Severan ko'prigi

Severan ko'prigi


Eski Severn ko'prigining nomi Queen ' ning yubileyiga bag'ishlangan bo'lishi mumkin

Janubiy Gloucestershirdagi maslahatchilar chorshanba kungi yig'ilishda bu taklifni muhokama qilishadi.

Qirolicha 1966 yilda ko'prikni ochdi va 2022 yilda yubileyni nishonlamoqda.

Severn Veylning konservativ a'zosi Metyu Riddl bu taklifning orqasida va u mintaqani bayramni munosib tarzda belgilash uchun "qo'shimcha milga" kirishni xohlashini aytdi.

Agar taklif qo'llab -quvvatlansa, janob Riddl kengash etakchisi Tobi Saveyjdan transport bo'yicha davlat kotibiga Grant Shappsga yozib berishni so'radi.

"Bizning mamlakatimiz tarixidagi hukmdorlarga qaraganda yaxshi vaqtlarda ham, yomon vaqtlarda ham mamlakatimiz uchun etakchilik va umid ramzi bo'lib xizmat qilgan, Janubiy Glokestershir qirolichaning ajoyib 70 yilligini belgilash yo'lini topish uchun juda ko'p masofani bosib o'tgani ma'qul edi. yillar taxtda munosib tarzda o'tirgan, ' harakat o'qiladi.

& Umid qilamanki. Hukumat uning sharafiga Severn ko'prigi, janubiy Gloucestershirning eng mashhur diqqatga sazovor joyi deb nomini o'zgartirishga e'tibor berishi mumkin.

Ikkinchi Severn o'tish joyini 2018 yilda Uels shahzodasi ko'prigi deb qayta nomlash to'g'risidagi qaror ba'zi uelslik deputatlar tomonidan tanqidga uchradi va onlayn -petitsiya minglab imzo to'pladi.

Ikki ko'prikning yangisini shahzoda 1996 yilda, dastlabki o'tishdan 30 yil o'tgach ochgan.

Qirolicha va#x27larning 70 yillik hukmronligi 2022 yil 2-5 iyun kunlari to'rt kunlik bank bayrami bilan nishonlanadi.

Uzoq dam olish kunini yaratish uchun, o'sha yilning may oyi oxiridagi bahorgi bank bayrami 2 -iyun payshanbaga ko'chiriladi va 3 -iyun juma kuni qo'shimcha bank bayrami yaratiladi.

Keng ko'lamli ommaviy tadbirlar o'tkaziladi, davlat xizmatlari xodimlariga yubiley medallari topshiriladi va bayramlar doirasida daraxtlar ekiladi.


Ironbridge qishlog'i

Temir ko'prik qurilgan joy Shropshir mintaqasida muhim transport punktini tashkil etdi, bu darhol birinchi binolarning paydo bo'lishiga olib keldi va shu vaqtdan keyin Ironbridge qishlog'i paydo bo'ldi. Bugungi kunda bu qishloq Telford va Vrekin tumanidagi Gorge fuqarolik cherkovining bir qismidir. U Ironbridge darasining markazida va Temir ko'prikning ikkala qirg'og'ida joylashganligi sababli, qishloq tarixining dastlabki o'n yilliklari mahalliy ko'mir va temir qazib olish va qayta ishlash sanoatini qo'llab -quvvatlashga bag'ishlangan edi. Qishloq sayyohlarga "sifatida targ'ib qilindi. Sanoat inqilobining tug'ilgan joyi"va Angliyaning hamma burchaklaridan odamlar kelib, temirni koks bilan arzon eritishning inqilobiy jarayonini ko'rishlari mumkin bo'lgan joy. Albatta, zamonaviy tarixchilar, bugungi kunda Angliya ichidagi sanoat inqilobi jarayoni aynan Ironbridge atrofida boshlanmaganiga qo'shiladilar. qishloq, lekin ko'p joylarda va ko'plab ixtirochilar va tadbirkorlarning ta'siri ostida.

Temir ko'prik yaqinidagi eng yirik sanoat punkti shubhasiz edi Darbining temir eritish zavodiBu temir eritish jarayonini Angliyaning boshqa mintaqalaridan ancha tejamkor ishlab chiqarish bilan almashtirilishidan oldin tartibga solishga yordam berdi. Garchi temir ko'prik atrofi ingliz temir ishlab chiqarish tarixida muhim rol o'ynamagan bo'lsa-da, birinchi bo'lib bunday og'ir qurilish materialidan yasalgan ta'sirli quyma temir ko'prikning mavjudligi bugungi kunda muhim ahamiyatga ega. tarix parchasi.

1781 yilda ko'prik qurilib ochilgandan so'ng, bu mintaqa ko'proq e'tiborni jalb qila boshladi. Tarqalgan Madeley Vud aholi punktidan odamlar temir ko'prikka ko'chirildi va ular bilan birga qadimgi Madeley bozori, yangi qishloq maydoni, sayyohlar va sayohatchilar foydalanishi uchun mo'ljallangan yangi mehmonxona va u bilan bog'langan bir qancha binolar keldi. Coalbrookdale yangi savdo va ma'muriy markazi. Daryo tepasidagi tog 'yonbag'rida Linkoln tepaligidagi XVI asr tosh uyi, ko'plab temir uy ustalari, kon egalari, ishbilarmon oilalar va hatto Viktoriya davridagi boy elita tomonidan qurilgan ko'plab ishchilarning kottejlari va ko'plab gruzin uylari bor edi. 19 -asrga kelib, qishloq o'sib, yana bir qancha mashhur binolarga ega bo'ldi, ulardan eng muhimi Avliyo Luqo cherkovi edi. U 1837 yilda Madeleylik Samuel Smit va Shrewsburylik Devid Evansning shisha bezaklari bilan bezatilgan. 19 -asr va 20 -yillarning yarmidan ko'prog'i, Ironbridge qishlog'ining janubiy tomonida Xartlberidan Shrewsberigacha bo'lgan Severn vodiysi liniyasida (GWR) ishlaydigan sobiq Temir ko'prik va Brozli temir yo'l stantsiyasi joylashgan edi.

20-asrning o'rtalariga kelib, Temir ko'prik va uning atrofidagi joy a YuNESKOning Jahon merosi ro'yxati, bu uni katta sayyohlik markaziga aylantiradi. Bugungi kunda qishloqning katta qismi sayyohlikka qaratilgan, ko'plab festivallar ko'prik atrofida joylashgan. Qishloqning eng mashhur yillik tadbiri yillik Coracle Regatta avgust oyida Sever daryosida o'tkaziladi.

Brozli

Brozli - Angliyaning Shropshir shahridagi kichik shaharcha, Ironbridge darasining janubiy qirg'og'ida, Severn daryosi yaqinida va Ibrohim Darbi III va Tomas Farnolls Pritchard mashhur temir ko'prikni o'rnatgan va uning atrofida Ironbridge qishlog'ini yaratgan joy. Brosli shahri Temir ko'prik tarixida muhim rol o'ynaydi. Shahar atrofi shunday edi tosh, metall va boshqa rudalarni qazib olish bilan mashhurva o'sha mintaqaning temir ustalari Angliyaning qolgan hududlariga yaxshi yo'llar qurishga juda qiziqishdi. Sanoat bu mintaqada shunchalik kuchli ediki, Brosli shahri hozirgacha Angliyada ishlab chiqarilgan eng qadimgi temir yo'lga da'vogar.

Shahar temir rudasini qayta ishlash sohasidagi o'zgarishlar uchun ham muhim ahamiyatga ega edi. Temir ustasi Ibrohim Darbi I bu sohada kokslangan ko'mir yordamida temir eritishning ta'sirli jarayonini ishlab chiqdi (shu tariqa sanoat inqilobining kuchayishiga turtki bo'ldi) va 1717 yilda vafotidan keyin shu erga dafn qilindi. Bundan tashqari, Brozli ingliz sanoatchisi Jon Uilkinson bo'lgan joy edi. dunyodagi birinchi qayiqni temirdan yasadi.

