FBR

FBR

Federal tergov byurosi (FTB) - federal moliyalashtiriladigan razvedka agentligi va AQSh uchun tergov resurslarining asosiy manbai. Uning shiori - "Sodiqlik, jasorat, yaxlitlik". Uning shtab -kvartirasi Vashingtonda joylashgan.Byuroning tug'ilgan kuni1908 yilda byuro Bosh prokuror Charlz Bonapart tomonidan Teodor Ruzvelt prezidentligi davrida yaratilgan maxsus agentlar kuchlari sifatida tug'ilgan. Dastlab, tergov byurosi asosan huquqni muhofaza qilish organlarida ilgari tajribaga ega bo'lgan erkaklarni jalb qilgan, byuro tashkil etilganda mamlakatda jinoyatlar asosiy muammo emas edi. Byuroning e'tiborini tortgan eng keng tarqalgan qonunbuzarliklar milliy bank firibgarligi, yer firibgarligi, qullikning turli shakllari va tovlamachilik edi.1910 yil iyun oyida Mann ("Oq qul") qonuni byuroning muhim vositasiga aylandi. Tergov byurosi Luiziana shtatining Ku -kluks -klanining "Imperial Kleagl" ni javobgarlikka tortish uchun Mann aktidan ham foydalangan. 1912 yilda sobiq maxsus tekshiruvchi Bryus Bielaski byuroning yangi boshlig'i bo'ldi. 1912 yildan 1914 yilgacha Tergov Byurosi turli federal jinoyatlar uchun tayinlangan 300 ga yaqin maxsus agentlarni, shuningdek 300 dan ortiq ofis xodimlarini qo'llab -quvvatlash va logistika bilan ta'minlagan. dala agentlari. Garchi bu postlar birinchi navbatda yirik shaharlarda joylashtirilgan bo'lsa -da, tez orada Meksika chegarasi yaqinida bo'lishga bo'lgan talab aniq bo'ldi va chegaradosh kichik shaharlarda postlarni joylashtirishni noqonuniy kontrabandaning turli holatlarini tergov qilishga majbur qildi. 1921 yildan 1933 yilgacha byuro ko'pincha umidsizlikka uchragan jamoatchilikka zid. "Qonunsiz yillar" deb atalgan davrda ko'plab amerikaliklar taqiqni o'rnatishga qarshilik ko'rsatdilar, boshqalari esa ekstremistik siyosat bilan shug'ullanishdi. Speakeasies (alkogolli ichimliklar ichadigan tungi klublar) reydlari va aldov so'zlaridan foydalanish taqiqlash paytida ko'plab o'g'irlik qiluvchilarni (alkogol kontrabandchilari) hibsga olinishiga olib keldi.Bunday qonunbuzarliklarning ildizi Uyushgan jinoyatchilikka borib taqaldi va byuro uni yo'q qilishda chuqur ishtirok etdi. "Mashina quroli" Kelli, bank qaroqchisi Jon Dillinger va "Baby Face" Nelson kabi jinoyatchilarni qo'lga olish favqulodda ustuvor vazifaga aylandi va byuro bu bezorilarni yo'q qilishda jamoatchilik hurmatiga sazovor bo'ldi.Guvover yillari1924 yil 10 mayda 26 yoshli J. Edgar Xuver byuro direktori bo'ldi. U 25 yoshdan 35 yoshgacha bo'lgan maxsus agentlar tayyorlash akademiyasini tuzdi va yigirmanchi yillarning oxiriga kelib, u barcha dala idoralarini muvofiqlashtirishni barmoq izlari kartalari bo'lgan markazlashtirilgan fayllar bilan birlashtirdi. FBRning jinoyatlarni aniqlash bo'yicha ilmiy laboratoriyasi ochildi (aka byuro, shuningdek, Virjiniya shtati, Quantico shahridagi FBR akademiyasida, mamlakatning turli burchaklaridagi davlat va mahalliy jinoyatchilik laboratoriyalari va huquqni muhofaza qilish organlari xodimlarini o'qitadi.Qirqinchi yillardan boshlab, byuro AQShning josuslik holatlarini FBR agentlari tomonidan "shahar markaziga" olib kirdi. FBR 1950 -yillardan boshlab ko'plab bunday qarshi razvedka dasturlaridan foydalangan. 1949 yildan boshlab, Federal qidiruv byurosining eng qidiruvdagi o'nta qochqinlar ro'yxati xavfli qochqinlarni qo'lga olish uchun boshqa huquqni muhofaza qilish organlari va keng jamoatchilik bilan ishlash agentlari ixtiyorida edi. 1956 yildan 1971 yilgacha AQShda siyosiy dissidentlarni "zararsizlantirish" uchun "COINTELPRO" (kontr -razvedka xizmatlarining qisqartmasi) ni tuzdi. 1971 yilda COINTELPRO fosh etilganda, byuro o'z faoliyatini to'xtatdi. Bir necha o'n yillar davomida direktor bo'lib ishlagan Hoover, afsuski, ko'p pul sarfladi. aybsiz sotsialistlar va boshqa siyosiy faollarni tergov qiladigan agentlik manbalari - bu jarayonda tez -tez shaxslar haqida katta fayllar yig'iladi. Shaxsiy ishi eng qalin bo'lgan Eleanor Ruzvelt va kichik Martin Lyuter King singari taniqli amerikaliklar rejissyor nazorati ostida edi.Guverdan keyinUyushgan jinoyatchilik FBRning tinimsiz bosimini sezishda davom etdi. Sobiq haydovchi va Al Kaponening vorisi Frank "Enforcer" Nittining yollanma qotili Giancana, Markaziy razvedka boshqarmasi tomonidan Kuba prezidenti Fidel Kastroni o'ldirish uchun yollangan gangsterlardan biri bo'lgan deb ishonilgan. Giancana o'zining yuqori darajadagi turmush tarzi va FBR tomonidan qattiq kuzatilganligi tufayli mafiya tomonidan taxtdan ag'darildi va 1975 yil iyun oyida Meksikadan surgundan qaytgach, Illinoysdagi uyida o'ldirildi. 1970 va 1980-yillar mobaynida FBRning boshqa tergovlari mafiya kuchini biroz pasaytirib yubordi. 1993 yilda Texasning Vako shahri tashqarisidagi 51 kunlik to'qnashuvda FBR, ATF (Alkogol, tamaki va o'qotar qurollar byurosi) va Texas Reynjersi muvaffaqiyatsiz urinishdi. ularning lideri Devid Koresh tomonidan Karmel tog'i deb nomlangan binosida garovga olingan Davidians filialini qutqarish uchun. FTB Koreshda terrorizmga qarshi taktikani amalga oshirish uchun San-Antonio ofisidan o'zlarining garovga olingan qutqaruv guruhini (HRT) va maxsus agentni (SAC) ishga oldi. Bosh prokuror Janet Reno birikma himoyachilarini zararsizlantirish uchun xlorobenziliden malononitril (CS) gazidan foydalanishni ma'qulladi. Keyinroq ATF va FQB Koreshning "qurol savdosi" bo'yicha olib borilgan tergov ishlarida haddan tashqari kuch ishlatganlikda ayblanib, tugallanmagan yong'in va bino ichidagi ko'pchilik tarafdorlarning o'limi bilan yakunlandi. Aytilishicha, josuslikda ayblangan mol-ovchilar guruhi tomonidan fosh qilingan. 1994 yil 24-fevralda Markaziy razvedka boshqarmasining (Markaziy razvedka boshqarmasi) 31 yoshli faxriysi Aldrich Ames FBR tomonidan Virjiniya shtatining Arlington shahrida josuslikda ayblanib hibsga olingan. Ames 1985 yildan buyon ruslar uchun josuslik qilgan. XXI asr va 2001 yil 11 sentyabr voqealari Amerikaga qaratilgan zo'ravonlikning yana bir turini oldinga olib chiqdi va FBR terrorizmga qarshi kurash usullarini bunday tahdidlarga qarshi turish uchun moslashtirishi va o'zgartirishi kerak edi. . Jorj Bush ma'muriyatidan kelib chiqqan yangi akt maxsus agentlarga boshqa qoidalar bilan bir qatorda, mumkin bo'lgan terrorchilik xujayralari yoki harakatlarini tinglash, shuningdek, internetdagi faollik orqali kuzatishga imkon beradi.Guverdan beri direktorlarFBR 1973 yilda Xuver vafotidan beri direktorlarni uzoq vaqt boshqargan, ularning har biri byuroga o'z hissasini qo'shgan. Byuroni modernizatsiya qilib, Kelli o'zboshimchalik bilan o'tkazilgan tergovni to'xtatdi va ko'proq ayollar va ozchiliklarni maxsus agentlar safiga qo'shilishiga ruxsat berishni boshladi.Kelli 1978 yilga qadar byuroga raislik qildi, Uilyam H. Sessions ham byuroda ayollar va ozchiliklar sonini ko'paytirish siyosatini amalga oshirdi. 1993 yilda prezident Bill Klinton axloqsiz xatti -harakatlar da'volari tufayli sessiyani ishdan bo'shatdi. Myuller, III.XulosaBir necha yillar davomida Federal Tergov Byurosi Amerika tarixidagi eng xoin jinoyatchilarni tergov qilish va qo'lga olish bilan shug'ullangan. FBR har qanday federal huquqni muhofaza qilish organining eng keng vakolati va yurisdiktsiyasiga ega bo'lgan rivojlanayotgan federal byuro bo'lib qolmoqda.


