Priapus Fresko Pompeydagi taroziga maslahat beradi

Priapus Fresko Pompeydagi taroziga maslahat beradi



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Pompeydagi Via del Vesuvioga qaragan Regio V yonbag'ridagi obro'li qarorgohda o'tkazilgan arxeologik qazilma, "nafis bezatilgan xonalarda", yunon-rim mifologiyasi xudosi Priapusning freskasini topdi, uning ulkan a'zosini tarozida tortdi.

Davom etayotgan arxeologik operatsiyalar Buyuk Pompey loyihasi tomonidan ko'zda tutilmagan Pompeyning qazilmagan 22 gektar maydonini tashkil qiladi. Bosh direktor Massimo Osanna o'tgan hafta Pompei - Parco Archeologico -ning Facebook -dagi sahifasida e'lon qilgan hisobotida "to'g'ri va tizimli ravishda Pompey merosini himoya qilish g'ayrioddiy topilmalarga olib keladi" deb e'lon qildi.

Via di Vesuvio "qayta -qayta qulab tushdi va arxeologik materiallarning yo'qolishiga, shu jumladan Priapusning yuziga" duch keldi, lekin birinchi marta Pompeyda "arxeologlar, me'morlar, muhandislar, geologlar, vulkanologlar va restavratorlar" dan iborat katta fanlararo mutaxassislar jamoasi. har kuni "hamma narsani o'z ichiga olgan" arxeologiya saytini ishlab chiqish ustida ishlamoqdalar. Priapusning figurasi "Vettiylar uyi" kiraverishida topilgan va endi u "birinchi marta topilganidan 120 yil o'tgach, bu domusda ikkinchi marta paydo bo'ladi", Arxeologiya yangiliklari tarmog'ida.

Vettii uyidan ikkinchi Priapus freskasi topildi. (Tasvir: La Repubblica)

Priapus freskasining orqasida nima bor?

"Nima uchun" deb javob berishdan oldin, Priapus xudosi Vettii uyidagi Priapus freskasida jinsiy olatni tortib tasvirlangan, avval unga "qanday" ibodat qilinganini tushunishimiz kerak.

Priapus haqida birinchi eslatma miloddan avvalgi IV asrda topilgan Priapeia, Ksenarx tomonidan yozilgan. U dastlab Kichik Osiyodagi Lampsakusda yunon mustamlakachilari tomonidan sajda qilingan, lekin Priapus sig'inishi materik Yunonistonga va oxir -oqibat miloddan avvalgi III asrda Italiyaga tarqalgan. Ba'zan Afrodita va Dionisning o'g'li yoki Zevs va Panning o'g'li deb hisoblangan, uni ko'pincha Germesning otasi yoki o'g'li deb hisoblashgan.

  • Vulqon otilishidan boshpana izlayotgan bolalarga tegishli Pompeyda skelet topildi
  • Pompeyda vizual zavq uyi topildi
  • Qadimgi Pompeydagi zavq uylari

Pietro Bernini tomonidan Priapus qiyofasida kuz. (Jamoat mulki)

Yunon mifologiyasida, Priapus chorvachilik, meva, bog'lar va ayniqsa erkak jinsiy a'zolarini himoya qilish bilan bog'liq bo'lgan rustik tug'ilishning kichik xudosi edi va u ko'pincha priapizm tibbiy atamasini keltirib chiqaradigan katta o'lchamli doimiy erektsiya bilan bezatilgan. Bu holat jinsiy olatni stimulyatsiya tugaganidan keyin bir necha soat tik turishini yoki ba'zida hech qanday stimulyatsiz qolishini bildiradi.

Yunon afsonasiga ko'ra, Pariap Afroditani Heradan ko'ra chiroyliroq deb baholagan qahramon Parijdan qasos olmoqchi bo'lib, Afroditaning qornida bo'lganida, Hera uni iktidarsizlik, chirkinlik va yomon fikr bilan la'natlagan va Olympus xudolari rad etgan. Priapusning eng ramziy atributi - bu doimiy tikilgan jinsiy olatni bo'lib, u ko'pincha Pompeydagi Via del Vesuvioda freskalar va mozaikalarda tasvirlangan.

  • Boshi kesilgan Pompey odamini blok o'ldirmadi
  • Pompey freskasida omadsiz Priapus tasvirlangan
  • Qadimgi Rim bog'i bezaklari - Fallus

Domusdan topilgan yana bir fresk. (Tasvir: La Repubblica)

Omad zarbasi

Forbes jurnalida chop etilgan maqolaga ko'ra, uning jinsiy olati hayotning boshlanishi bo'lganligi sababli, ba'zi arxeologlar uni yomonlikdan qutqarganiga amin bo'lishsa, boshqalari buni omadsizlikdan qutqarish, balki tug'ilishni orzu qilish deb bilishadi. , sog'lik, yaxshi biznes va boylik.

Priapus haykallari nafaqat Pompeydagi Via del Vesuvio singari eshiklar oldida, balki yunon va rim bog'larida va chorrahalarda o'rnatildi. Priapusga ruxsat berish uchun sayohatchilar o'tayotganda haykalning jinsiy olatini silab qo'yishlari kerak edi va ba'zi hollarda Priapus haykallari uning himoyalangan chegaralarini buzganlarga jinsiy tajovuz qilish bilan tahdid qiladigan belgilar bilan osilgan.

Priapus, shuningdek, qadimgi Yunoniston va Rimdagi savdo kemachilarining homiysi edi va yog'ochdan yasalgan Priapik markerlar xavfli o'tish joylarida yoki dengizchilar uchun aniq qo'nish joylarini ko'rsatgan. "Science Direct" dagi maqolaga ko'ra, "kema halokati dengizchilar tomonidan olib ketilgan apotropik buyumlarni, shu jumladan" terakota pallasi, yog'ochdan yasalgan Priapus figurasi va harbiy qo'chqorning bronza qobig'ini "o'z ichiga olgan.

Tabiat tasvirlari ham devorlarni bezatadi. (Tasvir: La Repubblica)

Priapusning himoya qilish qobiliyatlari, xususan, unumdorlik va bog'ni himoya qilish bilan bog'liqligi, qadim zamonlarda, fallusga katta ahamiyat berilganda kuzatiladi. Qadimgi Yunonistonda, phallus o'ziga xos aqlga ega va hayvonlarga o'xshash tabiat deb hisoblangan, u ongdan ajralib, odamni boshqargan. Falus "egalik qilish va hududiy chegaralash" bilan bog'liq bo'lganligi sababli, shuning uchun biz Priapusga navigatsion xudo sifatida sajda qilamiz.