Bunday kuchli sanoat bilan, Brosli va mintaqadagi boshqa shaharlarning temir ustalari o'z mollarini Angliyaning qolgan qismiga tashish uchun yaxshiroq kirish joylari va yo'llarni talab qilishlari ajablanarli emas. Ibrohim Darbi III Broslida yashab, temir ko'prikni yaratishni rejalashtira boshladi va uning qurilishining ko'p qismi shu joydan nazorat qilingan. Ko'prik qurilganidan so'ng, shahar gullab -yashnamoqda, lekin 19 -asrning ikkinchi yarmida, sanoatning katta mavjudligi kamayadi, va uning atrofidagi butun maydon shahar moliyaviy tanazzulga yuz tutdiko'plab tashlab ketilgan minalar, binolar, quduqlar va karerlarni qoldirib.

Brosli shahri va butun mintaqa og'ir moliyaviy ahvoldan faqat XX asrning ikkinchi yarmida, Severn daryosi yaqinida Telford shahri tashkil etilgandan keyin qaytdi. Bu tez rivojlanayotgan shahar mintaqani qayta qurishga undadi, ko'plab yangi uylar qurildi, korxonalar ko'chib o'tdi va shahar aholisini qariyb 5 ming kishiga (deyarli ikki asr oldin sanoat inqilobi avj olgan paytdagi darajaga) surdi.

Madeley

Temir ko'prik, shuningdek, Shropshirning Madeley shahrining rivojlanishiga katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi, u hozirda yangi rivojlangan Telford shahrining bir qismi. Ba'zida VIII asrdan oldin qurilgan, Madeley 14 -asrga qadar bozor shaharchasi sifatida o'rnatilgandi, u erda 1322 yilda ko'mir topilgan va temir toshini qazib olish 1540 yilda boshlangan. Keyingi o'n yilliklarda. Shahar tobora ko'proq savdo -sotiq va tog' -kon ishlarini olib borishga sarmoya kiritmoqda, bu esa yaqin atrofdagi temir darada va Sever daryosida mashhur temir ko'prikning qurilishi bilan kuchaytirildi. Bu ko'prik Madleyni Coalbrookdale bilan bog'ladiBu nafaqat sayohat vaqtini tezlashtirishga, balki yangi rivojlangan Ironbridge qishlog'ining tez o'sishiga imkon beradi.

Bugungi kunda Madeley cherkovida qariyb 18 ming kishi istiqomat qiladi va Temir daraning muhim qismi YuNESKOning Butunjahon merosi ro'yxatiga kiritilgan.


FRAMPTON ON SEVERN Gloucesterdan 9 mil janubi-g'arbda, Severn daryosining burilishida joylashgan. Genrix II ning xo'jayini, 11 -asrdan 20 -asrgacha Frampton bilan chambarchas bog'liq bo'lgan oila a'zosi Rosamund Klifford sharafiga Rosamundning Yashili deb nomlangan keng qishloq yashilligi bilan mashhur. Severn daryosi cherkovning oltita qirg'og'idan birini tashkil qiladi, avvalgi Kam daryosi oqimi janubi-g'arbiy chegarani, Viksterlar janubni, Gloucester-Bristol yo'lini janubi-sharqda, From daryosining ko'p qismini shimoliy-sharqda va Gloucester va Berkli kanali taxminan shimoliy-g'arbiy chegaradan o'tadi. (fn. 1) cherkov maydoni, daryo qirg'og'ini hisobga olmaganda, 2 365 a., (fn. 2), shu jumladan 1 a. Bu ilgari Wheatenhurstning alohida qismi bo'lgan va 1882 yilda Framptonga qo'shilgan. (fn. 3) 1935 yilda 43 a. Gloucester-Bristol yo'lining sharqida kichik bir teshikni tashkil etuvchi cherkov Eastingtonga o'tkazildi. (fn. 4)

Er tekis va pastda, asosan 50 futlik kontur chizig'idan pastda joylashgan va sharqiy chegaraning faqat bir nuqtasida 100 futgacha ko'tariladi. U asosan daryo loylari va shag'allar ustida joylashgan bo'lib, ilgari yuqorida aytib o'tilgan oqimlar va mayda oziqlantiruvchilar tomonidan quritilgan, lekin inson ishlari naqshni o'zgartirib yuborgan. Fromning yo'nalishi cherkovning sharqiy burchagida, Fromebrij tegirmoni tomonidan, shuningdek, pastroqda, bir mil narida, bir mil narida o'zgargan. Umuman olganda, Gloucester va Berkli kanali bir paytlar Kam daryosi bo'ylab kanal chizig'idan g'arbga oqib o'tgan barcha suvni oladi va drenaj ishlari kichikroq oqimlarni ariqlarga tushiradi. (fn. 5)

Severn daryosi vaqti -vaqti bilan, ayniqsa, 1606 yilda cherkovni suv bosishiga olib kelgan. v. 1615 yil daryo baland va quruq qoldi 30 a. Bromvichning to'lqini, (fn. 7) va 1791 yilda, Severnning siljishining oldini olish bo'yicha so'nggi urinishlari samarasiz bo'lganida (fn. 8) 15 a. uy -joy mulklari yuvilib ketgani aytilgan. (9 -fn) Severnda manorial baliqchilik bor edi v. 1225 yil, Richard de Klifford Bukpul yaqinida oltita qassob yoki baliq ovlash uchun joy ajratganida, (10-fn) va Severnda baliqchilik 1315 yilda manorga tegishli edi. (Fn. 11) 1866 yilda xo'jayin. Manor HC Clifford, Severnda to'xtash joylari bor edi va u o'z nomini Baliqchilik komissiyasida ro'yxatdan o'tkaza olmagan bo'lsa ham (fn. 12), uning vorisi 1968 yilda daryoda bir nechta baliqchilik bilan shug'ullangan. ) 1819 yilda 60 fut balandlikda. kit Severnda Framptonda o'ldirilgan. (fn. 14)

1827 yilda Gloucester va Berkeley kanali ochilishidan oldin, Severn qayiqlari, (15 -chi), Frampton tabletkasida, Frampton tomonida kirish joyi bo'lgan, Cam daryosining og'zi, havzasi sifatida kengaytirilgan ko'rinadi. . (fn. 16) 1668 yilda ko'mirni qabul qilish va sotish uchun ombor qurilgan yoki qurilishi taklif qilingan, Frampton tabletkasining Slimbridj tomonida, (fn. 17), uni 1584 yil boshida Varth Bridge deb nomlangan ko'prik kesib o'tgan. (fn. 18) Tabletka 1770 yilda ko'mirni tushirish uchun ishlatilgan (19-fn) va 1781 yilda ko'mir tashuvchi katta kema sinib ketganidan keyin ko'prik ta'mirga muhtoj edi. (fn. 20) 1806 yilda buzilgan barjaning shikastlanishidan keyin (21-fn) qo'shimcha ta'mirlash kerak edi va bu Frampton aholisini qo'nish joyining yuqori uchida ko'prik qurishga undagan bo'lishi mumkin. qayiqlarga nisbatan kamroq himoyasiz bo'lardi, lekin 1806 yilda Slimbridj aholisining huquqlarini buzganlikda gumon qilingan. (22-fn.) 1815 yilda qo'shilish komissarlari Frampton parishionerlarini Frampton tabletkasida bepul qo'nadigan joy bilan taqdirladilar, (23-fn), kanal qurilganda kanal qirg'og'ida biri bilan almashtirildi. (24 -fn) Quyida Frampton aholisining ba'zi dengizchilik ishlari haqida so'z yuritiladi. (fn. 25)

