Greyhound III IX -106 - Tarix

Greyhound III IX -106 - Tarix

Greyhound III

(IX-106: t. 3,731; 1. 407 '; b. 61'3 "; dr.18'; s. 15 k.)

Greyhound (IX-106) 1906 yilda Delaver daryosi Steamboat Co., Chester shtatida qurilgan, 1918 yilda G'arbiy sohilda dengiz floti tomonidan qabul qilingan; va 1918 yil 25 martda Yel sifatida topshirilgan. U 1920 yilda Bremerton Navy Yardida ishdan bo'shatilgunga qadar La -Mansh bo'ylab keng ko'lamli xizmat ko'rsatuvchi qo'shinlarni ko'rdi. G'arbiy Sohil bo'ylab 15 yillik tezkor yo'lovchilar xizmatidan so'ng, Yel 1935 yilda tashkil etilgan; 1940 yilda u Alyaskaning Sitka shahriga ko'chirildi va u erda ishchilar yotoqxonasi bo'lib xizmat qildi. U yana 1943 yil 30 aprelda Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari tomonidan sotib olindi va 1943 yil 8 -avgustda podpolkovnik Komdr tomonidan topshirildi. V. N. VanDenbrug, qo'mondon. U 1943 yil 19 -avgustda Greyhound deb nomlangan. Qisqa muddatli xizmatdan so'ng 1944 yil 31 -martda xizmatdan bo'shatildi va Puget Sound -ning turli o'quv maktablarida xodimlar uchun qoplama kazarmasi sifatida xizmat qila boshladi. U 1948 yil 9 martda xizmatdan chetlatilgan va uning ismi 1948 yil 18 iyunda yozilgan. 1948 yil 12 noyabrda Dengiz komissiyasiga topshirilgan va 1949 yil 5 iyunga qadar Vashingtondagi Olimpiya milliy mudofaa zaxirasi flotiga joylashtirilgan. hurda uchun sotiladi.


GREYHOUND poygasi tarixi (III)

Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarida itlar poygasi shtat qonunchiligi bilan tartibga solinadi, bu ba'zi shtatlarda taqiqlanishdan boshqasida tartibga solinmagangacha.

1906 yilda tashkil etilgan Milliy tazilar uyushmasi AQShda itlarga egalik qilishni qat'iy tartibga soladi va veterinariya tavsiyalari asosida hayvonlarni parvarish qilish bo'yicha keng qamrovli ko'rsatmalarni ishlab chiqdi. Bu yo'riqnomada fermada va poygada yirtqichlarni parvarish qilishning deyarli barcha jihatlari yoritilgan. Amerika Greyound Kengashi har yili mamlakatda 300 ta naslchilik xo'jaliklari va pichoqxonalarida chorva mollarini parvarish qilish bo'yicha ko'rsatmalarga rioya qilish uchun e'lon qilinmagan tekshiruvlar o'tkazadi. Kichik qoidabuzarliklar qayd etiladi va tuzatiladi hamda jiddiyroq qoidabuzarliklar NGA boshqaruv organi oldidagi eshituvlarda ko'rib chiqiladi. Bu qoidabuzarlikda aybdor deb topilganlar umrbod sport bilan shug'ullanishdan chetlashtirilishi mumkin.

Yovvoyi itlar, odatda, ular poyga qiladigan yo'llarda yoki uning yonida, iqlim nazorati ostida bo'lgan uylarda yashaydilar. Ular har kuni bir necha marta yengil mashqlar va o'yinlar bilan shug'ullanishadi, yugurish yo'llarida mashq qilishadi va piyoda yurishadi.

Shtat qonunlari va qoidalaridan tashqari, ko'pchilik treklar o'z qoidalari, siyosati va tartiblarini qabul qiladi. Yovvoyi itlarni poygada yugurish huquqi evaziga, pitomnik egalari barcha yo'l qoidalariga, shu jumladan hayvonlarning farovonligiga oid qoidalarga rioya qilishga rozi bo'lgan shartnomalarni imzolashlari kerak. Agar pitomnik egalari ushbu shartnoma qoidalarini buzsalar, ular o'z poyga huquqlarini va hatto poyga litsenziyalarini yo'qotadilar.

Amerika hayvonlarni himoya qilish guruhlari itlar poygasiga shafqatsiz va g'ayriinsoniy deb da'vo qiladilar. Yovvoyi poygalarning eng ko'zga ko'ringan raqibi GREY2K USA notijorat tashkiloti.

Janubiy Afrikada

Janubiy Afrika Respublikasida itlar egalari bilan birga boqiladi. Havaskor poygalar tufayli, egalari odatda itlarni tarbiyalaydilar va tarbiyalaydilar, kamdan -kam hollarda itni murabbiy bilan boqishadi.

Racing United Greyhound Racing and Breeders Society (UGRABS) va Janubiy Afrikalik Renhond Unie (SARU – South African Racing Dog Union) o'rtasidagi hamkorlik orqali boshqariladi. O'quv daftarchasi Janubiy Afrikalik Studbook va tashkilot tomonidan saqlanadi. Poyga ham oval, ham to'g'ri yo'llarda bo'lib o'tadi. Janubiy Afrikada poyga texnik jihatdan noqonuniydir, bu har qanday hayvonlar poygasi kabi g'alati, ya'ni ot poygasi, kaptar poygasi va hatto tuyaqush poygasi mutlaqo qonuniydir. Katta tortishuvlar g'azablanmoqda, chunki yovvoyi hayvonlarni ovlash uchun itlardan foydalanish juda keng tarqalgan hodisa. Itlar poygasi tarafdorlari, qonuniy poyga, Buyuk Britaniyadagi Avstraliyadagidek, ovni to'xtatishga olib keladi, deb hisoblaydilar.

Tibbiy yordam

Greyhound asrab oluvchilar guruhlari tez -tez izlardan kelgan itlarning tishlari muammosi borligi haqida xabar berishadi. Guruhlar, shuningdek, to'g'ri profilaktik davolanish yo'qligi sababli, itlar Shomil orqali yuqadigan kasalliklar va parazitlarni tashishlarini aniqlaydilar. Itlar yo'tal kabi kasalliklarning tarqalishini kamaytirish uchun muntazam emlashni talab qiladi.

So'nggi paytlarda doping ham itlar poygasida muammoga aylandi. Poyga sanoati ushbu amaliyotning tarqalishining oldini olish uchun faol ishlamoqda, faqat g'oliblar emas, balki musobaqadagi barcha itlardan siydik namunalarini qaytarib olishga urinilmoqda. Bir qator ketma -ket musobaqalarda namuna olish mumkin bo'lmagan itlar poygadan chetlatilishi mumkin. Qoidabuzarlarga jinoiy jazo va davlat o'yin komissiyalari tomonidan poyga litsenziyalaridan mahrum bo'lish va Milliy Greyhound uyushmasining doimiy taqiqlari qo'yiladi. Yovvoyi itning murabbiyi har doim hayvonning holatining "mutlaq sug'urtalovchisi" hisoblanadi. Murabbiy, taqiqlangan moddaning "itlar itlari" tizimiga qanday kirganligidan qat'i nazar, har qanday ijobiy test uchun javobgardir.