¹ Ishonchli shaxs, maxfiy ma'lumotli lavozimda ishlaydi, chet el josuslik agentligi tomonidan yollangan.
² Qarang: Yuliy va Etel Rozenberg.


Gumbaz

Vault - bu yangi FOIA kutubxonamiz bo'lib, u qog'ozdan raqamli nusxalarga skaner qilingan 6700 ta hujjat va boshqa axborot vositalarini o'z ichiga oladi, shuning uchun ularni uyingizda yoki idorangizda o'qishingiz mumkin.

Bu erda ko'pchilik uchun ochiq bo'lgan, lekin hech qachon veb -saytga qo'shilmagan, lekin bizning FOIA kutubxonamizdagi eski fayllar so'rovi sifatida o'chirilgan va ilgari chiqarilmagan yangi fayllar bor.

Vault sizga qulaylik yaratish uchun bir nechta yangi vositalar va manbalarni o'z ichiga oladi:

  • Mavzular qidirilmoqda: Siz alifbo tartibidagi ro'yxatingizni ko'rish, ushbu saytning yuqori o'ng burchagidagi qidirish vositasi yordamida yoki turli toifadagi ro'yxatlarni tekshirish orqali ma'lum mavzular yoki shaxslarni (masalan, Al Kapone yoki Merilin Monro) ko'rib chiqishingiz yoki qidirishingiz mumkin. sahifaning o'ng tomonidagi menyu. Qidiruv natijalarida, ma'lum bir mavzu uchun barcha fayllarni ko'rish uchun papkani bosing.
  • Kalit so'zlarni qidirish: Biz ishlab chiqqan yangi texnologiyalar tufayli endi kalit so'zlar yoki iboralarni qidirish mumkin ichida ba'zi shaxsiy fayllar. Siz ushbu saytning yuqori o'ng burchagidagi qidirish vositasi yordamida bizning barcha elektron fayllarimizni qidirishingiz mumkin yoki ma'lum bir hujjat ichidagi kalit so'zlarni faylning o'ng yuqori burchagidagi qidirish maydoniga yozib qidirishingiz mumkin. u ochildi va yuklandi. Eslatma: ko'p fayllar qo'lda yozilgan yozuvlarni o'z ichiga olganligi yoki yoshiga qarab har doim ham optimal holatda bo'lmaganligi sababli, bu qidiruv funktsiyasi har doim ham mukammal ishlamaydi.
  • Fayllarni ko'rish: Biz hozirda ochiq manbali veb -hujjatlarni ko'rish dasturidan foydalanmoqdamiz, shuning uchun siz bizning yozuvlarimizni ko'rish uchun sizga o'z shaxsiy dasturiy ta'minotingiz kerak bo'lmaydi. Faylni bosganingizda, u o'quvchiga yuklanadi, bu sizga bir vaqtning o'zida bitta yoki ikkita sahifani ko'rish, kalit so'zlarni qidirish, matn hajmini kichraytirish yoki kattalashtirish, turli aylantirish xususiyatlaridan foydalanish va boshqalarni bajarishga imkon beradi. Ko'p hollarda, alohida fayllarning sifati va ravshanligi ham yaxshilandi.
  • Vaziyatni yangilashni so'rash: Sizning so'rovingiz bizning jarayonimizda qayerda ekanligini aniqlash uchun yangi FOI/PA so'rovining holatini tekshirish vositasidan foydalaning. Status ma'lumoti har hafta yangilanadi. Eslatma: Ushbu funktsiyadan foydalanish uchun sizga FOI/PA so'rov raqami kerak.

E'tibor bering: Vaultdagi fayllar tarkibi Byuro tarixining barcha davrlarini o'z ichiga oladi va har doim ham FTBning hozirgi qarashlari, siyosati va ustuvorliklarini aks ettirmaydi.


Tarkibi

Maykl Li Platt (1954 yil 3 fevral - 1986 yil 11 aprel) va Uilyam Rassel Matiks (1951 yil 25 iyun - 1986 yil 11 aprel) AQSh armiyasida xizmat qilish paytida uchrashdi, Kentukki, Fort Kempbell.

Matix birinchi marta 1969-72 yillarda AQSh Dengiz Korpusida xizmat qilgan, ofitserlar tartibsizliklarida oshpaz (MOS 3371) bo'lib ishlagan, 1970 yil aprelidan 1971 yil martigacha va Okinavada xorijda xizmat qilgan, 1971 yil aprelidan 1972 yil martigacha. 1972 yil 7 -iyulda u serjant unvoniga sazovor bo'lgan holda sharafli ravishda bo'shatildi. U 1973 yil 10 -avgustda Kentukki shtatining Fort -Kempbell shahridagi 101 -havo -desant diviziyasi qoshidagi harbiy politsiyada xizmat qilib, AQSh armiyasiga qabul qilingan. U harbiy politsiya xodimi va otryad boshlig'ining posbonlik postida qo'riqchi nazoratchisi va 1976 yil 9 avgustda faxriy bo'shashidan oldin patrul nazoratchisi bo'lib ishlagan. [1]

Platt 1972 yil 27 -iyunda armiyaga piyoda askar sifatida qabul qilingan. Dastlabki mashg'ulotlarda Platt Armiya Havo -Reynjeri mashg'ulotlariga ariza topshirdi va keyinchalik Kentukki shtatining Fort Kempbell shahridagi desantchilar havo hujum maktabiga o'qishga kirdi. O'tish maktabini tugatgandan so'ng, Platt harbiy politsiya bo'linmasiga tayinlandi. Aynan shu bo'linmada u Matix bilan uchrashgan va xizmat qilgan. Bu erda u birinchi xotini Regina Lylen bilan uchrashdi. U 1979 yilda sharafli ravishda bo'shatildi. [1]