Framptondagi Woodland 1086 yilda yozilgan (26 -fn) va 1315 yilda manorial demesne 40 a. eman yog'ochidan. (27 -fn.) 1320 yilda Claypits yaqinidagi Vudendda (28 -fn) erni ijaraga berish ham daraxtlarni qulatishga ruxsat berdi. (fn. 29) 20 -dagi o'rmonzor. Frampton bog'ida 1296 yilda yozilgan (30 -fn) va 1434 yilda tilga olingan lord bog'i, (fn. 31) 1499 yilda yaylovga aylantirish uchun ijaraga olingan. 1543 yilda parkning boshqa ijaralarida 480 ta bo'lgani kabi, to'rtta eman daraxti (32 -fn.) Saqlanib qolgan. ning parki v. 50 a. keyinroq sharqdagi Frampton sudiga qo'shilgan. (fn. 35) Jamoatchilikning umumiy erlari, shu jumladan ochiq maydonlar va keng botqoqli o'tloqlar, asta-sekinlik bilan qo'shilib, 1815 yil parlament yig'ilishi bilan yakunlandi. (36-fn)

Cherkov maydonining katta qismini qoplagan shag'al 1646 yilgacha qazilgan edi. magistral temir yo'lining janubi-sharqida va janubi-g'arbda kanaldagi iskala tomon qurilgan (39-fn), shunda shag'al Avonmutga olib borilib, u erda doklar qurilishida ishlatilgan. (40-fn.) Oldingi ishlar cherkov markazida hovuzlar bilan belgilanadi, ular 1968 yilda suzib yurish uchun ishlatilgan, yaqin atrofdagi boshqa quduqlar ishlaganda va shag'al shirkatining cherkovning sharqiy burchagida ombori bo'lgan. Bir vaqtlar cherkovning loyidan g'isht ishlab chiqarishda foydalanilgan. 1746 yilda yozilgan g'isht teruvchi, ehtimol, mahalliy g'ishtli hovli bilan bog'liq edi, bu erda bir paytlar g'isht 6 da sotilgan.s. 6d. mingtasi sotildi v. 1775 yil 8 das. (42-fn.) 1782 yilda cherkovning g'arbida g'ishtli hovli va limekil yotardi, (43-fn.) va undan keyin janubda loydan yasalgan chuqur bor edi. (fn. 44) Frampton g'isht ishlab chiqaruvchilari 19-asr o'rtalarida qayd etilgan (45-chi fn.) O'sha davrdagi qo'shni cherkovlardagi ko'p uylar Frampton g'ishtidan qilingan, deyishadi, chunki bu erda tuzning ko'pligi qoniqarsiz hisoblanadi. loy. (fn. 46)

Shag'al bilan ta'minlangan yaxshi drenaj Framptonga erta joylashishni olib keldi. Shag'al ishlarida tarixdan avvalgi va rim-britaniyaliklarning ishg'ol qilinganligi haqidagi dalillar topilgan (47-fn) va Saksoniya Frampton aholi punkti nisbatan erta bo'lgan deb taxmin qilish o'rinli. Qishloq, shimoliy-g'arbiy kvartalda, uzunligi 1 milga cho'zilgan uzun va tor aholi punktini tashkil etadi va janubiy uchida bitta, ko'cha bo'ylab va shimoliy uchida keng yashil qishloq bo'ylab cho'zilgan. 18 -asrning boshlarida qishloq Cherch End va Frampton yoki Rosamund Green -dan iborat ikki qismdan iborat edi. (48 -fn) Bunday bo'linish eski uylardagi bo'shliq bilan ifodalanishi mumkin, bu erda bir vaqtlar Tokka ko'prigi ko'prigi bilan cho'zilgan daryo (49 -fn) qishloq ko'chasi ostidan o'tadi, lekin bu yashil uchini o'z ichiga oladi. aslida ko'chada joylashgan ba'zi uylar.

Cherkov End, deyarli qishloq ko'chasining janubiy chekkasida joylashgan cherkov cherkovi, avvalgi turar joyni ifodalaydi: cherkovning pozitsiyasi, cherkov hovlisining janubi-g'arbiy tomonida joylashgan punt. ) va ko'cha oldidagi ba'zi bo'sh joylardagi erning notekisligi, qishloq uylarining katta qismi bir vaqtlar Cherkov oxirida bo'lganini ko'rsatadi. U erda saqlanib qolgan uylar bir nechta yog'ochdan yasalgan binolarni o'z ichiga oladi, ulardan ba'zilari poxolini saqlab qolgan. Ularga beshta ko'rfazdan iborat uy qurilgan, ular asosan 1967 yilda qayta qurilgan va 1966 yilda Oegrove fermasi qarshisida buzib tashlangan bir juft krujka uylari bor edi. (fn. 51) Oegrove Farm-bu 17-asrning boshlarida to'rtburchaklar shaklida qurilgan, old tomondan to'rtburchaklar panelli yog'ochdan yasalgan, janubning katta qirrali moloz devorlari. Cherkov yaqinidagi ettita ko'rfazdan iborat katta omborda devorlar odatiy kvadrat panellar bilan o'ralgan bo'lib, ularda gips yopishmagan. Yog'ochdan yasalgan, bir qavatli chodirli uylar XVI asrning boshlariga tegishli bo'lishi mumkin, ulardan birida yostiqli yotoqxona, ikkinchisida esa kamida bitta katta tortish moslamasi bor. O'tgan asrning 60 -yillarida Cherch -Enddagi eski uylar va buzilgan kottejlar orasidagi bo'shliqlarda bir nechta kichik uylar to'siqsiz qurilgan.

Frampton Green yoki Rosamund's Green 1651 yildan ma'lum bo'lganidek, (fn. 52) qariyb yarim mil uzunlikda. Qishloq ko'chasi cherkovga olib boradigan janubiy chekkada, uylar to'plangan. Ko'chaning boshida, XVIII va XIX asrlardagi g'ishtli kottejlar orasida yog'ochdan yasalgan bir nechta binolar bor: ko'chaning uchi aylantirilgan Tudor yozgi uyi XV asrga tegishli bo'lishi mumkin va Greykroftda ikki darajali blokirovka qilingan teshiklari bo'lgan krujka ramkali gable-end. Ko'chaning narigi tomonida, Bukxolt uyi-bu 18-asrning g'ishtli uyi, ikki qavatli va yotqizilgan chodirlari, balandligi kamon janubda va uning yonida, uyning g'arbiy tomonidan ko'chib o'tilgan. fan-yorug'lik, pediment va dorik pilasterlar. Qishloqning katta -katta uylari ko'kalamzorning ikki tomonida yaxshi joylashgan. Ularga sharqiy tarafdagi Frampton-Kort va Granj va g'arbiy tarafdagi Manor-ferma kiradi, ular quyida muhokama qilinadi (53-fn) va 17-18-asrning oxirlarida g'ishtdan qurilgan eng katta uy-Frampton Lodge. yashilning shimoli-sharqiy burchagi, uch qavatli bo'lib, modilyonli korniş, uzun va qisqa quinlar va eshikning tepasi bor. Yashil atrofida yog'ochdan yasalgan va somondan yasalgan uylar ham bor, ular orasida janubiy uchi yaqinida uyi bor.

