Robert Graves uyi

Robert Graves uyi

Mayorkadagi Robert Graves uyi - yozuvchi Robert Graves hayotiga bag'ishlangan va u yashagan uyda joylashgan kichik muzey.

Ba'zida Ca n'Alluny deb nomlangan villa, Graves 1946 yilda Ispaniya fuqarolar urushi va Angliyadagi Ikkinchi jahon urushidan keyin uyiga qaytgan paytidagi kabi qaytarilgan.

Ekskursiya Gravesning hayoti va ijodi tasvirlangan 15 daqiqali video bilan boshlanadi. U "I, Klavdiy va Xudo Klavdiy" kitoblari bilan mashhur, lekin u ham roman, ham she'r yozuvchi edi.

Uydan o'tayotganda, siz hali ham uy va Graves va uning oilasi hali ham shu uyda yashayotgani haqida taassurot qoldirasiz.

U erda asosan Graves o'zi qurgan, chiroyli tsitrus bog'lari va grotto bo'lgan go'zal bog'lar bor.

Qabrlar mahalliy cherkov qabristoniga dafn etilgan, bu qishloqdan tik yurishdir. Shaxsiy sayohatchilar qabul qilinadi, lekin tekshirish maqsadga muvofiqdir, chunki murabbiylar bo'lsa, odamlar kira olmaydi.


Rosamond, Kaliforniya 93560

ROSAMOND (AV Press, 2008 yil 1 -yanvar): Qullikda tug'ilgan Charlz A. Graves fuqarolar urushidan keyin g'arbga kelib, Antilop vodiysida chorvachilik bilan shug'ullangan va Rosamondning etakchi fuqarosi bo'lib, o'zining birinchi maktabini qurgan va xizmat qilgan. uning pochta ustasi.

Graves 1856 yil 26 -fevralda Kentukki shahrida tug'ilgan. Otasi fuqarolar urushi paytida o'ldirilgan va Graves bir necha yil Kentukkida amakivachchasi bilan yashagan.

Kichik pul to'laganidan so'ng, u mol boqish uchun joy izlab g'arbga yo'l oldi.

Avvaliga u yurdi. Keyin u Antilop vodiysidan o'tgan Tinch okeanining janubiy temir yo'lining yuk va yo'lovchi poezdlariga mindi.

Antilopalar vodiysi meros jamg'armasining Reflections Winter 1995 jurnalida chop etilgan maqolaga ko'ra, Graves 1882 yilda Rosamondga kelgan.

U sahroga, Tehachapi tog'lari tomon yurdi va yashil o't va buloqqa duch keldi. "Bu qoramol boqish uchun yaxshi joyga o'xshardi", deydi uning qizi Ketrin 1996 yilda Valley Pressga bergan intervyusida.

Qabrlar 640 gektar maydonni o'z ichiga olgan, shundan 160 gektari bugungi Rosamond bulvari va 30 -chi ko'chadagi G'arbning mulki edi. O'sha paytda Rosamond bulvari tuproqli yo'l edi. "Biz uni Washboard Avenue deb nomladik, chunki u juda qo'pol edi", dedi Ketrin.

Graves kichkina uy, omborxona va boshqa binolar qurdi. Uning farovonligi oshgani sayin, u bir nechta sigirlarni, xitoylik oshpaz va janjalchilarni yolladi.

1896 yilda u Rosamondning oltinchi Qo'shma Shtatlar pochtachisi bo'ldi, ehtimol uning otliq mahorati tufayli, chunki pochta keyinchalik otda etkazib berilgandi. Rich Breaultning 1995 yildagi maqolasiga ko'ra, Graves "pochta bo'limining 8,90 dollarlik boy inventarini" olgan. U bu lavozimda 1903 yilgacha ishlagan.

Mintaqada oltin topilganida, Graves ikkita da'voni ilgari surdi, ular uni 1 -uy va 2 -raqam deb atashdi, chunki ular uning uyiga yaqin edi.

Bir necha yillik yolg'izlikdan so'ng, Graves xotin qidirishga davom etdi. "Bu erda katta yig'ilishlar bo'lmagan, ayniqsa qora tanlilarda", - deydi nevarasi Betti Prays 1995 yilda. Graves bir nechta gazetalarda reklama joylashtirgan va uni yozgan ayol bilan yozishmalar qilgan.

1900 yilda u Kanzas -Siti shahriga poezdda bordi va Kordia Anita Roberts ismli ayolga uylandi. U maktab o'qituvchisi va kollej bitiruvchisi edi, bu o'z davridagi ayol uchun katta yutuq edi. Ularning birgalikda olti farzandi bor edi: Charlz, Yelizaveta, Jeyms, Robert, Meri va Ketrin.

"Cordia Gravesning o'qituvchi sifatida o'qitilishi Graves oilasida ta'lim har doim juda muhim bo'lganligini anglatardi. Ularning bolalari birinchi marta kerosinli chiroq yordamida o'qishni o'rgandilar", - deb yozgan Kris Kristofer Antilopalar vodiysi merosi jamg'armasining 1995 yil qishki jurnalida.

Rosamond ko'p bolali oilalarga ega bo'lgach, Graves 1908 yilda G'arbiy va Rosamond bulvarining 35 -ko'chasida joylashgan mulkida bir xonali maktab qurdi. Kern okrugi keyinchalik shu mulkka maktab qurdi.

Graves uchun ta'lim juda muhim edi, chunki u qullikdan kelgan, qullar o'qish va yozishni eshitmagan, dedi nevarasi.

"Oilada ta'lim har doim muhim bo'lgan",-dedi 2006 yilda bergan intervyusida Gravesning qizi Ketrin, 1928 yilda Antilopalar vodiysidagi o'rta maktabni tamomlagan. U Afro-amerikaliklar orasida birinchi bo'lib bitirgan. O'g'il Robert Graves ikki marta Janubiy Ken birlashgan maktab okrugining boshlig'i etib saylandi.

Bugungi kunda, Qabrlar oilasi hali ham Rosamondda esda qolmoqda. Charlz Gravesning rasmi Rosamond pochta bo'limida osilgan va Rosamond o'rta maktabining piyoda to'pi maydoni Robert Graves nomi bilan atalgan.


Fox Hollow Farm dahshatlarini ochish

Gumon qilinayotgan ketma -ket qotil dahshatlari uyiga kiring - agar jur'at etsangiz.

Yana sovuq holatlarni xohlaysizmi? Ro'yxatdan o'ting Tarkiblar axborot byulleteni va eng dahshatli tergovlarni to'g'ridan -to'g'ri pochta qutingizga etkazing.

Fox Hollow fermasining dahshatlari: qotil uyining tarixi va ta'qiblarini ochish

Richard Estep va Robert Graves tomonidan

Fox Hollow fermasining tashqi ko'rinishi.

Bodrum hovuzi Fox Hollow fermasida.

Yana sovuq holatlarni xohlaysizmi? Ro'yxatdan o'ting Tarkiblar axborot byulleteni va eng dahshatli tergovlarni to'g'ridan -to'g'ri pochta qutingizga etkazing.

Uyning yon tomonidagi o'rmon.

Fox Hollow fermasi tashqarisidagi belgi.

O'qishni davom ettirmoqchimisiz? Oldindan buyurtma Fox Hollow fermasining dahshatlari: Serial qotil uyining tarixini ochish. Bugun.


Universitet tarixi

Yagona binodan rivojlanayotgan tarixiy taqa-bu universitetning boy va betakror tarixining tirik, nafas oluvchi va doimiy o'zgaruvchan rejasi.

Janubiy Karolina Universitetiga tashrif tarixiy ot taqog'ini ko'rmasdan tugallanmagan. U shaklidagi asl kampus-bir paytlar Janubiy Karolina kolleji deb nomlangan-ikki asrdan ko'proq tarixni ochib, tarixiy joylarning milliy reestriga kirishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. Bu, shuningdek, universitetning go'zal devorlari va kundalik hayoti qul bo'lgan ishchilarga bog'liqligini tan olish uchun kerakli qadamni qo'ygan joy.

