuqarolariga qarshi harakatlari katta tanqidga sabab bo'ldi, buni 1808 yil 3 -may tasvirlangan.

Afrika tahrirlash

Afrikadagi frantsuz mustamlakachiligi mustamlaka qilingan xalqlar orasida frantsuzlarga qarshi kayfiyatlarni keltirib chiqardi, ayniqsa frantsuz va turli Afrika davlatlari o'rtasidagi ziddiyat davrida. Afrikadagi boshqa Evropa mustamlakachilari bilan imperatorlik bahslari (masalan, Fashoda hodisasi) ham frantsuzlarga qarshi kayfiyatlarni keltirib chiqardi. Yaqinda Frantsiya siyosatini saqlab qoldi Fransua neokolonializm sifatida tavsiflangan va frantsuzlarga qarshi hissiyotlarning paydo bo'lishiga olib kelgan. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Jazoir tahrir

Jazoir urushi 1954 yildan beri davom etmoqda. 1962 yil 18 martdagi Evian kelishuvi mojaroga nuqta qo'ydi. Frantsiya qurolli kuchlari va Jazoir millatchilik tashkiloti FLN o'rtasida o't ochishni to'xtatish paytida erishilgan kelishuvlar hokimiyatni frantsuzlardan jazoirliklarga o'tkazish jarayonini boshladi. Evian kelishuvi uning huquqlari va xavfsizligini kafolatlashga qaratilgan Pieds-Noirs, mustaqil Jazoirda frantsuz tilida so'zlashuvchi evropalik ko'chmanchilar.

1959 yilda Pieds-Noirs soni 1 million 255 ming kishini tashkil etdi va Frantsiya Jazoirining umumiy aholisining 10,4 foizini tashkil etdi. Biroq, ular orasida mish -mishlar allaqachon tarqalgan edi Pieds-Noirs ularning tanlovi "chamadon yoki tobut" o'rtasida bo'ladi. 1962 yil 5 -iyul ertalab, Jazoir mustaqillikka erishgan kuni, FLN qo'shinlarining ettita kompaniyasi Oran shahriga kirdi. [8] G'azablangan arab to'dasi xonaga kirdi Pieds-Noir allaqachon bo'shatilgan mahallalar va qolgan 40 mingga yaqin odamga hujum qilgan Pieds-Noirs. Zo'ravonlik bir necha soat davom etdi, bu vaqtda olomon ko'plab erkaklar, ayollar va bolalarning tomoqlarini kesib tashladi. [8]

Soni Pieds-Noirs 1962 yildan 1964 yilgacha Jazoirdan qochganlarning umumiy soni 800 mingdan oshdi. [9]

Kot -d'Ivuarni tahrirlash

Frantsiyaning Kot-d'Ivuardagi fuqarolar urushiga aralashuvi "Yosh vatanparvar" va boshqa guruhlarning frantsuzlarga qarshi zo'ravonligini qo'zg'atdi. [10]

Ruanda tahrirlash

Osiyo tahrirlash

Ozarbayjon tahrir

2020 yilgi Tog'li Qorabog 'mojarosi paytida Frantsiyaning Armanistonga yaqinligi natijasiga kelsak, Ozarbayjonda frantsuzlarga qarshi kayfiyat rivojlana boshladi, bu erda Ozarbayjon Frantsiyani bir tomonlama va turkofoblikda aybladi. [11] Bundan tashqari, Frantsiya muxbirlari ham qabul qiluvchi davlat tomonidan ko'plab ta'qib va ​​dushmanlikka duch kelishgan. [12] 2020 yil noyabr oyida Frantsiya Senati Artsax Respublikasini tan olganidan keyin Ozarbayjon Parijga norozilik notasi yubordi. [13]

Vetnam tahrirlash

Frantsuz mustamlakachilariga maxsus epitet berilgan shunday (dastlab ma'nosi kolonist lekin frantsuzlarning zulmkor rejimiga ishora qilish uchun rivojlanayotgan) Vetnam tilida hamon mustamlaka davri haqidagi munozaralarda keng qo'llaniladi. Frantsuzlar Vetnamdan quvilganidan keyin, ular bilan hamkorlik qilganlar (chaqirilgan) tay say - agentlar) haqorat qilindi. Frantsuzlar bilan Frantsiyaga ketganlar nomi bilan tanilgan Vijdonli (Vetnam xoinlari) va ularning barcha mol -mulki musodara qilindi. Vetnamda frantsuzlarga qarshi his-tuyg'ular ancha pasaygan bo'lsa-da, shunga o'xshash so'zlardan foydalanish shunday (mustamlakachi) frantsuzlarni tasvirlash hali ham keng tarqalgan. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Xitoy tahrirlash

1884 yildagi Tamsui jangida xitoylar asir olindi va jarohat olgan 11 frantsuz dengiz piyodasining boshini oldirdi. La Gailissonniere kapitan Fonteyn va bambukdan yasalgan qutblarni ishlatib, boshlarini omma oldida ko'rsatish uchun Xitoyda frantsuzlarga qarshi his-tuyg'ularni qo'zg'atish uchun frantsuzlarning boshlarini kesish rasmlari nashr etilgan. Tien-shih-tsai rasmli jurnali Shanxayda. [14]

Suriya tahrirlash

Frantsuzlarga qarshi kayfiyat Sykes-Piko kelishuvini muhokama qilgan frantsuzlar Suriyaga bostirib kira boshlagach rivojlana boshladi. 1920 yilda sodir bo'lgan Maysalun jangi, xarizmatik Yusuf al-Azma qo'mondonligi ostida Suriya armiyasi suriyaliklar orasida frantsuzlarga qarshi kuchli kayfiyatni ramziy qildi, chunki Frantsiya Suriya aholisini ishg'ol qilish va terror qilish haqidagi va'dasini qayta tikladi. [15] Frantsiyaning Suriyadagi hukmronligini ko'plab suriyaliklar juda salbiy baholadilar va Frantsiyaning Suriyadagi fuqarolar urushidagi ishtiroki ham unchalik hamdard emas. [16]

Pokiston tahrirlash

2020 yil oktyabr oyida Pokistonda Makronning Samuel Patining o'ldirilishi haqidagi bayonotlari tufayli ko'plab norozilik namoyishlari bo'lib o'tdi.

