Liviya bo'ylab uchish taqiqlangan hudud

Liviya bo'ylab uchish taqiqlangan hudud


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NATO bosh kotibi Anders Fog Rasmussen 2011 yil 24 martda NATO matbuot anjumanida Liviya ustidan parvozlar taqiqlangan hududni amalga oshirilishini e'lon qildi. Xavfsizlik Kengashi 17-mart kuni polkovnik Muammar al-Qaddafiy tarafdorlarining hujumiga uchragan tinch aholidan yordam chaqiruvlariga javoban harbiy choralarni amalga oshirish uchun ovoz berdi.


Liviyadagi fuqarolar urushi - uchish zonasi yo'q

1990 -yillarda AQSh Iroqda Saddam Husayn rejimiga qarshi "chivin yo'q" zonalarini va barcha turdagi sanktsiyalarni o'rnatdi, uni hokimiyatdan majburlash uchun. O'n minglab odamlar Saddam Husaynga qarshi shia qo'zg'oloni paytida halok bo'lishdi, ammo AQSh harbiylariga aralashmaslik buyurilgan. Qachonki sanktsiyalar va uchish taqiqlangan zonalar ishlamasa-Iroq hayoti qimmatga tushsa-AQSh oxir-oqibat bu maqsadlarga erishish uchun urushga kirdi.

2011 yil 23 fevralda AQSh prezidenti Barak Obama Liviyadagi zo'ravonlik avj olganiga javoban, o'z inqiroziga javob berish uchun barcha variantlarni tayyorlashni so'raganini aytdi. Bu bizning ittifoqchilarimiz va sheriklarimiz bilan muvofiqlashtiradigan yoki ko'p tomonlama institutlar orqali amalga oshiradigan harakatlarimizni o'z ichiga oladi. ”

Oq uy matbuot kotibi Jey Karnining aytishicha, Qo'shma Shtatlar "ko'p tomonlama harakatlar bilan bir qatorda ikki tomonlama harakatlar" ni ham ko'rib chiqmoqda, biroq u Liviya ustidan uchish taqiqlangan hudud yaratish yoki NATOning ehtimoliy ishtiroki kabi taklif qilingan variantlarni muhokama qilishdan bosh tortdi.

2011 yil 24 fevralda NATO bosh kotibi Anders Fog Rasmussenning aytishicha, alyans Liviyadagi tartibsizliklarga aralashmoqchi emas edi. Payshanba kuni Ukrainada so'zlagan Rasmussen, NATOga bunday aralashuv so'rovi kelmaganini aytdi va NATOning har qanday harakati Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotining topshirig'iga asoslanishi kerakligini ta'kidladi. Rasmussenning aytishicha, Liviyadagi vaziyat NATOga yoki NATOning boshqa ittifoqchilariga tahdid solmagan, biroq u qochqinlar inqiroziga sabab bo'lishi mumkinligini aytgan.

2011 yil 25 fevralda o'nlab hukumat amaldorlari va siyosat maslahatchilari guruhi prezident Barak Obamaga maktub yo'llab, Liviyadagi zo'ravonliklarni to'xtatish uchun ko'proq harakat qilishlarini so'radi. Maktub Vashington shtatida joylashgan Tashqi siyosat tashabbusi (FPI) tomonidan tashkil etilgan, uning tarkibida prezident Jorj Bushning sobiq maslahatchilari-Mudofaa vazirining sobiq o'rinbosari Pol Vulfovits bo'lgan a'zolari bor. Xabarni imzolaganlar orasida FPI ijrochi direktori Jeymi Fly ham bor edi. "Xususan, biz ulardan Liviya samolyotlari tinch aholiga hujum qila olmasligini ta'minlash uchun uchish taqiqlangan hududni yoki qandaydir harakatlarni jiddiy ko'rib chiqishlarini xohlardik", dedi u.

2011 yil 1 martda Pentagon matbuot anjumanida Mudofaa vaziri Robert Geyts Liviya ustidan "parvoz qilmaslik" zonasi, boshqa tez-tez taklif qilinadigan harbiy harakatlar, AQShning Yaqin Sharqdagi manfaatlari uchun "o'z oqibatlari" borligini aytdi. "Biz ham, ochig'ini aytganda, AQSh qo'shinlarini Yaqin Sharqdagi boshqa mamlakatda ishlatish haqida o'ylashimiz kerak", deya qo'shimcha qildi Geyts Iroqda uzoq davom etgan urush va uning arab dunyosidagi zarbasi haqida. "Menimcha, biz bularning barchasiga sezgirmiz, lekin biz prezidentga to'liq variantlarni taqdim etamiz."