Yashilning o'zi 18 -asr oxirida sezilgan "toza va o'stiriladigan havo" ni saqlab qoldi. 1731 yilda yashil maydonni to'kib tashlagan va uning bo'ylab yangi yo'l qurgan Richard Klutterbuk, odatda, uni botqoqlikdan qutqarish uchun kredit oldi (55 -fn.), Lekin yashil "a" deb ta'riflangan. 20 yil oldin juda yoqimli joy. (fn. 56)

Frampton-on-Severn v. 1800

Qishloq nisbatan katta bo'lgan va kichik darajada cherkov chegaralaridan tashqarida joylashgan hududning markazi bo'lgan. O'rta asrlarda Framptonda bozor va yarmarka bo'lgan. (57 -fn) XIV asrning boshlarida manor xo'jayini Robert Fitspeynning Frampton tumanini (58 -fn) yaratishga bo'lgan urinishi hech narsaga olib kelmaganga o'xshaydi. Hech qanday burgutlik muddati qayd etilmagan (59 -fn), mavze maqomining saqlanib qolgan an'anasi haqidagi yagona mumkin bo'lgan dalillar, 17 -asrning boshlarida, bir tumanning imtiyozlarini (60 -fn) o'zlashtirganlik uchun ayblovdir. 1683 va 1718 yillardagi uylarga tuman hududida bo'lgani kabi. (61-fn) So'nggi paytlarda Framptonda qishloq xo'jaligiga tegishli bo'lmagan kasblarning yuqori ulushi (62-fn) qishloqning nafaqat mustaqil savdogarlar uchun, balki zodagonlar uchun ham yashash joyi sifatida jozibadorligidan kelib chiqishi mumkin. ularni ta'minlash uchun u erga boshqa savdogarlarni jalb qiladigan professional odamlar. Tomas Daniel, 1643 yilda tibbiyot bilan shug'ullanish uchun litsenziyaga ega, (fn. 63) - Framptondagi ko'plab shifokorlar va jarrohlarning eng qadimiysi. (64-fn.) 1798 y. aholisi buxgalter, jarroh, ikkita kabinet ishlab chiqaruvchi va "o'yuvchi" ni o'z ichiga olgan. O'ymakor Jon Pirs edi (65 -chi fn.) Va dafn marosimlari uning tomonidan va keyinchalik Framptonning ikkita masonlari - Vilkins va Bennett tomonidan tuman cherkovlarida ko'rish mumkin. (66-chi fn.) 1842 yilda Framptonda vikar bo'lmagan bitta ruhoniy bo'lgan, 1842 yilda (67-fn) va 1856 yildan boshlab ko'p sonli xususiy fuqarolar kimyogar, tegirmonchi, musiqa o'qituvchisi kabi kasblarga ishga joylashishgan. , pianino-tyuner va vino savdogari. (fn. 68)

Qishloq huquqining davom etishi u erda bir nechta zamonaviy uylarning qurilishiga va kottejlar va kichik fermer xo'jaliklarining o'rta sinf uylarga aylanishiga olib keldi. Qishloqning asosiy kengayishi qishloq okrug kengashi tomonidan ko'chmas mulk binosi bo'ldi v. Yashilning shimolidagi 200 ta uy 19 -asrning oxirida bir nechta kichik uylar bo'lgan va Ikkinchi Jahon urushidan oldin bir qator kengash uylari qurilgan, lekin uylarning aksariyati 1960 -yillarda qurilgan. Chekka aholi punktlaridan ko'pchiligi yakka tartibdagi uy-joylardir. Parkning fermasi, cherkovning janubi-sharqiy burchagida, 17-asrda qurilgan, yog'ochdan yasalgan ikki qavatli uy, asosan, keyingi g'ishtning orqasida yashiringan va to'rtburchaklar rejali bo'lib, markaziy bacadan g'ishtdan yasalgan. bir tomondan kirish eshigi o'rtasida, ikkinchi tomondan birinchi qavatdagi yangi zinapoya va chodirlar. Cherkovning shimoliy burchagida joylashgan Walk Farm, ehtimol o'sha davrda, 19-asr boshlarida g'isht bilan qoplangan, past tosh tagida joylashgan, to'rtburchaklar ramkali bino qurilgan. Nastfild (sobiq dala) fermasi, cherkovdan 1 mil sharqda, 1777 yil oldin (69 -sonli) g'ishtdan baland kulli poydevorda qurilgan va old tomoni nosimmetrik bo'lib, uning old tomoni bo'sh o'qli ko'zli modillion kornişning qavslari o'rtasiga va plastinka terakota. Nastfild fermasi va qishloq orasidagi Townfild fermasi va Golxillzdagi cherkovning sharqiy burchagidagi ikkita ferma uyi 18-asr oxiri yoki 19-asr boshlarida g'ishtdan qurilgan. Gollandiya sharqida Fromebrid tegirmoni joylashgan, (70-chi), 18-asrda g'ishtdan yasalgan tegirmon uyi 19-asrning o'rtalarida mehmonxona, ehtimol o'sha davrdagi bir nechta kottej va etti qatorli. ikki xonali kottejlar qurilgan v. 1800. Shuningdek, bir vaqtlar Claypits yaqinida Woodend va Puddiford deb nomlangan ferma uyi yoki uylari bor edi (71-son), Puddiford nomi XIII asrda Framptonda erga ega bo'lgan oilani eslaydi (72-fn.) Va u erda bir parcha bor edi. 1782 yilda Woodend Green deb nomlangan manorial chiqindilar, uning yonida bitta uy bor edi. 1968 yilda hammasi bo'lib 11 tasi bor edi. Yashilning shimoliy chetidan janubi-sharqda 19-20 asrlarga oid oltita kichik uy bor.

Frampton qishlog'i qadimgi Severn o'tish joyi bo'lgan Arlingham va Perri Veyning Gloucester-Bristol yo'li bilan bog'langan, u Rim yo'lining chizig'ini (fn. 75) bosib o'tadi va shu nom bilan 1302 yilda yozilgan. fn.76) bu 1726 yildan 1874 yilgacha Gloucester-Bristol yo'li bilan bir xil ishonch ostida bo'lgan burilish yo'li edi. (fn. 77) Janubi-sharqiy chegarani belgilaydigan bu yo'lni cherkov qisman ta'mirlab bergan. (78 -fn) Fromni 1328 yilda Frome ko'prigi deb nomlangan ko'prik orqali kesib o'tdi, (79 -fn), bu uyni xo'jayin va 1378 yilda Frampton odamlari tuzatishi kerak edi. (fn. 80) Rejalar bor edi. 1740 yilda ko'prikni qayta tiklash uchun (fn. 81) va v. 1867, (82 -fn.) Bu vaqtga kelib u okrug ko'prigi bo'lgan. (83-fn) 20-asr o'rtalarida yo'llarning yaxshilanishi From ko'prigini ham, Vikster ko'prigini ham butunlay o'zgartirib yubordi, bu yo'l janubi-g'arbdan 2 mil narida Vikster daryosidan o'tdi. Vikster ko'prigi, yozilgan v. 1363 yil ta'mirdan chiqqanidek, (fn. 84) 1675 (fn. 85) va 1759, (fn. 86) da tuzatilgan va 1859 yilga kelib okrug ko'prigiga aylangan. (fn. 87) Buckle Bridge va Warth Bridge yuqorida aytib o'tilgan.

1086 yilda Framptonda 27 kishi ro'yxatga olindi (88 -fn) va 1327 -yilda, faqat 12 kishi soliq uchun hisoblangan bo'lsa -da, Frampton Uitstoun yuzida eng yuqori bahoga ega edi. (fn. 89) Framptonning 1542 yildagi yig'ilishida 85 ta ism bor edi, bu Stounxausdan bir xil, (fn. 90) va 1603 yilda 329 nafar kattalar bor edi (fn. 91). 17 -asrning o'rtalarida: 1650 -yilda 105 oilaga berilgan bo'lsa, (92 -fn) 1672 yilda faqat 47 uy o'choq solig'i uchun baholangan, (93 -fn) va kattalar soni 1676 yilda 249 deb aytilgan. . (fn. 94) 100 ta uyda yashovchi 500 kishidan, v. 1710 (fn. 95) aholisi 600 ga etdi v. 1775 (fn. 96) va 1801 yilda 860. U 1831 yilgacha o'sishda davom etdi, keyin 1911 yilda 1055 dan 730 gacha tushdi. Shundan so'ng 1961 yilda 1096 taga (97 fn) ko'tarildi, lekin 1968 yilga kelib boshqa bino qurildi. jami bu ko'rsatkichdan ancha ortda qoldi.