2021 yil 15 aprelda Tehrik-e-Labbayk tomonidan uyushtirilgan frantsuzlarga qarshi zo'ravon norozilik namoyishlari bo'lib o'tdi. [17]

Turkiya tahrirlash

2020 yil oktyabr oyida Turkiya Prezidenti Rajab Toyyib Erdo'g'an Turkiya fuqarolarini frantsuz mahsulotlarini boykot qilishga chaqirdi. [18]

Amerika tahrirlash

Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari tahrir

Frantsiyaning 1991 yildagi Iroq ko'rfazi urushiga ("Daguet operatsiyasi") qo'shilishiga va Afg'onistonda frantsuzlarning borligiga ("Ozodlik operatsiyasi") qo'shgan hissasiga qaramay, Frantsiya prezidenti Jak Shirakning 2003 yilgi Iroq urushiga qarshiligi frantsuzlarga qarshi kayfiyatning keskin ko'tarilishiga olib keldi. Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarida [19] fritöz kartoshkasini erkinlik kartoshkasi deb qayta nomlash harakati bilan namoyon bo'ldi. [20] 2003 yil mart oyida Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Vakillar palatasining kafeteryasida frantsuz kartoshkasi va frantsuz tostining vakillari Bob Ney (R-Ogayo shtati) va Uolter Jons (Shimoliy Karolina shtati) ko'rsatmasi bo'yicha erkinlik kartoshkasi va tost deb o'zgartirildi. ). Vakil Ney Uy ma'muriyati qo'mitasini boshqargan va House kafeteryasidagi menyuga vakolat bergan. [21]

Ozodlik kartoshkalarini qayta nomlash qarama -qarshiliklarsiz o'tmadi. Timoti Nuh Slanets "Bu harakat Frantsiyani Iroqqa qarshi urushni qo'llab -quvvatlashdan bosh tortgani uchun jinni qilish uchun qilingan", deb ta'kidladi. U 2003 yilgi nomlarni Birinchi jahon urushidagi hamma narsaning nemischa nomlanishi bilan solishtirdi, lekin "ozodlik kartoshkasi" epizodi bundan ham battarroq bo'lganini ta'kidladi, chunki "Germaniya Amerikaning dushmani edi, Fransiya esa Amerikaning NATOdagi ittifoqchisi". [22] Bu epizod frantsuz kartoshkasi ham, frantsuz tosti ham odatda frantsuz tili bo'lmaganiga qaramay sodir bo'ldi (frantsuz kartoshkasi va frantsuz tostining kelib chiqishiga qarang), amerikaliklar va siyosatchilar qasddan yoki bexosdan aralashib ketishgan.

Qo'shma Shtatlarda 2003 yilgi epizod natijasida frantsuzlarga qarshi kayfiyat kuchaygan. [23] Har xil ommaviy axborot vositalari shaxslari va siyosatchilar frantsuzlarga qarshi his-tuyg'ularni ochiqchasiga bildirishdi [24] News Corporation axborot vositalari, xususan, Fox Entertainment Groupning Fox News Network, urush paytida frankofobiya tarafdorlari bo'lgan kampaniyada ishtirok etgan. [25] [26] 2006 yilga kelib, Amerika jamoatchiligida frantsuzlarga qarshi kayfiyat pasaya boshladi, Iroq urushiga muxolifatning kuchayishi va Jorj Bush ma'muriyatining noroziligining ortishi. Natijada, amerikaliklar orasida Frantsiyaning ijobiy qarashlari tobora ortib bora boshladi va 2016 yilga kelib Amerikaning Fransiya haqidagi ijobiy reytinglari tarixiy yuqori darajaga - 87%ga etdi. [27] [28]

Gaiti tahrirlash

1804 yilda Gaitining etakchisi Jan-Jak Dessalin Gaitidagi inqilobdan keyin Gaitida qolgan deyarli barcha oq tanli erkaklar, ayollar va bolalarni "ruhoniylar, malakali hunarmandlar, sog'liqni saqlash xodimlari, amerikaliklar va inglizlardan tashqari" qirg'in qilishni buyurdi [29]. 1804 yil aprelda 3000 dan 5000 gacha oq tanlilar o'ldirildi.

Okeaniya tahriri

Yangi Zelandiya tahriri

Frantsiya Tinch okeanining Yangi Kaledoniya, Uollis va Futuna orollari va Fransuz Polineziyasidagi bir qancha orollarni nazorat qiladi. Frantsuz Polineziyasida vaqti-vaqti bilan mustaqillik namoyishlari bo'lib o'tdi va 1980-yillarning boshlarida Yangi Kaledoniyada mustaqillik tarafdori bo'lgan Milliy Kanak Sotsializm boshchiligidagi qo'zg'olon. [30]