2011 yil 2 martga qadar Bingazi shahrining sharqiy qal'asida joylashgan Liviya muxolifat liderlari, Qaddafiyning harbiy inshootlari va boshqa muhim inshootlarga xorijiy havo hujumlarini o'tkazish to'g'risida so'roq qilish -qilmaslikni muhokama qilishayotganini aytishdi. Seshanba kuni Beng'ozi boshqaruv kengashining ba'zi rasmiylari, Qaddafiy tarafdorlari bilan qo'zg'olonni hech qachon chet el havo hujumisiz tugatmasligi mumkinligini aytdi. "Washington Post" Bengazi kengashining uch a'zosiga iqtibos keltirgan holda, ular tez orada havo hujumlarini amalga oshirish to'g'risida so'rov yuborishlarini, xorijiy harbiy aralashuvni talab qilmaslik haqidagi oldingi va'dalarini bekor qilishlarini aytgan. AQShning Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotidagi elchisi Syuzan Rays Liviya muxolifatiga harbiy yordam ko'rsatish masalasini muhokama qilish "erta" ekanligini, uning turli guruhlari uyushgan bo'lishga harakat qilayotganini aytdi.

2011 yil 2 martda AQShning ikki nufuzli senatori Qo'shma Shtatlar arab dunyosida totalitarizm va qatag'onlarga qarshi kurashayotganlarni jalb qilish va ularga yordam berish uchun Liviya ustidan uchish taqiqlangan hududni yaratishga yordam berishi kerakligini aytdi. Arizona shtatidan respublikachi senator Jon Makkeyn va Konnektikut shtatidan mustaqil demokrat-senator Jo Liberman Liviya ustidan harakat qilayotgan lideri Moammar Qaddafiyga sodiq kuchlarga to'sqinlik qilish uchun uchish taqiqlangan hududni tashkil qilishni tavsiya qiladilar.

2011 yil 4 martda AQSh senatori, Senatning Tashqi aloqalar qo'mitasi raisi Jon Kerri shunday dedi: "Menimcha, jahon hamjamiyati chetda bo'lolmaydi, chunki samolyotlarga bomba tashlab yuborishga ruxsat beriladi. Uchish taqiqlangan hudud uzoq vaqt emas. Muddatli taklif, natija hamma xohlagan narsadir, deb o'ylayman va menimcha, biz uni kerak bo'lganda amalga oshirishga tayyor bo'lishimiz kerak. " AQSh prezidenti Barak Obamaning aytishicha, Liviyadagi zo'ravonliklarni to'xtatish uchun u ko'rib chiqayotgan variantlardan biri-uchish taqiqlangan hudud. "Vaqt o'tishi bilan qonli bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan turg'unlik xavfi bor va biz buni aniq ko'rib chiqayapmiz", dedi prezident. Men ishonch hosil qilmoqchi bo'lgan narsa shundaki, Qo'shma Shtatlar tezkor harakat qilish imkoniyatiga ega.

AQShning Shimoliy Atlantika Shartnomasi Tashkilotidagi elchisi Ivo X.Dalder 2011 yil 7 martda jurnalistlarga bergan intervyusida, o'tgan hafta Liviya havo kuchlarining parvozlari kamayganini aytdi. Uning qo'shimcha qilishicha, bunday taktika yordamida vertolyot hujumlarini bostirish qiyin. Daalderning aytishicha, G'arb harbiylarini Liviya isyonchilariga havo hujumlarini bostirishga yo'naltirish mojaroga katta ta'sir ko'rsatmaydi. "Uchish taqiqlangan zonalar jangchilarga nisbatan samaraliroq, lekin ular vertolyotlarga yoki biz ko'rgan quruqlikdagi operatsiyalarga nisbatan cheklangan ta'sir ko'rsatadi", dedi u. "Shu sababli, uchishga taqiqlangan hudud, hatto u tashkil etilgan taqdirda ham, bugungi kunda sodir bo'layotgan narsalarga ta'sir qilmaydi".

Daalder buni 7-mart kuni Bryusseldagi jurnalistlar bilan konferents-muloqotda aytdi: "Ular ko'rib turgan variantlar-bu siz uchishga taqiqlangan hududni joylashtirishning turli xil usullari. Lekin tafsilotlarning hech biri hozircha mavjud emas. "Shuning uchun biz NATO ichida nima qilish kerakligi, qanday imkoniyatlar kerakligi va haqiqatan ham bunday uchish taqiqlangan zonaning maqsadi nima bo'lishi haqida chuqur muhokama qilmaganmiz".

Uchish taqiqlangan zona hech qachon Qaddafiy bilan muvozanatni buzadigan hal qiluvchi harakat bo'la olmasdi, lekin uchish taqiqlangan zona Qaddafiyning o'ldiradigan qurollaridan birini stoldan olib tashlab, Liviya muxolifati ishonchini oshiradi. Qaddafiyga qarshi kurashni aynan liviyaliklarning o'zi qilmoqchi.