Bino va inshootlar

Universitet 1801 yilda tashkil etilgan paytdan boshlab atigi 12 ta bino taniqli U shaklidagi ot taqinchoqlarini tuzishga yordam berdi. Bugungi kunda, eski kampusning atrofini o'rab turgan g'ishtdan yasalgan taqa devorining ichida yana ko'plab binolar joylashgan. Batafsil tarixni "Ot taqasida: Janubiy Karolina universiteti tarixiy kampusiga ko'rsatma" ga qarang.

Currell kolleji (1918)

Eski kampus binosi
Arxitektor: Edvards va Sayvard

Rutledge kolleji orqasida joylashgan Currell kolleji yuridik maktab binosi sifatida qurilgan va dastlab Charlestonning taniqli advokati Jeyms L. Petigru (1789-1863) sharafiga Petigru kolleji deb nomlangan. Darhaqiqat, Janubiy Karolinaning taniqli advokatlari va sudyalari sharafiga yozilgan ismlar binoning asl maqsadini eslatish uchun derazalar ostida qoladi.

Petigru nomi 1950 yilda qurilgan yangi yuridik maktabga ko'chirildi va asl bino 1914 yildan 1923 yilgacha universitet prezidenti bo'lib ishlagan Uilyam Spenser Currell (1858-1943) deb o'zgartirildi. Currell universitet tomonidan "Dunyo" qo'zg'olonlari paytida rahbarlik qildi. Birinchi urush.

DeSaussure kolleji (1809)

Ot poyabzali qurilishi
Arxitektor: Richard Klark

DeSaussure kolleji Inqilobiy urushda xizmat qilgan Genri Uilyam DeSaussure (1763-1839) sharafiga nomlangan va keyinchalik Janubiy Karolina qonun chiqaruvchi palatasining ikkala palatasida siyosatchi bo'lgan. U kollejni 1801 yilda Bosh assambleyaning a'zosi sifatida tashkil etish tarafdori edi va u uning birinchi ishonchli vakillaridan biri sifatida xizmat qilgan. Advokat va keyinchalik sudya bo'lgan DeSaussure, shuningdek, AQSh zarbxonasining ikkinchi direktori bo'lib ishlagan.

Rutleg kollejining egizaklari sifatida qurilgan tuzilma, fuqarolar urushi paytida shifoxona bo'lib xizmat qilgan va 1866-1873 yillarda Karolinada birinchi tibbiyot maktabi bo'lgan. Qayta qurish paytida, bitta qanot federal harbiy qamoqxona bo'lib xizmat qilar, universitet va shahar ishg'ol qilingan edi. Birinchi jahon urushi paytida bir qanot birinchi ayollar yotoqxonasi bo'lib xizmat qilgan.

O'tgan asrning 70 -yillarida taqa tiklash loyihasida arxeologlar DeSaussure -ning asl poydevori Rutledga 100 fut yaqinroq bo'lganini aniqladilar.

Elliott kolleji (1837)

Ot poyabzali qurilishi
Arxitektor: noma'lum

Elliott kolleji faqat talabalar turar joyi sifatida yaratilgan va markaziy o'quv joyi yo'q. Bino 1812 yilda botanik, o'qituvchi, shtat qonun chiqaruvchisi va Janubiy Karolina shtati bankining asoschilaridan biri Stiven Elliot (1771-1830) sharafiga nomlangan. 1825 yilda Charleston va u vafotigacha maktabda tabiatshunoslik va botanika fanidan dars bergan.

Flinn Xoll (1860)

Eski kampus binosi
Arxitektor: Richard W. Jonson (pudratchi)

1860 yilda bitta fakultet qarorgohi sifatida qurilgan Flinn Xoll, fuqarolar urushidan oldin kampusda qurilgan oxirgi bino edi. Bino falsafa professori Jon Uilyam Flinn (1847-1907) nomi bilan atalgan, u 1905 yilda universitetni tark etgunga qadar 1890 yil atrofida yashagan.

1910 yilda bino YMCA va talabalar faoliyati markaziga aylantirildi va Flinn Xoll deb nomlandi. Keyinchalik bino akademik foydalanish uchun aylantirildi. Urush Memorialiga joy ajratish uchun Flinn Xoll taxminan ellik yard orqaga hozirgi manziliga ko'chirildi.

Harper kolleji (1848)

Ot poyabzali qurilishi
Arxitektor: noma'lum

Harper kolleji va uning egizagi Legare bir vaqtning o'zida qurilgan va talabalar turar joyi qanotlari bilan o'ralgan markaziy akademik bo'limning Rutledge kolleji tomonidan o'rnatilgan namunaga amal qilishadi. Uchinchi qavatdagi majlislar zalidan Janubiy Karolina kollejidagi birinchi ikkita talaba tashkilotlaridan biri bo'lgan Evfradiya adabiy jamiyati foydalangan.

Bino Janubiy Karolina kollejining erta bitiruvchisi (1808) Uilyam Harper (1790-1847) sharafiga nomlangan, u shtat qonun chiqaruvchisi, AQSh senatori, sudya, shtat kantsleri va vasiylik kengashi a'zosi.

Ot taqa devori (1835-1836)

Eski kampus tuzilishi
Arxitektor: Tomas X. Veyd (duradgor) Tomas R. Devis (g'isht teruvchi)

Qalin g'ishtdan qurilgan taqa devori dastlab 6 fut 9 dyuym balandlikda edi. U Sumter, Grin, Bull va Pendleton ko'chalaridagi kampusga o'ralgan va yagona kirish Sumter ko'chasida edi.

Dastlabki maqsadda talabalar tunda Kolumbiyaning tavernalariga kirmasliklari uchun muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi, lekin 1865 yil 17-18 fevralga o'tar kechasi fuqarolar urushi paytida Kolumbiya yoqilganda, kollej maydonida olovni o'chirib, kampusni qutqarishga yordam berdi. .

Devor 1880 -yillardan buyon ancha o'zgargan, uning qismlari ochilgan va yopilgan, tushirilgan va ko'tarilgan. 1899 yilga kelib Sumter ko'chasidagi markaziy kirish joyi yopildi va uning o'rniga ikkita teshik ochildi, bu eski kampusga taqa shakli berdi.

Legar kolleji (1848)

Ot poyabzali qurilishi
Arxitektor: noma'lum

Legare kolleji 1814 yil bitiruvchisi va Klariozofiy adabiy jamiyatining sobiq prezidenti Xyu Svinton Legar (1797-1843) sharafiga nomlangan. Huquqshunos, Legare, shuningdek, davlat vakili, bosh prokuror, AQSh kongressmeni, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari bosh prokurori, Bryusseldagi ishonch va vaqtincha AQSh davlat kotibi lavozimlarida ishlagan.

Binoning dizayni Karolina tarixidagi birinchi ikkita talaba tashkilotidan biri bo'lgan Clariosophic Adabiy Jamiyatining uchinchi qavatidagi yig'ilish zalini o'z ichiga olgan.

Fuqarolar urushi paytida Legare Konfederatsiya shifoxonasi sifatida ishlatilgan va universitet 1873-1877 yillar davomida rekonstruksiya paytida ajratilganida, u asosan afro-amerikalik talabalar jamoasining asosiy turar joyiga aylangan. Uning aholisi orasida Karolinaning birinchi afroamerikalik bitiruvchisi T. Makkants Styuart ham bor edi.

Liber kolleji (1837)

Ot poyabzali qurilishi
Arxitektor: Tomas X. Veyd (pudratchi)

Uchinchi fakultetning ikki kishilik qarorgohi, Liber kolleji 1940 -yillarga qadar fakultet qarorgohi sifatida ishlatilgan, universitet o'qituvchilar turar joyini berishni to'xtatgan. Bu bino 1855 yilgacha shu uyda yashagan Frensis Liber (1800-1872) nomi bilan atalgan. Liber tarix va siyosiy iqtisod professori, Amerika ensiklopediyasining asoschisi va kollejning eng mashhur olimlaridan biri bo'lgan.