Pompey va Gerkulanumdagi erotik san'at

Erotik san'at ichida Pompey va Herculaneum ham san'at sifatida namoyish etilgan, ham pornografiya sifatida tsenzura qilingan. Miloddan avvalgi 79 yilda Neapol ko'rfazi atrofidagi Rim shaharlari Vezuvi tog'ining otilishi natijasida vayron bo'lgan va shu tariqa XVIII asrda keng ko'lamli arxeologik qazishmalar boshlangunga qadar o'z binolari va artefaktlarini saqlab qolgan. Bu qazishmalar shaharlar haykallar, freskalar va jinsiy mavzular bilan bezatilgan uy -ro'zg'or buyumlari kabi erotik artefaktlarga boyligini aniqladi. Bunday tasvirlar va buyumlarning hamma joyda mavjudligi, qadimgi Rimda shahvoniylik munosabati hozirgi G'arb madaniyatiga qaraganda ancha yengilroq bo'lganligini ko'rsatadi. Biroq, zamonaviy tomoshabinlarni hayratga soladigan narsalarning ko'pi, masalan, erotik tasvirlar, masalan, katta hajmli falluslar, tug'ilish tasviri bo'lishi mumkin. Fallus tasvirlari, masalan, unumdor o'simliklar ishlab chiqarishni rag'batlantirish uchun bog'larda ishlatilishi mumkin. Madaniyatlar to'qnashuvi Pompeydan kelgan ko'plab erotik artefaktlarni qariyb 200 yil davomida jamoatchilikdan yashirishga olib keldi.

1819 yilda Neapol qiroli Frensis I xotini va qizi bilan Neapol milliy arxeologiya muzeyidagi Pompey ko'rgazmasiga tashrif buyurganida, u erotik san'at asaridan uyaldi va uni "maxfiy kabinetga" yopib qo'yishni buyurdi. voyaga etgan va hurmatli axloqli odamlar ". Qayta ochildi, yopildi, yana ochildi va keyin yana 100 yilga yaqin yopildi, Yashirin muzey, Neapolga 1960-yillarning oxirida (jinsiy inqilob davri) qisqacha kirish imkoni berildi va nihoyat ko'rish uchun qayta ochildi. 2000 yilda voyaga etmaganlarga faqat maxfiy kabinetga faqat vasiyning ishtirokida yoki yozma ruxsat bilan kirishga ruxsat beriladi.


Mashhur Priapusning freskasini Pompeyda o'tkazib yuborish unchalik qiyin emas

Xristianlik mashhur bo'lgunga qadar, Rim imperiyasi ancha bo'shashib ketgan edi shahvoniylik umuman. Rimliklar boy odamlarning bekalari borligi haqida qayg'urishmagan va qonun bo'yicha xo'jayinining yutuqlarini qabul qilishlari kerak edi. Albatta, qulni zo'rlash vijdonsiz hisoblangan, lekin shunga qaramay, bu qonuniy edi. Rimliklar haqiqatan ham baxtli bo'lmagan narsa - yalang'ochlik, xususan, fuqarolarning yalang'ochligi. San'at nuqtai nazaridan, rimliklar yalang'ochlikka umuman ahamiyat bermadilar. Rim san'atida ko'pincha yalang'ochlik tasvirlangan. Vettiylar uyi eramizning 79 -yili Vezuviyning otilishi natijasida saqlanib qolgan Pompey Rim shahrida joylashgan boy odamning uyi. Uning ehtiyotkorlik bilan qazish ishlari milodiy 62 -yilgi zilziladan keyin tugatilgan devor freskalarining deyarli barchasini saqlab qoldi. Uy Pompeydagi eng katta uylardan biri bo'lib, butun janubiy qismini qamrab oladi. Vettii uyida fresk rasmlarining katta assortimenti mavjud. Mifologik sahnalar tasvirlangan, omon qolgan 12 ta panel mavjud. Sahnalar yunon modellaridan nusxa ko'chirilgan deb ishoniladi, lekin freskalarni taqqoslaydigan yunon rasmlari saqlanib qolmagan. Rasmlar birlashib, ilohiy mukofot va jazo mavzusini yaratadi. Eng mashhurlari ikkita tasvirdir Priapus, unumdorlik xudosi. Priapusning birinchi tasviri - bu eshik oldidagi fresk. Rasmda Priapus fallik a'zosini tarozida tortayotgani tasvirlangan. Ikkinchi rasm birinchisini aks ettiradi, lekin marmardan. Yunon mifologiyasida Priap kichik rustik edi hosildorlik xudosi, chorva mollari, mevali o'simliklar, bog'lar va erkak jinsiy a'zolarining himoyachisi. Priapus o'zining katta, doimiy erektsiyasi bilan belgilanadi, bu tibbiy atamani keltirib chiqardi priapizm. U Rim erotik san'ati va lotin adabiyotining mashhur shaxsiga aylandi va tez -tez hazilomuz odobsiz she'rlar to'plamining mavzusi bo'ldi. Priapeya.

Pompeydagi Vettiylar uyidan Rim freskasi - Italiya, To'rtinchi uslub (milodiy 60-79). Eshik oldida Priapusning mashhur freskasi. Hosildorlik, sabzavot, tabiat, chorvachilik, meva, asalarichilik, jinsiy aloqa, jinsiy a'zolar, erkaklik va bog'lar xudosi. Rasmda Priapus fallik a'zosini tarozida tortayotgani tasvirlangan.