Tinch okeanida yadroviy sinovlar o'tkazish masalasi ham bor. 1960 yildan beri Tinch okeani atrofida, Tinch okeanining boshqa shtatlari, Avstraliya va Yangi Zelandiyada 200 ga yaqin yadroviy sinovlar o'tkazildi. 1982 yilda Yangi Zelandiya regbi guruhi Herbs frantsuz yadroviy sinovlarini keskin tanqid qilgan "Frantsuz maktubi" singlini chiqardi. [31] Sovuq urushning tugashi Frantsiyaning yadroviy sinovlarga moratoriyiga olib keldi, lekin u 1995 yilda Jak Shirak tomonidan bekor qilindi. Frantsiya xavfsizlik kuchlari yadroviy sinovlar namoyishchilarining faoliyatiga aralashishga harakat qilishdi. [ iqtibos kerak ] 1972 yilda Greenpeace kemasi Vega Moruroaga bostirib kirdi. Keyingi yili Greenpeace namoyishchilari frantsuzlar tomonidan hibsga olindi va kapitan uni kaltaklanganini da'vo qildi. Shuningdek, 1985 yilda frantsuz maxfiy xizmati "Greenpeace" kemasini portlatdi va cho'ktirdi Kamalak jangchisi Yangi Zelandiyaning Oklend shahrida. Greenpeace Tinch okeanida frantsuz yadroviy sinovlarining keskin raqibi edi. Avstraliya Frantsiya bilan harbiy hamkorlikni to'xtatdi va Fransiyaga uran eksportiga embargo qo'ydi. Shirakning 1995 yil 5 sentyabr va 2 oktabrda, Mururoa shahrida yadroviy sinovlar o'tkazishga qaror qilgani, sinovlarni keng qamrovli taqiqlash to'g'risidagi shartnoma imzolanishidan bir yil oldin, butun dunyo noroziligiga sabab bo'ldi, shu jumladan frantsuz vinolariga embargo. Polineziya bo'ylab tartibsizliklar bo'lib o'tdi va Tinch okeanining janubiy forumi Frantsiyani to'xtatib qo'yish bilan tahdid qildi. [32]

Avstraliya tahrirlash

Shunga o'xshash frantsuzlarga qarshi norozilik namoyishlari Avstraliyada Jak Shirakning 1995 yilda Tinch okeanida frantsuz yadroviy sinovlarini qayta boshlash niyatini e'lon qilganiga javoban sodir bo'ldi. Sidneyda namoyishchilar "Gilyotin Shirak", "Sizning orqa hovlisida Jak" va "kabi plakatlar bilan yurishdi. Bombaga qarshi keksaygan hippilar ". Britaniyalik jurnalistlar Robert Milliken va Toni Barberning so'zlariga ko'ra, Frantsiyaning Tinch okeanida o'tkazgan yadroviy sinovlari Avstraliyani (va Yangi Zelandiyani) "o'z Evropa ildizlaridan uzoqlashishga" va Osiyodagi tashqi siyosatini qayta yo'naltirishga va mamlakatlar bilan yaqin munosabatlar o'rnatishga olib keldi. Tinch okeani. Avstraliyadagi frantsuz kompaniyalari va mahsulotlariga qarshi ko'plab boykot e'lon qilindi va frantsuzlarga tegishli biznes buzildi. Mark Lacher, ikki fuqarolikka ega, avstraliyalik, frantsuz, "Avstraliyadagi ko'plab frantsuzlar singari biz ham sinovlarga qarshimiz", deb ta'kidladi. Lacher, shuningdek, "agar Avstraliya jiddiy bo'lsa, Fransiyaga uran sotishni to'xtatadi", deb aytdi. [33]

Ikkinchi jahon urushi chet eldagi zamonaviy frantsuz imidjiga ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Urush boshlanishidan oldin Frantsiya hukumati Angliya Bosh vaziri Nevill Chemberlenning Adolf Gitlerning Versal shartnomasini va 1938 yildagi Myunxendagi turli xil buzilishlarini tinchlantirish va qabul qilish siyosatiga ko'ngilsizlik bilan rozi bo'ldi. Gitlerning asosiy maqsadlari va dastlab Chemberlenning siyosatiga qarshi chiqqan va 1938 yil aprel oyining oxirida inglizlarga Gitlerning asl maqsadi "qit'aning hukmronligini ta'minlash edi, bunga qaraganda Napoleonning ambitsiyalari kuchsiz edi. Bugun navbat Chexoslovakiyaga keldi" Ertaga navbat Polsha va Ruminiyaga keladi ". [34] Biroq, oxir -oqibat, Daladier Chemberlenning qo'llab -quvvatlashisiz tura olmadi va Gitler Myunxen kelishuviga rozi bo'lib, unga o'z yo'lini berdi.

Jahon urushlari o'rtasidagi Frantsiya bosh vazirlari, umuman olganda, Germaniyaning niyatidan qo'rqishdi, chunki Frantsiya Birinchi jahon urushida boshqa G'arb mamlakatlariga qaraganda ko'proq qurbonlar, taxminan 1,4 million harbiy va 1,6 million umumiy qurbonlar. [35] Shunga ko'ra, Frantsiyaning umuman Germaniyaga, aniqrog'i fashistlarga nisbatan siyosati boshqa G'arb davlatlariga qaraganda agressivroq edi. O'sha paytda munosabatlar juda yomon edi va frantsuz rahbarlari, shuningdek, Germaniyaning aholisi (64 million) Frantsiya aholisidan sezilarli darajada (40 million) oshib ketganini, ya`ni asosiy strategik zaiflik ekanligini aniq bilishardi.

Zaiflik va Frantsiyaning Germaniyaga yaqinligi frantsuz rahbarlarining, masalan, inglizlarga qaraganda Germaniyaga nisbatan qattiqroq pozitsiyani egallashiga sabab bo'ldi. Frantsiyaning Reyn orolini bosib olishi va Frantsiyaning Versal davrida Germaniya tomonidan to'langan qarzlarni qoplash istagi Britaniya rahbarlarining frantsuz rahbarlarini Germaniya bilan urush olib borayotganini ko'rishiga sabab bo'ldi.