Musobaqadan keyingi hayot

Umuman olganda, itning karerasi ikki yoshdan olti yoshgacha tugaydi - it endi poyga qila olmaydi, yoki u doimiy ravishda kuchli to'rtlikka kira olmaydi. Eng yaxshi itlar naslchilik uchun boqiladi, shuningdek, nafaqaga chiqqan poyga itlarini olish va ularni uy hayvonlari sifatida joylashtirish bilan shug'ullanadigan sanoat bilan bog'liq asrab olish guruhlari ham, qutqaruv guruhlari ham bor. Buyuk Britaniyada, BBC ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, nafaqadagi to'rtta itdan har biri uy hayvonini topadi. Qo'shma Shtatlarda, asrab oluvchilar guruhlari tashkil etilishidan oldin, yiliga 20000 nafardan ortiq nafaqali itlar o'ldirilgan, so'nggi hisob-kitoblar bo'yicha, hali ham minglab odamlar bor, sanoatda, Milliy itlar uyushmasi ro'yxatidan o'tgan hayvonlarning 90% ga yaqinlari asrab olingan yoki qaytarilgan deb da'vo qilmoqda. naslchilik maqsadlarida (sanoat ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, har yili AQShda 2000 dan ortiq itlar evtanaziya qilinadi, poygaga qarshi guruhlar esa bu raqamni 12000 ga yaqin deb baholaydilar.) Tovuq poygasi muxoliflari Milliy Tazilar uyushmasining asrab olish statistikasiga oid da'volarini bahslashadi, NGA rasmiylari, ular poyga qilishni to'xtatganda, itlar bilan nima bo'lishini bilishmaydi, degan bayonotlarga ishora qilib. Boshqa itlar Manchester va Belle Vue stadionida o'ldirilgan itlarning qoldiqlarini olgan Liverpul universiteti hayvonlarni o'rgatish maktabi kabi tadqiqot laboratoriyalariga sotiladi. Linkolnshir shtatidagi murabbiy, shuningdek, Liverpul maktabiga sekin va kuchuklarni taklif qilgani fosh qilindi. Bundan tashqari, itlar Ispaniya va ba'zida rivojlanayotgan mamlakatlar kabi xorijiy poyga yo'llariga yuboriladi.

Yangi Zelandiyada har yili poyga uchun 500-600 ga yaqin it boqiladi va 200-300 tasi Avstraliyadan olib kelinadi. Avstraliyaning poyga sanoati Yangi Zelandiya sanoatidan 9-10 baravar katta. Yangi Zelandiyadagi Greyhound Racing sanoati tomonidan tashkil etilgan va asosan moliyalashtiriladigan xayriya jamg'armasi tomonidan yiliga 250 ga yaqin nafaqaga chiqadi.

Britaniya Greyhounds nafaqadagi ma'lumotlar bazasi, Angliya g'arbidagi Greyhound Rescue, GAGAH, Adopt-a-Greyhound va Greyhound of American Pets va pensioner Greyhound Trust kabi bir qancha tashkilotlar itlarni iloji boricha ko'proq qabul qilishlarini ta'minlashga harakat qilmoqdalar. Ushbu guruhlarning ba'zilari, shuningdek, foyda olish uchun poygada va/yoki poyga paytida itlarga yaxshi munosabatda bo'lish tarafdori. So'nggi yillarda poygachi sanoati nafaqaga chiqqan poygachilarni qabul qilish dasturlarini tuzishda sezilarli yutuqlarga erishdi. Butun mamlakat bo'ylab farzand asrab oluvchi xususiy guruhlar bilan faol hamkorlik qilishdan tashqari, ko'plab poyga yo'llari turli yo'llarda o'z farzandlikka olish dasturlarini o'rnatgan.

So'nggi yillarda Qo'shma Shtatlarning bir qancha shtatlari hukumatlari o'z yurisdiksiyasida poygachi itlarga munosabatni yaxshilash bo'yicha qonunlar qabul qilishdi. 90 -yillar mobaynida etti shtatda tirik itlar poygasi taqiqlangan. 2008 yil noyabr oyida Massachusets shtatida itlar poygasini taqiqlash bo'yicha ovoz berish bo'lib, 56% dan 44% gacha o'tdi.

Mashhur itlar egalari

Bir qator tarixiy shaxslar va taniqli shaxslar itlarga egalik qilgan yoki poyga qilgan. Aleksandr Makedonskiy, Genrix VIII va uning turmush o'rtog'i Enn Boleyn va Saksa shahzodasi Albert Koburg Gotening hammasi do'stlari sifatida itlari bor edi. General Jorj Armstrong Kuster, shuningdek, ovchi va hamrohi sifatida itlarini, rafiqasi Elizabet Bekon Kasterning vaqti -vaqti bilan xafa bo'lishidan saqlagan. Yaqinda Al Capone, Frank Sinatra va Vinni Jones itlar bilan poyga qilishdi.

Televizorlar Simpsonlar oilasida Santa va Kichik yordamchi nomli itlar bor. Serialning birinchi bo'limida poygada oxirgi bo'lib kelgani uchun murabbiy uni tashlab yuborganidan keyin ular uni asrab olishdi. To'qqiz dyuymli tirnoqli Trent Reznor bir nechta nafaqadagi poygachilarni asrab oldi. J.K. Rouling ham itni qabul qilgan.


Ikkinchi Jahon Ikkinchi Jahon filmiga ilhom bergan haqiqiy tarix Yovvoyi it

1942 yilda, Atlantika jangi qizg'in pallasida, Ikkinchi jahon urushi haqidagi yangi film Yovvoyi it Tom Xenks bosh rolni o'ynagan, yangi tayinlangan dengiz kapitani birinchi marta frontga ketayotgani haqida hikoya qiladi, u ittifoqchi 37 kemadan iborat kortejni Shimoliy Atlantika bo'ylab xoin Shimoliy Atlantika bo'ylab bo'rilar tomonidan ta'qib qilinmoqda.

Endi bu musobaqa yopildi

E'lon qilingan: 8 iyul 2020 yil 14:30

Bu erda, film 10 -iyul kuni Apple TV+ da namoyish etilishidan oldin, tarixchi Jeyms Xolland ilhomlantirgan haqiqiy tarixni o'rganadi. Yovvoyi it - C S Foresterning 1955 yildagi romani asosida Yaxshi cho'pon - va nima uchun Atlantika jangi Ikkinchi Jahon Urushining eng muhim kampaniyasi bo'lganini tushuntiradi ...

O'rta Atlantika, 1942 yil qishda. Qo'mondon Jorj Krauz o'zining esminetsi USS ko'prigida bo'lgan. Keeling, qariyb 24 soat davomida, nemis qayiqlarining bo'ri bilan mushuk va sichqonchaning o'lik o'yinida qulflangan-aynan qancha aniq emas. Bir kuni qayiq kulrang kuni tushdan keyin vayron bo'lgan va o'shandan beri Keeling Krauzaning to'rtta kema eskort guruhidan yana biri-Polsha esminetsi Viktor - ular o'rtasida 50 ga yaqin chuqurlikdagi ayblovlar qo'yilganiga qaramay, yana bir dushman bo'linmasini ta'qib qilishdi.

Sovuq sovuq, qirg'in kemasining yuzasi va relslarini muz qoplagan. Yarim sendvichni yeb, atigi bir-ikki chashka qahva ichgan Krause butunlay charchagan, sovuq, och va chanqagan, lekin u bu qayiq ekranini bosib o'tguncha davom etishini juda yaxshi biladi. ittifoqchilarning havo qoplamasi oralig'ida. Bu shuni anglatadiki, ularning oldida yana uzoq kun turibdi va karvondagi oltita kema urilib, vayron bo'lgan.

Bu dindor 42 yoshli erkakning yelkasidagi mas'uliyat juda katta va u bir necha bor yurakni ezadigan tanlovlar qilishga majbur bo'ladi. Erkaklarni muzli suvga olib borishi kerakmi yoki erni haydab, ko'proq tejash kerakmi? Dushmanning keyingi harakati haqidagi har bir qaror, hisob -kitob va o'qimishli taxminlar halokatli oqibatlarga olib kelishi mumkin, bu nafaqat o'z kemasi uchun, balki butun karvon uchun himoya qilishdir.

Mas'uliyat yukini qo'shish uchun bu uning birinchi transatlantik karvonidir. Yoshi va martabasi bo'yicha u "komeskort" dir-Kanada korvetining to'rt kema eskortining bosh qo'mondoni, Britaniya va Polsha esminetslari va AQSh dengiz flotida.