Ikkala erkakning ham sobiq xotinlari zo'ravonlik sharoitida vafot etgan. [2] Matiksning rafiqasi, AQSh armiyasining nafaqadagi mutaxassisi [3] [ yaxshiroq manba kerak ] Patrisiya Buchanich va ayol hamkasbi Joys MakFadden 1983 yil 30 dekabrda Kolumbiyadagi (Ogayo shtati) Riversayd metodist kasalxonasida pichoqlab o'ldirilgan, u erda ikkala ayol ham ishlagan. [4] Ikkalasi ham kasalxona laboratoriyasida o'ldirilgan holda topilgan. Ularni tomoqlari kesilgan holda bog'lab qo'yishdi. [1] Matix tergovchilarga Plattning xotini bilan ishqiy aloqada bo'lganidan gumon qilinganini aytdi. Matix qotillikda gumon qilingan, lekin hech qachon ayblanmagan. [5]

Xotini vafotidan so'ng, Matix Plattning iltimosiga binoan Floridaga ko'chib o'tdi va ikkalasi "Yankee Clipper Tree Trimming Service" deb nomlangan ko'kalamzorlashtirish va daraxtlarni tozalash ishini tashkil etishdi. [6] 1985 yil may oyida Matix Kristi Lou Xornga uylandi, u ikki oy o'tgach, Matix homiladorligini bilib, g'azablanganidan keyin uydan chiqib ketdi. U Matiks vafotidan keyin o'g'il tug'adi. [7] [8]

1984 yil 21 dekabrda Plattning rafiqasi, 1975 yilda to'qqiz yil oldin turmushga chiqqan Regina E. Lylen-Platt, bitta o'q otish paytida og'ziga o'lik holda topilgan. Uning o'limi o'z joniga qasd qilish deb baholandi. [9] U 1985 yilning yanvarida ikkinchi xotini Brenda Xornga uylandi. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Jinoyat sodir etishdan oldin, Plattda ham, Matiksda ham sudlanmagan. [10] Platt o'ldirilganda, uning xotini eri va uning do'sti Matiks qurolli qaroqchilar ekanligi haqida hech qanday tasavvurga ega emas edi.

1985 yil 5 oktyabrda Platt va Matix 25 yoshli Emilio Brielni quduq qudug'iga o'q otish paytida o'ldirishdi. Er -xotin Brielning mashinasini o'g'irlab, undan bir nechta talonchilik qilishgan. [11] Brielning qoldiqlari 1986 yil mart oyida topilgan, ammo may oyigacha aniqlanmagan. [ iqtibos kerak ]

1985 yil 10 oktyabrda, Brielni o'ldirganidan besh kun o'tgach, Platt va Matix Winn-Dixie supermarketiga xizmat ko'rsatadigan Wells Fargo zirhli yuk mashinasini o'g'irlashga urinishdi. Unga "muzlatish" buyrug'ini berganidan so'ng, er -xotinlardan biri qo'riqchi oyog'idan miltiq bilan oyog'iga o'q uzdi, ikkinchisi qochib ketayotgan mashinadan to'pponcha va yelka qurollarini o'qqa tutdi. Yana ikkita soqchi o'qqa tutdi, lekin Platt ham, Matiks ham jarohat olmadi. Qaroqchilikda hech qanday pul olinmagan, ammo jarohatlangan qo'riqchi keyinchalik olgan yarasidan vafot etgan. Bir necha hafta o'tgach, 1985 yil 8 -noyabrda, ikkalasi Mayamidagi Professional Omonat Bankini talon -taroj qilib, o'sha kuni ertalab etkazib berilgan uchta Wells Fargo zirhli avtomobil kompaniyasining pul sumkalarida 41 469 dollar olib ketishdi. [1]

Ular 1986 yil 10 -yanvarda Mayami shahridagi Barnett -Bankda yuk mashinasining orqa eshigini ochgan Brinks zirhli avtomobil kompaniyasi kureriga hujum qilib, talon -taroj qilishni davom ettirdilar. Hujum ulardan biri tomonidan qo'riqchining orqasiga katta o'q otilgan miltiq bilan o'q otilishi bilan boshlangan. Ikkalasi ham yarador qo'riqchiga yaqinlashib, uni yana ikki marta harbiy turdagi .223 kalibrli qurol bilan guvohlar AR-15 yoki M-16 uslubidagi tez o'qotar miltiq deb ta'riflagan. Shundan so'ng, ular Emilio Brayldan o'g'irlagan Chevroletda 54000 dollar olib qochib ketishgan. Bir fuqaro ularni voqea joyidan kuzatib bordi va oq Ford F-150 pikapiga o'tayotganiga guvoh bo'ldi, lekin keyin aloqani uzdi. [1]: 30 Qorovul otishdan omon qoldi, lekin tanasida 100 dan ortiq ov miltig'i granulalari qoldi. [12]

12 -mart kuni ular Xose Kollazoni Floridadagi Everglades shtatidagi tosh quduqqa nishonga olgani uchun uni o'g'irlab ketishdi va qora Chevrolet Monte Karlo avtomobilini o'g'irlab ketishdi. Kollazo otishmadan omon qoldi va yordam olish uchun uch mil yurdi. [13]

Bir hafta o'tgach, 1986 yil 19 mart kuni ertalab soat 9:30 da ular Barnett-Bank filialini o'g'irlab ketishdi. Bu bir necha oy oldin ular Brinks zirhli mashinasi kurerini otib o'g'irlagan bank. 8338 dollar o'g'irlangan, gumondorlar Collazoning Monte -Karloga qochib ketishgan. [1]: 31

1986 yil 11 -aprel, juma kuni ertalab soat 8:45 da, maxsus agent Gordon Maknil boshchiligidagi FBR agentlari guruhi 1979 yildagi qora Chevrolet Monte Carlo (Collazoning o'g'irlangan mashinasi) ni qidirish uchun uy deposiga yig'ilishdi. Agentlar o'sha paytda gumondorlarning kimligini bilishmagan. Ular ertalab juftlik talonchilik qilmoqchi bo'lgan xayolga amal qilishdi. Qidiruvda 11 ta mashinada 14 ta FBR agenti qatnashgan. Bu FBR agentlaridan sakkiztasi haqiqiy otishmada qatnashgan va quyidagicha joylashtirilgan: [1]

  • Maxsus nazorat agenti Gordon Maknill (20 yoshli faxriy) o'z mashinasida
  • Maxsus agent Richard Manauzzi (15 yoshli faxriy) mashinasida yolg'iz
  • Maxsus agent Benjamin Grogan (25 yoshli faxriy), maxsus agent Jerri Dove bilan (4 yillik faxriy)
  • Maxsus agent Edmundo Mireles, kichik, maxsus agent Jon Xanlon bilan (23 yoshli faxriy)
  • Maxsus agent Gilbert Orrantiya (4 yillik faxriy), maxsus agent Ronald Risner (18 yoshli faxriy)