Daladierning o'tmishdoshi Leon Blum nemislarning ko'tarilish xavfini juda yaxshi bilardi. U hatto Ispaniya fuqarolar urushi paytida (nemislar millatchilarni qo'llab -quvvatlagan edi) [36] [37] Ispaniya hukumatiga harbiy yordam ko'rsatishni o'ylardi, lekin istamay boshqacha qaror qildi, chunki Frantsiyadagi ba'zi millatchilar tarafdorlari, xuddi Ispaniyadagi kabi, fuqarolar urushiga ochiq tahdid qilishdi. Shuningdek, Chemberlenning o'tmishdoshi Stenli Bolduin va uning xodimlari, jumladan Entoni Eden, kommunizmdan (Sovet Ittifoqi respublikachilarni qo'llab -quvvatlagan) va boshqa jahon urushiga o'tadigan urushdan qo'rqib, har qanday yordamga keskin qarshilik ko'rsatdilar. [38]

1940 yilda Frantsiya armiyasining mag'lubiyati, atigi bir oy o'tgach, butun Evropada umidsizlikni keltirib chiqardi. Natijada, urush tugagunga qadar Frantsiyaning Evropaning harbiy qudratli davlati sifatida obro'si va obro'si jiddiy ravishda buzildi. Vichi Frantsiya yahudiylarga qarshi qonunlar va boshqa harakatlarni o'z ichiga olgan Germaniya bilan hamkorlik qildi, bu frantsuzning chet eldagi imidjiga salbiy ta'sir ko'rsatdi. [39] Biroq, Erkin frantsuz kuchlari ittifoqchilarning yakuniy g'alabasida hali ham faol ishtirok etishdi va Frantsiya urushdan keyin o'z harbiy kuchlarini qayta tiklab, yirik harbiy kuch sifatida o'z mavqeini tikladi.


Angliya, Shotlandiya va Ittifoq shartnomasi, 1706-08

P.W.J. Rayli, Angliya va Shotlandiya ittifoqi (Manchester 1978).

M. Braun va A.J. Mann, Shotlandiya parlamenti tarixi, 1567-1707 (Edinburg, 2005)

Tashqi havolalar

1707 yilda Ittifoq shartnomasiga binoan Angliya va Shotlandiya yagona davlatga - Buyuk Britaniya Qirolligiga aylandi va Vestminster va Edinburgdagi parlamentlar bitta "Buyuk Britaniya parlamenti" bilan almashtirildi. Yangi parlamentni tuzish tartibi Shartnomaning 22 -moddasida belgilangan. Shartnomaning matnida Shotlandiya parlamentining yopilishi haqida hech narsa aytilmagan, lekin Shotlandiya vakolatxonasining mutlaqo yangi sxemasi tafsilotlari yangi parlament aslida Vestminsterdagi parlamentdan tashkil topganiga shubha tug'dirmadi. Shotlandiya vakillari.

Yakunlangan "Ittifoq maqolalari" 1706 yil 22 -iyulda Uaytxallda imzolandi va ertasi kuni qirolicha Ennaga rasmiy ravishda taqdim etildi. Ular Shotlandiya parlamenti tomonidan 1706 yil oktyabrdan 1707 yil yanvargacha ko'rib chiqilgan va keyin Shotlandiyaning roziligini bildiruvchi qonun qabul qilingan. Maqolalar keyinroq 1707 yil fevral oyida Vestminsterda birinchi bo'lib Commons, keyin Lordlar tomonidan muhokama qilindi. Qirolicha 6 mart kuni Lordlar palatasida shaxsan o'z roziligini bergan maqolalarni ratifikatsiya qilish to'g'risidagi qonun qabul qilindi.

Shotlandiya parlamenti ratifikatsiya qilish to'g'risidagi qonunni qabul qilgandan so'ng, u Shotlandiyaning kelajakdagi parlament vakolatxonasi masalasiga o'tdi. Shartnomaning 22 -moddasida, Shotlandiyani Vestminsterda 16 tengdoshi va 45 oddiy fuqarosi vakili bo'lishi kerakligi to'g'risida qaror qabul qilingan bo'lib, bu tafsilotlarni hal qilish uchun Shotlandiya parlamentiga qoldirilgan. Edinburg parlamenti bir palatali organ bo'lib, Ittifoq arafasida 143 irsiy tengdosh, 92 "shire" yoki okrug komissari va 67 burg komissaridan tashkil topgan "nazariy" jami 302 kishidan iborat bo'lgan. Muqarrar ravishda, Shotlandiyaning vakillik organini yo'qotishi - milliy suverenitetni yo'qotishni anglatuvchi - Vestminsterdagi vakolatlarning ancha kamayishi foydasiga, Shotlandiya aholisi orasida qattiq norozilikni keltirib chiqardi.

1707 yil yanvar oyining oxirida, Shotlandiya parlamenti bir necha bor qatnashmagan yig'ilishlardan so'ng, 16 tengdosh va 45 oddiy odamni saylash tartibini belgilovchi qonun qabul qildi. 16 vakil tengdoshlari butun Shotlandiya tengdoshlari tomonidan ovoz berish yo'li bilan emas, balki "ochiq saylov" orqali tanlanishi kerak edi. Har bir saylangan tengdosh bitta parlament davomida xizmat qilishi kerak edi. Parlament tarqatib yuborilgach, barcha shotland tengdoshlari qirollik e'lonlari bilan Holyroodhouse saroyiga chaqiriladi, u erda tengdoshlarining ismlari chaqiriladi va har bir tengdosh o'z nomzodlari ro'yxatini o'qiydi. Hukumatlar o'z xohish -irodalarini tan olishlari va shu bilan yuqori palatada nazorat qilinadigan qo'llab -quvvatlash blokini ta'minlash odatiy holga aylandi. Shotlandiyaning "vakil tengdoshlari" ni tanlash amaliyoti 1963 yildagi Peerage qonuni bilan bekor qilinmaguncha davom etishi kerak edi.