Tong otganda, qo'mondon Krause xayolida ideal karvon eskort kuchlari haqida tasavvur hosil qiladi: "Sakkizta eskort kemasi va to'rtta qiruvchi bilan yaxshi ish qilish mumkin edi", - deb o'ylaydi u. qopqoq. " Ammo bu hali 1942 yil edi va bunday kuchlar hali mavjud emas edi, u bor narsasini qilishi kerak edi.

C S o'rmonchiYaxshi Cho'pon

Tasvir badiiy, ammo afsonaviy tarixiy triller yozuvchisi S S Forester tomonidan ajoyib tarzda tasvirlangan. Garchi Yaxshi cho'pon 1955 yilda nashr etilgan, Ikkinchi jahon urushi tugaganidan 10 yil o'tgach, Forester, albatta, o'z tadqiqotlarini olib bordi. Atlantika jangidagi 48 soatlik bir lahzani chaqiruv kuchli tarzda amalga oshiriladi, shu bilan birga, karvon eskortiga buyruq berishning murakkabligi va murakkabligi tarixiy aniqlik va tafsilotlar bilan yozilgan. .

Bu unutilgan klassik narsadir - aniqrog'i, bu bor Ikkinchi jahon urushidagi o'zini tan olgan, "Oskar" mukofoti sovrindori, aktyor Tom Xenksdan hech kim o'tmagan, u Foresterning kitobidan foydalanib, roman asosida yozilgan yangi filmda rol o'ynagan. Yovvoyi it. Hanks qo'mondon Krause rolini o'ynaydi (filmda uning ismi Jorj emas, Ernest).

Bu, albatta, Gollivud tomonidan uzoq vaqt davomida e'tiborga olinmagan, kino uchun ajoyib mavzu, chunki Atlantika jangi dramatik epos va strategik ahamiyatga ega edi. Darhaqiqat, bu Ikkinchi Jahon Urushidagi barcha kampaniyalarning eng muhimi ekanligi to'g'risida ishonchli tarzda bahslashish mumkin.

Nima uchun? Buyuk Britaniyaning barcha yuklari Atlantik okeani orqali o'tdi. Agar Atlantika yo'qolsa, Buyuk Britaniya ham shunday bo'lardi. O'rta er dengizi kampaniyasi, D-Day, VE yoki VJ kunlari bo'lmaydi. Ittifoqchilar bog'liq bo'lgan ulkan, global ta'minot zanjiri, shu jumladan Sovet Ittifoqi ham - hayot chizig'i kesilgan bo'lardi.

Atlantika jangi nima edi?

1941 yil mart oyida Uinston Cherchill 1939 yil 3 sentyabrda ochilgan va urushning oxirgi kunigacha yakunlanmagan olti yillik janglarni tasvirlash uchun "Atlantika jangi" iborasini tuzdi.

Dengiz yo'llarini Buyuk Britaniyadan Amerikaga nazorat qilish uchun kurashda, Qirollik dengiz floti va Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari dengiz floti nemislarga qarshi kurashdi. Kriegsmarine. Dengiz yo'llariga qarshi, Britaniyaning urushda o'zini boqish va ushlab turish qobiliyatiga bog'liq bo'lgan Germaniya, U-qayiq suv osti kemalari, er usti bosqinchilar, minalar va samolyotlarni joylashtirdi, deydi tarixchi GH Bennet.

Savdo kemalari konvoylarini qurolli savdogarlar kreyserlari va trollari kabi maxsus kemalardan tortib to maxsus korvetlar, fregatlar va esminetslarga qadar turli xil qurolli eskortlar himoya qilishgan.

1940 yildan 1943 yilgacha Atlantikadagi janglar muvozanatda qoldi. Shunga qaramay, ular texnik yangiliklarni dushmanlardan ko'ra yaxshiroq ishlata olishganligi sababli, 1943 yil o'rtalaridan boshlab ittifoqchilar asta -sekin ustunlikka ega bo'ldilar.

Atlantika jangi "Ikkinchi Jahon Urushining eng uzun va ehtimol g'alati to'qnashuvi edi", deydi GH Bennet, "Britaniya savdogarlarini kemalarini himoya qilish uchun chivinlar va simli raketalardan foydalanganini ko'rgan". Kampaniya shafqatsiz bo'lib o'tdi, unda 38 mingga yaqin ingliz dengizchilari halok bo'ldi, 79 foiz qayiq ekipaji halok bo'ldi.

Atlantika jangi Ikkinchi Jahon urushining yakunlanishi uchun juda muhim edi. "Atlantika - bu barcha manbalar Buyuk Britaniyaga kelgan yo'l edi, ularsiz mamlakat qulab tushar edi", deydi Jonatan Dimblebi. "Agar biz jangda mag'lub bo'lganimizda, bizda qurol-yarog 'ham, qurol-yarog' ishlab chiqarish uchun ham yetarli emas edi va amerikalik qo'shinlar D-Dayga etib kelolmasdi. Aslida, D kuni yo'q edi. "

Shuning uchun ham, Britaniya boshidanoq, o'z kuchining katta qismini jangovar maydonlarning eng muhimini yutishga bag'ishladi. Yangi kashfiyotlar magnitronli bo'shliqning paydo bo'lishidan boshlab, tez va tez paydo bo'ldi, bu esa radarlarning hajmini kamaytirishga imkon berdi, shuning uchun uni katta ustunlar o'rniga kemaga yoki samolyotga o'rnatish mumkin edi - radiotexnologiyani tez takomillashtirishga, aqlning ajoyib yutuqlariga, va ajoyib orkestral tashkilot.

Aslida, 1941 yil may oyining oxiriga kelib, Buyuk Britaniya jangda yutqazolmaydigan darajaga yetdi, garchi Atlantika okeanidagi U-qayiq tahdidi mag'lub bo'lgunga qadar yana ikki yil o'tishi kerak edi. Yaxshiyamki, urushdan oldin Gitler, suv osti kemalari emas, balki katta er usti flotini yaratishni ma'qul ko'rdi, garchi uning harbiy kemalari hech qachon Frantsiya yoki AQSh dengiz flotlari bilan bir qatorda Qirollik dengiz floti bilan raqobatlashishga umid qila olmas edi, va deyarli urush o'zgarishiga qaramay. -ilgari Birinchi jahon urushida bo'lgan qayiqlar.

Natijada, urush boshlanganda, U-qayiq qo'llari frontda atigi 3000 kishidan iborat edi va 1940 yil davomida, Britaniya eng himoyasiz bo'lgan paytda, Atlantikada hech qachon 13 ta qayiq ishlamagan. bir marta. 1941 yil yanvar oyida atigi olti kishi bor edi. Bu katta okeanda deyarli etarli emas edi.

Vaqt chizig'i: Germaniya va ittifoqchilar Atlantikada

1939 yil avgust

Harbiy harakatlarga tayyorgarlik sifatida, Germaniya suv osti kemalari Buyuk Britaniya bilan urush boshlanganidan bir necha soat o'tgach, birinchi kemasini cho'ktirib, Shimoliy dengizga joylashdi.

Frantsiyaning Atlantika portlari qo'lga kiritilishi Germaniyaga Shimoliy va Janubiy Atlantikaga oson kirishni ta'minlaydi

1940-1941 yillar oxiri

U-qayiq qo'lining birinchi "baxtli vaqti", konvoylar kuchsiz eskort kuchlari bilan suzmoqda

1942 yil yanvar -iyun

AQShning sharqiy qirg'og'ida nemis suv osti kemalari katta muvaffaqiyatlarga erishmoqda

Bir qator konvoy janglarida nemis suv osti kemalari kuzatuvchi harbiy kemalarni bosib olish bilan tahdid qilmoqda

1943 yil aprel -may

Ittifoqchilar Atlantika okeanida tashabbusni qayta qo'lga kiritdilar, yana ko'p qayiqlarni cho'ktirdilar va savdo kemalarini kamroq yo'qotdilar

1943-1945 yillar oxiri

Germaniya suv osti kemasi kampaniyasining uzoq pasayishi

1941 yil sentyabr oyidan boshlab AQSh harbiy -dengiz kuchlari hali urush e'lon qilmaganiga qaramay Atlantika okeanidagi jangga qo'shilishdi, garchi o'sha dekabrda yaponiyaliklar urushga kirgandan so'ng, mantiya asosan qirollik dengiz floti va tez o'sayotgan qirollik qo'liga qaytarilgan edi. Kanada dengiz floti, AQSh dengiz floti Tinch okeaniga qaratilgan. Shu bilan birga, U-qayiq floti ko'payib bordi, lekin tajribasi va tekis chiziqli uskunalaridan aziyat chekdi. Bundan farqli o'laroq, ittifoqchilar Shimoliy Amerika, Islandiya va Buyuk Britaniyadan ishlaydigan kemalar va uzoq masofali samolyotlar kombinatsiyasi yordamida aniqlash texnikasi va qurol-yarog'ini takomillashtirishni davom ettirdilar.