Xristian olamining mashhur aholisi, bu Rominse rijk bo'lganmi yoki yo'qmi? seksualiteit. Mana, bu men uchun juda muhim edi, lekin bu sizning xohishingizga javob bermas edi. Ma'lum bo'lishicha, bu o'yinda hech kim yo'q edi. Bu erda ham Romein va boshqa bir qancha odamlar gamburgerlar ovozini chiqarib yuborishdi. Bu hech kimga ma'lum emas edi, chunki ular hech kimga ishonmaydilar. Qachonki, bu erda hech kim yo'q. Xet huis van de Vettii bu Pompeydagi Romeinse stadionidagi odam. Kristusning uyi Vettii uyining assortimenti va freskning eng katta qismi bo'lgani kabi, u ham o'z vazifasini bajaradi. Mifologiyali sahnalar bilan bir qatorda, juda ko'p panellar ham bor edi. Ma'lumotlar sirli bo'lishi kerakki, bu modalar Griekse modellari, shuningdek, fresklar uchun ham, fresklar uchun ham. Shifrlar birlashtirildi, lekin ular bir -biriga bog'lab qo'yilgan. Yo'q, lekin bu erda hech narsa yo'q Priapus, xudo van de vruchtbaarheid. Haqiqatan ham, van Priapus deuropeningda freskka aylandi. Qachonki, Priapus o'lsa, biz uni yopamiz. Tweed beeld beeld weerspiegelt het eerste, maar in the marmer. Griekse mifologiyasida Priapus een kleine rustieke bo'lgan vruchtbaarheidsgod, beschermer van vee, fruitplanten, tuinen en mannelijke geslachtsorganen. Pryapus wordt gekenmerkt eshik katta o'lchamli, doimiy erektiya, o'lik gaf tot de medische term priapisme. Ma'lumotlar ro'yxatidan so'ng, bu ertalabki rassomlar uchun juda mashhur edi, lekin bu erda ham har xil so'zlar yozilgan. Priapeya.


Priapus freskasi, Pompey

Bu odam boy Pompeyning uyiga kiraverishda chizilgan. Ha, uning katta jinsiy olati bor. Mana shuning uchun "Yetuk tarkib" stikeri yo'q. Priapus hatto rimliklarga ham qadimgi unumdorlik xudosi edi. Uning katta erkakligi mo'l -ko'llik, unumdorlik va omadni anglatadi. Bu rasmda uning a'zosi oltin sumkalarga qarshi tarozida tortilgan. Bu uyga ega bo'lgan oila o'z taqvodorligini (kuchini emas) "qarang, biz boymiz, lekin bu boylik bilan muvozanatsiz bo'ladigan narsa emas" deb ko'rsatdi. Ko'ryapsizmi? Voyaga etganlarning tarkibi umuman yo'q.

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Demeter mo'l -ko'lchilik ma'budasi deb hisoblangan va dehqonchilik Priapus ko'proq ma'noda sabzavot bog'lari va unumdorligi bilan bog'liq bo'lgan ko'rinadi.

Misrliklar panteonining "ulug'vorlik xudosini ulkan tonker" bo'limini Min bilan to'ldirishdi. O'ylaymanki, o'sha paytda metafora dinda unchalik katta bo'lmaganmi?

Shuningdek, haykallar yonida taxtalar osilgan edi, ular o'g'rilarni mo'l -ko'l sodomiya bilan tahdid qilar edilar, agar ular tomosha qilgan bog'ning ne'matlariga tegsa.

Mavzu bo'yicha bir nechta qidiruvni amalga oshiring va siz ulardan bir nechtasini topasiz, ular haqiqatan ham etuk!


Yunon mifologiyasi

Vettiylar uyidan "Pentheusning o'limi", Alfredo va Pio Foglia suratlari

Ko'pgina rimliklar yunon dunyosining falsafasi, san'ati va adabiyotini buyuk murakkablik ramzi sifatida ko'rishgan. Natijada, Pompeyning boy aholisi, xuddi Rimdagilar kabi, o'zlarini yunon madaniyatining jihatlari bilan uyg'unlashtirishga harakat qilishdi. Ular buni qilish usullaridan biri, xususiy uylarini bezashda va yunon mifologiyasidagi sahna freskalarida ayniqsa keng tarqalgan edi.

Pentheusning o'limi Thebes qiroli Penteyning onasi Agava tomonidan o'ldirilgani haqidagi hikoyaning eng fojiali sahnasini tasvirlaydi. Agav, xudo Bacchusning izdoshi, Pentheus dinini bostirishga uringan Bacchus nomidan g'azablangan transda harakat qilmoqda. Bu sahna ko'pincha odamlarga xudolarga qarshi chiqish xavfi haqida ogohlantirish sifatida qaraladi. Ehtimol, bu freskning egasi etkazmoqchi bo'lgan xabar.

Fojiali shoira uyidan Arif orqali "Ifigeniya qurbonligi"

Iphigenia qurbonligi Gomerning "Iliadasi" sahnasini aks ettiradi, unda Agamemnonning qizi Ifigeniya xudolarni tinchlantirish va yunonlar uchun Troya shahriga xavfsiz o'tishini ta'minlash uchun qurbon qilingan. Agamemnonni chap tomonda ko'rish mumkin, u uyalib yuzini yashiradi va yuqorida kiyiklar tasvirlangan bo'lib, keyinchalik ular Afigen xudolar tomonidan o'zgartirilgan. Bu fresk hikoyaning turli elementlarini bir sahnada ustalik bilan birlashtiradi va o'z egasini yunon adabiyotining buyuk dostoni bilan uyg'unlashtiradi.


Pompeydagi konsolidatsiya ishlari Priapusning yangi freskasini ochib beradi

ROM - Pompeydagi uzun uzun devorni mustahkamlash ustida ish olib borgan arxeologlar hozircha noma'lum fresk rasmini topdilar. Uning oyog'ida bir piyola meva bor edi. "Jinsiy aloqa va pul haqida yana bir ertak", deb eslaydi. Miloddan avvalgi 79 yilda Pompeyda vayron bo'lishidan oldin yashagan qadimgi rimliklar uchun Afrodita va Germesning o'g'li Priap hayotning o'zi paydo bo'lgan.

Bu Pompeyda topilgan ikkinchi bo'yalgan Priapus. Ikkinchisi, xuddi shu kabi, uning pallasini tortgan, 1890 -yillarning oxirida qazilgan mashhur Vetti uyida bo'lgan. Bu keng xonadonda, xuddi shunday Priapusning pallasini tarozida tortadigan, eshik ostonasida, uning bog'ida favvora sifatida ishlatilgan haykal ham topilgan edi. Jurnalist Antonio Ferrara ta'kidlaganidek, eshik kun bo'yi ochiq qolgandi, shuning uchun o'tib ketayotganlar imidjga, shu sababli xo'jayinning boyligi va qudratiga e'tibor berishdi.

Qattiq tosh tagida joylashgan Gerkulanumdan farqli o'laroq, Pompey er ostidan o'n futdan pastroqda, qotib qolgan vulqon detritining (toshlar, chang) etarlicha sayoz qatlami ostida ko'milgan. Pompeyni qazish nisbatan oson bo'lgan va aslida bu boy savdo shaharning uchdan ikki qismi qazilgan. Biroq, o'nlab yillar mobaynida shaharning uchdan ikki qismi qazilgan murakkab va qimmat ishlarni himoya qilish va saqlash ustuvor vazifa bo'lib kelgan va yangi qazishga ruxsat berilmagan. Muammo shundaki, qazilmagan uchdan bir qismi qazilgan uylar, ibodatxonalar va yo'llar ustida devor kabi aylanadi.