Professor Jozef LeKontening qizi Emma Lekonte 1865 yil fevralda Liberadagi oilaviy uyidan Kolumbiya yonib ketganiga guvoh bo'lgan. Universitet ajratilgan 1870-yillardagi to'rt yil mobaynida Liber kolleji Karolinaning birinchi afroamerikalik o'qituvchisi Richard T. Griner (1844-1922) ning uyi edi.

Longstreet teatri (1855)

Old kampus binosi (taqa devorining tashqarisidagi yagona eski kampus binosi)
Arxitektor: Yoqub Graves

Dastlab College Hall deb nomlangan bino yangi kollej ibodatxonasi sifatida qurilgan, lekin akustika shunchalik dahshatli ediki, u hech qachon ibodatxona sifatida ishlatilmagan.

U fuqarolar urushi paytida kasalxona va o'likxona sifatida ishlatilgan, 1870 yildan 1887 yilgacha arsenal va qurol -yarog 'sifatida, 1880 -yillarda fan zali bo'lib, 1892 yilda qisman gimnaziyaga aylangan. 1968 yilda bino kollej prezidenti uchun Longstreet gimnaziyasi deb nomlangan. Augustus Longstreet (1790-1870), 1857 yildan 1861 yilgacha bo'lgan davrda notiqlik qilgan talabalar kollejini tark etish va Konfederatsiya armiyasiga qo'shilish qaroriga sabab bo'lgan.

1970 -yillardagi "Taqani tiklash" loyihasi davomida bino katta ta'mirdan o'tkazilib, akustik muammolarni hal qilib, uni teatrga aylantirdi.

Makssi kolleji (1937)

Eski kampus binosi
Arxitektor: Lafaye va Lafaye

Maxcy kolleji Buyuk Depressiya davrida talabalar shaharchasida New Deal qurilishining keng ko'lamli dasturi doirasida qurilgan. Dastlab talabalar kasaba uyushmasi sifatida rejalashtirilgan, qarorgoh ko'p yillar davomida podvalda mashhur talabalar zaliga ega edi.

U universitetning birinchi va eng uzoq prezident bo'lgan aziz Jonatan Makssi (1768-1820) sharafiga nomlangan.

Makkuthen uyi (1813)

Ot poyabzali qurilishi
Arxitektor: noma'lum

McCutchen House-Janubiy Karolina kollejida qurilgan ikkinchi fakultet, Charleston shahridagi Bleklok uyidan keyin qurilgan, bu maktab tarixidagi eng uzoq vaqt o'qigan ikkita o'qituvchi-Maksimilian LaBorde (1804-1873) va Jorj Makkuthen ( 1876-1951).

LaBorde 1842 yildan 1873 yilgacha kollejda akademik faoliyati davomida dupleksning yarmini egallagan. Janubiy Karolina kolleji bitiruvchisi, u kollej fakultetiga kirgunga qadar ishonchli, shtat qonun chiqaruvchisi va Janubiy Karolina shtati kotibi bo'lib ishlagan.

Bino 1900 yildan 1948 yilgacha iqtisod fanidan dars bergan Jorj Makkutchen nomi bilan atalgan. Makkutchen 1915 yildan universitet 1945 yilda fakultetlarga uy berishni to'xtatgunga qadar shu uyda yashagan.

1940 -yillarda bino akademik foydalanishga, keyin esa fakultet klubiga aylantirildi. 2003 yilda Mehmondo'stlik, chakana savdo va sport menejmenti kolleji McCutchen House -ni restoran boshqaruvi va jamoatchilik uchun ochiq bo'lgan oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini o'qitish vositasi sifatida o'z zimmasiga oldi.

Makkissik muzeyi (1940)

Eski kampus binosi, 1940 yilgi asl Prezident uyi buzilganidan keyin, hozirgi ot taqa binosiga aylandi
Arxitektor: Genri C. Xibbs

Haqiqiy Prezident uyi orqasida qurilgan, MakKissik-1940 yilda Janubiy Karoliniana kutubxonasi binosining o'rnini egallagan, taqa ustidagi yigirmanchi asrdagi yagona bino. Bino 1984 yilda muzey sifatida qayta qurilgan.

Bino Karolinaning eng sevimli prezidentlaridan biri Jeyms Rion Makkissik (1894-1944) sharafiga nomlangan, u 1944 yilda to'satdan vafotidan keyin binoda hordiq chiqargan. Bino ko'p o'tmay unga nom berilgan. Talabalar jamoasi Vasiylik kengashiga Makkissikni kampusda dafn etishga ruxsat berishni so'radi. Uning qabri Janubiy Karoliniana kutubxonasining g'arbiy qanoti oldida.

Old Koker kolleji (1962)

Eski kampus binosi
Arxitektor: Lafaye, Fair va Lafaye va Associates

Old Coker kolleji dastlab farmatsevtika kolleji va biologiya kafedrasi uchun uy sifatida qurilgan. Bu taqa devorining ichida qurilgan oxirgi bino.

U universitetning eng taniqli bitiruvchilaridan biri va vasiylik kengashining sobiq a'zosi Devid R. Koker (1870-1938) sharafiga nomlangan. Coker Xartsvillda (AQSh) Coker’s Pedigreed Seed Seed Company kompaniyasini tuzdi va AQShda va boshqa mamlakatlarda keng tarqalgan asosiy paxta navlarini yaratdi. U janubning qishloq xo'jaligidagi eng yirik davlat arbobi hisoblangan.

Coker nomi 1976 yilda yangi biologiya fanlari binosiga ko'chirildi va Old Coker kolleji Arnold jamoat salomatligi maktabining uyiga aylandi, u 2015 yilda yangi axborot va kommunikatsiya kolleji sifatida yangilandi.

Eski rasadxona (1852)

Eski kampus binosi
Arxitektor: Yoqub Graves

Rasadxona matematika professori Metyu J. Uilyams olgan 7 dyuymli teleskopni joylashtirish uchun qurilgan. Teleskop fuqarolar urushigacha bo'lgan mashg'ulotlarda ishlatilgan. 1867 yilda teleskop o'g'irlandi va bino buzildi.

Eski Observatoriya yaqinda ma'muriy idoralarni joylashtirish uchun ta'mirdan chiqarilgunga qadar turli maqsadlarda ishlatilgan.

Osborn ma'muriyati binosi (1952)

Eski kampus hududida hozirgi kampus binosi
Arxitektor: J. Kerol Jonson

Osborne - bu kampusda faqat ma'muriy idoralar uchun qurilgan birinchi bino. 1973 yilda bino uzoq yillar vasiylik kengashi a'zosi bo'lgan Rutledge L. Osborn sharafiga nomlandi (1895-1984). Osborn 1947 yildan 1975 yil 80 yoshida iste'foga chiqqunga qadar boshqaruv kengashi a'zosi bo'lgan. U 1952 yildan 1970 yilgacha universitet tarixidagi har qanday odamdan ko'ra boshqaruv raisi bo'lib ishlagan.

1963 yilda bino Janubiy Karolina Universitetining tarixiy ikkinchi va oxirgi ajralish joyi bo'lgan. 1963 yil 11 sentyabrda Genri Monteit, Robert Anderson va Jeyms Solomon Osbornda maslahat olishdi, so'ngra harbiy-dengiz qurol-yarog 'idorasiga borib, rekonstruksiya qilinganidan keyin universitetda birinchi afro-amerikalik talabalar bo'lishdi. 2014 yilda binoning shimolidagi bog 'ta'mirdan chiqarilib, 1963 yilda ajratilgan Xotira bog'i deb o'zgartirildi.

1970 yil may oyida Osbornda katta talabalar g'alayoni bo'lib o'tdi, o'shanda katta guruh talabalari binolarni qisman egallab olishdi va prezident Tomas F. Jons va vasiylik kengashi a'zolarini o'z idoralarida ushlab qolishdi. Talabalar yana taqa ustida to'planishganda, Janubiy Karolina armiyasi milliy gvardiyasi va shtat huquqni muhofaza qilish bo'limi ularni tarqatish uchun ko'z yoshartuvchi gaz ishlatdi.