1942 yil boshiga kelib, qayiq Shimoliy va Janubiy Amerikaning sharqiy sohillariga surildi, u erda hali konvoy tizimi yo'q edi. Konvoylar ishga tushirilgunga qadar va qirg'oq qayiqlari Atlantikaning o'rtasiga qaytarilgunga qadar so'yish kuzatildi.

"Ovchilar" dan "ovlanganlar" gacha

U-qayiqlari tunda, aniqlash qiyinroq bo'lganida samaraliroq edi, chunki ular sirt ustida ishlaganda ham samaraliroq va tezroq edi. Bu qish degani edi, tunlar uzoqroq bo'lganda, boy yig'im -terim ta'minlandi. Shunga qaramay, 1942 yil qishda kolonnaning nihoyatda yorqin tasviri Yaxshi cho'pon, Bu vaqtga kelib qayiq ovchilarga emas, ovchilarga aylandi. Garchi karvonlar muvaffaqiyatli ushlanganida dahshatli janglar bo'lib o'tgan bo'lsa-da, ittifoqchi karvonlarning 80 foizdan ko'prog'i Atlantikani butunlay buzilmasdan kesib o'tdi va 1943 yilning birinchi yarmida yangi urinishlardan so'ng ittifoqchilar u-qayiqlarni mag'lub etishdi. 1943 yil mayga qadar. O'sha oyda 41 ta qayiq cho'kib ketdi-bu umuman beqaror son.

Atlantika jangi shafqatsiz jang bo'lib, unda 38 mingga yaqin ingliz dengizchilari halok bo'ldi, qayiq ekipajining 79 foizi halok bo'ldi-bu Germaniya qurolli kuchlarining eng yomon qismi. Jangda har ikki tomondan aql bovar qilmaydigan qahramonlik ishlari amalga oshirildi va ko'pincha boshqa dushmanga - shafqatsiz Atlantika okeaniga qarshi kurashdi.

Bu ulkan jang va g'ayrioddiy dramaning ahamiyati katta ekranda o'z vaqtiga loyiqdir - va agar kimdir buni kengroq auditoriyaga etkaza olsa, bu Tom Xenks. Umidlar Yovvoyi it baland ...

Jeyms Xolland-tarixchi, yozuvchi va radioeshittiruvchi, BBC, 4-kanal, National Geographic, Tarix va Kashfiyot dasturlarini taqdim etgan va yozgan va Chalke vodiysi tarixi festivalining asoschilaridan biri.

Yovvoyi it premerasi 2020 yil 10 -iyulda Apple TV+ telekanalida bo'lib o'tadi


Tarkibi

Hisob -kitoblarga ko'ra, Cullinan 410–660 km (255–410 milya) chuqurlikda Yer mantiyasining o'tish zonasida paydo bo'lgan va 1,18 milliard yil oldin yer yuzasiga chiqqan. [3] 1905 yil 26 -yanvarda Transvaal koloniyasi, Cullinan shahridagi Premier Mine -da, konning sirt boshqaruvchisi Frederik Uells tomonidan 18,5 fut (5,5 m) pastda topilgan. Uning uzunligi taxminan 10,1 santimetr (4,0 dyuym) edi. Kengligi 6,35 santimetr (2,50 dyuym), chuqurligi 5,9 santimetr va og'irligi 3,106 karat (621,2 gramm). [4] Gazetalar uni "Cullinan Diamond" deb atashdi, bu konni 1902 yilda ochgan ser Tomas Kullinanga ishora. [5] U 1893 yilda Jagersfonteyn konida topilgan, og'irligi 972 karatli bo'lgan Excelsior Diamonddan uch barobar katta edi. (194,4 g). Uning sakkizta sirtining to'rttasi silliq edi, bu shuni ko'rsatadiki, u bir paytlar tabiiy kuchlar tomonidan parchalangan ancha katta toshning bir qismi bo'lgan. U ko'k-oq rangga ega edi va uning ichida kichik burchakli havo cho'ntagi bor edi, u ma'lum burchaklarda kamalak yoki Nyuton uzuklarini hosil qilgan. [6]

Kashf qilinganidan ko'p o'tmay, Cullinan Yoxannesburgdagi Standard Bankda omma ko'rgazmasiga chiqdi va uni 8000–9000 tashrif buyurgan. 1905 yil aprelda qo'pol marvarid Premier Mining Co.ning Londondagi savdo agenti S. Neumann & amp Co. -ga topshirildi. posilka kapitanning seyfiga tantanali ravishda qulflandi va butun safar davomida qo'riqlandi. Bu chalg'ituvchi taktika edi - bu kemadagi tosh soxta bo'lib, uni o'g'irlashga qiziquvchilarni jalb qilish uchun mo'ljallangan edi. Cullinan Buyuk Britaniyaga oddiy pochta qutisida ro'yxatdan o'tgan pochta orqali yuborilgan. [8] Londonga etib kelganida, u qirol Eduard VII tomonidan tekshirish uchun Bukingem saroyiga etkazilgan. Garchi potentsial xaridorlarda katta qiziqish bo'lsa -da, Cullinan ikki yil davomida sotilmay qoldi. [4]

Edvard VII tahrir uchun taqdimot

Transvaal bosh vaziri Lui Botha Edvard VII uchun olmosni "Transvaal xalqining qirolicha taxtiga va shaxsiga sodiqligi va bog'lanishining belgisi" sifatida sotib olishni taklif qildi. [9] 1907 yil avgustda Qonunchilik kengashida [10] Cullinan taqdiri bo'yicha ovoz berish bo'lib o'tdi va sotib olishga ruxsat beruvchi taklif 42 ta ovozga qarshi 19 ta qarshi. Dastlab Buyuk Britaniyaning o'sha paytdagi bosh vaziri Genri Kempbell-Bannerman qirolga taklifni rad etishni maslahat bergan, ammo keyinchalik u Edvard VIIga sovg'ani qabul qilish yoki olmaslikni tanlashga qaror qilgan. [11] Oxir-oqibat, uni mustamlakachi kotib o'rinbosari Uinston Cherchill ishontirdi. Qiyinchilik uchun Cherchillga nusxa yuborildi, u mehmonlarga kumush plastinkada ko'rsatishni yaxshi ko'rardi. [12] Transvaal koloniyasi hukumati olmosni 1907 yil 17 oktyabrda 150 ming funt sterlingga sotib oldi, [13] funt sterling inflyatsiyasini hisobga olgan holda 2016 yilda 15 million funt sterlingga teng bo'ldi. G'aznachilik o'z pulining bir qismini Premier Diamond Mining kompaniyasidan qaytarib oldi. [15]

Olmosni Sandringham uyida qirolga koloniya general-agenti ser Richard Sulaymon 1907 yil 9 noyabrda-oltmish oltinchi tug'ilgan kuni-katta mehmonlar, shu jumladan Shvetsiya malikasi huzurida sovg'a qildi. Ispaniya malikasi, Vestminster gersogi va Lord Revelstok. [16] Qirol o'zining mustamlakachi kotibi Lord Elgindan sovg'ani "o'zim va vorislarim uchun" qabul qilganini va "bu buyuk va noyob olmosni merosxo'rlarni tashkil etuvchi tarixiy zargarlik buyumlari orasida saqlanishini va saqlanishini ta'minlashni" so'radi. tojdan ". [12]