Qaddafiyning Liviya xalqiga qilgan hujumiga javoban, Liviyada "uchish taqiqlangan hudud" o'rnatilishi Fors ko'rfazi hamkorlik kengashi tomonidan 2011 yil 7 martda, Islom konferentsiyasi tashkiloti rahbari tomonidan mart oyida chaqirilgan. 2011 yil 12 martda Arab Ligasi Tashqi ishlar vazirlari BMT Xavfsizlik Kengashidan Liviya ustidan uchish taqiqlangan hududni o'rnatishni so'rashdi. Qohiradagi maxsus yig'ilishda ovoz berish barcha a'zo davlatlar tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlandi. "Al -Jazira" telekanali oldinroq Jazoir, Yaman, Suriya va Sudan bu qarorga qarshi chiqqanini xabar qilgan edi. Arab Ligasi BMT Xavfsizlik Kengashidan Qaddafiy bir oy oldin boshlangan shaharlarni qaytarib olish uchun jangovar samolyotlar, harbiy kemalar, tanklar va artilleriya ishlatgani haqida xabar berilganidan so'ng, tinch fuqarolar ommaviy norozilik namoyishlari o'tkazgani haqida xabar berilgach, BMT Xavfsizlik Kengashidan so'radi. uning 41 yillik hukmronligi tugadi. Ummon Tashqi ishlar vaziri Yusuf Ben Alavi uchrashuvdan keyingi matbuot anjumanida, uchish taqiqlangan hududni chaqirish qarori Liviya xalqi azobini yengillashtirish uchun jamoatchilik fikrining bosimi natijasi ekanligini aytdi. Arab Ligasi bosh kotibi Amr Musa, Misrda bo'lajak prezidentlik saylovlarida birinchi o'rinni egalladi, jurnalistlarga Arab Ligasining qarori "Liviya xalqini himoya qilish" uchun qilinganini aytdi.

2011 yil 17 martda BMT Xavfsizlik Kengashi tinch aholini hujumlardan himoya qilish uchun Liviyada kuch ishlatishga ruxsat berdi, xususan sharqdagi Beng'ozi shahrida, polkovnik Muammar Al-Qaddafiy o'z rejimiga qarshi qo'zg'olonni to'xtatish uchun bostirib kirishini aytdi. Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkiloti Nizomining VII bobiga binoan, agar kerak bo'lsa, kuch ishlatishni nazarda tutgan holda, Kengash a'zo davlatlarga "barcha zarur choralarni ko'rishga vakolatli" tinch aholi va tinch aholi vakillarini himoya qilish uchun vakolat berdi. Liviya Arab Jamxariyasida hujum qilish xavfi ostida bo'lgan hududlar, shu jumladan Beng'ozi, ishg'ol kuchlari bundan mustasno. Ovoz berishni to'xtatganlar orasida veto huquqiga ega bo'lgan Xitoy va Rossiya, shuningdek Braziliya, Germaniya va Hindiston bor edi.

Vaziyatning yomonlashuvidan, zo'ravonliklarning kuchayishidan va ko'p sonli fuqarolarning qurbon bo'lishidan jiddiy xavotir bildirgan Kengash, tinch aholini himoya qilish maqsadida, Liviya havo hududida parvozlarni taqiqlab qo'ydi. Bu, ayniqsa, Arab Ligasi davlatlarini zarur choralar ko'rishda boshqa a'zo davlatlar bilan hamkorlik qilishga chaqirdi.

Rezolyutsiya Kengash 2011 yil fevral oyida Liviya hukumatiga qarshi sanktsiyalarni bir ovozdan ma'qullaganda, uning rahbarlarining mol -mulkini muzlatib qo'ydi va tinch namoyishchilarga nisbatan davom etayotgan zo'ravonlik repressiyalarini Xalqaro Jinoyat Sudiga (ICC) havola qilganda, qurol embargosini yanada kuchaytirdi. Kengash a'zo davlatlarni embargoning qat'iy bajarilishini ta'minlashga chaqirdi, shu jumladan ochiq dengizda gumon qilinayotgan kemalarni va Liviyaga ketayotgan yoki undan ketayotgan samolyotlarni, Ladiyaga yollangan askarlar Qaddafiy jalb qilganidan afsusda.

Zudlik bilan otashkesim va zo'ravonlik va tinch aholiga qilingan har qanday hujum va hujumlarni to'liq to'xtatishni talab qilib, "inson huquqlarining qo'pol va muntazam ravishda buzilishini, shu jumladan o'zboshimchalik bilan hibsga olish, majburan yo'qolib ketish va o'lim jazosini" qoralashni talab qildi. joy insoniyatga qarshi jinoyatlar bo'lishi mumkin. ICC prokurori Luis Moreno-Okampo Qaddafiy, uning ba'zi o'g'illari va uning yaqinlari a'zolari tinch namoyishchilarni bostirishda bunday jinoyatlar bo'yicha tergov boshlagan edi. Bosh kotib Pan Gi Mun Qaddafiy o'z xalqiga qarshi urush e'lon qilganida qonuniyligini yo'qotganini aytdi.