Pinckney kolleji (1837)

Ot poyabzali qurilishi
Arxitektor: noma'lum

Pinckney kolleji, Elliott kolleji singari, faqat talabalar turar joyi sifatida yaratilgan va boshqa otli binolarning markaziy akademik qismlari yo'q.

Pinckney Charlz Cotesworth Pinckney (1746-1825) va uning amakivachchasi Charlz Pinckney (1757-1824) nomi bilan atalgan. Charlz Pinknki inqilobiy urush generali, qonunchi, diplomat va kollej vasiylik kengashining birinchi a'zolaridan biri edi. Charlz Pinkni Kontinental Kongress vakili, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari senatori va vakili, shtat qonun chiqaruvchisi va gubernatori, Ispaniyada AQSh vaziri bo'lgan. Ikkala odam ham 1787 yildagi Konstitutsiyaviy Konventsiyaning delegati bo'lib xizmat qilishgan va AQSh Konstitutsiyasiga imzo chekishgan.

Asl Prezident uyi (1807)

Ot taqa binosi, 1940 yilda buzib tashlangan
Arxitektor: Yates va Filipp [yoki Philips]

Asl Prezident uyi 1807-1922 yillardagi har bir prezident tomonidan ishg'ol qilingan va 1909 yilda AQSh prezidenti Uilyam Xovard Taftning tashrifiga mezbonlik qilgan.

1922 yildan keyin uning ahvoli prezident qarorgohi sifatida ishlashni davom ettirish uchun juda kambag'al deb topildi va ofislarga aylantirildi. U 1940 yilda vayron qilingan - XX asrda buzilgan yagona yirik taqa binosi - uning orqasida yangi kutubxona, hozirgi McKissick muzeyi qurilganidan keyin.

Prezident uyi (1810 1854)

Taqmoq binosi (birinchi professor uyi sifatida)
1810 yil me'morlar: Yates va Filipp [yoki Philips]
1854 yil Arxitektor: P. H. Hammarskold

1950 -yillardan boshlab Prezident uyi bo'lib xizmat qilgan, bu joyning asl binosi 1810 yilda qurilgan fakultetning ikki kishilik turar joyi edi. Asl tuzilmasi 1855 yilda buzilib, qayta tiklandi va universitet o'qituvchilar turar joyi bilan ta'minlanmaguncha fakultet qarorgohi bo'lib qoldi.

Prezident Donald S. Rassell binoni ta'mirlab, uni Prezident uyiga aylantirdi. Kampusning markaziy qismi bo'lib, u ko'plab tashrif buyurgan mehmonlarni, shu jumladan 1987 yilda Papa Ioann Pol II ni qabul qilgan.

Preston kolleji (1939)

Eski kampus hududida hozirgi kampus binosi
Arxitektor: Xopkins va Beyker

Preston kolleji Buyuk Depressiya davrida Yangi kelishuv tomonidan moliyalashtirilgan kampusda keng ko'lamli qurilish dasturining bir qismi edi.

Turar-joy zali Uilyam Kempbell Preston (1794-1860) nomi bilan atalgan, u 1845 yildan 1851 yilgacha Janubiy Karolina kolleji prezidenti bo'lib ishlagan. Patrik Genrining katta jiyani Preston 1812 yilda Janubiy Karolina kollejini tamomlagan. va AQSh senatori.

Rutledge kolleji (1805)

Ot poyabzali qurilishi
Arxitektor: Richard Klark Robert Mills

Dastlabki kampus binosi Rutledge 1848 yilda aka -uka Jon va Edvard Rutleglar nomi bilan atalgan. Jon Rutleg (1739-1800), Janubiy Karolina gubernatori, Oliy sudning adliya, shtat qonun chiqaruvchisi va AQSh Kongressi a'zosi. Uning ukasi Edvard Rutleg (1749-1800) ham Janubiy Karolina gubernatori va shtat qonun chiqaruvchisi bo'lib xizmat qilgan va Mustaqillik deklaratsiyasining eng yosh imzosi bo'lgan.

Fuqarolar urushi paytida Rutledge Konfederatsiya shifoxonasi bo'lib xizmat qilgan. Kollej 1873-1877 yillarda ajratilgan va Rutledge kollejida afro-amerikalik o'qituvchilarni tayyorlaydigan shtat normal maktabi joylashgan.

Qullar kvartallari (1840 -yillar)

Eski kampus binosi
Arxitektor: Tomas Veyd (pudratchi)

Talabalar shaharchasida qolgan oxirgi oshxona va xizmatkorlar turar joylari, boshqa binolar XX asrda kampus kengaygani sari buzib tashlandi. Bu doimiy foydalanish tufayli saqlanib qoldi, birinchi navbatda saqlash joyi sifatida.

Talabalarga kollejga qul olib kirishga ruxsat berilmagan bo'lsa -da, o'qituvchilarga uy qullarini kampus turar joylariga olib kelishga ruxsat berildi. Kollej kollejning kundalik ishlariga qul bo'lgan ishchilarni etkazib berish uchun mahalliy mulkdorlarni yollash tizimiga tayangan.

Smokestack (1913)

Eski kampusning diqqatga sazovor joyi (Rutledge kolleji orqasida)

Quvurli tutun - bu 1913 yilda qurilgan sobiq kampus ko'mir isitish zavodining qoldiqlari.

Janubiy Karoliniana kutubxonasi (1840 1927)

Ot poyabzali qurilishi
Arxitektor: Robert Mills, qisman J. Kerroll Jonson

Janubiy Karoliniya kutubxonasi - AQShdagi eng qadimgi mustaqil kutubxona. Tuzilish janubiy karolinalik, millatning birinchi federal me'mori va Vashington yodgorligining dizayneri Robert Mills tomonidan taqdim etilgan rejalarga asoslangan.

Ikkinchi qavatdagi o'qish zali - Kongress kutubxonasining asl o'qish zalining nusxasi. J. Kerroll Jonson tomonidan yaratilgan qanotlar 1927 yilda qo'shimcha saqlash va ish joyini ta'minlash uchun qo'shilgan.

U 100 yil kollejning asosiy kutubxonasi bo'lib xizmat qilgan. Tarixiy bino Janubiy Karolinana kutubxonasi bo'lib, Janubiy Karolinaning tarixi, adabiyoti va madaniyatiga oid nashr etilgan va chop etilmagan materiallar ombori va mamlakatning janubiy qo'lyozmalarining eng yaxshi omborlaridan biriga aylandi. "Karoliniana" atamasi "Karolinaga tegishli narsalar" degan ma'noni anglatadi.

Tornuell kolleji (1913 1937)

Eski kampus hududida hozirgi kampus binosi
Arxitektor: Charlz C. Uilson

Tornuell kolleji 1848 yilda Harper kolleji va Legar kolleji qurilganidan beri qurilgan birinchi turar -joy binosi edi. 1937 yilda Jamoat ishlari boshqarmasi ikkita qanot qo'shishni moliyalashtirdi.

U 1831 yilda Janubiy Karolina kollejini tamomlagan, 1851 yildan 1855 yilgacha prezident bo'lib ishlagan bitiruvchi Jeyms Xenli Tornuell (1812-1862) sharafiga nomlangan. Uning boshqaruvi davrida Tornuell o'quv dasturiga bir nechta asosiy o'zgarishlarni kiritdi, jumladan kirish talablarini oshirish va og'zaki so'zlarni almashtirish. yozma testlar bilan. U, shuningdek, 1856 yildagi "Gvardiya uyi" isyoni paytida talabalarni tinchlantirishga yordam berdi, bu deyarli talabalar va mahalliy militsiya va politsiya o'rtasida qurolli to'qnashuvga olib keldi.