Ertalab soat 9:30 atrofida agentlar Grogan va Dove gumon qilinayotgan mashinani payqashdi va uning orqasidan ergasha boshlashdi. Boshqa ikkita mashina ularga qo'shildi va oxir -oqibat FTB agentlari Grogan/Dove, agentlar Xanlon/Mireles va agent Manauzzi mashinalari bilan to'qnashuvlar natijasida yo'ldan chiqib ketishga majbur bo'lgan gumonlanuvchilarni to'xtatishga harakat qilindi. Bu to'qnashuvlar gumon qilinayotgan mashina burunini birinchi navbatda, janubi -g'arbiy 82 -avenyudagi 12201 uyning oldidagi kichik to'xtash joyidagi daraxtga, mashinada (yo'lovchi tomonida) va Manauzzining mashinasi haydovchisiga qo'yilgan. [1]

Voqea joyidagi sakkiz agentdan ikkitasida mashinalarida Remington 870 avtomatlari bor edi (McNeill va Mireles), uchtasi Smit va Wesson Model 459 9mm yarim avtomatik to'pponcha (Dove, Grogan va Risner), qolganlari (oltitasi) ) Smit va Vesson bilan qurollangan, ikkitasi .357 Magnum va beshtasi .38 ta maxsus qurol. Ikki agentning zaxira nusxasi bor edi .38 ta maxsus revolverlar (Xanlon va Risner) va ikkalasi ham jang paytida ularni ishlatar edi. [1]

Gumonlanuvchilarni yo'ldan olib ketishga majbur qilgan dastlabki to'qnashuv agentlar uchun kutilmagan muammolarni keltirib chiqardi, chunki FBR transport vositalari Matix boshqaradigan og'irroq eski mashinadan zarar ko'rdi. [14] Monte -Karloga yugurishdan oldin, Manauzzi o'q otishidan oldin xizmat ko'rsatadigan revolverini tortib, o'rindiqqa qo'ydi, [14] lekin to'qnashuv kuchi uning eshigini ochdi va xabarlarga ko'ra, uning qurol yo eshikdan uchib ketdi, yo polga tashlandi. [ iqtibos kerak ] Hanlon .357 Magnum xizmat ko'rsatuvchi revolverini dastlabki to'qnashuvda yo'qotdi, garchi u hali ham Smit va Wesson Model 36 zaxira quroli bilan jang qila olardi. To'qnashuv Groganning ko'zoynagini yiqitdi va uning ko'rish qobiliyati shunchalik yomon ediki, u aniq ko'ra olmadi (FTB tibbiy direktori, bu da'vo "yomon emas" deb aytdi). Grogan o'q otish qurolining birinchi zarbasini berdi va Matixni bilagidan jarohatladi, u Grogan va Kabutarga o'q otish uchun Monte -Karlodan suyangancha. [7]

Manauzzi revolverini tiklay olmadi va Matixdan deb o'ylangan miltiq miltig'idan boshi va orqasidan yaralangan. MakNil Manauzzi mashinasining kapotidan o'q uzdi, lekin Plattning javob o'qidan yaralandi. Keyin Platt jangga qo'shilish uchun ko'cha bo'ylab yugurayotgan Mirelesga miltig'idan o'q uzdi. Mireles chap bilagiga urilib, qattiq yara oldi. [14] Keyin Platt derazadan orqaga chekinib, Matixga otish imkoniyatini berdi. To'qnashuv natijasida Matix o'z eshigini qisman ochdi va Grogan va Dovega o'q otdi va mashinasini urdi. Keyin Matix o'ng bilagiga o'q uzdi. [15] MakNil revolverdan olti marta o'q uzib, Matixning boshi va bo'ynidan ikki o'q bilan urdi. Ko'rinib turibdiki, Matix zarbalardan hushidan ketgan va boshqa o'q otmagan. [16] Keyin McNeill qo'liga o'q uzdi va revolver kamerasidagi yarasi va qoni tufayli qayta yuklay olmadi. [14]

Platt yo'lovchi avtomashinasi oynasidan chiqib ketayotganda, Dovening 9 mm uzunlikdagi o'qlaridan biri uning o'ng yuqori qo'liga tegib, ko'kragiga kirib, yuragidan bir dyuym narida to'xtadi. Tekshiruvda Plattning o'ng o'pkasi qulab tushgani va ko'krak bo'shlig'ida 1,3 litr qon (gemotoraks) borligi aniqlandi, bu esa o'pkaning asosiy qon tomirlariga zarar etkazganligini ko'rsatadi. Uning ko'plab o'q jarohatlaridan, bu jarohat Plattning o'limiga sabab bo'lgan birinchi jarohat edi. [17] Mashina to'xtab turgan mashinaga kelib to'xtadi va Platt Oldsmobile Cutlass avtomashinasining kapotidan o'tishi kerak edi. U shunday qilganda, ikkinchi va uchinchi marta, o'ng son va chap oyog'iga o'q uzilgan. Taxminlarga ko'ra, o'q Dove tomonidan berilgan. [18]

Platt Cutlass -ning yo'lovchilar old qanoti yonida joy oldi. U .357 Magnum revolverini Ronald Risner va Gilbert Orrantiya agentlariga o'q uzdi va Hanlon, Dove va Groganga qarata o't ochganda to'rtinchi marta o'qqa tutildi. Orrantiya revolveridan otilgan o'q Plattning o'ng bilagiga kirib, radius suyagini sindirib, bilagidan chiqib ketgan. Bu yara tufayli Platt revolverini tashlab yubordi. [19] Taxminlarga ko'ra, Platt ko'p o'tmay beshinchi marta otilgan, bu safar Risner. O'q Plattning o'ng yuqori qo'liga kirib, qo'ltiq ostidan chiqib, tanasiga kirib, elka pichog'i ostida to'xtadi. Yara jiddiy emas edi. [20]

Platt Ruger Mini-14-dan bir tur o'q otib, Risner va Orrantiya pozitsiyasida Orrantiyani chap yelkasidan o'q uzilgan parchalar bilan yaraladi va McNeill-da ikki tur. Bir tur McNeillning bo'yniga tekkan, u yiqilib tushgan va bir necha soatga falaj bo'lib qolgan. Aftidan, Platt shikastlanmagan chap qo'li bilan Mini-14 ni yelkasiga qo'ydi. [21]

Dovening 9 millimetrli to'pponchasi Plattning o'qlaridan biriga tegib, ishlamay qoldi. Xanlon Plattga o'q uzdi va uni qayta yuklash paytida qo'lidan o'q uzdi. Grogan va Dove mashinasining haydovchisi yonida tiz cho'kishdi. Ikkalasi ham Dovening qurolini ishga solish bilan band edi va Platt ularga tajovuzkorona harakat qilayotganini sezmadi. Platt mashinasining orqa tomonini yumaloq qilib, Groganni ko'kragiga o'q bilan o'ldirdi, Hanlonni qorin bo'shlig'ida o'qqa tutdi, keyin Doveni boshiga ikkita o'q bilan o'ldirdi. Keyin Platt voqea joyidan qochishga urinib, Grogan/Dove mashinasiga kirdi. [22] Platt Grogan va Dove mashinasiga kirganda, Mireles faqat bitta qo'lidan foydalangan holda, miltig'idan besh o'q otib, Plattni ikki oyog'idan jarohatladi. [14] Noma'lum vaqtda Matix o'ziga keldi va u yo'lovchilar eshigidan kirib, mashinada Plattga qo'shildi. Mireles fired four more rounds at Platt and Matix, but hit neither. [23]

Around this time, Metro-Dade police officers Rick Frye, Leonard Figueroa and Martin Heckman arrived. Heckman covered McNeill's paralyzed body with his own. [24] Frye assisted Hanlon. [25]