Shire va burglar o'rtasida 45 oddiy vakilni ajratish jarayoni ancha munozarali edi. Oxir -oqibat, shinalar uchun 30 va burglar uchun 15 ga o'rnatildi, ammo bu Shotlandiya saylov xaritasini tubdan o'zgartirishga olib keldi. 33 Shotlandiya okruglarining ko'pchiligi bitta parlament a'zosiga ega bo'lishdi, lekin eng kichik oltita okrug bir saylovdan ikkinchisiga navbatma -navbat o'tishlari shart edi. Viloyat franshizasi o'zgarmadi. 66 qirollik burgi endi 14 ta "burg tumanlari" ga birlashtirilgan, ularning har birida to'rt yoki beshta burg bor. Har bir tuman bitta deputatni qaytardi, Edinburg esa o'z a'zosini saylash huquqini saqlab qoldi, bu esa 15 tani tashkil etdi. Har bir okrug ichida saylov joyi bir saylovdan ikkinchisiga o'tkazilib, Shotlandiya roliklarida ishlatilgan. parlament va Shotlandiya saylovlari to'g'risidagi qonunga muvofiq.

Ittifoq 1707 yil 1 -maydan kuchga kirishi kerak bo'lganligi sababli, Shartnomada Buyuk Britaniyaning birinchi parlamenti Vestminsterda amaldagi parlament qolgan vaqtgacha davom etishi e'lon qilindi. Ittifoqqa qarshi chiqqan Shotlandiya parlamenti a'zolari Shotlandiyada umumiy saylov o'tkazishni talab qilishdi va 45 Shotlandiya deputatini saylashdi. Ammo buning o'rniga, birinchi shotlandiyalik deputatlar Shotlandiyaning kichik elektoratiga kasaba uyushmalariga qarshi ko'pchilikni tanlash imkoniyatini berish xavfidan ko'ra, Edinburgdagi mavjud parlamentdan saylanishi va saylanishi kerakligi to'g'risida kelishib olindi. Deyarli barcha tanlangan tengdoshlar va oddiy odamlar Ittifoqni qo'llab -quvvatladilar va ko'pchilik yangi Parlamentda Sudni qo'llab -quvvatlashlari mumkin edi.

Shotlandiya parlamenti oxirgi marta 1707 yil 25 martda yig'ildi va qirolicha xo'jayinining oliy komissari Kvinsberi gersogi tomonidan rasman yopildi. Vestminsterda joriy sessiya 24 -aprelda tugadi, parlament 30 -aprelga qadar uzaytirildi. O'sha kuni yuqori palataga oz sonli tengdoshlar yig'ilishdi (ularga jamoat yig'ilishlarida qatnashgan bir necha deputatlar ham chaqirilgan edi). Buyuk Britaniya Birlashgan Qirolligining yangi parlamenti ingliz va Shotlandiya parlamentlarini almashtirdi. 5 -iyundagi yana bir e'lon 23 -oktabrda Vestminsterda yig'ilishini e'lon qildi.

O'sha kuni yangi parlament to'g'ri yig'ilganida, jamoatlarning birinchi ishi yangi spikerni tanlash edi. Odatda siyosiy kuch sinovi, bu safar yaxshi xulqli rasmiyatchilik edi, oldingi spiker Jon Smit I yana bir ovozdan raislikka chaqirildi. Aniq tashkillashtirilgan harakatda nomzodni Shotlandiya deputati Frensis Montgomeri qo'llab -quvvatladi, u Smit bilan Ittifoq komissari bo'lib ishlagan va Smitning muzokaralarga qo'shgan hissasini maqtagan.

Edinburgdagi sud jarayonining o'ta og'ir rasmiyatchiliklariga o'rganib qolgan shotlandiyalik deputatlar Vestminsterdagi munozaraning kesilgan va tortishuv uslubiga moslashishni zarur deb topdilar. 1708 yildagi umumiy saylov Shotlandiya saylovchilariga birlashgan Parlamentga o'z vakillarini saylashning birinchi imkoniyatini berdi. Ammo yaqinda Shotlandiya deputatlari Shartnomaning muhim jihatlarini bajarmaganliklari uchun Britaniya vazirlari bilan tez -tez janjallashib qolishdi.


Northempton shartnomasi 1328 yil

Northempton shartnomasi shartnomani rasmiylashtirgan hujjat edi Birinchi Shotlandiya mustaqillik urushi. Biroq, Northempton shartnomasi haqida xulosa qilishimiz mumkin bo'lgan narsa shundaki, Nortgempton shartnomasi haqida chalkashish oson.

Bir tomondan, uni ba'zida Edinburg shartnomasi deb atashadi, bu esa 1560 yilgi Edinburg shartnomasi bilan chalkashtirib yuborish xavfini tug'diradi. Boshqa tomondan, u bir oyda tuzilgan, keyingi oyda tasdiqlangan va keyin shartnomaga qaytarilgan. hatto oldingi sana, chalkashliklarning yana bir darajasini qo'shish uchun. Bitta chalkash ingredientni qo'shish uchun u ingliz va Shotlandiya qirollari o'rtasida tuzilgan, ularning hech biri uni ratifikatsiya qilishda faol qatnashmagan.

Northempton shartnomasi ba'zan Edinburg shartnomasi deb ataladi, chunki u Edinburgda tuzilgan. 1328 yil 17 mart. Biroq, keyinchalik, Northemptonda, Angliya qiroli Edvard III va uning Parlamentdagi Kengashi nomidan tasdiqlangani aniq emas edi. Northemptonda ratifikatsiya qilinganida 1328 yil 4 -may, Shartnoma rasmiy ravishda 1 -martga, "Rabbimiz yili 1328" ga qoldirilgan. & rdquo Northempton shartnomasi Shotlandiya qiroli Robert Bryus va Angliya Edvard I ning nabirasi Edvard III o'rtasidagi kelishuv edi. Braveheart infamy haqida. Garchi shartnoma Angliya va Edvard III tomonidan tuzilgan bo'lsa -da, u Edvard va rsquosning onasi, frantsiyalik Izabella va uning sevgilisi Rojer Mortimer tomonidan tasdiqlangan.