Urush xotirasi (1935)

Eski kampus hududida hozirgi kampus binosi
Arxitektor: Lafaye va Lafaye

Jahon urushi yodgorlik binosi Birinchi jahon urushida xizmat qilgan va vafot etgan Janubiy Karolina askarlariga bag'ishlangan bo'lib, u shaxsiy obuna va Jamoat ishlari boshqarmasining federal granti hisobidan to'langan.

Lafaye va Lafaye kampusdagi boshqa binolarga qaraganda o'ziga xos me'moriy ta'sirga ega bo'lgan binoni loyihalashtirishgan. Binodan hozirda universitetning ma'muriy idoralari foydalanmoqda va endi odamlar uchun ochiq emas.

Vudrou kolleji (1914)

Eski kampus hududida hozirgi kampus binosi
Arxitektor: Charlz C. Uilson

Jeyms Vudrou (1828-1907) nomi bilan atalgan Vudro kolleji markaziy isitish tizimiga ega bo'lgan kampusdagi birinchi yotoqxona edi. 1891 yildan 1897 yilgacha binoning nomdoshi universitet prezidenti lavozimida ishlagan. Vudrou universitet madaniyatini o'zgartirib, o'quv dasturini kengaytirish va 1894 yilda birinchi ayollarni qabul qilishni o'z ichiga olgan.

U 1918 yilgi gripp pandemiyasi paytida kasalxona sifatida ishlatilgan.

G'isht tarixiga sayohat

Agar siz DeSaussure va McKissick o'rtasidagi yo'lakka qarasangiz, g'ishtdan M E E bosh harflarini ko'rishingiz mumkin. Harflar taniydi Marion E. Evans, afro -amerikalik g'isht ustasi. 1931 yilda, universitet taqa yo'lini ochmoqchi bo'lganida, bu Buyuk Depressiya tufayli imkonsiz bo'lgan talab edi, shuning uchun talabalar ixtiyoriy ravishda bu ishni bajarishdi. Evans ko'ngilli ekipajga g'isht quyish san'atini o'rgatishga yordam berdi.

Ot poyabzalidagi yodgorliklar va yashil maydonlar

Yam -yashil, keksa daraxtlar va sokin o'tloqli joylar 21 -asrning Janubiy Karolinada rejalashtirilgan shov -shuvli shaharchasida tinchlik turkumlarini yaratadi. Universitetning orboreal boshqaruvi Arbor Day Foundation jamg'armasi tomonidan Tree Campus USA nomini oldi va taqa namunalari "Janubiy Karolinaning meros daraxtlari" deb nomlandi. Universitetning ko'plab yodgorliklari va yashil maydonlari, shu jumladan asl kampusda joylashgan tafsilotlarni o'rganing.


Dikki Shotlandiyada

I. Robert Dikki (1463-1536)

Robert Dikki 1463 yilda Shotlandiyaning Glazgo shahrida tug'ilgan. Robert Elizabet Auchinclossga (1480- ??) 1500 yilda, taxminan 38 yoshida, 20 yoshida uylangan. Ba'zilar, Auchincloss, Illuminati (Illuminati) ning Shotlandiya qoni deb taxmin qilishdi. Auchincloss, Kennedi va Dikki oilalari o'rtasidagi munosabatlar bir necha avlodlar davomida davom etadi.

"Robert Dik" sifatida u j ijaraga oldi. 1502 yilda Bonyntaun, Linlithgowshire, tojga tegishli bovata erlari (Daniya okruglaridagi erlarning o'lchami 15-30 gektarga teng) 1502. Bu maydon, qishloqda, Glazgo va Edinburg o'rtasidagi qishloqda joylashganga o'xshaydi. Bu erda Bonyntaun shahrida bo'lganida, Elizabet Robert Jr.ni (tug'ilishi aniq emas) va otamiz Jonni taxminan 1501 yilda tug'di.

U erni 1503 yil 19 sentyabrda qo'yib yubordi, lekin 1504 yilda u Glazgoda topildi. U "usta terich va mo'yna terisi ustasi", Glazgolik Patrik Letrikning shogirdi edi.

Glazgoda u Sent -Tenyu ko'chasidagi uyda yashardi (bugungi kunda u Argil ko'chasi deb ataladi), u erda terilar do'koni joylashgan. Bu ko'cha bugungi kunda ham savdogarlar va hunarmandlar markazidir. Robert va Elizabet Dikining turar joylari uning qanday maqomga ega ekanligini ko'rsatishi mumkin.

Robert va Elizabetning jami 7 farzandi bor edi, besh o'g'il, undan keyin 2 qiz.

U, shuningdek, Molendinardan narida, Kichik Avliyo Mungo ibodatxonasi yaqinidagi Gallowgaitda ikkita tayoqqa ega edi. Chapdagi rasm sizga ilgari Dikki yerlari haqida tasavvur berishi mumkin. 1503 yilda qurilgan ibodatxona Glazgo homiysi nomi bilan atalgan.

U 1536 yilda vafot etgan deb ishoniladi va dalillar uning 1539 yil 3 maydan oldin vafot etganini, bevasi Glazgodagi "skynner va schaw" litsenziyasini berishni so'raganidan oldin sodir bo'lganligini ko'rsatadi.

II. Jon Dikki I (1501-1567)

Jon Dikki, 1501 yilda Shotlandiyaning Linlitgowshir shtatining Bonyntaun shahrida tug'ilgan.

1528 yilda Jon Dikki dengizga chiqdi va 27 yoshida dengizchi bo'ldi. U yangi Are shahrida yashadi. Bu muallifning tadqiqotlari shahar yoki orol orolini topa olmadi.

Ammo keyinchalik u Glazgoga qaytib, otasining uyida yashadi va terini tozalash ishini o'z zimmasiga oldi. U usta terich emas, balki ispan terisidan poyabzal ishlab chiqaruvchi bo'lib ishlagan.

U Nedder Barresszetda, hovlilar va qo'shimchalari bo'lgan uydan er sotib oldi. Bu er uning bo'lajak qaynotasi Tomas Geyner yoki Gadnerga tegishli mulkka ulashgan edi.

Jon noma'lum sanada Janet Geyn Geynerga uylandi. 1525-1543 yillarda ularning 4 o'g'li bor edi. Ularning eng kichigi tug'ilgan, bizning katta otamiz 1543 yilda tug'ilgan Jon Jon edi.

Uning do'koni va hovlilari Stokvell ko'chasida, Klayd ustidagi ko'prik yonida, cherkovga deyarli qarama -qarshi va Savdogarlar uyi yonida edi. Stokvell ko'chasi Glazgodagi eng qadimgi yo'llardan biri bo'lib, uzoq vaqt davomida shaharga va Klayd daryosining eng qadimgi ko'prigiga begona odamlar kirgan. Ochlikdan va uy egasining shafqatsizligidan panoh izlab, Chegara, Tog'li va Irlandiya aholisi sayohatlari Klaydesidda rivojlanayotgan sanoat orasida tugadi. Dahshatli yashash sharoitlariga qaramay, ko'pchilik madaniy yuklarini tashlab, ijtimoiy xilma -xillikka boy sanoat jamiyatini o'rnatishga yordam berishdi.

Jon Sr 1567 yilda 66 yoshida vafot etdi.

III. Jon II (1542-1601)

Jon Diki, 1542 yilda Shotlandiyaning Glazgo shahrida tug'ilgan.

U Glazgodagi Stokvell ko'chasida hovli va qo'shimchalari bo'lgan otasining ijarasini meros qilib oldi. U va uning ukasi Devid Dikki Glazgo savdogarlari va Savdogarlar gildiyasining a'zolari edilar.

Jon 1583 yil iyulda Janet Sproulga (1525-?) Uylandi. Jon 41 yoshda edi, ular turmushga chiqqanida 58 yoshda edi. Janetning otasi Jon 25 gektar er egasi bo'lib, Glazgoda ale-tester sifatida qayd etilgan.

Jon va Janetning uchta o'g'li bor edi va ularning kenja otasi Jon III 1584 yilda tug'ilgan.