Kesish jarayoni Tahrirlash

Podshoh qo'pol toshni har xil o'lchamdagi va qimmatbaho toshlarga bo'laklash va parlatish uchun Amsterdamlik Jozef Asscher va amper kompaniyasini tanladi. Avraam Asscher uni 1908 yil 23 yanvarda Londondagi mustamlakachilar idorasidan yig'ib olgan. [17] U poezd va parom bilan Gollandiyaga paltos cho'ntagida olmos bilan qaytgan. [13] Ayni paytda, qirollik dengiz floti kemasi Shimoliy dengiz bo'ylab bo'sh qutini olib, yana potentsial o'g'rilarni tashlab yubordi. Hatto kapitan ham uning "qimmatbaho" yukini aldov deb bilmasdi. [18]

1908 yil 10-fevralda Amsterdamdagi olmos kesish fabrikasida Jozef Asscher qo'pol toshni ikkiga bo'lib tashladi. [19] O'sha paytda, texnologiya hali zamonaviy standartlar sifatini kafolatlash uchun rivojlanmagan edi va olmosni kesish qiyin va xavfli edi. Bir necha haftalik rejalashtirishdan so'ng, Asscherga olmosni bir zarbada uzib olish uchun 0,5 dyuym (1,3 sm) chuqurlikdagi kesma qilingan. Faqat kesish to'rt kun davom etdi va birinchi urinishda po'lat pichoq sindirib tashlandi [4], lekin ikkinchi pichoq yivga o'rnatildi va to'rt bo'lak bo'lak samolyotidan ikkiga bo'lindi. [20] Umuman olganda, olmosni bo'laklash va kesish sakkiz oy davom etgan, uch kishi kuniga 14 soat ishlagan. [4]

Metyu Xart o'z kitobida: "Bu ertak o'sha kunning eng buyuk ustasi Jozef Asscher haqida aytilgan", deb yozgan. Olmos: Obsesyon qalbiga sayohat (2002), "u hozirgacha ma'lum bo'lgan eng katta olmosni sindirmoqchi bo'lganida ... uning yonida shifokor va hamshira turgan va u olmosni urganida ... u hushidan ketgan". [21] Lord Yan Balfur, o'z kitobida Mashhur olmoslar (2009), hushidan ketayotgan hikoyani yo'q qilib yubordi va, ehtimol, Yusuf bir shisha shampan vannasini ochib bayram qilgan bo'lardi. [17] Bu voqeani eshitgan Jozefning jiyani Lui: "Hech bir Asscher olmos ustida qilingan operatsiyadan hech qachon hushidan ketmaydi", dedi. [22]

Cullinan jami 1055,89 karatli (211,178 g) 9 ta asosiy toshni, [23] ortiqcha 96 ta kichik brilliantlarni va og'irligi 19,5 karat (3,90 g) bo'lgan ba'zi parlatilmagan bo'laklarni ishlab chiqargan. [24] Ikkita eng katta toshlardan boshqa hamma - Cullinans I va II - Asscher xizmatlari uchun haq evaziga Amsterdamda qoldi, [25] Janubiy Afrika hukumati ularni sotib olmaguncha (Eduard VII sotib olgan va bergan Kullinan VI bundan mustasno). 1910 yil 28 -iyunda uning rafiqasi qirolicha Aleksandra) va Janubiy Afrika Oliy komissari ularni 1910 yil 28 -iyunda qirolicha Maryamga sovg'a qilishdi. [12] Maryam Aleksandradan Cullinan VIni meros qilib oldi va 1953 yilda o'zining barcha nevarasi Yelizaveta II ga kullinan olmoslarini qoldirdi. [26] Cullinans I va II Crown Jewels guruhiga kiradi, [2] tojning o'ng tomonidagi malikaga tegishli. [27]

Asscher kichik toshlarni Janubiy Afrika hukumatiga sotdi, u ularni Janubiy Afrikaning o'sha paytdagi bosh vaziri olmos savdogarlari Artur va Aleksandr Leviga tarqatdi, ular Cullinan [28] va Yoqub Romijnni (keyinchalik Romin) kesilishini nazorat qilgan. , olmos sanoatida birinchi kasaba uyushmasiga asos solgan. [29] Ba'zilarini Maryam Elizabet hech qachon omma oldida kiymagan uzun platina zanjirga solgan va "sho'rvaga kiradi" deb aytgan. [30] 1960 -yillarda Lui Botha merosxo'rlariga tegishli bo'lgan ikkita kichik Cullinan olmoslari Yoxannesburgdagi De Beers laboratoriyasida tahlil qilingan va azot yoki boshqa aralashmalardan to'liq tozalanganligi aniqlangan. [31] Cullinans I va II 1980 -yillarda London minorasida gemologlar tomonidan tekshirilgan va ikkalasi ham rangsiz IIa toifasiga kirgan. [32]

Cullinan men tahrir qilaman

Cullinan I, yoki Afrikaning Buyuk Yulduzi, og'irligi 530,2 karat (106,04 g) bo'lgan pendelok shaklida kesilgan, 74 qirrali. [33] U suveren xochining tepasida joylashgan bo'lib, uni joylashtirish uchun 1910 yilda qayta loyihalash kerak edi. Cullinan I 1992 yilda 545,67 karatli (109,134 g) jigarrang Oltin yubiley olmos bilan har qanday rangdagi dunyodagi eng katta kesilgan olmosdan oshib ketdi [34], lekin u haligacha dunyodagi eng katta shaffof olmosdir. [35] Aniqlik nuqtai nazaridan, u bir nechta mayda bo'laklarga va kichik bo'laklarga ega. 5,89 sm × 4,54 sm × 2,77 sm (2,32 dyuym × 1,79 dyuym × 1,09 dyuym) olmos ilmoqlar bilan jihozlangan va uni Cullinan II -dan osilgan marjon sifatida taqib olib, brosh yasash uchun olib qo'yish mumkin. [36] Qirolicha Maryam, Jorj Vning rafiqasi, tez -tez shunday kiyib yurardi. [37] 1908 yilda tosh 2,5 million dollarga baholangan (2019 yildagi 52 million dollarga teng) [38] - bu Cullinan taxmin qilingan qiymatidan ikki yarim baravar ko'p. [39]

Cullinan II tahrirlash

Cullinan II yoki Afrikaning Ikkinchi Yulduzi-yostiqsimon kesilgan porloq, 66 qirrali, og'irligi 317,4 karat (63,48 g), Imperatorlik davlati tojining oldida, [33] Qora shahzodaning yoqutidan pastda (katta shpinel). [40] Uning o'lchami 4,54 sm × 4,08 sm × 2,42 sm (1,79 × 1,61 dyuym × 0,95 dyuym). Olmosda bir qancha mayda nuqsonlar, stol yuzasida tirnalishlar va kamarda kichik chip bor. Cullinan I singari, u tojga mahkamlangan sariq oltin panjara bilan ushlab turilgan. [36]

Cullinan III tahrirlash

Cullinan III, yoki Afrikaning Kichik Yulduzi, nok shaklida kesilgan va vazni 94,4 karat (18,88 g). [33] 1911 yilda, qirolicha Meri, xotini va qirolicha Jorj Vning turmush o'rtog'i, tojining tepasida kesilgan tojning tepasiga o'rnatgan edi. [41] 1912 yilda eri Hindiston imperatorlik tojini kiygan Dehli Durbarda toj o'rniga o'tgan yili Maryam kiygan Dehli Durbar Tiara ham Cullinans III va IV ni olishga moslashgan. [42] 1914 yilda Cullinan III tojda doimiy ravishda kristalli model bilan almashtirildi. Bugungi kunda u ko'pincha Yulizaveta II tomonidan Cullinan IV bilan birgalikda brosh sifatida taqilgan. Hammasi bo'lib, broshning uzunligi 6,5 sm (2,6 dyuym) va kengligi 2,4 sm (0,94 dyuym). [43] Cullinan III, shuningdek, vaqti-vaqti bilan 22,4 karatli (4,48 g) Lahor olmosining o'rnini bosadigan toj bo'yinbog'ida marjon sifatida ishlatilgan. [44] [45]