Priapus freskasi, ajoyib tarzda ta'mirlangan Markus Lucretius Frontone uyi yonidagi hashamatli villaning kirish yo'lida chindan ham kutilmagan sovg'a bo'ldi. Xuddi shu boy xonadonda, bundan tashqari, yaqin atrofdagi devordan yana bir qancha chiroyli rasmlar topilgan - bu ayolning bo'yalgan yuzi - matron, arxeologlar uni. Chiroyli freskali bezaklar, shuningdek, bog 'maydoni yaqinidagi yotoqxonadagi devorni yopadi.

Pompeyning qazilmagan qismiga tutashgan hudud, Regio V, Insula 6da, olomon ko'p bo'lgan Via del Vesuvioda, Pompeyni shimoldan janubga kesib o'tgan uzun yo'lda davom etayotgan konsolidatsiya ishlari davomida qirg'oq qilinmoqda. Hozirgi konsolidatsiya ishlariga Via del Vesuvio, Via dei Balconi (Balkonlar ko'chasi) va Via delle Nozze d'Argento (Kumush to'y ko'chasi) jalb qilingan. Kumush to'yning mashhur uyi - bu Pompeydagi barcha villalardan biri, lekin o'nlab yillar davomida hamma uchun yopiq bo'lgan. Yaxshiyamki, uning tiklanishi kelgusi kuzda boshlanadi.

Pompey bosh direktori Massimo Osanna shunday tushuntiradi: "Pompey bizni hayajonlantiradigan bu ajoyib topilmalar uchungina emas, balki ularni o'rganishga yangi ilmiy va fanlararo yondashuv qabul qilinganligi uchun ham arxeologik tadqiqotlarda burilish nuqtasida turibdi". Geologlar, arxitektorlar, vulkanologlar, muhandislar, restavratorlar va paleobotanika mutaxassislari, arxeozoologlar, fizik antropologlar va restavratorlar birgalikda ishlaydi. Yangi yondashuv natijalarining yana bir misoli, konsolidatsiya va restavratsiya ishlari bo'yicha olib borilgan ishlar tufayli, o'tgan aprel oyida etti yoki sakkiz yoshli bolaning skeletining hammaga ma'lum bo'lgan Markaziy vannalaridan topilgani edi. Skelet sirtdan bir necha dyuym (10 sm) pastda topilgan va hozir Pompey tadqiqot laboratoriyasida o'rganilmoqda.

Pompeydagi yangi ish 2012 yilda qabul qilingan Grande Progetto Pompei yoki Buyuk Pompey loyihasi orqali Evropa mintaqaviy rivojlanish jamg'armasi va Italiya hukumati ko'magida keladi. Shartnomalarni sinchkovlik bilan nazorat qilishni talab qiladigan loyiha Italiya va boshqa universitetlar va tadqiqot markazlari bilan birgalikda Italiyaning o'nlab vazirliklarini o'z ichiga oladi. Maqsadlari orasida: qazilmagan qirg'oqlarni mustahkamlash orqali gidrogeologik xavfni kamaytirish, shu jumladan Via del Vesuvioo bo'ylab mustahkamlash va devor va bezatilgan yuzalarni tiklash, binolarni ob-havo ta'siridan himoya qilish va videokuzatuvni kengaytirish.


Afsonaga ko'ra, Ledaning qizi Xelen Sparta qiroli Menelaga uylandi va uni Troya shahzodasi Parij o'g'irlab ketdi. Xelen ko'plab sovchilarga ega edi va Gretsiyaning eng go'zal ayoli deb tan olindi.

Klitemnestra yana bir mashhur yunon ayol edi, uning hikoyasi rassomlarni asrlar davomida ilhomlantirgan. U Menelausning ukasi bo'lgan Mikena qiroli Agamemnonni o'ldirdi.

Zevs Rim xudosi Yupiterga aylandi va Pompey yunon afsonalaridagi epizodlarni nishonlaydigan san'at asarlariga boy.


Ajoyib san'at asarlaridan tortib jasadlarga qadar, arxeologlar halok bo'lgan shaharda hayot va o'lim haqidagi haqiqatni haligacha kashf etmoqda.

Agar siz Pompey xarobalari ichida tursangiz va juda qattiq tinglasangiz, aravachaning g'ildiraklari, bozorning shovqini, Rim ovozlarining aks -sadosini eshitasiz. Zamonaviy mehmonlar kamdan -kam hollarda arvohli shaharni hayratga soladigan xususiyatini o'ylab topishni xohlamaydilar, uning dahshatli hidi hidlari oltingugurtli bug'lar bilan oqartirish orqali oqarib ketdi, kuchli yomg'ir yog'ganda, ko'chalarda hayvonlar va odamlarning chiqindilari oqardi. , Pompeyda falokat kelgan va ketgan joyning o'ziga xos sokinligi bor. Toza havoda mimoza va apelsin gullarining hidi bor, birdaniga shamol “Vicolo dei Balconi va "Balkonlar xiyoboni" ni pastga urib, qadimgi changni tepib yuboradi.

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Vesuvius Pompeyni qamrab oldi, - deb eslaydi Kichik Pliniy, - zulmatda "xuddi qulflangan va muhrlangan xonadan yorug'lik chiqib ketgandek" edi. (Chiara Goia)

Miloddan avvalgi 79 -yilda, Vezuvi tog'i 300 yil davomida uxlab yotganidan so'ng, tirilgandan so'ng, xiyobonni tepaga yotqizishdi va uning balkonlari, asosan, Pompei aholisining o'limiga olib kelgan, kuydiruvchi kul va qizib ketgan toksik gazlar kaskadlarida yondi. . Arxeologlar Vicolo dei Balconi -ni faqat o'tgan yili, Regio V deb nomlangan saytning hali ham odamlar uchun ochiq bo'lmagan qismida topdilar va topdilar. Xiyobon katta uylar bilan qoplangan edi, ba'zilari buzilmagan balkonlar, ba'zilari amforalar va sharob, moy va garum, achitilgan baliq ichaklaridan tayyorlangan sos. Endi, Rim klassik davrining deyarli boshqa hidlari singari, bir paytlar o'tkir garum deyarli hidsiz edi.