Bu vaqt mobaynida Shotlandiyada katoliklar va protestant islohotchilar o'rtasidagi tarixiy kurash atrofida boshlangan ko'plab siyosiy tartibsizliklar.

Shotlandiya e'tirofi 1560 yilda Shotlandiya fuqarolar urushi tugagach, o'rta asr katolikligiga javoban va Shotlandiya parlamenti buyrug'i bilan Jon Noks va beshta boshqa "Jon" (Uillok, Uinram, Spottisvud, Rou va Duglas) tomonidan yozilgan. besh kun ichida. Uning markaziy ta'limoti - saylov va cherkov. 1567 yilda Shotlandiya qirolichasi Maryamning ketishi bilan to'liq huquqiy maqomga ega bo'lgan Reformatsiya parlamenti va Shotlandiya cherkovi tomonidan ma'qullangan. 1 yoshli Jeyms VI Shotlandiya qiroli bo'ladi.

Uch yil o'tgach, Shotlandiya regenti Moray Earl o'ldiriladi va fuqarolar urushi Shotlandiyada katolik to'ntarishi bilan tugaydi. O'n yil o'tib, 1580 yilda, 15 yoshida, Jeyms VI Shotlandiyada ikkinchi e'tiqod e'tirofiga imzo chekadi. It is recorded that John Dickey supported King James VI and the reformation when he subscribed to the Confession of Faith in 1581.

It is claimed, though not yet confirmed that John Dickey was burgess (likely a member of the Lower House of the English Parliament, House of Commons, who once represented a town, borough, or university) on September 15, 1569, having given his oath and paid his fee as eldest son of his deceased father.

John Dickey II died in 1606 in Glasgow, Scotland.


1914 – 1918

The Navy Yard expanded as a result of World War I.

Old City Hall is replaced by new Municipal Services Building and Courthouse on same site in City Square.

The Army-Navy YMCA is built in City Square on the site of the former 1870 addition to Waverley House to accommodate World War I servicemen from the Navy Yard.

A Revere Sugar refinery is built on Medford Street.

The Bunker Hill Monument Association transfers the monument to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for administration by the Metropolitan District Commission.

The Boston & Maine Railroad North Terminal freight yards are completed.

The Clarence R. Edwards Middle School is built on Walker Street.

Harvard Mall, the gift of Harvard College, is dedicated on the site of John Harvard’s former house and grave.

The Friends of the Charlestown Branch Library is founded by Branch Librarian Mary K. Harris.

Community newspaper, the Charlestown Patriot, is founded.

A great fire destroys the old potato sheds next to the rail yards.

The existing Warren-Prescott School is built on School Street.

Urban renewal begins in Charlestown, leading to considerable demolition and redevelopment.

A new Charlestown Branch Library building opens on Thompson Square.

The existing Harvard-Kent School is built on Bunker Hill Street.

An elevated interchange connecting the I-93 expressway and Tobin Bridge is completed in City Square.

Boston Naval Shipyard is closed.

The elevated transit line on Main Street is demolished and replaced by a subway and surface line under the elevated I-93 expressway.

An urban renewal plan for the Navy Yard is completed and conversion to private sector uses begins. The earliest most historic section of the Navy Yard is designated a National Historical Site administered by the National Park Service.

The Bunker Hill Monument is transferred to the National Park Service, becoming part of the Boston National Historical Park.

Holden School, a private school offering special education classes, is established. The fourth and existing Charlestown High School is built on former site of the Prescott School on Medford Street.

The Holden School refurbishes and occupies the former Oliver Holden Elementary School on Pearl Street.

Keane, Inc. purchases Roughan Hall and begins its rehabilitation for corporate headquarters.

The Courtyard apartment development is completed on Main Street.

The Tontine Crescent apartment development is completed on Main Street.

All Charlestown Catholic parochial schools are combined into Charlestown Catholic Elementary School in the former St. Catherine’s Parochial School building.


A Blast From The Past

Oceanside&rsquos origins date clear back to the 1800&rsquos, with its incorporation on July 3, 1888. Starting off as a meager coastal town in close proximity to Mission San Luis Rey, Oceanside developed fairly rapidly opening both the Oceanside Library and Oceanside High School before 1910 with the Oceanside Pier already on its third iteration. In addition to the city projects, locals were establishing their own roots by building their businesses in this new city they called home. Fast forward over a century and Oceanside is doing better than ever, with new developments located alongside buildings dating back to the 1880&rsquos! These historically significant, story-telling buildings are standing proud throughout downtown Oceanside and you&rsquod often be hard pressed to pick them out among the crowd of neighboring structures. Fortunately the City of Oceanside and the Oceanside Historical Society have taken important steps in preserving and honoring these pieces of history. You can even go on your own self guided tour to see Oceanside&rsquos historical gems using the provided map at the bottom of this page.

More: History of Tourism in Oceanside


Siz muallifmisiz?

Once a rather bookish young man with a limp and a stammer, a man who spent most of his time trying to stay away from the danger and risk of the line of ascension, Claudius seemed an unlikely candidate for emperor. Yet, on the death of Caligula, Claudius finds himself next in line for the throne, and must stay alive as well as keep control.

Drawing on the histories of Plutarch, Suetonius, and Tacitus, noted historian and classicist Robert Graves tells the story of the much-maligned Emperor Claudius with both skill and compassion. Weaving important themes throughout about the nature of freedom and safety possible in a monarchy, Graves’s Claudius is both more effective and more tragic than history typically remembers him. A bestselling novel and one of Graves’ most successful, Men, Klavdiy has been adapted to television, film, theatre, and audio.

“[A] legendary tale of Claudius . . . [A] gem of modern literature.” —Publishers Weekly (starred review)

In this sequel to Men, Klavdiy, the story of the Roman Emperor—on which the award-winning BBC TV series was based—continues . . .

Yilda Men, Klavdiy, Robert Graves began the story of the limping, stammering young man who is suddenly thrust onto the throne after the death of Caligula. Yilda Claudius the God, Graves continues the story, detailing Claudius’s thirteen-year reign and his ultimate downfall. Painting the vivid, tumultuous, and decadent society of ancient Rome with spectacular detail, Graves provides a tale that is instructive, compelling, and difficult to put down for both casual readers and students of Roman history.

Mahsulot tavsifi
In 1929 Robert Graves went to live abroad permanently, vowing 'never to make England my home again'. This is his superb account of his life up until that 'bitter leave-taking': from his childhood and desperately unhappy school days at Charterhouse, to his time serving as a young officer in the First World War that was to haunt him throughout his life.

It also contains memorable encounters with fellow writers and poets, including Siegfried Sassoon and Thomas Hardy, and covers his increasingly unhappy marriage to Nancy Nicholson. Goodbye to All That, with its vivid, harrowing descriptions of the Western Front, is a classic war document, and also has immense value as one of the most candid self-portraits of an artist ever written.

Includes illustrations and explanatory footnotes.

Ko'rib chiqish
'It is a permanently valuable work of literary art, and indispensable for the historian either of the First World War or of modern English poetry . Apart, however, from its exceptional value as a war document, this book has also the interest of being one of the most candid self-portraits of a poet, warts and all, ever painted. The sketches of friends of Mr Graves, like T.E. Lawrence, are beautifully vivid.' (Times Literary Supplement)

Muallif haqida
Andrew Motion's most recent collection of poetry is The Cinder Path. He was poet laureate from 1999 to 2009 and is now Professor of Creative Writing at Royal Holloway, University of London.

This “vigorous tale” by the acclaimed author of Men, Klavdiy captures the sixth century fall of the Byzantine Empire as seen through the eyes of a servant (Kirkus Reviews).

Threatened by invaders on all sides, the Eastern Roman Empire of the sixth century fought to maintain its borders. Leading its defense was the Byzantine general Belisarius, a man who earned the grudging respect of his enemies, and who rose to become Emperor Justinian’s greatest military leader.