1595 yilda ikkita litsenziyasiz g'olib uylar (fn. 98) va 1643 yilda "cho'chqaning boshi" yozilgan. (Fn. 99) 1667 yilda ikkita litsenziyasiz uylar bor edi (fn. 100) va 1689 yilda chorak sessiyalarida shunday qaror qabul qilingan. Old Inn va "Crown" dan tashqari, Framptondagi barcha uylar yopiladi. Olti oy o'tgach, xuddi shunday buyruq faqat "Nag boshi" va "Oltin yurak" dan tashqari edi, lekin ko'prik yonidagi alexouse (ehtimol tokka ko'prigi) litsenziyalanishi kerakligi aytilgan. (fn. 101) 1755 yilda to'rtta g'olib bor edi, (102 -chi fn), ulardan biri Bell Innni 1740 yilda yozilgan yashil maydonning shimoliy chekkasida saqlagan, (103 -fn) 19 -asrda qayta qurilgan va hozirgacha saqlanib qolgan. 1968. 1807 yilgacha "Eski oqqush" deb nomlangan alexouse bor edi, (fn. 104) va 1838 yilda jamoat uyi ("Qo'ng'iroq") va 7 ta pivo do'konlari bor edi. (fn. 105) "Qo'ng'iroq" dan tashqari, 1939 yilda uchta jamoat uyi bor edi, (106 -fn), "Uch ot taqasi" 1968 yilda qolgan.

Frampton ko'ngillilari 1798 yilda Frampton sudining Nataniel Vinchkom boshchiligida tarbiyalangan va ularning sonining qariyb yarmini qo'shni to'qqizta cherkovdan olgan. Ular 1806 yildan keyin tarqatib yuborilgan. (Fn. 107) Do'stona jamiyat 1816 yildan 1843 yilgacha yoki undan keyinroq, (fn. 108) faol bo'lgan va 1842 yilda uning klub kuni dushanba kuni Frampton bayramida o'tkazilgan. (fn. 109) Frampton bayrami, o'tkazilgan kundan boshlab hukm qilish, o'rta asr yarmarkasidan omon qolish edi. (fn. 110) Yashil maydonda o'yin -kulgi yarmarkasi bayram paytida o'tkazildi, (fn. 111) va Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida bayram to'xtatilgan bo'lsa -da, zavq yarmarkasi omon qoldi va 1966 yilda bayram qayta tiklandi. 112) Adabiyot va mexanika instituti, 1852 yilda tashkil etilgan, (fn. 113) tugatilgan. v. 1890. (fn. 114) Uning ba'zi tadbirlarini 1907 yilda anonim xayrixoh tomonidan qurilgan zali bo'lgan Parish instituti o'z zimmasiga oldi. (fn. 115) Zal 1968 yilda faol ishlatilgan.

1643-4 yillarda Framptondagi parlament garnizoni Berklidagi qirollik kuchlarini nazorat ostida ushlab turish uchun xizmat qildi. (fn. 116) 1662 yilda g'ayrioddiy kuchli bo'ron qishloqqa katta zarar etkazdi, uy va 12 ta omborxona vayron bo'ldi va 357 ta daraxt qulab tushdi. (fn. 117) 1631 va 1650 yillarda qo'shilishga qarshi bo'lganlar cherkovda ba'zi tartibsizliklar keltirib chiqardi, (118 -fn) va 1766 yilda 50 kishilik g'alayonli guruh Jon Sansumning uyini qulata boshladi. (fn. 119)

Rosamund Klifford tarixi (vafoti). v. 1176), (fn. 120) Genrix II ning "Adolatli Rosamund" asari 14 -asrdan boshlab juda ko'p import qilingan afsonalar bilan bezatilgan (fn. 121) va Frampton haqida hikoya qiluvchi ko'plab sahifalarni to'ldirgan. (fn. 122) U cherkov bilan faqat otasi Uolterning uy -joy xo'jayini va Rosamund dafn qilingan Godstow Abbeyga, Framptondagi tegirmonga, rafiqasi Margaretning ruhi manfaati uchun berilgan. uning qizi Rosamund. (fn. 123) Jon Klifford (1684 y. t.) Rosamund haqidagi hikoyani mahalliy darajada qo'llab -quvvatlagan bo'lishi mumkin: u o'z qizlaridan biriga Rosamund deb ism qo'ygan, (124 -fn), uning nasl -nasabi Rosamundning asl nusxasi bilan nusxalangan, (fn. 125) va Rosamund Green (fn. 126) ismining birinchi marta ishlatilgani, u Framptonda o'z mulkini sotib olganidan keyin. (fn. 127) U Rosamund ota -bobolari yashagan Fretherne Lodge (128 -fn) da tug'ilgan, degan ishonch uchun mas'ul bo'lgan bo'lishi mumkin, lekin bu uy buzilganidan keyin (fn. 129) Frampton sudi (fn. 130). ) va keyinchalik, Manor Fermasining Rosamund Bower deb nomlangan qismi (131 -son) uning tug'ilgan joyi deb hisoblangan.


Birinchi Severn ko'prigi ko'prik binosini abadiy o'zgartirdi

Har yili millionlab haydovchilar Severn ko'prigidan hech o'ylamasdan foydalanadilar.

Ammo u 51 yil oldin qurilganida, o'nlab yillar davomida gapirib kelinganida, u osma ko'prik dizaynini abadiy o'zgartirdi.

Maykl Parsons - M4ni 30 yil davomida olib yurgan I darajali tuzilmada ishlagan eng omon qolgan muhandis.

"Bu Amerikadagi" Takoma Narrows Bridge "ning muvaffaqiyatsizligi bilan bog'liq bo'lib, u flutter deb nomlangan hodisa tufayli muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi", dedi 89 yoshli qariya.

"Biz Forth va Severn ko'priklarini qurishni boshlaganimizda, biz bu muammoni hal qilishimiz kerakligini angladik."

Mashhur kadrlarda Vashington shtati ko'prigi 1940 yil 7 noyabrda Puget Soundga qulab tushgani ko'rsatilgan. O'sha paytda u dunyodagi uchinchi uzun osma ko'prik edi.

U 1940 yil 1 -iyulda ochilganidan keyin bir necha oy ichida 40 mil tezlikda shamol qurboniga aylandi va bu erdagi muhandislar Severn daryosi bo'yidagi shiddatli shamollarni hisobga olib, bunday nosozlikka dosh berolmasligini bilishgan.

Severn ko'prigining rejasi qatnov qismini mustahkamlaydigan ochiq truss dizaynidan foydalanish edi.

Bu Edinburgdagi Forth ko'prigida ishlatilgan. Bu AQShda hukmron dizayn edi, uni San -Frantsiskodagi Oltin darvoza ko'prigida va Nyu -Yorkdagi Bruklin ko'prigida ko'rish mumkin.

Hamma narsa rejaga to'g'ri kelmadi.

Maykl shunday dedi: "Sinov paytida xo'jayinim Gilbert Roberts mening kabinetimga kirib:" Parsons, men Milliy fizika laboratoriyasiga ketyapman, chunki ular sinovdan o'tkazgan model shnuridan yiqilib tushdi ", dedi.

"Bu men ser Gilbert uchun sayoz trussda ishlab chiqqan model edi."

Tez orada Freeman Fox & Part Partners va Mott, Hay & amp Anderson tomonidan boshqariladigan loyiha tenderga o'tishi kerak edi.


Gloucestershire

1960 yil 25 oktyabrda Severn daryosidagi Sharpness yaqinida kuchli tankerda ikkita tanker barjasi to'qnashdi.

Ular to'lqinni ushlab qolishdi, boshqaruvni yo'qotdilar va ko'prik ustunlaridan biriga urilishdi.

Ko'prik qisman qulab tushdi va benzin tashayotgan qayiqlardan biri yonib ketdi va portladi.