Hali ham cheklovlarsiz, Regio V bir kun kelib tashrif buyuruvchilar uchun ochiladi. Pompeyning 170 gektar maydonining uchdan bir qismi dafn etilgan va zamonaviy tadqiqotchilar tomonidan o'rganilmagan. (Chiara Goia)

2012 yilda boshlangan va asosan Yevropa Ittifoqi tomonidan yozilgan 140 million dollarlik konservatsiya va tiklash dasturining "Grand Progetto Pompei" va "8221" yoki "Great Pompeii" loyihasining bir qismi, Regio V qazishida allaqachon skeletlari, tangalar, yog'och to'shak, zotli ot qoldiqlari saqlanadigan otxona (bronzadan yasalgan yog'och shoxli egarli temir jabduqlar, kichkina bronzalar bilan), ajoyib saqlangan freskalar, mifologik figuralar va mozaikalar va boshqa qadimiy Rim san'atining ko'zni qamashtiruvchi namunalari.

Bu dunyodagi eng mashhur arxeologik sayt uchun hayratlanarli darajada boy kesh. Ammo shu paytgacha Pompey hech qachon to'liq ilmiy qazish texnikasiga duch kelmagan. Vulkan changlari bo'g'ilib qolishi bilanoq, talon -taroj qiluvchilar yoki uyga qaytayotganlar tunnel qiladilar va xazinalarni qo'llariga olishadi. Hatto 1950 -yillar davomida ham, tadqiqotchilar va boshqalar topgan artefaktlar 79 -yildagi kundalik hayotning dalillaridan ko'ra muhimroq deb topilgan. Hozircha, bu yangi qazishmalardan chiqadigan eng portretli ma'lumotlar darsliklarni qayta yozishga undaydi. va olimlar o'z sanalarini qayta baholash uchun —hech qanday moddiy qiymati yo'q.

24-avgust deb qabul qilingan, o'sha taqdirli kunning asosiy sirlaridan biri, ba'zi topilmalar, jumladan, salqin ob-havo kiyimidagi jasadlarning mos kelmasligi edi. Asrlar mobaynida ba'zi olimlar bunday anomaliyalarni ratsionalizatsiya qilish uchun orqaga o'girildilar, boshqalari esa sana noto'g'ri bo'lishi kerak degan shubhalarni bildirdilar. Endi yangi qazish birinchi aniq alternativani taklif qiladi.

Vulkan portlashi paytida ta'mirlanayotgan uyning qurib bitmagan devoriga engil, lekin tushunarli tarzda chizilgan - bu ko'mirda oddiy belgi: “[d] ulsit pro masumis esurit [ionlari] da,”, u "oziq -ovqat bilan to'ydi" deb tarjima qilinadi. ” Bir yil ro'yxatga olinmagan bo'lsa -da, quruvchi tomonidan yozilgan grafito, "noyabr oyining birinchi kunidan 16 -kun oldin"#8220XVI K Nov ” va#8212 qadimgi taqvim, yoki 17 oktyabr - zamonaviy. Bu 24 -avgustdan deyarli ikki oy o'tgach, halokatli portlashning rasmiy sanasi, 25 yil o'tib, Rim tarixchisi Tatsitga, falokatning guvohi, yosh Pliniyning xatidan kelib chiqqan va asrlar davomida rohiblar tomonidan yozilgan.

Yangi ochilgan ko'mirli yozuv avgustdan oktyabrgacha bo'lgan otilish sanasini o'zgartiradi va sirni ochib beradi: Nega do'konlarda kashtan kabi kuzgi yangi chiptalar yig'ilgan? (Chiara Goia)

Loyihaning bosh direktori va Pompeyning bosh direktori Massimo Osanna bu yozuv portlashdan bir hafta oldin bekor qilinganiga amin. “Bu ajoyib topilma, nihoyat, falokat bilan ishonch bilan uchrashishga imkon beradi, - deydi u. “Bu kuzning portlashiga ishora qiluvchi boshqa maslahatlarni kuchaytiradi: pishmagan anorlar, jasadlarda og'ir kiyimlar, uylarda o'tin yonib turgan mangallar, yopiq kavanozlarda yig'ib olingan sharob. Bu yo'qolgan jamoaning kundalik hayotini qayta qurganingizda, ikki oylik farq muhim. Endi bizda yo'qolgan jumboq bo'lagi bor. ”

Massimo Osanna Pompeyda ko'p yillar davomida e'tiqodni qayta tiklamoqda, 2018 yilda 3,5 million, 2012 yilda esa million kishi tashrif buyurdi. (Guilbert Geyts Chiara Goia xaritasi)

Osanna 2014 yildan buyon o'tkazgan kuchli kampaniya, eski Pompeyda yangi davrni belgilaydi, bu o'n yillikning boshida yosh, korruptsiya, vandalizm, iqlim o'zgarishi, noto'g'ri boshqaruv, mablag 'etishmasligi, institutsional e'tiborsizlik va yomg'ir tufayli qulab tushdi. Eng mashxur voqea 2010 yilda, toshli bino bo'lgan, Schlady Armaturarum, gladiatorlarning ajoyib freskalari tasvirlangan. Italiyaning o'sha paytdagi prezidenti Jorjio Napolitano bu voqeani Italiya uchun sharmandalik deb atagan. ” Olti yil oldin, Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotining dunyoning eng muhim madaniy boyliklarini asrab -avaylashga intilayotgan YuNESKO agentligi joylashtirishga tahdid qilgan. Pompey, agar Italiya hukumati uni himoya qilishga ustuvor ahamiyat bermasa, xavf ostida Jahon merosi ob'ektlari ro'yxatiga kiritilgan.

Loyiha Schola Armaturarumni o'z ichiga olgan o'nlab o'tish yo'llari va 39 ta binoning ochilishiga yoki qayta ochilishiga olib keldi. “Scholaning tiklanishi Pompey uchun qutqaruv ramzi edi, ” Osanna, shuningdek Neapol universitetining klassik arxeologiyasi professori. U 200 dan ortiq mutaxassislardan iborat ulkan guruhni yig'di, u o'z vazifalarini bajarish uchun “jahon arxeologiyasini va nafaqat arxeologlar, balki arxeozoologlar, antropologlar, san'at restavratorlari, biologlar, g'isht teruvchilar, duradgorlar, kompyuter olimlari, demograflar, stomatologlar, elektrchilar, geologlar, genetiklar, xaritalash texniklari, tibbiyot injenerlari, rassomlar, chilangarlar, paleobotaniklar, fotograflar va radiologlar. Ularga zamin sensori va drondan videografiyadan tortib CAT skanerlari va virtual haqiqatga qadar imperator hammomini to'ldirish uchun etarlicha zamonaviy analitik vositalar yordam beradi.