Qarshi operatsiyalar katta yoki kichik darajada operatsiyalar davomida zarur. Bu operatsiyalar katta teatr urushida havo ustunligiga intilishdan, tinchlikparvarlik operatsiyasida uchish taqiqlangan zonani kuchaytirishdan, gumanitar yordam operatsiyasida asosan passiv mudofaa choralaridan iborat. Havo ustunligi, odatda, dushman do'stona kuchlarga tahdid soladigan aktivlarga ega bo'lganda, AQSh kuchlarining birinchi ustuvor vazifasi hisoblanadi. Bu operatsiyalar samolyotlarni, erdan-erga va erdan raketalarni, havo-er raketalarini, qanotli raketalarni va axborot urushi elementlarini (masalan, elektron urush [EW]) ishlatishga qaratilgan chora-tadbirlarni o'z ichiga oladi. tahdid.

  • Dushman havo hujumidan mudofaa tizimlarining buzilishi yoki yo'q qilinishi, ularni boshqaruvchi, texnik xizmat ko'rsatuvchi va boshqaruvchi xodimlar, bu tizimlarni qarshi operatsiyalarga qarshi samarasiz qilishi mumkin. Dushman havo mudofaasini bostirish (SEAD) dushmanning sirtdan havo mudofaasini vayron qiluvchi yoki buzuvchi vositalar yordamida zararsizlantirish, yo'q qilish yoki vaqtincha buzish uchun mo'ljallangan. SEAD talablari missiyaning maqsadlari, tizim imkoniyatlari va tahdidlarning murakkabligiga qarab farq qilishi mumkin.
  • Samolyotlarga dushmanning qanotli va aylanadigan qanotli samolyotlari va uchuvchisiz uchish apparatlari kiradi. Ko'pgina hollarda, erdagi samolyotlar OCA operatsiyalari uchun eng daromadli maqsadlardir. Ilg'or texnologiyalar, o'z vaqtida razvedka va aniq boshqariladigan o'q-dorilar yordamida, er yuzidagi samolyotlar qayiqlarda, boshpanalarda yoki ochiqda bo'lsin, yo'q qilinishi mumkin. Parvoz yoki kemadagi samolyotlar ham OCA operatsiyalari uchun nishondir.
  • Angarlar, boshpanalar, texnik xizmat ko'rsatish inshootlari, POL va boshqa saqlash joylarining yo'q qilinishi dushmanning samolyotlarni urish qobiliyatini pasaytiradi. Aerodrom yaqinidagi vayronagarchilik inshootlari, ekipajlarini himoya vositalarida ishlashga yoki ta'sir kamayguncha yoki dezinfektsiya qilinmaguncha, boshpanada bo'lishga majbur qilib, dushmanning turini kamaytirishi mumkin. Uchish -qo'nish yo'lagi yoki taksi yo'llarining shikastlanishi aerodromdan qisqa muddat foydalanishga to'sqinlik qilishi mumkin, bu esa keyinchalik uchishni oldini oladi va samolyotlarni himoyasiz yoki uzoqroq joylarga qaytarishga majbur qiladi.
  • Havodan ogohlantirish va nazorat qilish tizimi (AWACS) moslashuvchan va qobiliyatli havo radar platformasini taqdim etadi. Bu jangni boshqarishning dastlabki funktsiyasini va buyruq va nazorat qobiliyatini ta'minlaydi va har qanday yangi operatsiya teatriga kelgan birinchi tizimlardan biri bo'lishi kerak. Bu erta ogohlantirish, radar nazorati, havo operatsiyalarini boshqarish va qurollarni nazorat qilish funktsiyalarini ta'minlaydi.
  • Havo-havo jangovar qo'mondonlik va boshqaruv markazi (ABCCC)-bu havodagi taktik maxsus operatsiyalarni jangovar boshqarishni ta'minlaydigan, havodagi yordamni oldinga yo'naltirilgan hududdagi havo operatsiyalarini boshqarishni ta'minlaydigan keng ko'lamli aloqa tizimlari bilan jihozlangan havo-desantli qo'mondonlik, boshqaruv va aloqa (C3) markazi.
  • Birgalikda kuzatuv, maqsadli hujumli radar tizimi (JSTARS)-bu havo va quruqlik qo'mondonlari bilan ishonchli ma'lumotlar havolalari orqali harakatlanuvchi va statsionar yuza nishonlari to'g'risida real vaqtda radar kuzatuvi ma'lumotlarini ta'minlaydigan uzoq masofali, havodagi sensorlar tizimi.
  • RIVET JOINT - bu havo signallari razvedkasi (SIGINT) yig'ish va hisobot berish platformasi. AWACS va JSTARS samolyotlari bilan birgalikda ishlayotganda, RIVET JOINT havfli, quruqlikdagi va dengizdagi elektron emitentlarni xavfsiz aloqa orqali real vaqtda baholashni ta'minlaydi. RIVET JOINT imkoniyatlari AWACS va JSTARS tomonidan berilgan radarlarni kuzatish ma'lumotlarini joylashuvi, emitent turi va signallarni ushlab turish rejimini o'zaro bog'lash orqali "aylantiradi".
  • Havo yonilg'i quyish - bu Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarini dunyodagi havo kuchlari etakchi davlatiga aylantiruvchi o'ziga xos xususiyatlardan biridir. Havo yonilg'i quyish-bu tanker va qabul qiluvchi samolyotlar o'rtasida yoqilg'ining parvoz paytida uzatilishi. Samolyotning havoda qolish qobiliyati mavjud yoqilg'i miqdori bilan cheklangan. Havo bilan yonilg'i quyish samolyotlarning masofasini, yukini, bo'sh vaqtini va oxir -oqibat jangovar, jangovar yordam va harakatlanuvchi samolyotlarning moslashuvchanligi va ko'p qirraliligini oshiradi. Zamonaviy havo urushi havo bilan yonilg'i quyishsiz amalga oshmaydi.