Cullinan IV tahrirlash

Cullinan IV, shuningdek, Afrikaning Kichik Yulduzi deb ham ataladi, to'rtburchaklar shaklida bo'lib, og'irligi 63,6 karat (12,72 g). [33] U, shuningdek, qirolicha Maryam tojining tagida joylashgan, lekin 1914 yilda olib tashlangan. 1958 yil 25 martda u shahzoda Filipp bilan Gollandiyada davlat tashrifi paytida, qirolicha Yelizaveta II Cullinan III va IV ma'lum bo'lganini ma'lum qildi. uning oilasida "buvining chiplari" sifatida. Ular Cullinan 50 yil oldin kesilgan Asscher Diamond kompaniyasiga tashrif buyurishdi. Bu qirolicha birinchi marta broshni omma oldida taqib olgan edi. Tashrif chog'ida u broshni yechib, qo'pol olmosni bo'laklagan Jozef Asscherning jiyani Lui Asscherga ko'rikdan o'tkazishni taklif qildi. 84 yoshida, qirolicha olmosni o'zi bilan olib kelganidan juda qattiq taajjublandi, shundan keyin ko'p yillar o'tgach, uni qayta ko'rish qanchalik ma'noga ega bo'ladi. [46]

Cullinan V tahrirlash

Cullinan V-18,8 karatli (3,76 g) yurak shaklidagi olmos, platina broshining markazida joylashgan bo'lib, u 1911 yilda Dehli Durbarda qirolicha Maryam kiyishi uchun qilingan stomaxerning bir qismini tashkil qilgan. Cullinan V va kichikroq olmosli chegara bilan qoplangan. U VIII broshdan to'xtatib qo'yilishi mumkin va VII kulonni osib qo'yish uchun ishlatilishi mumkin. Uni Maryam tez -tez kiyib yurardi. [44]

Cullinan VI tahrirlash

Cullinan VI markali kesilgan va og'irligi 11,5 karat (2,30 g). [33] U Cullinan VIII o'z ichiga olgan va Dehli Durbar paromining stomacherining bir qismini tashkil etuvchi broshdan osilgan. Cullinan VI va VIII, shuningdek, 96 ta kichikroq olmos bilan o'ralgan yana bir brosh yasash uchun ham o'rnatilishi mumkin. Dizayn, xuddi shu shaklga ega bo'lgan Cullinan V yurak shaklidagi brosh ishlab chiqilgan paytda yaratilgan. [47]

Cullinan VII tahrirlash

Cullinan VII ham marquise kesilgan va og'irligi 8,8 karat (1,76 g). [33] Dastlab uni Edvard VII xotini va turmush o'rtog'i qirolicha Aleksandraga bergan. U vafotidan so'ng, u marvaridni qirolicha Maryamga berdi, uni taqinchoqning bir qismi bo'lgan Dehli Durbarning olmos-zumraddan yasalgan marjoniga osilgan marjon sifatida o'rnatdi. [48]

Cullinan VIII tahrirlash

Cullinan VIII-og'irligi 6,8 karat (1,36 g) bo'lgan uzun bo'yli olmos. [33] It is set in the centre of a brooch forming part of the stomacher of the Delhi Durbar parure. Together with Cullinan VI it forms a brooch. [47]

Cullinan IX Edit

Cullinan IX is smallest of the principal diamonds to be obtained from the rough Cullinan. It is a pendeloque or stepped pear-cut stone, weighs 4.39 carats (0.878 g), and is set in a platinum ring known as the Cullinan IX Ring. [49]


Ikkinchi jahon urushi [tahrir | manbani tahrirlash]

After 15 years of fast passenger service along the West Coast, Yale was laid up in 1935 in 1940 the national emergency resulting from the outbreak of World War II in Europe brought her back into use. She was used this time as a dormitory ship in Alaskan waters. The United States Navy again acquired her in April 1943 and in August she was commissioned as USS Yovvoyi it (IX-106) on 8 August 1943 with Lieutenant Commander W. N. VanDenburgh in command. She was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named for the greyhound, a breed of tall, slender, swift hound with a narrow pointed head.

After brief service Yovvoyi it decommissioned on 31 March 1944, and began duty as a floating barracks for personnel at various Puget Sound training schools. She was placed out of service on 9 March 1948 and her name was struck 18 June 1948. She was turned over to the Maritime Commission 12 November 1948 and placed with the National Defense Reserve Fleet at Olympia, Washington until 5 June 1949 when she was sold for scrapping.


Summary of ASME BPVC Section IX – Part 1

Section IX is a reference document for the qualification of material joining (welding, brazing, and plastic fusing) processes, used by various construction codes such as Section I, III, IV, VIII, XII, etc.

NOTE: The different material joining processes covered in Section IX are

The ASME BPVC Section IX is divided into four parts, Namely

  • Part QG: Contains General Requirements for all material – joining processes (viz. Welding, Brazing and Plastic Fusing)
  • Part QW: Contains requirements for Welding
  • Part QB: Contains requirements for Brazing
  • Part QF: Contains requirements for Plastic Fusing

Note: Part QG General Requirements and Part QF Plastic Fusing were added in the 2013 Edition of ASME Section IX.

Since our focus is on welding henceforth we will discuss the two parts only, i.e. Part QG (General requirements with a focus on welding) and Part QW (Requirements for welding).

Part QW is further divided into five articles, these are

  • Article 1. Welding – General requirements for welding
  • Article 2. Procedure qualification for welding
  • Article 3. Performance qualifications for welders and welding operators
  • Article 4. Welding data
  • Article 5. Standard welding procedure specifications (SWPS)

These articles contain general references and guides that apply to welding procedure specification, Procedure qualification and welder performance qualifications such as positions, type and purpose of various mechanical tests, acceptance criteria, and the applicability of Section IX.

We will discuss part QG of ASME Section IX in this article:

Part QG gives general guidelines for the following

QG 101: Procedure specification: For each material joining process there should be a procedure specification, these procedure specifications are termed as

  • Welding Procedure Specification – WPS (for Welding)
  • Brazing Procedure Specification – BPS (for Brazing)
  • Fusing Procedure Specification – FPS (for Fusing)

Contents of a Procedure specification: The procedure specification i.e. A Welding Procedure Specification (for Welding) contains parameters related to the welding process along with the values or range (as applicable) required to produce a sound weld. These parameters have been termed as variables by ASME. Variables are of three types

  • Essential Variables
  • Non-Essential variables
  • Supplementary Essential Variables

Essential Variables (For WPS – QG-105.1 & QW-251.2): A change in the essential variable is considered to affect the mechanical properties (other than toughness) of the welded joint. Hence the WPS must be requalified if the essential variable is changed.

Supplementary Essential Variables (QG-105.3 & QW-401.1): A change in the supplementary essential variable will affect the toughness properties of the joint, heat-affected zone, or base material. Hence supplementary essential variables become additional essential variables in situations where procedure qualification requires toughness testing. When procedure qualification does not require the addition of toughness testing, supplementary essential variables are not applicable.

Nonessential Variables (QG-105.4 & QW-251.3): Nonessential variables are those in which a change can be made without the requalification of the existing WPS since it is not considered to affect the mechanical properties of the joint. Though a change in the nonessential variable doesn’t require the requalification of the WPS, still it should be properly addressed in the welding procedure specification (WPS).

QG 102: Procedure Qualification Record: A Test coupon is welded based on the variables given in the proposed welding procedure specification (PWPS), then that test coupon is sent to the lab for destructive tests. After a satisfactory report of the destructive test, we say that the proposed welding procedure specification (PWPS) is qualified. This entire process of qualifying the proposed WPS is known as procedure qualification and the entire data i.e. the real-time data (or variables) recorded during the welding of test coupon along with the lab report of destructive test is known as Procedure Qualification Record (PQR).