Pompey muzeyida Vesuvius vulqoni qurbonining gipsi namoyish etildi. (Chiara Goia) Pompey muzeyida Vesuvius vulqoni qurbonining gipsi namoyish etildi. (Chiara Goia) Hamma uchun ochiq bo'lgan joyda Vesuvius otilishi qurbonining gipsi. (Chiara Goia) Hamma uchun ochiq bo'lgan joyda Vesuvius otilishi qurbonining gipsi. (Chiara Goia) Antropolog Valeriya Moretti, Regio V saytidagi bir uyda tiqilib topilgan olti kishining suyaklarini tozalaydi, bu hali ham hammaga ochiq. (Chiara Goia) Hozir olti qurbonning suyaklari Pompeydagi amaliy tadqiqotlar laboratoriyasida saqlanmoqda. (Chiara Goia)

Kataklizm paytida shaharda 12 mingga yaqin aholi istiqomat qilgani aytiladi. Ko'pchilik qochib ketdi. Faqat 1200 ga yaqin jasad topilgan, biroq yangi ish buni o'zgartirmoqda. Yaqinda Regio V ekskavatorlari villaning eng ichki xonasida besh yoki olti bola bilan birga to'rt ayolning skelet qoldiqlarini topdilar. Tashqaridan qandaydir guruhga aloqador deb taxmin qilingan erkak topildi. U ularni qutqarish harakatida bo'lganmi? Ulardan voz kechishmi? Sohil toza ekanligini tekshiryapsizmi? Bu Pompei kashf qilinganidan buyon bizning tasavvurimizni qamrab olgan jumboqlar.

Bu dahshat o'ynagan uyda freskali xonalar bor edi, bu uning ichida farovon oila yashayotganidan darak beradi. Rasmlar kul bilan saqlanib qolgan, uning chiziqlari hali ham devorlarni bo'yab turadi. Hatto tiklanmagan holatda ham, qora, oq, kulrang, oxra, Pompey qizil, chuqur to'q qizil ranglari hayratlanarli darajada qizg'in. Siz xonadan xonaga, ostonadan ostonaga qadam qo'yganingizda, nihoyat jasadlar topilgan joyda turganingizda, fojianing zudlik bilan yuragi titrab ketadi.

Chapda: Regio V ning Bog 'uyida topilgan ajoyib terra-kotta amforada sharob, zaytun moyi yoki quritilgan mevalar bo'lishi mumkin edi.

O'ngda: Yupiter tomonidan oqqush qiyofasida zo'rlangan Ledaning 13 dan 18 dyuymli freskasi pigmentlar ostida olti yoki etti qatlamli gipsdan qurilgan. (Chiara Goia)

Vicolo dei Balconi ko'chasida, men ish joyida arxeologik guruhlar yonida yurdim va yangi ochilmagan snack -barga duch keldim. Bu oddiy qulaylik shahar bo'ylab tarqalgan 80 ga yaqin joylardan biridir. Katta idishlar (dolia) poydevor qo'yilgan peshtaxta o'rnatilgan, bu o'z vaqtida McDonald va Termopolium bo'lgan, u erda ichimliklar va issiq ovqatlar berilgan. Oddiy menyu: sho'r baliq, pishirilgan pishloq, yasmiq va achchiq sharob bilan qo'pol non. Bu Termopoliya dengiz otida o'tirgan nimfaning rasmlari bilan bezatilgan. Ko'zlari "kartoshkani ushlab tur!" Va "8221" va "8212" deb aytgandek tuyuladi, lekin, ehtimol, bu meniki.

Men Rim ko'chasida ketayotganimda, menga xushmuomalalik bilan ko'rsatayotgan arxeolog Francesco Muscolino hovlilarga, saylovlarga oid xabarnomalarga ishora qilib, uyning tashqi devoriga tirnalganida, oxirgi uydagilarga nishon qilingan deb o'ylardi. Garchi u hatto lotin tilini deyarli bosib chiqarish mumkin emasligidan ogohlantirsa -da, u oilaviy kitobxonlar uchun yagona nomzodni tozalashga harakat qiladi. “Bu Lucius ismli erkak va Leporis ismli ayol haqida ”. “Lucius, ehtimol, uyda yashagan va Leporis biror narsa qilish uchun pul to'lagan ayol bo'lganga o'xshaydi. erotik. ”

Men keyinroq Osannadan so'radimki, bu yozuv hazil bo'ladimi? “Ha, ularning hisobidan hazil, ” deydi. Bu faoliyatni qadrlash emas edi. ”

Osanna o'g'irlik bilan kurashish uchun tarqatilgan mish -mish haqida eslab, kuladi. Men gazetaga Pompeydan o'g'irlangan narsalarga la'nat haqida aytdim, ”. O'shandan beri Osanna dunyoning turli burchaklaridan yuzlab g'isht, fresk bo'laklari va bo'yalgan gipsli bo'laklarni oldi. Ko'pchilik esdaliklar omad keltirmaganini bildirgan kechirim maktublari bilan birga kelgan. Tavba qilgan janubiy amerikalikning yozishicha, u toshni chimchilab qo'yganidan so'ng, uning oilasi muammoga duch kelgan. ” Ota -onasi asal oylarida tom yopish uchun plitka cho'ntaklarini cho'ntagiga qo'yib olgan ingliz ayol uni yozuv bilan qaytargan: “ buyum mening uyimda namoyish etildi. Endi ikkalasi ham o'lik, men uni qaytarib bermoqchiman. Iltimos, onam va otamni hukm qilmang. Ular o'z avlodlarining farzandlari edi. ”

Osanna jilmaydi. “Turistik psixologiya nuqtai nazaridan ”, deydi u, “ uning maktubi - aql bovar qilmas boylik. ”

Kichkina, dumaloq Osanna zamsh ko'ylagi, Vandyke soqoli va kamtarlik havosini kiyadi. U Neapol universitetidagi ofisida, stol ortida o'tirgan va kompyuter monitorlari bilan o'ralgan holda ko'rinadi, faqat shaharning baland balandliklari ko'rinadi va hech qanday moloz izi yo'q. Uning stolida Pompeianarum Antiquitatum tarixi, 1860 yilda qazish ishlarini olib borgan arxeolog Juzeppe Fiorelli tomonidan. Osonna aytadiki, uzoq vaqtdan beri chirigan jasadlar vulqon kulidagi bo'shliqlarga suyuq gips quygan. Gips yopishtirilgach, ishchilar gipslarni olib tashlash uchun kul, pomza va qoldiqlarni yig'ib olishdi, oxirgi paytlarida Pompeylarning holati, o'lchamlari va yuz ifodalarini ochib berishdi. To Osanna, the results—tragic figures caught writhing or gasping for breath with their hands covering their mouths—are grim reminders of the precariousness of human existence.