Loosely based on Procopius’s History of the Justinian Wars va Secret History, this novel tells the Belisarius’s story through the eyes of Eugenius, a eunuch and servant to the general’s wife. It presents a compelling portrait of a man bound by a strict code of honor and unrelenting loyalty to an emperor who is intelligent but flawed, and whose decisions bring him to a tragic end.

Eminent historical novelist and classicist Robert Graves presents a vivid account of a time in history both dissolute and violent, and demonstrates one again his mastery of this historical period.

“A brilliant piece of scholarship.” —Kirkus Reviews

“The scope of the book is massive—encompassing religious controversy and cultural developments as well as military history—yet, throughout, Graves succeeds in blending historical details with the development of his main characters.” —Historical Novel Society

Robert Graves, classicist, poet, and unorthodox critic, retells the Greek legends of gods and heroes for a modern audience

And, in the two volumes of The Greek Myths, he demonstrates with a dazzling display of relevant knowledge that Greek Mythology is “no more mysterious in content than are modern election cartoons.” His work covers, in nearly two hundred sections, the creation myths the legends of the births and lives of the great Olympians the Theseus, Oedipus, and Heracles cycles the Argonaut voyage the tale of Troy, and much more.
All the scattered elements of each myth have been assembled into a harmonious narrative, and many variants are recorded which may help to determine its ritual or historical meaning, Full references to the classical sources, and copious indexes, make the book as valuable to the scholar as to the general reader and a full commentary on each myth explains and interprets the classical version in the light of today’s archaeological and anthropological knowledge.

The White Goddess is perhaps the finest of Robert Graves's works on the psychological and mythological sources of poetry. In this tapestry of poetic and religious scholarship, Graves explores the stories behind the earliest of European deities—the White Goddess of Birth, Love, and Death—who was worshipped under countless titles. He also uncovers the obscure and mysterious power of "pure poetry" and its peculiar and mythic language.

This ancient biographical history of Roman rulers from Julius Caesar to Domitian is translated by the acclaimed classicists and author of Men, Klavdiy.

As personal secretary to Emperor Hadrian, the second century scholar Suetonius had unlimited access to the Roman Imperial archives. Drawing on this wealth of source material, he wrote a sweeping account of the lives of Rome’s first twelve emperors. From the empire’s most accomplished leaders, such as Julius Caesar and Augustus, to its most depraved and doomed rulers, such as Caligula and Nero, this ancient biographical study presents an enlightening and colorful picture of these historical figures from remote antiquity.

This edition of O'n ikki Qaysar is translated from the Latin by the renowned classicist, historian, and historical novelist Robert Graves. With his expertise in classical history and talent for telling a lively story, Graves presents an excellent translation that makes this classic work accessible to modern audiences

The real story of T. E. Lawrence’s life as told by the author of Men, Klavdiy. “A combination of history, biography, and . . . an amazingly human tale” (Boston Evening Transcript).

Immortalized in the film Lawrence of Arabia, the real T. E. Lawrence was a leader, a war strategist, and a scholar, and is here immortalized in an intimate biography written by his close friend, the award-winning British novelist, poet and classicist Robert Graves.

As a student at Oxford, T. E. Lawrence was fascinated with Middle Eastern history and culture, and underwent a four-month visit to Syria to study the fortifications built by the crusaders. Later, he returned to the region, this time as an archaeologist working with the British Army’s Intelligence unit in Egypt during World War I. From there, in 1916, he joined Arab rebels fighting against Turkish domination. His brilliance as a desert war tactician earned him the respect of the Turkish fighters and worldwide renown.

“Interesting and informative.” —New York Herald Tribune

“[Mr. Graves] has done his job admirably and without any too obvious excesses of hero worship.” —New Statesman

“[Readers] will consult Mr. Graves for information about this man.” —The New Republic

From the author of Men, Klavdiy: “A re-weaving of Homeric myth reveals the true story of The Return of Odysseus for Nausicaa” (Kirkus Reviews).

In this innovative re-imagining of the Odisseya’s history, Sicilian princess Nausicaa recounts her story, and how she, not the poet Homer, came to write the Odisseya. Set in the eighth century BC, it recounts the story of a determined young woman who lives an adventurous life: rescuing her father’s throne from outside threats, freeing herself from an abusive marriage, and saving her two younger brothers from certain death. Nausicaa is a passionate, religious, and dynamic heroine who is more than a match for the heroes in the epic poem she claims to have authored.

“A great imagination and above all a powerful intellect.” —Daily Telegraph

The Men, Klavdiy author’s “lightning sharp interpretations and insights . . . are here brought to bear with equal effectiveness on the Book of Genesis” (Kirkus Reviews).

This is a comprehensive look at the stories that make up the Old Testament and the Jewish religion, including the folk tales, apocryphal texts, midrashes, and other little-known documents that the Old Testament and the Torah do not include. In this exhaustive study, Robert Graves provides a fascinating account of pre-Biblical texts that have been censored, suppressed, and hidden for centuries, and which now emerge to give us a clearer view of Hebrew myth and religion than ever.

Venerable classicist and historian Robert Graves recounts the ancient Hebrew stories, both obscure and familiar, with a rich sense of storytelling, culture, and spirituality. This book is sure to be riveting to students of Jewish or Judeo-Christian history, culture, and religion.

“[A] penetrating study of one of the strangest marriages in history . . . Robert Graves, author of Men, Klavdiy, has the gift for fleshing the bare bones of history (Kirkus Reviews).

The famous poet John Milton, author of Paradise Lost, had a wife, and their story is both strange and tumultuous. Consummate historical novelist and poet Robert Graves tells the story from the perspective of the wife, Marie Powell, a young woman who married the poet to escape a debt.

From the start, the couple proves mismatched Milton is a domineering and insensitive husband set on punishing Marie for not providing the promised dowry. John Milton and his young wife are both religiously and temperamentally incompatible, and this portrait of their relationship is spellbinding, if not distinctly unflattering to Milton. It also provides fascinating accounts of the political upheavals of the time, including the execution of Charles I. This book is an excellent read for fans of historical fiction.

“Vivid, rich and forthright.” —The Sunday Times

“Both the knowledge of a scholar and the imagination of a poet are brought to bear upon Jesus as child, boy, and man. . . . A bold speculative adventure” (Harold Brighouse, Manchester Guardian).

In Robert Graves’s unique retelling, Jesus is very much a mortal and the grandson of King Herod the Great. When his father runs afoul of the king’s temper and is executed, Jesus is raised in the house of Joseph the Carpenter. The kingdom he is heir to, in this version of the story, is very much a terrestrial one: the Kingdom of Judah. Graves tells of Jesus’s rise as a philosopher, scriptural scholar, and charismatic speaker in sharp detail, as well as his arrest and downfall as a victim of pitiless Roman politics.

Bringing together his unparalleled narrative skill and in-depth expertise in historical scholarship, renowned classicist and historical novelist Robert Graves brings the story of Jesus Christ to life in a strikingly unorthodox way, making this one of the most hotly contested novels Graves ever wrote—and possibly one of the most controversial ever written. It provides a fascinating new twist to a well-known story, one that fans of this historical period are sure to love.

“This is not reading for the easily shocked it definitely presents Jesus as a sage and a [poet], if not divine. It moves, as does all Mr. Graves’ writing, at a brilliant fast pace, and with a tremendous style.” —Kirkus Reviews


Members Who Have Been Censured By the House of Representatives

Censure registers the House’s deep disapproval of Member misconduct that, nevertheless, does not meet the threshold for expulsion. Once the House approves the sanction by majority vote, the censured Member must stand in the well of the House (“the bar of the House” was the nineteenth-century term) while the Speaker or presiding officer reads aloud the censure resolution and its preamble as a form of public rebuke. Learn more about the historical origins of censure.