Why procedure qualification is required?

The purpose of qualifying the procedure specification is to prove that the proposed welding procedure is capable of producing weld joints having the required mechanical properties for the intended application.

Qualification of the proposed welding procedure specification (PWPS) demonstrates the mechanical properties of the welded joint, and not the skill of the welder or welding operator.

The PQR shall be produced to the Authorized Inspector whenever required. One welding procedure specification (WPS) may be supported by one or more PQR(s), and one procedure qualification record (PQR) may be used to support one or more welding procedure specification(s).

Contents of a procedure qualification record (PQR)

The procedure qualification record (PQR) shall contain

  • All the real-time values (or range) of all essential variables (Mandatory) recorded during welding of the test coupon,
  • Values of all non-essential variables (as required) recorded during welding of the test coupon
  • Values of supplementary essential variables (if toughness test is required) recorded during welding of the test coupon
  • Lab test report of the welded test coupon

QG 103: Performance Qualification: Since, Part QG is focused on general requirements for welding, brazing, and plastic fusing. Hence, it talks about the performance qualifications for all material joining processes viz. welding, brazing, and plastic fusing. But since, our area of interest is welding only hence this discussion is restricted to welding only.

Performance qualification for welders (or welding operators) is carried out for checking the capability of that person to produce a sound weld.

QG 104: Performance Qualification Record: All the real-time data observed during the welding of test coupons along with the mechanical test/Non-destructive test report is documented and is known as the performance qualification record. The performance qualification record shall be produced to the Authorized inspector whenever needed.

QG 105: Variables: The following variables have been explained under this topic

  • QG 105.1: Essential Variables for procedure specification
  • QG 105.2: Essential Variables for performance qualification
  • QG 105.3: Supplementary Essential Variables
  • QG 105.4: Non-Essential Variables
  • QG 105.5: Special Process Variables
  • QG 105.6: Applicability

QG 106: Organizational Responsibility: Three broad terms have been discussed under this topic.

  1. Organizational responsibility for procedure qualifications (QG 106.1)
  2. Organizational responsibility for performance qualification (QG 106.2)
  3. Simultaneous performance qualifications (QG 106.3)

The important points pertaining to organization responsibility are as follows

QG 106.1: Organizational responsibility for procedure qualifications: The Organization shall be fully responsible for the qualification of their procedure specification. Welding of test coupons shall be done under the full supervision and control of the qualifying organization and the person involved in this qualification process shall be a direct employee of that organization or shall be from an organization hired on contract for the welding services.

The following activities can be subcontracted, provided the organization accepts the full responsibility, these are

  • Preparation of test coupon
  • preparation of test specimens (after complete welding)
  • Mechanical test or destructive test of those specimens

Two or more companies with different names but working under the same corporate ownership can use a single Welding Procedure Specification (WPS), provided all the criteria of ASME section IX has been fulfilled.

QG 106.2: Organizational responsibility for performance qualifications: the performance qualification test shall be carried out only after the qualification of Welding procedure specification (WPS).

The person involved in welding of test coupons for the qualification of welding procedure specification (WPS) shall be qualified for welding within the ranges specified for performance qualification for that particular welding process.

The performance qualification test shall be carried out under the full supervision and control of the organization. However, the following activities may be subcontracted

  • Preparation of test coupon
  • preparation of test specimens (after complete welding)
  • Mechanical test or destructive test of those specimens

The successfully qualified welders (or welding operators) shall be issued a number/letter or Symbol by the organization, for identification purposes.

QG 106.3: Simultaneous performance qualifications: Two or more different organizations can participate in association to collectively qualify one or more welders and may share the information among themselves. During simultaneous performance qualifications, each participating organization shall be represented by an employee of that organization designated responsibility for that purpose.

QG 107: Ownership Transfers: When a new owner acquires an Organization, then the Welding procedure specification (WPS), procedure qualification record (PQR), and the welder’s performance record of that organization remain valid for the new owner (with some conditions). Hence separate requalification is not required.

QG 108: Qualifications Made to Previous Editions: The welding procedure specification (WPS), procedure qualification record (PQR), and welder’s performance qualifications made with respect to any previous version of ASME Section IX shall remain valid and do not require any revision except as specified by QW 420. However, qualification for a new welding procedure specification and performance qualification shall be carried out in accordance with the latest edition of ASME Section IX.

QG 109: Definitions: Several definitions related to welding have been given in part QG 109. These definitions can be found on page no. 4 through page no. 14.

Please click here to read the next part of this article.

(Note: The purpose of this article is to give a general guideline to the readers and it shall not be considered as a substitute of code. For full terms and conditions please read ASME Section IX, 2017 edition.)

Please watch this video (given below) for a better understanding of Part QG of ASME Section IX

Sandeep Anand

I am a Mechanical Engineer with more than ten years of work experience in the field of welding and NDT.

Sizga ham yoqishi mumkin

Summary of ASME BPVC Section VIII Div 1 (Part 4)

ASME Codes and Standards – A summary

Summary of ASME BPVC Section VIII Div 1 (Part 2)

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Student Outcomes

Students who graduate from VET courses are surveyed approximately 6 months after they have completed their training. For more information on the statistics provided in this section, including the different levels (course, field of education, all fields of education) of data available please select the Learn more button below.

Satisfied with Training

Percentage of graduates in the Society and Culture field who were satisfied with the training (Certificate III).

Improved Work Status

Percentage of graduates in the Society and Culture field who started/expanded a business or who have a new job, more highly skilled work, a promotion or higher pay (Certificate III).

Ish haqi

The middle of the range of salaries earned by graduates in the Society and Culture field starting their first ever full-time job after graduating (Certificate III).

Graduates of the Society and Culture field (Certificate III) are most often employed as:

Industries

Graduates of the Society and Culture field (Certificate III) are most often employed in:


Greyhound III IX-106 - History

Fulenwider helped shape the prosperous, booming Denver metro area we know today—and we’re at the forefront of building our region’s tomorrow. Our combination of experience, creativity, and versatility has resulted in a variety of successful projects throughout Colorado, including Class A office buildings, shopping centers, resort and urban condominiums, master-planned business parks, multi-family and master-planned residential communities and a world class ski resort. Over 115 years strong, Fulenwider has remained committed to a long-term vision of responsible growth for the region. We see development as transformation, bringing integrity, credibility and a pioneering spirit to every project and partnership we touch. That’s how you build a century of success, helping to create a better, more sustainable Denver region of which we can all be proud.

About Fulenwider

Key Staff

Our company has been an acknowledged leader in the Colorado real estate community for over 115 years. L.C. Fulenwider Sr. helped write the Colorado Real Estate License laws in the early 1900s. His grandson, Cal Fulenwider III, continues to hold Colorado Real Estate License No. 1, which originally belonged to his grandfather.

Since our beginning in 1904, we have built a reputation for innovating creative and practical ideas within Colorado’s real estate community. Proud of what we have accomplished, we continue to produce well-conceived, master-planned real estate projects and ventures of superior and lasting quality.

Our company is led by an experienced group of real estate professionals and decision makers.

Meet the team responsible for some of Colorado’s most innovative real estate projects.

Cal Fulenwider III was the President of L.C. Fulenwider, Inc. for more than 30 years. He is now the Chairman of the Board and CEO. Cal has played the key role in the strategic planning, development and management of approximately 7,500 acres surrounding Denver International Airport (DIA), including the 3,000+ acre Reunion Master Planned Community in Commerce City, Peña Station NORTH (formerly Denver International Business Center), and Peña Station NEXT, both at the front door of DIA. Prior to developing projects in the DIA area, Fulenwider was the Venture Manager for the 500,000 square foot Chase Bank building in downtown Denver and oversaw the development and management of numerous high-end residential projects, including Polo Club North, Polo Club North Homes, Polo Field West, and Larimer Place Condominiums. Cal is a founding member of the CU Real Estate Council and the DIA Business Partnership, now the Metro Denver Aviation Coalition. He obtained a bachelor’s degree in Real Estate from the University of Colorado.