Shartnoma Edvard III tomonidan e'lon qilingan shaklda amalga oshiriladi, unda "urushlar va ldquodire" to'qnashuvlari uzoq vaqt davomida Angliya va Shotlandiya qirolliklari ro'y berganini tan olgandan so'ng, ikkita muhim qoida mavjud. Birinchidan, u Shotlandiya mustaqilligini rasman tan oladi va ikkinchidan, Angliyaning Shotlandiya ustidan hukmronlik qilish haqidagi da'vosidan voz kechadi. Shartnoma, shuningdek, Robert Ini Shotlandiya qiroli deb tan oldi va undan hurmat -ehtirom talablariga chek qo'ydi. Bu 1286 yilda Aleksandr III vafotidan boshlangan Longshanks va Shotlandiya ishlariga rsquo aralashganidan beri ketma-ket Edvards qabul qilgan yo'nalishdir. Bu, shuningdek, o'tmishda qilingan suzerainlik haqidagi da'volarga barham berishni bildirgan. asrlar, Malkolm Kanmor, Aleksandr I, Uilyam Sher va Malkolm qiz davrida.

Albatta, shartnoma Eduard II taxtdan tushganidan keyin inglizlarning zaif pozitsiyasini ochib berdi. The ascendancy of the Scots at that time is illustrated by Edward II having narrowly avoided capture just a few years earlier, after the Battle of Scawton Moor, in 1322. The intensity of raids in succeeding campaigns by an invading Scottish Army forced the English into negotiation. Talks started in the autumn of 1327, after Edward II had been deposed and murdered. That was a dastardly deed, in which his mother and Mortimer were implicated.

The Scots were undoubtedly in a strong bargaining position and made six conditions for the Treaty. Those were: King Robert should possess the Kingdom of Scotland &ldquofree, quit and entire&rdquo for himself and his heirs for ever, without the render of any homage Robert&rsquos son and heir David should marry Edward&rsquos younger sister, Joan of the Tower that no subject of the King of Scots should claim lands in England and no subject of the King of England should claim lands in Scotland that the King of Scots and his heirs would give military aid to England and his heirs, saving the alliance with France and that the King of England would give military aid to Scotland &ldquoas good allies&rdquo that Robert the Bruce would pay twenty thousand pounds to the English, within three years of peace being concluded and, finally, that King Edward would use his good offices to influence the Pope to release the King of Scots and his subjects from excommunication and interdict.

On the 12th of July, 1328, the seven year old Joan was married to the four year old David and, on the 15th of October 1328, the Pope revoked the excommunication of King Robert and his subjects. Less than a year later, Robert the Bruce died. Peace and freedom had been hard fought for, but it would be short lived. Edward III subsequently determined to overturn this &lsquoturpis pax&rsquo, as the Meaux chronicler called it. Five years later, encouraged by the success of Edward Balliol against David II, he invaded Scotland, thus beginning the Second Scottish War of Independence.

The original Treaty of Northampton is kept by the National Archives of Scotland. The exchequer rolls of Scotland, also held by the National Archives of Scotland, record the contributions for the special peace levy paid from all over Scotland, in 1328, to cover the &lsquowar indemnity&rsquo &ndash for the destruction of northern England.

Here is an extract from the Treaty, translated from the original French:

&ldquoWhereas, we and some of our predecessors, Kings of England, have endeavoured to establish rights of rule or dominion or superiority over the realm of Scotland, whence dire conflicts of wars waged have afflicted for a long time the Kingdoms of England and Scotland: we, having regard to the slaughter, disasters, crimes, destruction of churches and evils innumerable which, in the course of such wars, have repeatedly befallen the subjects of both realms, and to the wealth with which each realm, if united by the assurance of perpetual peace, might abound to their mutual advantage, thereby rendering them more secure against the hurtful efforts of those conspiring to rebel or to attack, whether from within or without.

We will and grant by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors whatsoever, with the common advice, assent and consent of the prelates, princes, earls, barons and the commons of our realm in our Parliament, that the Kingdom of Scotland, within its own proper marches as they were held and maintained in the time of King Alexander of Scotland, last deceased, of good memory, shall belong to our dearest ally and friend, the magnificent prince, Lord Robert, by God&rsquos grace illustrious King of Scotland, and to his heirs and successors, separate in all things from the Kingdom of England, whole, free and undisturbed in perpetuity, without any kind of subjection, service claim or demand. And by these presents we denounce and demit to the King of Scotland, his heirs and successors, whatsoever right we or our predecessors have put forward in any way in bygone times to the aforesaid Kingdom of Scotland.&rdquo


Holycrosshistory

During the winter of 1558-59, anonymous notices were nailed to the doors of many friaries, demanding that the friars leave as they were ‘rich and ungodly’. It was felt that the needs of the poor were greater and were being ignored. This put further pressure on the church

Issues faced by the Catholic Church
The Church was thought to be suffering from a number of problems:
* Nobles had large incomes, so could therefore influence the Church through bribery.
* Bishops demanded that funds from parishes were sent to them. Therefore local churches suffered, as spending on buildings was limited.
* Priests within these parishes were often poorly educated and lacked knowledge of scripture and the Catholic faith, so were not always able to preach accurately.
* Many nuns were poorly educated and nunneries were losing influence.
* Some clergy had a wife and children despite the fact that they should have been celibate.
* Illegitimate children of the nobility and royalty were appointed to office within the Church. For example, James V’s illegitimate sons became senior members of the clergy and the appointments were approved by Pope Clement VII.

Elizabeth I didn’t like the idea of helping subjects revolt against their ruler, but neither did she like the influence that France had in Scotland. So in 1560, she decided to send English troops to Scotland to fight the French.