IndividualCauseSanaResolution No.Vote
William StanberyInsulting Speaker of the House Andrew Stevenson during floor debateJuly 11, 1832N/A93-44
Joshua R. Giddings"Unwarranted and unwarrantable" conduct for presenting a series of anti-slavery resolutions violating the House gag ruleMarch 22, 1842N/A125-69
Laurence M. KeittAssisting in assault on Senator Charles SumnerJuly 16, 1856N/A106-96
Benjamin G. HarrisEncouraged Confederacy in House debate to expel Representative Alexander LongApril 9, 1864N/A98-20
Alexander LongSupporting the recognition of the Confederacy in a floor speechApril 14, 1864N/A80-70
John W. ChanlerInsulting the House by introducing resolution containing unparliamentary languageMay 14, 1866N/A72-30
Lovell H. RouseauAssaulting Representative Josiah Grinnell of Iowa with a caneJuly 17, 1866 1 N/A89-30
John W. HunterUnparliamentary language for insulting a Member during debateJanuary 26, 1867N/A77-33
Fernando WoodUnparliamentary language for describing Reconstruction legislation as a "monstrosity"January 15, 1868N/A114-39
Edward D. HolbrookUnparliamentary language for stating in debate that another Member made false assertionsFebruary 4, 1869N/ANo recorded vote
Benjamin WhittemoreSold multiple military academy appointments 2 February 24, 1870N/A187-0
John T. DeWeeseSold a military academy appointment 3 March 1, 1870N/A170-0
Roderick R. ButlerSold a military academy appointmentMarch 17, 1870N/A158-0
Oakes AmesSold $33 million worth of stock in the "Crédit Mobilier" scandal to Members of Congress and executive officials at an undervalued price to influence votes and decisionsFebruary 27, 1873N/A182-36
James BrooksSolicited and accepted 50 shares of "Crédit Mobilier" stock at undervalued pricesFebruary 27, 1873N/A174-32
John Y. BrownUnparliamentary language for insulting a Member during debateFebruary 4, 1875N/A161-79
William D. BynumUnparliamentary language for insulting a Member during debateMay 17, 1890N/A126-104
Thomas L. BlantonUnparliamentary language for inserting a document into the Kongress rekordi that contained indecent and obscene languageOctober 27, 1921N/A293-112
Charles C. DiggsConvicted on 11 counts of mail fraud and 18 counts of false statements in a payroll fraud scandalJuly 31, 1979H. Res. 378 (96th Cong.)414-0
Charles H. WilsonReceiving improper gifts improper use of congressional funds improper personal use of campaign fundsJune 10, 1980H. Res 660 (96th Cong.)By voice vote
Gerry E. StuddsSexual misconduct with a House PageJuly 20, 1983H. Res. 265 (98th Cong.)421-3
Daniel B. CraneSexual misconduct with a House PageJuly 20, 1983H. Res. 266 (98th Cong.)421-3
Charles B. RangelMisuse of congressional letterhead for fundraising impermissible use of rent-controlled facility for campaign headquarters inaccurate financial reports and federal tax returnsDecember 2, 2010H. Res. 1737 (111th Cong.)333-79


The Lee Family of Virginia

The Lee Family of Virginia has enjoyed a long and illustrious history, and is a significant family in Virginia, starting in 1642 with the arrival of Richard Lee. Some of the more prominent Lee family members are best known for their accomplishments in the military and politics. Richard Lee (1610-1664) emigrated from England, settled in Jamestown, and fathered the Lee line of Virginia. Lee was a member of the Coton branch of the Lees of Shropshire, England. He came to America in 1641 as secretary of the King's Privy Council. In 1642, Lee received a land grant of 1,000 acres. By 1648, he had patented* other large tracts of land in York, Gloucester, and in upper Norfolk counties. During his life he was at various times a justice and member of the council. He served as attorney general of the colony in 1643, secretary of the colony in 1651, and burgess of York in 1663. That year, Lee returned to England to settle his English estate and arrange for his children's education, returning thereafter to Virginia. Thomas Lee (1690-1750) was an agent for the Proprietary of the Northern Neck, a member of the House of Burgesses, naval officer of the Potomac, founder of the Ohio Company, a diplomat to the Treaty of Lancaster, and an acting governor of Virginia. Philip Ludwell Lee (1727-1775) served as a judge, officer in the militia, elected official in the House of Burgesses, and member of the governing Council of Virginia. A member of the Ohio Company, he was appointed a justice of the peace for Westmoreland County. Thomas Ludwell Lee (1730-1778) served in the Virginia Senate from 1776 to 1778. His career was cut short soon after his election to Virginia's first supreme court. At the age of 48, he died of rheumatic fever. Richard Henry Lee (1732-1794) was a justice of the peace for Westmoreland County in 1757, a member of the House of Burgesses from 1758 to 1775, a member of the Continental Congress (1774-1779, 1784-1785, and 1787), and served as president of the Congress in 1784. Lee was a signer of the Declaration of Independence, a member of the state house of delegates (1777, 1780, and 1785), served as colonel of the Westmoreland militia, and was a member of the Virginia convention that ratified the Federal Constitution in 1788. He was elected to the U.S. Senate and served from 1789 until 1792. He also served as president pro tempore during the second Congress. Francis Lightfoot Lee (1734-1797) was a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses from 1758 to 1772. He was elected to the Continental Congress in 1775 and served until 1779. Lee was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and was a member of the State house of delegates in 1780 and 1781. He also served in the Virginia State senate, beginning in 1778 and ending in 1782. William Lee (1739-1795). In July 1773, Lee was elected Sheriff of London. He was the Continental Congress’s commercial agent in French ports. Lee later became the commissioner to the courts of Berlin and Vienna. Arthur Lee (1740-1792). Graduating with honors from Edinburgh University after earning a degree in medicine, Lee also studied law in London before leaving those careers to write political tracts in support of the colonies. The Continental Congress named Lee its secret agent in London. He initiated a flow of supplies between France and America, and was named by Congress as Commissioner to the court of Versailles. Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee III (1756-1818). As a cavalry commander, Lee captured the fort at Paulus Hook, for which he received the Congressional Gold Medal in 1779. He was elected to Congress in 1785 and was governor of Virginia from 1791 to 1794. Lee was a Federalist congressman from 1799 to 1801. He was the father of Robert E. Lee, the great Confederate general. Robert Edward Lee (1807–1870) was the son of Henry “Light-Horse Harry” Lee, and general-in-chief of the Confederate armies in the Civil War. He graduated second in his class from West Point in 1829, and was the superintendent at the academy from 1852 to 1855. That year, he was made lieutenant colonel of the Second Cavalry and sent to west Texas. Lee commanded and fought conscientiously in the Union Army until Virginia seceded from the Union. As a general, and advisor to Confederate president Jefferson Davis, Lee fought bravely through numerous campaigns. Following the Confederacy's collapse, Lee graciously surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at the Appomattox Courthouse. Following the war, Lee became president of Washington College, now Washington and Lee University. George Washington Custis Lee (1832–1913) was the eldest son of Robert E. Lee and a Confederate general in the Civil War. He was aide-de-camp to President Jefferson Davis through most of the conflict. Lee was promoted to major general in 1864, but was captured at Sailor’s Creek in 1865. From 1865 to 1871, Lee was a professor of civil and military engineering at the Virginia Military Institute, and succeeded his father as president of Washington and Lee University from 1871 until 1897. William Henry Fitzhugh Lee (1837–1891), known as Rooney Lee, was a son of Robert E. Lee. He was a Confederate cavalry general in the Civil War. Lee entered Harvard in 1854, but left in 1857 when he secured a commission in the infantry. After serving under Albert S. Johnston in the campaign against the Mormons, he resigned in 1859 and lived at White House, his Virginia plantation, until the war began. Lee served in J.E.B. Stuart’s cavalry. Wounded at Brandy Station in June 1863, he was subsequently captured. Upon his exchange in 1864, Lee was promoted to major general and served until the end of the war. From 1887 to his death, Lee was a Democratic representative in Congress. Many more Lees of the Virginia clan, past and present, have served their state well, securing their family’s place and times in history.

*A grant made by a government that confers on an individual fee-simple title to public lands.


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