Platt's actions at this moment in the fight have been debated. A civilian witness described Platt leaving the car, walking almost 20 feet and firing at Mireles three times at close range. Mireles does not remember this happening. Officer Heckman does not remember Platt leaving the Grogan/Dove car. Risner and Orrantia, observing from the other side of the street, stated that they did not see Platt leave the car and fire at Mireles. [26] However, it is known for certain that Platt pulled Matix's Dan Wesson revolver at some point and fired three rounds. [21] [27]

Platt attempted to start the Grogan/Dove car. Mireles drew his .357 Magnum revolver, moved parallel to the street and then directly toward Platt and Matix. Mireles fired six rounds at the suspects. The first round missed, hitting the back of the front seat. The second hit the driver's side window post and fragmented, with one small piece hitting Platt in the scalp. The third hit Matix in the face, and fragmented in two, with neither piece causing a serious wound. The fourth hit Matix in the face next to his right eye socket, traveled downward through the facial bones into the neck, where it entered the spinal column and severed the spinal cord. The fifth hit Matix in the face, penetrated the jaw bone and neck and came to rest by the spinal column. [28] Mireles reached the driver's side door, extended his revolver through the window, and fired his sixth shot at Platt. The bullet penetrated Platt's chest and bruised the spinal cord, ending the gunfight. [29]

The shootout involved 10 people two suspects and eight FBI agents. Of the 10, only one, Special Agent Manauzzi, did not fire any shots (his firearm was thrown from the car in the initial collision), while only one, Special Agent Risner, was able to emerge from the battle without a wound. The incident lasted under five minutes yet approximately 145 shots were exchanged. [14] [30]

Toxicology tests showed that the abilities of Platt and Matix to fight through multiple traumatic gunshot wounds and continue to battle and attempt to escape were not achieved through any chemical means. Both of their bodies were drug-free at the time of their deaths. [31]

A subsequent FBI investigation placed partial blame for the agents' deaths on the lack of stopping power exhibited by their service handguns. While a few of the agents were equipped with 9mm semi-automatic pistols, most of the agents owned revolvers which made up the majority of the weapons involved in the fight. The FBI soon began the search for a more powerful caliber cartridge to issue to all agents. Noting the difficulties of reloading a revolver while under fire, the FBI specified that agents should be armed with magazine-fed semi-automatic pistols. This incident contributed to the increasing trend of law enforcement agencies to switch from revolvers to semi-automatics across the United States. [25]

In the aftermath, the FBI initially chose the Smith & Wesson 1076 chambered for the 10mm Auto round, but its sharp recoil proved too much for most agents to control effectively, and a special reduced velocity loading was developed - commonly referred to as the "10mm Lite" or "10mm FBI". Soon afterwards Smith & Wesson developed a shorter cased cartridge based on the 10mm, the .40 S&W. [32] This became more popular than its parent due to the ability to chamber in standard frame semi-automatic pistols initially designed for the 9mm Parabellum. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Other issues were brought up in the aftermath of the shooting. Despite being on the lookout for two violent felons who were known to use firearms during their crimes, only two of the FBI vehicles contained shotguns (in addition to Mireles, McNeill had a shotgun in his car, but was unable to reach it before or during the shootout), and none of the agents were armed with a rifle. Only two of the agents were wearing ballistic vests, and the armor they were wearing was standard light body armor, which is designed to protect against handgun rounds, not the .223 Remington rounds fired by Platt's Mini-14 rifle. The other six agents involved in the stakeout in five vehicles, who did not reach the shootout in time to participate, did have additional weaponry including Remington shotguns, Heckler & Koch MP5 submachine guns, and M16 rifles. [14]

Agents Edit

Killed in action Edit

  • Benjamin Grogan: Smith & Wesson Model 459 9mm semi-automatic pistol, nine rounds fired. Killed by a .223 gunshot wound to the chest.
  • Jerry Dove: Smith & Wesson Model 459 9mm semi-automatic pistol, 20+ rounds fired. Killed by two .223 gunshot wounds to the head.

Wounded in action Edit

  • Richard Manauzzi: lost control of weapon in the initial vehicle collision, no shots fired. Minor wounds from shotgun pellets. [14]
  • Gordon McNeill: Smith & Wesson Model 19 .357 Magnum revolver (not FBI issue, but personally owned .357's and .38's could be approved for carry by supervisors, same applies with Mireles's Model 686), six rounds .38 Special+P fired. Seriously wounded by .223 gunshot wounds to the right hand and neck.
  • Edmundo Mireles: Remington 87012-gauge pump-action shotgun, five rounds of 00 buckshot fired .357 Magnum revolver Smith & Wesson Model 686, six rounds .38 Special +P fired. Seriously wounded by a .223 gunshot wound to the left forearm.
  • Gilbert Orrantia: S&W (model unknown, likely a Model 13, as it was an issued weapon at the time) .357 Magnum revolver, 12 rounds .38 Special +P fired. Wounded by shrapnel and debris produced by a .223 bullet near miss.
  • John Hanlon: Smith & Wesson Model 36 .38 Special revolver, five rounds .38 Special +P fired. Seriously wounded by .223 gunshot wounds to the right hand and groin.

Unwounded Edit

  • Ronald Risner: Smith & Wesson Model 459 9mm pistol, 14 rounds fired, S&W Model 60 .38 Special revolver, one round .38 Special +P fired.

Suspects Edit

  • William Matix: Smith & Wesson Model 3000 12-gauge pump shotgun, one round of #6 shot fired. Killed after being shot six times.
  • Michael Platt: Ruger Mini-14.223 Remington semi-automatic rifle with folding stock, at least 42 rounds fired, S&W M586 .357 Magnum revolver, three rounds fired, Dan Wesson .357 Magnum revolver, three rounds fired. Killed after being shot 12 times.

After the shooting, the families of Jerry Dove and Benjamin Grogan sued the estates of Platt and Matix under the RICO statute for damages. The lawsuit was dismissed because the families did not allege the "kind of recovery that RICO was designed to afford." [33]

In 2001, the Village of Pinecrest, Florida, which incorporated in 1996, honored the two fallen agents by co-designating a portion of Southwest 82nd Avenue as Agent Benjamin Grogan Avenue and Agent Jerry Dove Avenue. Street signs and a historical marker commemorate the naming of the roadway in Grogan and Dove's honor. [34]

Dove, a West Virginia native, had Jerry Dove Drive named after him in Clarksburg, West Virginia, where the FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division is located. He earned degrees from both West Virginia University and Marshall University. [35]

In 2014, the FBI Miami field office moved to its new home in Miramar, Florida, dedicating the two towers of the new office space in memory of Dove and Grogan in a ceremony in April 2015. The first floor contains a memorial to Dove and Grogan. Every year on April 11, the FBI Miami office holds a fallen agent ceremony in honor of Dove, Grogan, and all FBI agents killed in the line of duty. [ iqtibos kerak ]


FBI 100 - Top 10 Moments

Over the course of a century—during which we’ve been involved in just about every major event in U.S. history and had countless innovations and famous cases—it’s hard to pick just ten. But here, in chronological order, are our choices for the top ten moments in FBI history…

1) July 26, 1908 – The Bureau is Born

No surprise on this one. But what you may not know is that our origins were somewhat tentative and filled with political intrigue. By early 1908, Teddy Roosevelt’s Attorney General—Charles Bonaparte—was growing weary of borrowing investigators from other agencies for federal cases under his jurisdiction. When Congress outlawed that practice in May, he had no choice but to pull together his own corps of agents. On July 26, Bonaparte sent a memo to his department announcing this new “force of special agents.” It started small, with just 34 agents and no name. And it was considered something of an experiment by both Bonaparte and Congress. But over time the force started making a difference…and the rest is history. Batafsil ma'lumot

2) May 10, 1924 – Hoover Takes the Helm

Appointed to clean up a scandal-plagued Bureau, 29-year-old Acting Director J. Edgar Hoover immediately began instituting a series of reforms that transformed the FBI into the professional law enforcement organization that it is today. Over the next decade, Hoover strengthened the organizational and hiring practices of the Bureau, created a central repository for criminal identification and criminal history records, instituted a technical laboratory (the forerunner of today’s FBI Lab), began gathering and reporting national crime stats, and fostered a rigorous training program for American and international law enforcement alike. Though often remembered more for controversies in his later years, Hoover played a vital role in lifting the overall capabilities and professionalism of the FBI and U.S. law enforcement.