Following the death of Mary of Guise, the English and French agreed on the Treaty of Edinburgh, which led to the Parliament of Scotland rejecting the Catholic


The Treaty of Edinburgh and the Disinherited (1328–1332) †

It has generally been accepted that the treaty of Edinburgh, which formalized peace between Scotland and England in 1328, made no provision for restoring the disinherited lords of England and Scotland who had lost land in one realm for supporting the monarch of the other. The fact that some restorations did occur has been attributed to a hypothetical agreement made between Isabella of England and Robert I's deputies at the wedding of David II and Joan of the Tower in July 1328. However, the wording of various English demands for restorations after 1330 indicates clearly that the treaty itself must have contained a clause which provided for reinheritance. This raises the question why Robert I changed his policy so drastically. It is suggested that the reason lay in the power wielded by several disinherited Englishmen at the English court, which could put pressure on Edward III's regents and might have wrecked the peace negotiations if they were not indulged. The reason why the Scots ultimately failed to carry out most of the promised restorations may be sought in the changing political climate at the English court and the fall from favour of the lords in question.


Berwick, treaty of

Berwick, treaty of, 1560. The years 1558� were critical in Anglo-Scottish relations. The death of Mary Tudor in 1558 placed a protestant on the English throne. Mary, queen of Scots, became queen of France in 1559, with her mother Mary of Guise as regent for her in Scotland. Her catholicizing policy was opposed by the lords of the Congregation, a group of noblemen, supported by the zeal of John Knox. The regent held the port of Leith, vital for communication with France. By the treaty of Berwick of February 1560, Elizabeth I undertook to support the rebellious lords. In June 1560 Mary of Guise died and later in the year Mary, queen of Scots, was widowed. Though one must be careful before hailing the treaty as the turning-point towards a protestant Scotland and union with England, there is little doubt that it turned the scales in the struggle between the old and new religions.

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The Rebellion Ramps Up

On September 11, 1297, an English army confronted Wallace and his men at the Forth River near Stirling. Wallace’s forces were vastly outnumbered, but the English had to cross a narrow bridge over the Forth before they could reach Wallace and his growing army. With strategic positioning on their side, Wallace’s forces massacred the English as they crossed the river, and Wallace gained an unlikely and crushing victory.

He went on to capture Stirling Castle, and Scotland was, for a brief period, nearly free of occupying English forces. In October, Wallace invaded northern England and ravaged Northumberland and Cumberland counties, but his unconventionally brutal battle tactics (he reportedly flayed a dead English soldier and kept his skin as a trophy) only served to antagonize the English even more.

When Wallace returned to Scotland in December 1297, he was knighted and proclaimed guardian of the kingdom, ruling in the deposed king’s name. But three months later, Edward returned to England, and four months after that, in July, he invaded Scotland again.

On July 22, Wallace&aposs troops suffered defeat in the Battle of Falkirk, and as quickly as that, his military reputation was ruined and he resigned his guardianship. Wallace next served as a diplomat and in 1299, attempted to garner French support for Scotland’s rebellion. He was briefly successful, but the French eventually turned against the Scots, and Scottish leaders capitulated to the English and recognized Edward as their king in 1304.


Tarix

Below are some salient points in Leith’s history with particular reference to the old harbour basins, presented as a timeline. The information has been gathered from various sources Leith and its Antiquities by J. Campbell Irons (1897) and Memorials of Edinburgh in the Olden Time by Sir Daniel Wilson ( 1891), Wikipedia and other Internet sites, the Leith Gazetter , the Leith History Society etc. However, although some dates may be out by a year or so, the line shows a rich history of an often beleaguered town.

The Water of Leith originates in the Pentland Hills and runs through Edinburgh before terminating at the Firth of Forth at Leith. The river divides Leith into two parts, North and South Leith. The old harbour consisted originally of a channel worn out by the river as it flowed to meet the sea across the broad breech called Leith Sands. The river was tidal and in consequence, thought sufficiently deep at high water for navigation, it depended entirely at ebb upon the small volume of fresh water running out to the Firth. This seemed to keep the harbour free of silt.

Archaeological investigations suggest Roman occupancy around the water of Leith and later evidence suggests a pre-medieval settlement from 7th Century sloped gently toward the Firth of Forth and may have been originally on the line of the Broad Wynd although a map of 1693 shows the shoreline had advanced further by then. There is evidence of early industry from the 11th and 12th century. It seems probable that the foreshore century where excavations have taken place in the vicinity of Burgess Street.


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24 January 1502: A "Treaty of Perpetual Peace" is agreed between King James IV of Scotland and King Henry VII of England. The peace turns out to be considerably shorter than "perpetual".

8 August 1503: A "Treaty of Perpetual Peace" with England is followed by the marriage between James IV and Margaret Tudor, eldest daughter of Henry VII of England at Holyrood. This does little to interrupt James IV's succession of mistresses and illegitimate children.

1503: The death of John MacDonald II, the last Lord of the Isles.

1 July 1505: The Barber Surgeons of Edinburgh are granted a charter by the City Council enabling them to practise surgery within the city. This marks the beginnings of the Royal College of Surgeons.

12 October 1511: The warship Michael, often known as Great Michael, is launched for the navy of King James IV at Newhaven on the River Forth.

10 April 1512: After having three children who die in infancy, Margaret Tudor gives birth to a son, James, who will go on to become King James V.

26 July 1513: King James IV responds to pleas for assistance from France and gives notice to his brother in law, King Henry VIII, that he is going to invade Northumberland.

22 August 1513: The Scottish army crosses the border with England, taking Norham Castle amongst others.

9 September 1513: At the Battle of Flodden, near Coldstream, up to 10,000 Scots are killed, including James IV himself and many Scots nobles. This compares with losses of just 1,700 on the English side. It is a decisive victory for the English and a catastrophe for Scotland. The English King Henry VIII is campaigning in France at the time.

21 September 1513: King James V is crowned at Stirling at the age of just one.

6 August 1514: Margaret Tudor marries Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus who becomes the young James V's stepfather.