Boshqa kema bir necha soat yonib ketgan va yonib ketgan qora neft yukini olib yurgan.

Tabiiy ofatda besh kishi halok bo'ldi.

Hozirgi tadqiqotlar shuni ko'rsatdiki, bu Wastdale H va Arkendale H to'qnashuviga olib kelgan xavfli yon oqim bo'lishi mumkin.

Bundan tashqari, falokat haqidagi maxfiy dastlabki tergovning ilgari ko'rilmagan hisobotida, kapitanlardan biri o'z kemasini boshqarishda "ojiz" bo'lganligi ta'kidlangan.

1961 yil may oyida o'tkazilgan rasmiy ommaviy so'rovda, qayiqning uchuvchilaridan hech biri avariya uchun ayblanmagan.

Biroq, falokatning 50 yilligiga bag'ishlangan radio hujjatli filmni tadqiq qilar ekan, BBC Radio Gloucestershire muxbiri Endi Vivian Kew milliy arxivida sodir bo'lgan voqea haqidagi yangi bayonotlar va yozma dalillarni topdi.

Tabiiy ofat yuzasidan dastlabki tergovni o'tkazish uchun mas'ul bo'lgan Savdo kengashi Dengiz xavfsizligi bo'limi tomonidan to'plangan maxfiy fayl shu paytgacha hech qachon ko'rilmagan.

Surishtiruvni bajarish uchun tayinlangan shaxs Bristol portining katta geodezyori bo'lgan P. W. Burgess edi.

The statements he collected provide more detail from George Thompson and James Dew, the two skippers involved, regarding the decisions they made that night, in the minutes after their vessels had collided and become joined together.

In response to this report officials at the Board of Trade were fairly complementary about Thompson's handling of the Arkendale H but issued some tempered criticism of the decisions made by Dew on the Wastdale H.

The report to a superior of the Marine Safety Division of the Board of Trade, Capt J H Quick, from his inferior Capt A C Manson states: "Since the distance to the bridge was something less than half a mile they had thus a maximum period of six minutes in which to extricate themselves and regain control.

"Being able to sit calmly after the event and weigh up the circumstances, I am of the opinion that the best chance of getting out of this situation would have been given had the Wastdale gone full astern and the Arkendale full ahead on port helm.

"This would have brought them apart and helped to bring them head to tide. I believe that an anchor underfoot might also have assisted.

"The Arkendale's master did in fact go ahead on port helm but his efforts were nullified by Wastdale's full ahead on starboard helm.

"To the extent that he went ahead on starboard helm to "push the other vessel off" I consider that the master of the Wastdale displayed ineptitude in the handling of his vessel, but this was by no means culpable negligence."

Another factor which has not been highlighted before has also come to light, and suggests that a natural phenomenon peculiar to the stretch of river where it occurred may have contributed to the accident.

Dense fog on the night of the incident meant the vessels both dropped past the entrance to Sharpness harbour and found themselves further upstream than they should have been, having to battle against an incoming tide to regain the harbour entrance.

The area they found themselves in was half a mile upstream, near the entrance to Sharpness old dock, which had long since been blocked off.

The shore here juts out into the river and is known as Sharpness Point, and the tide runs much faster here.

Prior to the collision, both vessels were travelling roughly in parallel, with the Wastdale on the shore side.

The Arkendale may have been making more progress since Thompson talks about the Wastdale dropping back out of the fog.

Captain Thompson said that the Wastdale then sheered round to starboard and hit the Arkendale near the bow.

Up until now this collision has been put down to the difficulties caused by the fog.

Fred Larkham from Newnham, who is probably the most experienced river man on the Severn today, and who understands better than anyone the tides on this stretch of the river, says the tanker skippers would have been unfamiliar with a dangerous current which occurs north of Sharpness:

"At the old dock there is a strong tide and also the back eddy which causes problems. This is caused by the tide rushing by the pier and it takes a starboard turn and comes back into the shore and then back down the gully and runs out by the pier.

"This could push the bow off. It would spin you into the main flood tide. Maybe one or two round turns in the tide and you'd be up to the area where the collision occurred."

To mark the 50th anniversary of the disaster two memorial stones have been unveiled on the banks of the Severn.

One is situated at Lydney Docks and a second is located at Purton.

Relatives and friends of the crew who lost their lives were there at the unveiling.

The plaques and their dedication ceremonies were organised by Paul Barnett, chairman of Friends of Purton.

There is also a special exhibition about the disaster currently showing at the Dean Heritage Museum until 16 January 2011.

You can find out more about the Severn Bridge Disaster by listening to Andy Vivian's six-part documentary on BBC Radio Gloucestershire all next week (25-30 October 2010), and for seven days afterwards on the BBC iPlayer, on Chris Baxter's mid-morning programme and on Faye Hatcher's programme .

The Severn Bridge Disaster will also feature on BBC1's Inside Out (West) on Monday, 25 October, 2010. The programme will be available on the BBC iPlayer for 7 days after broadcast.


Design and Contract Preparations

Initial Design – Contract Preparations

Design work on the new crossing included further detailed studies, a hydraulic model to test pier positions, mathematical modelling, a bathymetric survey, and geotechnical and topographical surveys for the route corridors. Extensive research was carried out into wind shielding and also into climate change issues, which indicated a potential rise in sea levels. The viability of engineering concepts and innovations were confirmed, together with the buildability and quality of the scheme.

Extensive consultations were undertaken with all those affected to ensure that concerns were fully understood and positively addressed in the development of the scheme. Wide ranging studies were carried out into the existing environment, potential impacts were identified and removed where feasible, and proposals were developed for reducing remaining adverse impacts. The consultations also included navigation interests, industry, landscape advice, and the Royal Fine Arts Commission regarding the main bridge and other structures.

A series of public exhibitions was held in England and Wales in areas affected by the proposals, initially showing the results of the study and then the changes adopted as the design was developed to take account of local concerns and the results of surveys

Contract Arrangements

In April 1989, tenders were invited for the main crossing and toll Plaza. The tender details included highly detailed technical requirements, contractual/financial issues, constructional aspects, and environmental monitoring. Separate bids were sought for two possible scenarios:
(a) to design, construct and finance the crossing, and to assume responsibility for operating and maintaining both it and the existing Severn Bridge during a concession period, in return for the toll revenue from both bridges during that period, and
(b) to design and construct the new crossing in return for staged payments from the government.

In 1990, following a rigorous assessment of the tenders, the Government accepted, in principle, the proposal of Severn River Crossing plc to design, construct, finance and operate the second crossing. Severn River Crossing plc was a consortium set up specially to bid for the project. It included major investment banks, a British contractor, John Laing plc, and a French contractor, GTM Entrepose.

Obtaining Parliamentary Approval 1990 to 1992

Authority to build the scheme was obtained through Parliament. A hybrid Bill was used to seek the powers required to construct the estuary crossing and the approach roads, to compulsorily purchase the land, and to charge tolls. The Severn Bridges Bill was lodged in November 1990 and, after thorough examination of the scheme by Parliamentary Committees, Royal Assent was granted in early 1992. The immense value of the extensive and detailed consultations, with over 40 affected parties, was shown by the small number of formal objections that were presented against the Bill. A Concession Agreement, between the Government and Severn River Crossing Plc, was signed and construction was started in Spring 1992.

Final Design for the Second Crossing. 1992 to 1993

The Second Crossing is comprised of a cable stayed bridge spanning the main navigation channel, with a two kilometre length of approach viaduct on either side. At 5 kilometres, it was the longest river crossing of this type in the country.

The Viaducts.

There are 20 spans of approach viaduct on either side of the main bridge and each span is made up of 27 separate units of hollow concrete box girder, tensioned together using high tensile steel strands.

The Shoots Bridge.