AWACS dushman, potentsial dushman yoki noma'lum nishonni aniqlaganida, ular qiruvchi samolyotni nishonni ushlab qolish uchun tayinlashi yoki topshirishi mumkin. Iloji bo'lsa, samolyotlar nazorat qiluvchi agentlikning qattiq nazorati ostida qoladi va uchuvchi vizual yoki radar aloqasini tasdiqlamaguncha doimiy ravishda yo'naltiriladi. Agar kerak bo'lsa, bu nazorat qo'shni mas'uliyat sohalariga o'tkazilishi mumkin. To'xtatishni boshqarish samolyot nishon bilan ijobiy aloqada bo'lganida yoki nazorat qiluvchi agentlik tomonidan atrof -muhit ijobiy yo'nalishga to'sqinlik qilganda, uchuvchiga o'tkazilishi mumkin.

  1. Dengiz havo stansiyasi Sigonella [NAS Sigonella] Sitsiliyaning sharqida, Kataniya shahridan 16 km g'arbda va Etna tog'idan 24 km janubda, faol vulqonda joylashgan. U Italiya Harbiy havo kuchlari tomonidan boshqariladigan va Sigonella NATO dengiz aerodromida joylashgan. Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari 1959 yildan beri o'z faoliyatini doimiy ravishda davom ettirmoqda. NAS Sigonella AQSh va NATOning boshqa kuchlariga konsolidatsiyalangan operativ buyruq va boshqaruv, ma'muriy, moddiy -texnik va ilgari moddiy -texnik yordam ko'rsatmoqda.
  2. Mersa Matruh - Misrning O'rta er dengizi sohilida, Iskandariyadan 290 kilometr g'arbda joylashgan qadimiy shahar. U Arab Ligasi samolyotlari tomonidan Liviya ustidan uchish taqiqlangan hududni amalga oshirish uchun ishlatilishi mumkin bo'lgan yirik aerodromga ega. U Mersa Matruh deb nomlangan, chunki Mersa port uchun arab. Liman - dengizga chiqmagan, chuqur ko'k suv va oq qumning qoyali asosi, shuning uchun kemalar xuddi qumga tik turishi mumkin. Bunday uchta lagun bor, bittasi endi butunlay kesilgan va Tuz ko'li deb nomlangan. V. tomonidagi uchinchi Rim bosh porti edi, u erda hamon Rim toshbo'ronlari va boshqalar bor, albatta, ular aytishicha, Antoniy va Kleopatra Actium jangidan keyin treklarni izlashga to'g'ri kelgan. Buyuk urush paytida Misr g'arbiy qismida Senussiga qarshi harakat qilgan ingliz kuchlari 1915 yil noyabr oyining oxirgi kunlaridan beri Mersa Matruhda to'plangan edi. Turklar va arablarga qarshi operatsiyalarning aksariyati Mersa Matruhdan qilinganligi sababli, bu qiziq bo'lishi mumkin. Shuni ta'kidlash kerakki, bu Britaniya bazasi O'rta er dengizi sohilida, Tripoli chegarasidan taxminan 150 mil sharqda, temir yo'l terminali bo'lib, chegara qo'shinlari notinchlikda bo'lgan va bo'lishga moyil bo'lgan qabilalar bilan to'qnashuvni oldini olish uchun u erdan chekinishgan. tajovuzkor 1941 yilda Matruh Qohira temir yo'lining terminali va kichik port edi. 1941 yil aprel oyida Axis kuchlari Liviya-Misr chegarasida oldinga siljishganda, Buyuk Britaniyaning O'rta er dengizidagi bosh qo'mondoni general Sir Archibald Vavell o'z himoyasini Matruh atrofida qurishga qaror qildi. El -Alameinning ikkinchi jangida inglizlar g'alaba qozonganidan so'ng, Matruh inglizlar tomonidan qaytarib olindi. Matruh - mashhur kurort shahri va Rommelning sobiq bosh qarorgohida uning o'g'li tomonidan tashkil etilgan muzey.