25 October 1514: The death in Edinburgh of Bishop William Elphinstone, who founded of the University of Aberdeen, and was a leading statesman in the courts of James III and James IV.

18 February 1515: Gavin Douglas, a younger son of Scottish nobility, is appointed as Bishop of Dunkeld.

May 1515: John, Duke of Albany, son of James III's exiled brother Alexander, accepts the Scottish Parliament's invitation to become Regent in place of Margaret Tudor during James V's childhood. He brings from France, where he has been brought up, French troops and support.

22 November 1515: Marie de Guise was born in France. She would become the Queen Consort of King James V, mother of Mary, Queen of Scots, and Regent of Scotland.

May 1524: Following a coup d'état, the Duke of Albany returns to France with his supporting troops. This leaves the way clear for Margaret Tudor, mother of James V, to have her son crowned at the age of twelve.

April 1526: James V assumes his full powers at the age of 14, but is taken captive by Margaret Tudor's second - but by now estranged - husband, Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus.

6 November 1526: Euphemia Leslie seeks Papal dispensation to become Prioress of Elcho Nunnery near Perth. It is subsequently granted.

29 February 1528: Patrick Hamilton is tried and found guilty for heresy and burned in St Andrews. He is the first of eleven Protestant martyrs in Scotland.

1528: James V escapes his stepfather's clutches and commences his true period of rule. His first act is to exile the Earl of Angus to England and seize his lands.

14 January 1529: After a long legal dispute, Euphemia Leslie secures her position as Prioress of Elcho near Perth.

5 July 1530: King James V imposes order on the bandit country in the Scottish Borders by capturing and hanging Johnnie Armstrong and 50 other border reivers or raiders.

31 August 1535: Alexander Cant is murdered in Edinburgh by his mother-in-law, property owner and businesswoman Alison Rough and her daughter Katherine, in an argument over a dowry.

3 September 1535: Alison Rough is executed in Edinburgh for the murder of her son-in-law.

1 January 1537: Although she is in ill health, James V marries Madeleine, daughter of King Francois of France, in Paris. By July her health has worsened and she dies at Holyrood Palace.

17 July 1537: Janet, Countess of Glamis, and the sister in law of James V's exiled stepfather, the Earl of Angus, is tried on charges including trying to poison the King. She is burned at the stake outside Edinburgh Castle and her - extremely rich - estate is forfeited to James V.

18 May 1538: King James V marries Marie de Guise by proxy at Notre-Dame de Paris.

June 1538: James marries again, to Marie de Guise, adopted sister of Madeleine.

20 December 1538: Archbishop David Beaton is appointed a Cardinal by Pope Paul III.

1540: James V tours the northern and western outposts of his kingdom in a fleet of warships to impose his rule.

22 February 1540: Marie de Guise is crowned Queen Consort of Scotland at Holyrood Abbey in Edinburgh.

18 October 1541: The death of Margaret Tudor, mother of James V.

24 November 1542: The Scots lose the Battle of Solway Moss, north of Carlisle, intended to stem the warlike moves of James V's uncle, King Henry VIII of England.

8 December 1542: Marie de Guise, gives birth to a daughter, Mary Queen of Scots, at Linlithgow Palace.

14 December 1542: James V dies at Falkland Palace, aged 30, probably from cholera.

10 January 1543: Cardinal David Beaton appoints himself Chancellor of Scotland.

March 1543: Cardinal Beaton is imprisoned for allegedly forging James V's will and the Earl of Arran is appointed Governor of Scotland and Regent to Mary Queen of Scots.

1 July 1543: The Treaty of Greenwich is agreed between King Henry VIII of England and the Earl of Arran, providing for the marriage of the then infant Mary, Queen of Scots to Henry's son. It is later repudiated by the Scottish Parliament.

9 September 1543: Mary is crowned Queen of Scots at Stirling Castle, at the age of nine months.

December 1543: The Scottish Parliament believes it better to pursue alliance with France than England and takes advantage of the failure of the English Parliament to ratify the Treaties of Greenwich by repudiating them.

May 1544: Henry VIII commences a period of "rough wooing" designed to impose the marriage of his son to Mary Queen of Scots. Armies invade from the south and from the sea near Edinburgh.

1545: Cross border raids by English forces continue.

27 February 1545: The Battle of Ancrum Moor is fought north west of Jedburgh between English and Scottish forces as part of the War of the Rough Wooing. The result is a decisive victory for the Scottish.

7 December 1545: The birth at Temple Newsam in Yorkshire of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, who would become the second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots.

1 March 1546: Cardinal Beaton has the Protestant George Wishart burned at the stake at St Andrews for heresy.

29 May 1546: Protestants break into St Andrews Castle, surprise Cardinal Beaton, murder him, and take over the castle. Their appeals to Henry VIII for support are ignored.

22 November 1547: 3,000 Scottish troops besiege Broughty Castle, overlooking the mouth of the Firth of Tay.

31 July 1547: French naval forces in support of the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots bombard St Andrews Castle and capture the Protestant rebels. These include John Knox, who is sent to become a galley-slave.

10 September 1547: A large English army with naval support meets and soundly beats the Scots at the Battle of Pinkie, a little to the east of Edinburgh. The English move on to occupy Edinburgh, though not its castle. They bombard Dundee, destroying much of it.

1548: Another English army invades, building a major fortification at Haddington, east of Edinburgh.

16 June 1548: A large French army lands at Leith to support the Scots following an agreement that Mary Queen of Scots, still only five, would marry Francois, eldest son of King Henri II of France.

7 July 1548: The Treaty of Haddington is agreed between Scotland and France. Under its terms Mary, Queen of Scots is to marry Dauphin Francis in return for French assistance in ending the siege of Haddington.

29 July 1548: A French fleet rescues Mary Queen of Scots from Dumbarton and returns with her to France.

7 August 1548: Five year-old Mary Queen of Scots sets sail for France to escape Henry VIII's English troops.


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