The centre-piece of this crossing of the Estuary is the cable stayed bridge over the main navigation channel, known as the Shoots. The main channel resembles a steep sided trench at this location and, although it is only about 300m wide at the base, the pylon legs had to be set back, well away from the top edge of the trench, to ensure stability. After careful consideration, a main span of 456m was agreed upon. At the time of its design, there were no cable stayed bridges operating anywhere in the world with a longer span, although the Pont de Normandie in France was well under construction with a span of 856m.

Other Works

Outline of the Second Bridge

In parallel with these activities, the detailed design of the motorway approach roads was undertaken and tender documents were prepared. This work included the resolution of many issues affecting areas local to the roads, dealing with environmental, landscaping and community issues, and incorporating a wide range of mitigation measures.

Tenders for the approach roads were invited in October 1992 and contracts were awarded in time for construction to start in Spring 1993. The challenge was to construct the second crossing and the approach roads in time for an opening in 1996.

Next Page


Short but fascinating walk, mainly along the Severn flood defences. Iconic views of the two Severn Bridges dominate the landscape.

The first Severn Bridge is a suitably impressive place to begin a journey around the British coastline. Completed in 1966, it is 1.6 km long, and spans 888m between the two towers. Each tower is 168m high and bears the weight of almost 12,000 tonnes. The bridge took two years and £8m to build. It is a breathtaking piece of engineering.

Contrary to widespread belief, the land you can see on the far side of the bridge is not Wales, but part of Gloucestershire.

From the Bridge, we descended the footpath towards Aust. A short path to the left crossed the top of the motorway toll booths to reach Severn View motorway service station, but we continued to the river’s edge, briefly visiting the village of Aust on the way.

We reached the Severn at Old Passage. At first glance, this seems an inconsequential collection of a few houses, but there is more history here than meets the eye.

On the bend by the Severn is Old Passage House. It stands out from the rest of the buildings, and its size and elevation suggest it may have been a hotel serving the ferry that ran from here in earlier times. The building, parts of which date from the sixteenth century, and the ferry are depicted in an eighteenth century painting (below). But just Qanaqasiga ancient is this ferry service?

We know that a rival ferry, at New Passage (a few miles downstream) , was in existence in 1727. This was the year that Daniel Defoe, author of Robinson Crusoe, published his Tour Thro’ the Whole Island of Great Britain, in which he expressed a clear preference for the newer ferry,

“There is also a little farther, an ugly, dangerous, and very inconvenient ferry over the Severn, to the mouth of Wye namely, at Aust the badness of the weather, and the sorry boats, at which, deterr’d us from crossing there.”

Perhaps his disdain is justified, for we know that at least three ferries from Old Passage were lost with all hands, in 1839 and 1844 and 1855.

Manorial records show that the ferry was in use as far back as the 1100s. It is also known that the Romans shipped men across the Severn somewhere along this section of coast, and it has been suggested, very plausibly, that the name Aust derives from Augustus, the Roman emperor. It is possible that Old passage, as a ferry site, has a very long history indeed.

Unable to compete with the new railways, the ferry closed in the 1860s. It gained a new lease of life, however, with the rise of the motor car, and reopened in 1926. It served as the only car ferry across the Severn for nearly forty years, until finally closing on 8th September, 1966, the day before the Severn Bridge opened.

Bob Dylan at Aust ferry, 1966

There are many photographs of the Aust car ferry available, including several in the Francis Frith collection. One of the more famous photographs is the one used to publicise Martin Scorcese’s 2005 documentary film of Bob Dylan, No Direction Home. If you look carefully at the photo, just above the car, you can see the Severn Bridge, which opened about three months after this photograph was taken.

After possibly two thousand years as a crossing-point, the remains of Aust ferry today seems quite poignant:

At low tide, it is possible to walk along the beach from here under the Severn Bridge, and beyond towards Gloucester. We walked as far as the Bridge. There was lots of mud. Midge likes mud.

Behind the beach rises Aust Cliff. Although not particularly high, the cliff is remarkable for the different strata of rock visible as horizontal bands across the face. The lowest red mudstones are around 250 million years old, and are evidence of dry conditions, when wind-blown red dust was deposited on sun-baked mudflats. The white layer near the bottom of the cliff is gypsum, created when salt-rich lakes, trapped in this desert, evaporated. Later, around 205 million years ago, huge volcanic activity split the single continental plate apart, and the red mudstones of Aust were flooded by the Jurassic Sea. Over the next few million years, debris on the sea-bed formed into the layer of white limestone near the top of the cliff. Thousands of fossils of marine animals have been found in this layer this was, after all, the Jurassic era, the age of the dinosaurs, when there was an explosion of new life-forms on our planet.

Everything on this fascinating section of coastline seems to have a story, or deserve mention. Electric pylons are not normally noteworthy on a walk that is not the case here. At 148m high, the pylons to the west of the Severn Bridge are not quite the tallest in the country, but they carry the longest powerline span anywhere in the UK. They are more than a mile apart.

Walking back through Old Passage, we resumed our walk westwards. A stretch of quiet road led to a footpath along the top of the bank that forms the flood defences for this part of Gloucestershire. To our right was the large expanse of the Severn floodplain, a haven for birds. Beyond, as a backdrop, was the Second Severn Crossing.

Not unexpectedly, because of the birdlife it attracts, part of the saltmarsh has been granted special protection. The Pilning Wetland Reserve is a Ramsar site, as well as a Site of Special Scientific Interest. According to a noticeboard, over 240 species of birds have been recorded here, including curlews, dunlin, turnstones, and bar-tailed godwit.

Since Old Passage, we had been following the Severn Way, a 220-mile long-distance footpath that I walked some years go. It is a brilliant path, following the River Severn from its source high in the Plynlimon Hills, through Llanidloes, Shrewsbury, Worcester, Tewkesbury, and Gloucester, until eventually reaching the Bristol Channel. It used to end at Severn Beach, but has since been extended to the centre of Bristol. Being of similar length and similar focus, it invites comparison with the Thames Path National Trail. I think the Severn Way is the superior trail, but others may disagree. You can get to know the Severn Way by visiting Paul & Pam’s blog they have been walking the trail from its start, and will soon be finished!

The boat depicted on the Severn Way waymarks is a Severn trow, a cargo vessel unique to the River Severn. These craft were specially designed for river use, with flat bottoms and wide bilges. Despite a long history, they have not been used for almost a century, and today it is more common to see small hovercraft on the lower reaches of the Severn.

The pleasant path alongside the marshes led to New Passage, consisting of a few modern houses. Farqli Old Passage, there is no sign of the ferry which used to run from here. It closed shortly after the Severn Railway Tunnel was opened in 1886, and we have only an eighteenth century painting to suggest its whereabouts. The hotel in the picture was demolished in the 1970s.

Just beyond New Passage is the Second Severn road bridge, built between 1992 and 1996 to relieve pressure on the first Severn Bridge. At 3¼ miles, it is the longest bridge in the UK. Personally, though, I don’t find it as graceful a structure as the original Severn Bridge. It carries approximately 20 million vehicles a year, three times as many as the older Bridge.

Unseen, the Severn railway tunnel runs beneath Severn Beach. Part of the Great Western Railway, it was the longest railway tunnel in the UK for more than a century, until the Channel tunnel link was built under London in 2007. It is over 4 miles long.

We followed the flood wall beneath the motorway bridge, which shortly led to the village of Severn Beach. Severn Beach has an unusual history, in that it was created in 1922, from sratch, as a seaside resort conveniently located near the railway. It was popular with Bristolians for many years, although has recently declined. Most of the attractions have closed, and the village is now little more than a commuter village for Bristol.

Having reached Severn Beach railway station, this was the end of our first, rather short, day of walking the coast. We had not actually planned to begin walking until tomorrow, but took advantage of a glorious evening to begin the journey. The railway goes no further east than Severn Beach, and we had no accommodation, so there was little alternative but to turn around and re-trace our steps. However, in this warm evening, the sky was coloured with pastel shades of yellows and pinks, and the walk back was no hardship.