Liviya butun mamlakat bo'ylab darhol sulh e'lon qildi va muxolifat bilan muloqot kanallarini ochishga tayyorligini bildirdi. Bu harakat BMT Xavfsizlik Kengashining mamlakat ustidan uchish taqiqlangan hududni joriy etish to'g'risidagi rezolyutsiyasi kuchga kirguniga bir necha soat qolganida qilingan. Tashqi ishlar vaziri Mussa Koussa bu bayonotni mamlakat g'arbiy yarmida isyonchilar qo'lidagi oxirgi shahar Misrata shahriga Qaddafiy kuchlarining qattiq hujumidan keyin e'lon qildi.


Liviyada uchish taqiqlangan hudud

Shimoliy Atlantika Shartnomasi Tashkiloti (NATO) to'rt oy oldin Liviyadagi fuqarolar urushiga G'arb boshchiligidagi aralashuvni qo'mondonlik va nazoratni o'z zimmasiga olgan uchta harbiy missiya bilan amalga oshirdi: qurol-yarog 'embargosini joriy qilish, uchishga taqiqlangan hududni joriy etish, tinch aholi va fuqarolarni himoya qilish. aholi punktlari.

Men bu blogda tez -tez aytib o'tganimdek, NATO qurol -yarog 'embargosini tanqidiy ravishda qo'lladi, chunki isyonchilar jinoyat sodir etgan paytda qo'lga olindi. Bundan tashqari, NATO ittifoqdoshi Frantsiya Le Figaro tomonidan Liviya isyonchilariga havo tashlaydigan raketalar, avtomatlar va tankga qarshi granatalar bilan qurol embargosini buzgani uchun fosh qilinganidan so'ng, NATO bosh kotibi Anders Fog Rasmussen shunday javob berdi: qurol deb ataladigan narsa muammoni hal qiladi. " Alyans vakili Oana Lungesku, barcha ochiq dalillarga qaramay, "qurol embargosi ​​samarali" ekanligini qo'shimcha qildi.

Endi NATO Liviya ustidan parvozlar taqiqlangan hududni tanlab bajarayotgani haqida dalillar tobora ko'payib bormoqda. NATO aralashuvining xalqaro vazifasi BMT Xavfsizlik Kengashining 1970 va 1973 -sonli rezolyutsiyalari bo'lib, ular "tinch aholini himoya qilishga yordam berish uchun Liviya Arab Jamohiriyasi havo hududida barcha parvozlarni taqiqlashni" belgilaydi.

O'tgan chorshanba kuni Financial Times gazetasining ismi oshkor qilinmagan muxbiri shunday yozgan edi: "Nafusa viloyatiga etkazib berishni qo'shni Tunisdan uzoq yo'llarda olib borish kerak, garchi Bengazi shahridan keladigan samolyot ham bor". Haqiqatan ham, isyonchilarning Milliy o'tish davri kengashining neft va moliya vaziri Ali Tarxuni ushbu aeroportda uchish taqiqlangan uchinchi qoidabuzarlikni nishonlashga tayyor edi (Liviyadagi Air Liviya samolyotining aeroportdan uchayotganining fotosurati uchun) Benxazidagi Rhebat aerodromi, bu yerga qarang).

Payshanba kuni, alyans haqiqatan ham uchish taqiqlangan hududni o'rnatmaganligini ko'rsatmasdan, "Vashington Post" gazetasidan Uilyam But shunday qo'shib qo'ydi: "Garchi NATO Liviya ustidan parvozni taqiqlagan hududni o'rnatgan bo'lsa-da, bu isyonchilarning parvozlariga ruxsat beradigan ko'rinadi. oziq -ovqat, dori -darmon - va, ehtimol, qurol va aloqa uskunalari. "

BMT Xavfsizlik Kengashining 1973 -sonli rezolyutsiyasida muhim bir ogohlantirish bor: u "tibbiy yordam, oziq -ovqat, gumanitar xodimlar va tegishli yordamni o'z ichiga olgan yordamni etkazish yoki etkazib berishni osonlashtirish" kabi gumanitar reyslarga taalluqli emas.

Biroq, Liviya isyonchilari bu parvozlar harbiy maqsadlarda ishlatilganini, rezolyutsiyani aniq buzgan holda tan olishadi. "Bu aeroportning ahamiyati isyonkor birodarlarimiz uchun gumanitar yordam va harbiy yuklarni etkazib berishdir. Nafusa tog'larida",-dedi aeroport yaqinidagi isyonchilar qo'mondoni Muhammad al-Bujdidi. Bu isyonchilarning Liviyaga qurol-yarog 'kontrabandasi, ya'ni gumanitar yuklarni etkazib berish haqidagi taktikasi haqidagi son-sanoqsiz xabarlarga mos keladi.

Bundan tashqari, Liviya isyonchilarining oz miqdordagi MIG-21 qiruvchi samolyotlari bor, ular parvozga ruxsat etilmagan hududlar ichida uchishgan. Iyun oyining oxirida Benina aeroporti ustida uchib yurgan uchta qurolli MIG-21 samolyoti suratga olingan va bu erda isyonchilarning qurolli qiruvchi samolyoti parvozdan oldin xizmat ko'rsatayotgani tasvirlangan.