The scene outside the railroad station
shortly after the “Kansas City” Massacre

3) June 17, 1933 – The Kansas City Massacre

It’s hard to imagine today, but for the Bureau’s first quarter-century agents weren’t allowed to make their own arrests, and they only carried weapons in limited cases. That began to change one shocking morning outside a train station in Kansas City, Missouri, when Charles “Pretty Boy” Floyd and other gangsters suddenly opened fire on a group of lawmen transporting an escaped con back to prison. Killed in the hail of bullets were two police officers, a police chief, and a Bureau special agent. The public was stunned by what became known as the “Kansas City Massacre,” and Congress responded within a year by authorizing special agents to carry guns, to make arrests, and to tackle a wider array of gangster crime, which has helped us protect the nation ever since. Batafsil ma'lumot

John Dillinger, who met his end on July 22, 1934

4) July 22, 1934 – The Death of Dillinger

In many ways, John Dillinger was the most notorious of the Depression-era gangsters, the leader of a ruthless band of gun-slinging bank robbers and crooks who was able to charm the press and American people into believing he was a harmless Robin Hood. Dillinger’s fame and ability to elude the law were reaching disastrous levels when we joined the hunt for him in the winter of 1933/1934. Despite a few stumbles along the way, Bureau agents tracked Dillinger down on July 22 and shot him dead in the streets of Chicago as he reached for his gun. The successful investigation catapulted the largely-unknown agency to worldwide fame and was the beginning of the end of the lawless gangster years. Batafsil ma'lumot

5) June 26, 1939 – Getting Ready for War

More than two years before bombs fell on Pearl Harbor, the FBI was already preparing to protect the nation from its wartime enemies. It started when President Franklin Roosevelt signed a secret order in June 1939 putting the FBI (and the Army and Navy to a lesser extent) in charge of homeland security, including espionage, sabotage, and subversion. In June 1940, we were also asked to collect foreign intelligence in Central and South America. Our ensuing “Special Intelligence Service,” or SIS—a little-known initiative even now—ended up producing a trove of intelligence and outing some 887 Axis spies. Though later dissolved with the creation of the CIA, the SIS laid the groundwork for our network of international offices, which are vital to our ability to combat global crime and terror today. And overall, our work before and during the war ensured that not a single act of enemy-directed sabotage was carried out on U.S. soil.

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg ride with Morton Sobell
(far left), another convicted member of the
Rosenberg’s spy ring, as the jury deliberates

6) September 1, 1947 – To Catch a Spy

Intelligence was not new to the FBI neither was cooperating with the Army. But in September 1947, these two things started to come together in a powerful way when Special Agent Wesley Reynolds was briefed on a top secret Army cryptanalytic program and brought decoded Soviet spy messages back to the Bureau. In the spring of 1948, Special Agent Robert Lamphere became interested in these messages and combined his expertise and the Bureau’s growing knowledge of Soviet espionage with the work of the Army’s brilliant cryptanalyst Meredith Gardner. Together, the two began to make sense of Soviet telegrams sent from the U.S. and other western countries during World War II. Soon they were on the trail of Soviet spies like Judith Coplon, Klaus Fuchs, Julius Rosenberg, and many others. Their work and that of their successors—a project now known as Venona—allowed the FBI and its partners to identify more than 100 Soviet agents, keep traitors from accessing crucial national secrets, and start moving more proactively against Soviet intelligence in the 1950s and beyond. When Venona was declassified in 1995, it led to a significant re-evaluation of Cold War history. Batafsil ma'lumot

This burnt-out station wagon led to the case
name “MIBURN,” short for Mississippi Burning.

By the early 1960s the civil rights movement was starting to make headway in America, but the backlash from the KKK and others was growing. When three young men who had volunteered to help register African-American voters in Mississippi disappeared suddenly on June 21, 1964, President Johnson called on the FBI to investigate, and we did so rigorously. Within a short time, we found the young men’s burnt-out station wagon (thus the famous case name “MIBURN”), located their bodies, and gathered important evidence that led to indictments. Although it took a long time (decades, tragically) to secure a measure of justice in the courtroom, national outrage over the crime helped spur passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Together with the Civil Rights Act of 1964, these laws—for the first time—put real teeth into the FBI’s ability to defend the rights and freedoms of all Americans. We’ve used them to great effect ever since. Batafsil ma'lumot

8) October 15, 1970 – New Law of the Land

In the fall of 1970, Congress passed the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, commonly called “RICO,” as part of a larger bill. What a huge milestone it turned out to be. Finally, the FBI had the legal muscle to go after criminal enterprises like the Mafia the right way—investigating their entire organizations, leaders and all, instead of just individuals who had committed a crime. Thanks to this legislation and other new approaches (like using undercover agents and Title III wiretaps to gather evidence), we were soon working with our partners to dismantle entire mob families from the top down and putting a serious dent in the Mafia’s corrupting and violent ways. We’ve also used the law over the years to combat street gangs, drug rings, corruption activities, and even terrorist financing activities in this country.

The Watergate complex, site of the famous break-in

9) November 18, 1975 – Domestic Intelligence Redefined

During the early 1970s, especially after J. Edgar Hoover died in May 1972, revelations began to surface about potential abuses in the intelligence community. In 1975, on the heels of Watergate and the changing political climate it engendered, Senator Frank Church opened a series of hearings unlike any before into domestic intelligence issues. Front and center was the FBI, which was sharply criticized for its investigation of Dr. Martin Luther King, its surveillance practices, and other concerns. In response, the Bureau accelerated its re-evaluation of its domestic security programs and worked with the Attorney General to craft guidelines governing domestic security operations. These changes established clearer parameters for FBI cases and made agents more respectful than ever of the need to protect constitutional rights.


Is There Anything We Can Do About It?

It might seem like the average person is fairly powerless to stop the FBI snooping on our browsing history. However, there are some ways of fighting back.

“The failure to prohibit the warrantless collection of search and browser histories is another indicator of the continuing deterioration of internet users' online privacy,” said Chris Hauk, consumer privacy champion at Pixel Privacy. “This is why I strongly recommend that internet users only use security and privacy-focused browsers, such as Brave or the Tor Browser. Also, users should only perform searches on privacy-respecting search engines, such as DuckDuckGo.”

The Tor Browser, for example, works by encrypting your connection to the internet and then passing your traffic through voluntarily run servers to help mask your IP address.

However, the Tor Browser isn't the easiest to use, and your upload and download speeds will suffer with all that encryption and server-hopping.