Ferd Belz is President, in charge of all real estate for L.C. Fulenwider, Inc., the corporate entity for the Fulenwider family holdings. These holdings include 7,500 acres of land near Denver International Airport (DIA) as well as multiple other real estate assets in the Denver region. Ferd is currently leading the development effort for Pena Station NEXT, a 382-acre transit-oriented development (TOD) surrounding the first rail stop on the commuter line from DIA to downtown Denver. This TOD is a public-private partnership between L.C. Fulenwider, Inc., DEN Real Estate, and is the North American headquarters for Panasonic CityNOW.

Prior to joining Fulenwider, Ferd was the President of Cherokee Denver, LLC, the entity that owned the 50-acre redevelopment of the former Gates Tire & Rubber Factory in Denver. As President, he managed all aspects of the development, entitlements, public financing and environmental remediation for this transit-oriented, mixed-use project. The project was entitled for more than 7 million square feet of mixed commercial and residential uses and approved for more than $126 million of public financing.

During his long real estate career, Ferd has developed more than $1 billion of hotel and resort real estate nationally and internationally, as well as numerous commercial, residential, retail, and senior housing projects. The projects include several Marriott and Ritz-Carlton hotels, the Pepsi Center in Denver and Tabor Center in Denver. He is currently a partner in the redevelopment of the historic Denver Union Station into a mixed-use, retail, hotel and transit center project.

Ferd holds cum laude degrees in both architecture and engineering from the University of Kansas, and he began his career as a licensed architect. He is past Chair of the Downtown Denver Partnership, past Chair of the Board of the Auraria Foundation. Currently, he is treasurer and on the Board of the Civic Center Conservancy, on the Board and Secretary of the Metro State University Foundation, and on the Board of ULI Colorado.

Marcy Lujan has been with Fulenwider for over 25 years. Marcy is responsible for all aspects of financial management, to include analysis for investments, development and acquisitions, financial structuring for joint venture opportunities, securing operation and construction loans, and financial money management for the company. Her projects have been in class A & B office, hotel, multi-family (affordable housing), land development construction loans, and formation of metro districts.

Additionally, she oversees all day-to-day operation activities of the company and general management of Fulenwider business, ensuring that Fulenwider has the proper operations controls. Marcy graduated magna cum laude from Columbia College, where she earned a bachelor’s degree in business administration and accounting.

Rick Wells is Sr. Vice President in charge of Real Estate Development for L.C. Fulenwider, Inc. Rick has been the master developer for several successful, large scale, urban infill redevelopment projects in the Denver area since 2000, many with public/private finance as a key component. These projects include the 61st and Peña transit-oriented development, the first phase of redevelopment at the former Gates Rubber Company TOD site, the former Children’s Hospital and Mercy Hospital sites in Denver, and the former Mile High Greyhound Park site in Commerce City.

Rick has provided consulting services through REGen, LLC to many Colorado cities and urban renewal authorities regarding master development and public private financing including: Salida, Durango, Thornton, Loveland, Commerce City, and Denver. Rick finished 20 years in the natural gas pipeline industry in 1999 as Executive V.P. of a $5 billion industry leading company. He holds a master’s degree in Business Administration and a bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering from Colorado State University.

Mark Throckmorton joined Fulenwider in 1994 and has overseen multiple development and construction projects for the company, including the 270-acre Peña Station NORTH development, formerly Denver International Business Center, luxury single-family homes at Polo Club North and Polo Field West, multifamily apartments at The Heights by Marston Shores and Emerson Lofts, the Marriott Courtyard Hotel at DIA, the Corporate Office for Frontier Airlines, the High Plains office building and regional infrastructure and entitlements for Peña Station NORTH, and the Peña Station NEXT TOD Development.

Mark is a 39-year veteran of construction and development, having also constructed/developed many facilities in the Denver metropolitan area, including multiple churches, a library, recreation facilities, office buildings, warehouses, swimming pools, banks, tenant finishes, country clubs and more. Mark serves as an officer on the boards of several Metropolitan Districts, is Chairman of the Denver International Business Center Architectural Control Committee, is a LEED Accredited Professional, holds a Denver General Contractors license, and is a proud graduate of Colorado State University.

From the beginning, Fulenwider has been led by creative and resilient professionals with integrity, and it’s no different today. We built our brand, company and legacy from the inside out by empowering the region’s best, and we work with development partners who, above all else, are known for their values.


Greyhound III IX-106 - History

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            The True Story of the USS Kidd, the Ship Used to Film 'Greyhound'

            When it comes to World War II memories, the Merchant Marine doesn’t get as much love as it should. Leave it to Tom Hanks to shed a little light on just how dangerous the life of a merchant mariner really was.

            Merchant Mariners in World War II depended on armed Allied naval forces to protect them. The 2020 movie “Greyhound” takes place aboard one of those ships, a U.S. Navy destroyer. It was filmed aboard a real World War II-era destroyer, the USS Kidd.

            During wartime, the Merchant Marine becomes an activated component of the U.S. Naval Reserve. In World War II, crippling British shipping was a key tactic of the Axis pact, so Merchant Marine ships immediately became high-priority targets for Nazi submarines.

            These merchant seamen suffered an almost 4% overall casualty rate, compared to 2.94% for the Marine Corps, 2.08% for the Army (and Army Air Forces) and .88% for the Navy. It was a tough job, and they needed protection.

            In “Greyhound,” Hanks plays the skipper of a U.S. Navy destroyer, the USS Keeling (codenamed Greyhound). The Keeling is one of four Allied destroyers protecting a convoy of 37 shipping vessels and their crews. In the early days of the war, these convoys had to pass through the mid-Atlantic Gap, three days of sailing where air cover couldn’t help protect them.

            It was a real-life gap known as “The Black Pit,” the most dangerous days of the journey. Fletcher-class destroyers like the USS Kidd were critical in the convoys’ defenses. While the Keeling (the ship portrayed in “Greyhound”) was purely fictional, the Kidd on which the film was shot has a turbulent history and served only briefly in the Atlantic.

            The USS Kidd was launched in 1943 and named for Adm. Isaac C. Kidd, who was killed aboard the USS Arizona during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor -- the first American flag officer to die in World War II. The Kidd started its career on escort duty with battleships in the Atlantic and the Caribbean. Later in 1943, it sailed for the Pacific War.

            Kidd was part of the naval forces that hit some of the biggest names in the Pacific Theater: Rabaul, Bougainville, Tarawa, Guam and the Marianas. The ship was forced back to Pearl Harbor to make repairs in August 1944 but quickly returned to the fight. It arrived in time to support the February 1945 invasion of Okinawa, battering the island defenses, protecting the fleet from mines and shooting down kamikaze attacks.

            Tragically, the Kidd suffered its own kamikaze attack while repelling air raids from Japanese dive bombers and kamikazes on April 11, 1945. The direct hit killed 38 sailors and wounded 55. It continued firing as it fought to stay afloat and headed back to its task force. After the kamikaze attack, the USS Kidd’s war was over.

            By August, the Fletcher-class destroyer was on its way home to the United States via Pearl Harbor. It was in the Pacific Reserve Fleet from 1946 until the Korean War. In 1951, the USS Kidd was recommissioned and was used for shore bombardment and anti-submarine operations against North Korea until 1953. It continued anti-submarine and show-of-force missions throughout the early days of the Cold War until 1964, when it was finally decommissioned.

            USS Kidd would be preserved as a museum ship and moored in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. To this day, the vessel is the only World War II-era destroyer in its original World War II configuration. The Kidd is the only place anyone can view an authentic WWII destroyer as it would have sailed in 1945.

            This is likely why the producers of “Greyhound” chose to film aboard the Kidd instead of the other two Fletcher-class destroyers now moored as museum ships.


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