NATOning Liviyadagi strategik maqsadining haqiqati o'tgan hafta Mudofaa vaziri Leon Panetta tomonidan kamdan -kam hollarda ochiqchasiga aytilgan edi: "Maqsad - [Liviya lideri Muammar Qaddafiy rejimini ag'darish uchun qo'limizdan kelganini qilish". NATOning Liviyada olib borayotgan uchta harbiy missiyasi Qaddafiyni hokimiyatdan chetlatish uchun birgalikda harakat qilmoqda. Liviyaning g'arbiy tog'laridagi mahalliy isyonchilar qo'mondoni, CBS Evening Newsga bergan intervyusida: "Agar biz NATOdan ruxsat olsak, biz oldinga siljiymiz."


'Konsensus qarori '

NATOga parvozsiz missiya topshirilishi shu hafta oxiri kelishi mumkin.

Janob Rasmussenning aytishicha, NATOning barcha a'zolari, jumladan, musulmonlar yashaydigan Turkiya ham musulmon mamlakatiga zarbalar berilishiga shubha bildirgan.

"Gap shundaki, NATOda biz barcha qarorlarni konsensus yo'li bilan qabul qilamiz va uchish taqiqlangan hududni joriy etish bo'yicha bugun qabul qilayotgan qarorimiz ham konsensus asosida qabul qilinadi, demak 28 ta ittifoqchining barchasi bu qarorni qo'llab-quvvatlaydi", dedi u BBCga.

AQSh Davlat kotibi Xillari Klinton NATO va NATO qarorini olqishladi.

AQSh dastlab BMT rezolyutsiyasini bajarishga rahbarlik qilishga rozi bo'ldi, lekin faqat chegaralangan rolni xohlashini va javobgarlikni imkon qadar tezroq topshirishini aniq ko'rsatdi.

NATOga topshirish, Turkiya, quruqlikdagi kuchlarga qarshi zarbalarni davom ettirishga ruxsat berishdan ko'ra, harakat to'g'ridan-to'g'ri uchish taqiqlangan hudud va qurol embargosini amalga oshirishga qaratilishi kerak, degan fikrini bildirganida, tiqilib qoldi.

Rezolyutsiya xalqaro hamjamiyatga Liviya tinch aholisini himoya qilish uchun zarur vositalardan foydalanishga ruxsat beradi, biroq bu ibora turli talqinlar uchun ochiq bo'lib qoldi.

NATO elchilari, shuningdek, NATOni Liviyaga qarshi harakatning barcha harbiy jihatlari uchun mas'ul bo'lgan rejani muhokama qilmoqda.

Bryusseldagi BBC va#x27s Metyu Praysning aytishicha, butun operatsiyani NATO mamlakatlari elchilari va vazirlari kengashi, va eng muhimi, bu harakatni qo'llab -quvvatlaydigan arab davlatlari boshqarishi tushuniladi.

Ammo bunday kengash qanday kuchga ega bo'lishi va u ma'lum harbiy missiyalarga veto qo'yishi mumkinligi aniq emas, deya qo'shimcha qiladi muxbirimiz.


NATO "uchish taqiqlangan plyus" ni qo'llashi mumkin

Bryussel, Belgiya (CNN) -NATO a'zolari payshanba kuni Liviya ustidan uchish taqiqlangan hududni nazorat qilishni o'z zimmasiga olishga rozi bo'lishdi, lekin qurolsiz fuqarolarga tahdid solishi mumkin bo'lgan hukumat qo'shinlariga hujum qilish uchun litsenziya sifatida talqin qilishdan to'xtashdi.

& quot; Bugun biz qaror qildikki, NATO parvozlar taqiqlangan hududni o'rnatadi.

Payshanba kungi kelishuvga ko'ra, NATO kuchlari gumanitar samolyotlardan tashqari barcha reyslar uchun havo maydonini yopishi va o'zini himoya qilish uchun kuch ishlatishi mumkin bo'ladi.

NATO, shuningdek, o'z qo'mondonlik zanjiriga, Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotining 1973 rezolyutsiyasini bajarish uchun kengaytirilgan rolni bajarish rejasini so'ragan ko'rsatma yubordi. Manbalarda aytilishicha, ba'zi rasmiylar & quotno-fly plus & quot; degan so'zlariga ko'ra, tinch aholi himoyalanganligini ta'minlash uchun NATOga yanada kuchliroq aloqa qoidalari beriladi.

Manbalarda aytilishicha, tashkilotning yagona musulmon mamlakati bo'lgan Turkiyaning xavotirlarini engillashtirish maqsadida koalitsiya kuchlariga Liviya askarlariga hujum qilish kabi missiyalardan chiqib ketishga ruxsat beriladi.

Liviya hukumati media -sayohat noto'g'ri

Rasmussenning aytishicha, yanada kuchliroq mandatga kelsak, AQSh boshchiligidagi koalitsiya shu paytgacha bajargan va bu qaror hali qabul qilinmagan.