Distance = 6½ miles Ascent = 16 metres

Tomorrow, we have a full day for walking, and it is a section I am looking forward to. Initially following the coast to Avonmouth, we will then head south to follow the River Avon into the heart of Bristol. This walk will be the subject of my next blog.


Gloucestershire

On the night of 25th October 1960 - a Tuesday - 16 vessels, many carrying cargos of oil from Swansea or petrol from Avonmouth, were heading up the Severn aiming to enter Sharpness Harbour on the late tide.

At 9.15pm, about a mile before Sharpness they encountered a very dense fog, rolling off the Berkeley bank.

Trying to find the harbour entrance while avoiding collision with other vessels, two of the tankers drifted past Sharpness and found themselves half a mile upstream where the river narrows and the tide flows faster.

They were the Arkendale H and the Wastdale H, both owned by John Harker Ltd. The Wastdale was carrying a cargo of 350 tons of petrol, the Arkendale a similar quantity of heating oil.

It was now gone 10pm and both vessels were battling against the strong tide to regain the harbour entrance. The fog was so dense that they were just yards apart when they saw each other.

At about 10.20, their bows touched and the two vessels were immediately sucked together along their entire length. Unable to draw apart, they were spun clockwise and driven upriver by the tide where, minutes later, they collided with the 17th pier of the Severn Railway Bridge, sending it flying into the river.

The two spans supported by the pier, crashed onto the tankers below. A spark ignited the petrol that was now pouring from the damaged Wastdale and soon the whole river was a mass of flames as oil from the Arkendale added to the conflagration.

Fortunately, the last train of the day had passed over the bridge just a few minutes before the accident. It was a close run thing.

By the time the train reached Sharpness, the bridge was no longer intact. The two tankers, dragging several hundred feet of railway line were brought to a halt on a sandbank just above the bridge.

In the water the crew were swept upstream by the tide and their cries for help could be heard from both banks. Disoriented by the swirling waters it was over an hour before one of them, George Thompson - captain of the Arkendale, managed to swim to the bank at Awre.

About an hour later, carried back downriver by the ebbing tide, a second, Jim Dew - captain of the Wastdale, reached the Forest shore near the bridge and presented himself naked at a local pub.

Several local boatmen told the police it was too dangerous to launch a dinghy and more substantial rescue craft were trapped inside harbour gates by the falling tide. But despite the dangers, on each bank there were brave men who launched small rowing boats in search of survivors.

On the Forest side, father and son Walter and Mike Cadogan from Awre, searched in vain. But Tommy Carter and Charles Henderson, setting off from the eastern bank, rowed right across the river to a point below the bridge where they heard the cries of Jack Cooper, the engineer on the Arkendale, whom they rescued and carried safely to Lydney harbour.

The five other crew members did not survive and it was many days before all their bodies were retrieved.

For two years there was a plan to rebuild the bridge and school children from Sharpness and Berkeley continued to attend Lydney grammar school thanks to a special train via Gloucester laid on by British Railways. But this was the era of Beeching and sometime after 1962 the plans were quietly dropped, bringing to a close the link between the communities of Lydney and Sharpness which had lasted for over 80 years since the bridge was completed in 1879.

It was several years before the bridge was finally demolished one firm went bust in the process. Now just the stone tower which supported the swing section over the canal remains and, of course, the two wrecks are still to be seen at low tide resting in their sandy grave.


7 Iconic Bridges of England

The best of England’s magnificent bridges span the ages standing strong, connecting communities and creating vital access across our waterways.

Here we take a look at seven of England’s finest bridges, and what makes them special:

1. Humber Bridge, Hull, Grade I listed

At 1,410 metres long, the Humber Bridge was the longest single-span suspension bridge in the world when it was built in 1981, a record it maintained for 16 years. It remains in the top ten longest spans worldwide and is the longest that you can walk across.

The bridge is supported by massive cables – almost enough cable to go round the earth twice. Despite its enormous size and strength, the Humber Bridge has an elegance that is in harmony with the landscape. The sandy concrete towers and muted deck, echo the colours of the reeds, grass, pebbles and sand of the shores and muddy brown of the Humber it crosses.

2. Clifton Suspension Bridge, Bristol. Grade I listed

Spanning the Avon Gorge in Bristol, the Clifton Suspension Bridge is famously known to be based on a design by Isambard Kingdom Brunel. However, little is reported about the contribution by a woman who was one of the foremost engineering, inventing and designing minds of the Georgian era.

Sarah Guppy was a prolific inventor, patenting a design for safe foundations for bridges ‘whereby the danger of being washed away by floods is avoided.’ This patent for piling foundations came into being in 1811 and formed the blueprint for the iconic bridge that Brunel would design 19 years later.

Before the bridge was completed in the 1850s, intrepid passengers could cross the gorge in a basket slung from an iron bar. It has been the location of the first bungee jump in 1979 and the last ever Concorde flypast in 2003.

3. Severn Bridge, Gloucestershire, Grade I listed

A physical embodiment of the near 500 year union between England and Wales, the 1966 Severn River Crossing is granted the highest level of protection by listing. It was the first bridge in the world to use the revolutionary concept of a streamlined deck and inclined hangers, and an early example of a fully welded steel deck. The structure is a symbol of the industrial heritage of South Wales which it is the gateway to, and where some of the country’s wealth was quite literally forged, providing infrastructure for the whole British Empire.

Before the bridge opened in 1966, people waited in their cars for the jeopardous trip on the car ferry in Aust, to avoid a 60 mile round trip to Gloucester. A promotional image for Martin Scorsese’s film No Direction Home, about the life of Bob Dylan, features an image of Dylan standing in front of the ferry terminal in May 1966, not long before it closed for good. The Severn bridge can be seen almost complete in the background.

4. Tees Transporter Bridge, Grade II* listed

The Tees Transporter or Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge has become a landmark that embodies the town it which it stands. It was the largest bridge of its kind when it was finished in 1911 and remains the longest existing transporter bridge in the world at 851 feet long.

The bridge is one of only six known operational transporter bridges remaining in the world, three of which are in Britain. During World War II the superstructure of the bridge was hit by a bomb but despite this, the gondola and The Transporter Bridge are still running in perfect order.

5. Iron Bridge, Telford, Shropshire, Grade I listed

The Iron Bridge in Shropshire is a symbol of the dawn of the industrialised age – the world’s first bridge made from cast iron.
It was built by Abraham Darby III to join the towns of Coalbrookdale and Broseley across the River Severn. The Darby family had produced iron goods like cooking pots and tram rails for some time, and perfected the technique of smelting iron with coke, allowing for cheaper production.

The bridge itself was cast at Darby’s ironworks in Coalbrookdale, a venture that would put Abraham Darby III in debt for the rest of his life. The bridge was opened to traffic in 1781 and was in use until 1934. It now stands as a monument to the industrial revolution.

6. Tyne Bridge, Tyneside, Grade II* listed

The defining symbol of Tyneside, the Tyne Bridge was the biggest single-span bridge in the UK when it was opened by George V in 1928. The structure was built using shipbuilding techniques with rivets and panels welded together. It was a mammoth task and the workmen risked their lives to construct the crossing – working up to 200 feet above the river without safety harnesses or ropes. Despite the dangers of the job, only one worker died during construction.

The bridge and nearby structures are used as a nesting site by a colony of around 700 pairs of black-legged kittiwakes, the furthest inland in the world.

7. Tower Bridge, London, Grade I listed

One of the most recognisable bridges in the world, Tower Bridge takes 61 seconds to open, which it does around 1,000 times a year. When it was built in 1886, it was the largest and most sophisticated bascule bridge (a bridge with a section which can be raised and lowered using counterweights) ever completed.

Originally, the hydraulics used to open the bridge were powered by steam, then in 1976 they were replaced by ones powered by electricity and oil.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Plitalar Keldi.