Osanna himself grew up near the extinct volcano Monte Vulture in the southern Italian hill town of Venosa, birthplace of the lyric poet Horace. According to local legend, Venosa was founded by the Greek hero Diomedes, King of Argos, who dedicated the city to the goddess Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) to appease her after the defeat of her beloved Troy. The Romans wrenched the town from the Samnites in 291 B.C. and made it a colony.

As a child, Osanna frolicked in the ruins. “I was 7 when I found a skull in the necropolis under the medieval church in the center of town,” he recalls. “That emotional moment was when I fell in love with archaeology.” At 14, his stepfather took him to Pompeii. Osanna remembers feeling thunderstruck. He came under the spell of the ancient city. “Still, I never imagined I would someday be involved in its excavation,” he says.

He went on to earn two doctoral degrees (one in archaeology, the other in Greek mythology) study the second-century Greek geographer and travel writer Pausanias teach at universities in France, Germany and Spain and oversee the ministry of archaeological heritage for Basilicata, a region of southern Italy famous for its shrines and churches dating from antiquity to medieval times, and its 9,000-year-old cave dwellings. “Near the Bradano River is the Tavole Palatine, a temple dedicated to the Greek goddess Hera,” Osanna says. “Given that it was built in the late sixth century B.C., the structure is very well preserved.”

A recently exposed fresco shows Adonis, a Greek, with Venus, a Roman goddess. Mythology reflects political reality: Victorious Rome adopted Greek culture. (Chiara Goia)

Pompeii wasn’t so lucky. Today’s archaeological park is largely a rebuild of a rebuild. And no one in its long history rebuilt more than Amedeo Maiuri, a human dynamo, who, as superintendent from 1924 to 1961, directed digs during some of Italy’s most trying times. (During World War II, the Allied aerial assault of 1943—more than 160 bombs dropped—demolished the site’s gallery and some of its most celebrated monuments. Over the years, 96 unexploded bombs have been found and inactivated a few more are likely to be uncovered in areas not yet excavated.) Maiuri created what was effectively an open-air museum and hired a staff of specialists to continuously watch over the grounds. “He wanted to excavate everywhere,” says Osanna. “Unfortunately, his era was very poorly documented. It is very difficult to understand if an object came from one house or another. What a pity: His excavations made very important discoveries, but were carried out with inadequate instruments, using inaccurate procedures.”

After Maiuri retired, the impetus to excavate went with him.

When Osanna took over, the Italian government had slashed spending on culture to the point where ancient Pompeii was falling down faster than it could be repaired. Though the site generated more tourist revenue than any monument in Italy except the Colosseum, so little attention had been paid to day-to-day upkeep that in 2008 Silvio Berlusconi, then prime minister, declared a state of emergency at Pompeii and, to stave off its disintegration, appointed Marcello Fiori as the new special commissioner. It didn’t take long for the restorer to disintegrate, too. In 2013, Fiori was indicted after he allegedly awarded building contracts inflated by as much as 400 percent spent $126,000 of taxpayers’ money on an adoption scheme for the 55 feral dogs wandering forlornly amid the ruins (about $2,300 per stray) $67,000 on 1,000 promotional bottles of wine—enough to pay the annual salary of a badly needed additional archaeologist $9.8 million in a rush job to repair seating at the city’s amphitheater, altering its historical integrity by cementing over the original stones and $13,000 to publish 50 copies of a book on Fiori’s extraordinary accomplishments.

Osanna took the job somewhat reluctantly. The archaeological site was beset by labor strife, work crews had been infiltrated by the powerful Naples Camorra mafia, buildings were crumbling at an alarming rate. To revive interest in the place and its history, Osanna mounted a popular exhibition focused on victims of the eruption, preserved in plaster. He gave visitors the opportunity to explore the site by moonlight, with guided tours, video installations and wine tastings based on an ancient Roman recipe. “It’s always difficult to change the culture,” he says. “You can achieve change, I think, step by step.”

In addition to stabilizing structures, archaeologists install extensive drainage to divert destructive rainwater. (Chiara Goia)

Having spent much of his first three years safeguarding what had already been uncovered, Osanna began to probe an untouched wedge of land in Regio V, considered the last great explorable section of the city. While bolstering the fragile walls, his team was soon disabused of the notion that Pompeii was preserved completely intact there. “We found traces of digs going back to the 1700s,” he says. “We also found a more contemporary tunnel that extended for more than 600 feet and ended in one of the villas. Evidently, tomb raiders got there first.”

The new excavation—which has also put a stop to looting—has opened a window on early post-Hellenistic culture. The entrance hall of one elegant home features the welcoming image of the fertility god Priapus, weighing his prodigious membrum virile on a scale like a prize-winning zucchini. Dominating a wall of the atrium is a stunning fresco of the hunter Narcissus leaning languidly on a block of stone while contemplating his reflection in a pool of water.

Discovered only last year, a floor mosaic of Orion turning into a constellation hints at the influence of Egypt, where the study of astronomy was revered. (Chiara Goia)

Embellished with a tracery of garlands, cherubs and grotesques, the bedroom of the same house contains a small, exquisite painting depicting the eroticized myth of Leda and the Swan. Half-nude, with dark eyes that seem to follow the observer, the Spartan queen is shown in flagrante with Jupiter disguised as a swan. The king of the gods is perched on Leda’s lap, claws sunk into her thighs, neck curled beneath her chin. Osanna says the explicit fresco is “exceptional and unique for its decisively sensual iconography.” He speculates that the owner of the house was a wealthy merchant, perhaps a former slave, who displayed the image in an attempt to ingratiate himself with the local aristocracy. “By flaunting his knowledge of the myths of high culture,” he says, “the homeowner could have been trying to elevate his social status.”