VPNs are a slightly easier way to ensure incognito browsing. The basic idea behind a VPN is to create a private, encrypted ‘tunnel’ that connects your computer, smartphone, or tablet directly to a secure VPN proxy server. This, in turn, connects you to the rest of the internet.

The VPN server hides your true IP address, making it impossible to trace the connection directly to you. With all traffic to and from your device secured, no one can snoop on your activity or hijack your connection.

The methods will keep you more secure online than doing nothing. But, of course, you could always trying petitioning your senator or representative when the reauthorization returns to try and get the amendment removed.


7. Charles Winstead

Although unassuming Bureau agent Charles Winstead was involved in several high-profile cases in the 1930s and 40s, his main claim to fame is being the agent most likely to have fired the shot that finally downed the notorious John Dillinger. Yet while Winstead received a personal commendation for his actions from FBI chief J. Edgar Hoover, the two later fell out after Winstead slighted a journalist, and soon afterward the junior agent quit. It has been said that Winstead is not as well remembered as he should be for his exploits yet the man who took down such a notorious criminal as Dillinger, and who was also pivotal in tracking down “Baby Face” Nelson, definitely deserves recognition in our book.


Not To Be Forgotten.

". you don't know what hell is until you are a young housewife in Chicago with a 3-month old child and your husband gets a call to throw some clothes in a bag and go to Wisconsin at once. Later that evening a radio bulletin said that 2 unidentified FBI agents had been killed in Wisconsin. The wife of the agent across the hall and I called the Bureau headquarters all night trying frantically to find out if we were widows. When you have gone through that you will have been through hell." (Judge Don Metcalfe, son of Special Agent (SA) James Metcalfe, recalls his mother's words.)

The Depression Era's war on crime came on hard, and it came on fast. To say that formal firearms and investigative training was still in its infancy is an understatement. As Judge Don Metcalfe told me in a telephone interview, "It wasn't until months after the Kansas City Massacre in 1933 that my father had to learn how to shoot a gun and drive a car."

The 1920s claimed the lives of two FBI agents. Between 1933 and 1934 alone, four FBI agents would be dead, and others wounded by the wretched bastards they pursued. By decade's end, four more agents would be added to the list of those lost. Policemen, sheriffs and detectives who worked with or without the Bureau were no less vulnerable.

Bureau agents and others who fought the 1930's war on crime didn't understand how much all of it would tax their home lives. Their remarkable bravery overshadowed the haunted thoughts that they may make widows of their wives and leave their children fatherless. What records of both theirs and official that can be found reveal the enduring and relentless fatigue of extremely long hours of being in one city one day and another the next. The all night driving or the seemingly limitless Pullman train rides. Boring and endless stakeouts false leads and mistaken identities. At times, on the move with only the clothing on their backs. Only to bed down in some motel or private room in a remote corner of a dusty, dry America or a grimy industrial city. There would be days and weeks away from their wives, their children and their friends who would have no idea of where they were or what they were doing. For many, the chase offered the best meal it could a hardened sandwich and a cup or two of some diner's rancid coffee. For many, Christmas and the important yearly holidays would have to wait another year…

Former Chicago FBI SAC, Melvin Purvis wrote about his FBI career in "American Agent" in 1935 after he resigned from the Bureau. He casually mentioned "my travel bag consisted of my hat." In the examination of documents left behind in personal and FBI files, we can readily see how brutal life’s demands were on the limited Bureau staff nationwide.

Importantly though, Purvis wrote "There were men who served with me who never knew the emotion of fear. They belonged to the glory company of history, those joyous daredevils who, from time immemorial, have been vainly waiting for a commander to order a charge on the gateways of hell. for it was war, and nothing less. but the story of what went on behind the scenes. made possible the triumph of law and order, has never been told." Tireless investigations, heartbreaking and tragic failures, Purvis recalled. ". What we really needed was one night of uninterrupted sleep. "

1925 - Charles B. Winstead - (FBI Application Photo)

One small article I read years back was the catalyst for the creation of this website.

An online Dallas newspaper report revealed that the memoirs of former FBI Special Agent, Charles Winstead were in a museum in Sherman, Texas. Having known the Winstead name and his role in the Dillinger shooting and many other high profile cases of the '30s, one could only wonder why a document of this value to FBI and police history had never made it out of the city of Sherman where Winstead was born. Or at least copies of it. It was important that others read it. After all, Winstead was just one of the many who belonged to the "glory company of history" that Purvis referred to.

But somehow overpowering the news story of John Dillinger and the Winstead memoirs, came a final note from the author of the Dallas article. He said, "FBI Agent Winstead, who died in bed at 82 in 1973, is today widely disremembered."

"Winstead is. widely disremembered. " It's one of those phrases you need to read twice. Let that thought sink in for a moment.

History and the passage of Time does that to us. Memories, like photos, tend to fade as the years march on. In many instances, we know more about the gangsters and cop killers (like Bonnie and Clyde) than we do about those in pursuit. But how many others, especially those who died in the line of duty, are "disremembered?" Men who were such an intricate part of the beginnings of a very young and inexperienced FBI.

FBI Agents searching the Northwest forests for a kidnapped child. (Courtesy Franklin family)

Who were these young warriors who took on a mission that would cost some their lives and the lives of local officers they worked with? What about those who worked behind the scenes to bring the FBI into the twenty first century? Where did they come from and what was their involvement what of their own stories about what happened? Where are their children and grandchildren? What of their father's and grandfather's letters, diaries and the now fading photographs no one has seen?

An entire generation of FBI Agents is gone. So is the evil they pursued. Their biographies are diverse. From immigrants to those U.S. born from lawyers to accountants, former Texas Rangers, or Oklahoma and surrounding lawmen sports legends, boxers, and veterans of the Great War. Scientists, technicians and others.

For decades, these G-men and their police and detective counterparts have been long forgotten and hardly mentioned except at times to play second fiddle to our own obsessions with the killers they pursued. Today, not many will know the names of the men who left their homes and families in pursuit of those who wreaked havoc on the weak and defenseless of American society. Under perhaps the worst of conditions, FBI men and local law enforcement counterparts at times who risked their lives daily and who were the real heroes of America's "lawless years." An era of straw hats, tommy guns, dusty midwest roads, wooden shacks, rented rooms, and running boards.

FBI Agent James J. Metcalfe of the 30s left us with their vision when he wrote "Portraits We Were The G-Men." "We helped the Bureau grow, we suffered heartaches and we lost the lives of several men. But surely everyone of us would do that job again. Because today the FBI is worthy of its name and we are proud and happy that we helped create its fame."

This website is a tribute to the many FBI Agents of the '30s now long "disremembered," their police counterparts and a very young FBI they were so proud of. It is now their official recorded accounts in file of what happened - sometimes distorted by many over the decades. It's these records, their photos left behind their letters, diaries, their memoirs, family recollections which tell us the stories of those forgotten.

. For their survivors, this site is for the honor of their fathers and grandfathers.

Copyright, Larry E. Wack. Photos and content of this website cannot be used without permission. Contact us through the Navigation Section above.

Retired Special Agent, Larry [email protected]

Larry Wack passed away on January 14, 2019, after a long battle with cancer. This website will be kept online for the foreseeable future by his surviving family in memory of all of the research and dedication that he put into preserving the FBI history. There are no alterations/additions planned at this time.