One floor design found in the House of Jupiter stumped archaeologists: A mosaic showing a winged half-man, half-scorpion with hair ablaze, suspended over a coiled snake. “As far as we knew, the figure was unknown to classical iconography,” says Osanna. Eventually he identified the character as the hunter Orion, son of the sea god Neptune, during his transformation into a constellation. “There is a version of the myth in which Orion announces he will kill every animal on Earth,” Osanna explains. “The angered goddess Gaia sends a scorpion to kill him, but Jupiter, god of sky and thunder, gives Orion wings and, like a butterfly leaving the chrysalis, he rises above Earth—represented by the snake—into the firmament, metamorphosing into a constellation.”

In the exceptionally luxurious Casa di Leda, decorations on an atrium wall include a satyr and nymph associated with the cult of Dionysus. (Chiara Goia)

Roman religious practices were evident at a villa called the House of the Enchanted Garden, where a shrine to the household gods—or lararium—is embedded in a chamber with a raised pool and sumptuous ornamentation. Beneath the shrine was a painting of two large snakes slithering toward an altar that held offerings of eggs and a pine cone. The blood-red walls of the garden were festooned with drawings of fanciful creatures—a wolf, a bear, an eagle, a gazelle, a crocodile. “Never before have we found such complex decoration within a space dedicated to worship inside a house,” marvels Osanna.


Sexy frescoes in Pompeii


Myth:Pompeii graffiti & sex appeal – BBC History .

Many cultures throughout the world have traditions of erotic art. Pompeii, as a thriving city in the Roman Empire, had more than its share.

Erotic symbols abound on paving stones and walls, in frescoes and sculpture. The most prominent – no pun intended – is the phallus.

Symbols in Pompeii

In Pompeii, the meaning of the phallus depended on the context. For example, it was a form of protection against the evil eye. It was a symbol of good luck and it often served as a functional part of the sculpture. Like the water spout for a fountain or a handy hangar for decorations. Sometimes, the phallus was a steed, ridden by a god or a dwarf to some unknown (but undoubtedly erotic) destination.

And if you look closely at the paving stones in the main forum area, and in the stones of the walls, you will discover something. In fact, these phallic symbols point the way to the tiny brothels of the ancient city.

Phallus symbols weren’t the only erotic images. In most homes, no matter how small, frescoes adorned the walls. In many of these frescoes in Pompeii, men and women cavorted in all manner of sexual adventures, positions, combinations, and levels of enjoyment. Not infrequently, these frescoes portrayed men enjoying the charms of a, particularly arousing animal. Like Pan, the half-god and half goat, who ran rampant, having sex with different creatures.


Holy Ancient Tight Foreskins!

One of the first bits of porn I wanked over was in the news this week. A fresco from Pompeii of the Greek god of fertility Priapus weighing his mythologically-sized penis in a pair of scales against a pile of gold.

My teenage priapic abuse of Priapus was made possible as the result of a trip to the Royal Academy in London to see an exhibition of Pompeii treasures. Before the Internet, the brochure for such a cultural event, bought for you by parents keen to interest you in art and history, could provide a regular diversion.

Priapus hit the headlines because an Italian doctor called Francesco Maria Galassi has decided that Priapus is afflicted with a particularly severe case of phimosis — a tightness of the foreskin which prevents it being fully pulled back over the glans. The godhead’s nobhead is completely enclosed by his foreskin despite a massive stonk-on.

"The disproportionate virile member is distinctively characterized by a patent phimosis, more specifically a shut phimosis," Francesco Maria Galassi told Discovery News. "This condition presents different grades of severity, and in this specific case appears to be of the highest grade, in which there is no skin retractability on the glans," Galassi said.

This struck me as odd for a couple of reasons. The first is that I had, as a young uncircumcised teen, a mild case of phimosis — until I started wanking over Priapus. After a few sessions with the god of fertility, my foreskin slid backwards and forwards perfectly.

The second is that the most obvious explanation for Priapus’ foreskin covering his glans is not that he is suffering from some pathology that a contemporary Italian doctor is perhaps a bit obsessed with and sees everywhere, but the well-established fact that the Ancient Greeks, who invented Priapus, just thought an exposed glans was really icky.

Although they would exercise naked, the Greeks thought flashing their glans was the pin­nacle of bad taste and they would often “infib­u­late” their John Thomases, draw­ing the fore­skin for­wards over the glans, and then tying it closed with string or clasp­ing it shut with a cir­cu­lar safety-pin-like instru­ment.

I know this because I read David M. Friedman’s "fascinating" (derived from "fascinatus," Latin for phallic charm) exam­in­a­tion of the penis and the changing and, er, poin­ted meanings and role it has played in Western cul­ture: A Mind of Its Own: A Cultural History of the Penis. And I paid rather more attention to the text than I did in the Pompeii exhibition catalogue.

Priapus and lucky charms apart, the Greeks also generally dis­liked large mem­bers, con­sid­er­ing dainty ones desir­able. Aristotle gave this Tinymeat tend­ency a sci­entific basis, explain­ing that a small penis is bet­ter for con­cep­tion because semen cools down in a large one, becom­ing “not gen­er­at­ive.”

Romans saw the penis as a sac­rosanct weapon of the Roman State — glans is also Latin for "bul­let." When launched by slings, Roman bul­lets often had lurid inscriptions writ­ten on them com­par­ing their use to acts of rape (remin­is­cent of the slo­gans “TAKE THIS, FAGGOTS!” daubed on U.S. bombs and missiles due to be launched on the Taliban, et al).

Populating the legions was also a duty of a Roman: Augustus Caesar pen­al­ized bach­el­ors and rewar­ded fath­er­hood. Romans cel­eb­rated a son’s first ejac­u­la­tion as part of a state hol­i­day, the Liberalia. You can ima­gine the proud father: “Well done, my son! No, don’t put them in the washer — your mum’s gonna show them to the neigh­bors and then frame them!”

Things got even stranger with the Christians. Jesus’s organ — since it was never used and was itself the product of a pen­isless birth — was as holy as all oth­ers were damned and full of original sin. His fore­skin or pre­puce became a holy relic.

Hence the taste test, a medi­eval ver­sion of the Pepsi Challenge: chew­ing the shriv­elled leather to determ­ine whether it was wholly or partly human. At Communion, Saint Agnes ima­gined she was swal­low­ing the Holy Prepuce (with no gag reflex).

Given the vast number of his foreskins in circulation in the Middle Ages, it is rather unlikely that Jesus suffered from phimosis.