Website owner/editor, retired FBI Special Agent Larry Wack, spent over 30 years in the FBI. During the years of 1968 to 1972 he worked in Director J. E. Hoover's FBI in Washington, D.C. as a support employee while attending college at night. A majority of those years were spent in the Civil Rights Section of the General Investigative Division. After Director Hoover died in May, 1972, Mr. Wack continued working at FBI Headquarters until 1975. In 1975, being a graduate of American University in Washington, D. C., he became a Special Agent of the FBI. After graduating the FBI Academy, he was assigned to the NYC Office's bombing investigations squad, later becoming a member of the Bureau's original Terrorist Task Force. During that time he was intimately involved in the Bureau's major terrorism cases of the era. After only a few years out of the Academy, he was the recipient of the Attorney General's Award For Excellence In Law Enforcement. In 1990, he was transferred to the Buffalo, N.Y. Office. There he assisted with the original set-up and became the Coordinator of the Fugitive/Gang Task Force, in addition to having his own caseload. He retired from the FBI in 2003.

Until recently, he spent a lot of time with hobbies of fly fishing and his 1966 Chevy "muscle car. '“ Going to Cruise Nites" and re-visiting those wonderful days of music by Buddy Holly and others of that era.

Comments and opinions of the site owner do not necessarily reflect those of other current /former or retired Special Agents nor other law enforcement entities. The site editor/owner is not a spokesman for the FBI or any related Societies.


Shakllar

FBI Fingerprint Form FD-258 – For the submission of fingerprints. If sent by mail at least 2 different copies should be conducted at the LiveScan or Standard Location.

Credit Card Authorization Form – Attach and enter the credit card details to be used for the $18 fee. Otherwise, the applicant may also send a Certified Check or Money Order made to the “Treasury of the United States”. Checks are not allowed.

Request Release (Attorney) – If the applicant would like the criminal history report to be sent to their attorney they may do so by sending this form along with the application.


Criminal Record Checks

U.S. citizens may be asked to present a “certificate of good conduct” or “lack of a criminal record” for a variety of reasons for use abroad, including adoption, school attendance, employment, etc. U.S. law enforcement authorities may not be familiar with such a procedure since it is not commonly requested in the United States. There are a variety of options available to U.S. citizens seeking to obtain proof of their lack of a criminal record.

Local Police Check

Go to your local police department where you reside or last resided in the United States, request that the police conduct a local or state criminal records search and provide you with a document reflecting that there is no history of a criminal record. Local police departments may require your personal appearance in order to conduct the search. You should determine whether the country where you intend to use the records check requires that it be authenticated. For information on that process please see our authentications page.

FBI Records Check

The Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) centralizes criminal justice information and provides accurate and timely information and services to local, state, federal, and international law enforcement agencies, the private sector, academia, and other government agencies.

The FBI offers two methods for requesting your FBI Identification Record or proof that a record does not exist:


Design & Construction

Longest serving Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, lawyer, and criminologist, J. Edgar Hoover was born on January 1, 1895 in Washington, DC to Annie Marie Scheitlin Hoover and Dickerson Naylor Hoover. Hoover attended night classes at George Washington University while working as a clerk at the Library of Congress. After being admitted to the District of Columbia bar in 1917, his uncle—who was a judge—helped him land a job in the U.S. Justice Department. Within two years, Hoover became a special assistant to Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. In this position, he was given the responsibility of heading a new section within the Justice Department’s Bureau of Investigation called the General Intelligence Division (GID). The GID was created to gather intelligence on radical groups, and was responsible for organizing the arrest or deportation of alleged seditionists. This led to the controversial “Palmer Raids,” in which Hoover and his associates arrested and deported left-wing radicals, especially anarchists, from the U.S.

Designed by the Chicago-based firm C.F. Murphy Associates, the building was constructed in several phases starting in 1967. The design for the building includes features typically associated with late modern Brutalist architecture: exposed concrete, deep window recesses, strong, powerful massing and monumentality. Combining asymmetrical elements and masses with repetitive and symmetrical bays, the design attempts to be both monumental and fitting within the urban neighborhood. The building was dedicated in 1975, although some areas were not entirely completed until 1977. The building was constructed by Norair Engineering and Blake Construction Company, both based in Washington.


FBI - History

EMPLOYMENT ELIGIBILITY

In order to be eligible for employment with the FBI, applicants must violate none of the automatic employment disqualifiers, and adhere to the FBI’s pre-employment drug policy. Please ensure you meet these standards before submitting an application. All of these disqualifiers are extensively researched during the FBI Background Investigation Process.

Below are specific elements that will automatically disqualify job candidates for employment with the FBI. Bularga quyidagilar kiradi:

  • Non-U.S. fuqarolik
  • Conviction of a felony (Special Agent candidates only: conviction of a domestic violence misdemeanor or more serious offense)
  • Violation of the FBI Employment Drug Policy (please see below for additional details)
  • Default on a student loan insured by the U.S. Government
  • Failure of an FBI-administered urinalysis drug test
  • Failure to register with the Selective Service System (for males only, exceptions apply – please click here to find out more)
  • Knowingly or willfully engaged in acts or activities designed to overthrow the U.S. government by force
  • Failure to pay court ordered child support
  • Failure to file federal, state, or local income tax returns

Please note that if you are disqualified by any of the above tests, you are not eligible for employment with the FBI. Please make sure you can meet FBI employment requirements and pass all disqualifiers before you apply for an FBI position.

The FBI is firmly committed to a drug-free society and workplace. Applicants for employment with the FBI who are currently using illegal drugs, misusing or abusing legal drugs or other substances for illicit purposes at the time of the application process will be found unsuitable for employment. The FBI balances the needs of the organization and the importance of keeping the public integrity necessary to accomplish its law enforcement and intelligence missions by hiring the most qualified candidates. The guidelines are used by all entities in the hiring process to help determine whether an applicant's prior drug use makes him or her eligible and/or suitable for FBI employment.

A candidate will be found unsuitable for employment and automatically disqualified if he/she deliberately misrepresents his or her drug history in connection with his or her application for employment. Additionally, candidates are automatically disqualified under the following criteria:

Marijuana Usage:

Candidates cannot have used marijuana or cannabis in any form (natural or synthetic) and in any location (domestic or foreign) within the one (1) year preceding the date of their application for employment.

Marijuana or cannabis use before the candidate's 18th birthday is not a disqualifier for FBI employment, however, adjudicative personnel will evaluate the candidate by using the "whole-person concept."

Dronabinol (sold as Marinol, Syndros, or generic equivalents) is the only pharmaceutical drug containing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) that the FDA has approved for lawful use with a medical prescription. Candidates cannot present "medical marijuana cards" or other prescriptions as mitigating factors for marijuana or cannabis use.

Illegal Drugs:

Candidates cannot have used any illegal drug, other than marijuana, within the ten (10) years preceding the date of the application for employment.

Additionally, candidates cannot have sold, distributed, manufactured, or transported any illegal drug or controlled substance without legal authorization.

Prescription Drugs/Legally Obtainable Substances:

Candidates cannot have used anabolic steroids without a prescription from a licensed practicing physician within the past ten (10) years preceding the date of the application for employment.

Finally, candidates cannot have sold, distributed, manufactured, or transported any prescription drug without legal authorization.

FBI Background Investigation

All FBI employees must undergo an FBI Background Investigation and receive an FBI Top Secret security clearance. Once you have received and accepted a conditional job offer, the FBI will initiate an intensive background investigation. You must go through this background investigation, and you must pass, before moving forward with employment. The preliminary employment requirements include a polygraph examination a test for illegal drug use credit and records checks and extensive interviews with former and current colleagues, neighbors, friends, professors, etc. Before applying for any FBI position, please make sure that the FBI Employment Disqualifiers do not apply to you.