Uning qo'shimcha qilishicha, NATO har qanday vazifani bajarishda tashqaridan yordamga ega bo'ladi. "Bu birinchi navbatda NATO operatsiyasi emasligini ta'kidlash juda muhim", dedi u. & quot; Bu Liviyadagi tinch aholini himoya qilishga o'z hissasini qo'shishga va'da bergan mintaqadagi sheriklarni o'z ichiga oladigan keng miqyosli xalqaro harakatdir.

Seshanba kuni Liviyada bo'lib o'tadigan xalqaro yig'ilishda qatnashish uchun Londonga boradigan Davlat kotibi Xillari Klinton koalitsiyaning besh kun ichida nimalarga erishganiga ijobiy baho berdi. "Biz sezilarli yutuqlarga erishdik", dedi u jurnalistlarga. & quot; Bingazidagi qirg'inning oldi olindi. Qaddafiy havo kuchlari va havo hujumidan mudofaa tizimlari deyarli samarasiz bo'lib qoldi va koalitsiya Liviya ustidagi osmonni nazorat qiladi.

U koalitsiyaga Qatar samolyotlari va uchuvchilari kirganini va payshanba kuni Birlashgan Arab Amirliklarining Liviya tinch aholisini himoya qilish uchun samolyotlar yuborishini e'lon qilganini ma'qulladi.

"Kelgusi kunlarda, NATO qo'mondonlik va nazorat vazifalarini o'z zimmasiga olgani sababli, tinch aholi farovonligi birinchi navbatda tashvishga soladi", dedi u. & quotBu operatsiya allaqachon ko'p odamlarning hayotini saqlab qolgan, ammo xavf tugamagan. & quot

Rasmussenning aytishicha, bu masala NATOning missiya bo'yicha bo'linishini anglatmaydi. Shu bilan birga, agar u o'zgarmasa, kelishuv umumiy missiya ikki qismdan iborat bo'lishini anglatishini, shuningdek, NATO uchish taqiqlangan hududni, AQSh boshchiligidagi koalitsiya esa dengiz blokadasi va havo hujumlarini boshqarishini bildiradi.

Payshanba kungi kelishuv Klinton va uning Britaniya, Frantsiya va Turkiyadagi hamkasblari o'rtasida o'tkazilgan konferentsiyadan so'ng erishildi.

Pentagon bergan ma'lumotlarga ko'ra, hozircha AQSh kuchlari missiyaning asosiy qismini yelkasiga olgan. 175 ta Tomahawk raketasining 168tasi AQShdan va ettitasi Buyuk Britaniyadan, faqat ikkita mamlakatga tegishli, AQSh samolyotlari uchdan ikki qismga yaqin uchgan, AQSh kemalari esa uchdan ikki qismidan ko'p. jami jalb qilingan.

Diplomatik faollik Liviyani nazorat qilish uchun kurash davom etayotgan paytda yuz berdi. Liviyaliklar ketma -ket beshinchi kecha koalitsiya samolyotlari tomonidan urilganidan keyin, Qaddafiy hukumati havo hujumi qurbonlari bo'lgan 33 kishining dafn marosimi uchun Payshanba kuni Tripolidagi dengiz bo'yidagi qabristonga yig'ilishdi.

Davlat televideniyesining xabar berishicha, o'lganlar "salibchilar koloniyasi tajovuzining qurbonlari." Oldinroq Liviya hukumati rasmiysi koalitsiya samolyotlari Tajura chekkasiga zarba berganini va davlat telekanalida yong'inlar, yonayotgan mashinalar va o'liklarning kuygan jasadlari tasvirlangani aytilgan edi.

Qabristonda g'azab g'am -qayg'uga to'la edi va Qaddafining xabari baland va ravshan edi: begunoh odamlar nohaq o'ldirildi va Liviya xalqi qarshi kurashadi.

CNN mustaqil ravishda o'lim holatlarini va qurbonlarning kimligini aniqlay olmadi. Tripolida CNN muxbirlari o'z hisobotlarini berish uchun hukumat tomonidan uyushtirilgan gastrollarga borishadi, Liviya hukumati xalqaro jurnalistlarning Tripolida mustaqil harakatlanishini taqiqlaydi.

Oq uy Liviya savollariga javob beradi

Payshanba kuni Liviyaning Tripoli, Misrata va Ajdabiya shaharlarida havo hujumlarini uyushtirgan koalitsiya kuchlari tinch aholining o'limi haqidagi xabarlarga unchalik ishonishmadi.

"Biz bilamizki, faqat fuqarolik qurbonlari - Liviya hukumati o'zi", - dedi AQSh harbiy -dengiz kuchlari vitse -admini Bill Gortni.

Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotida Bosh kotib Pan Gi Mun, Liviya hukumati o'tgan yilning payshanba kuni shoshilinch ravishda qabul qilingan 1973 yil rezolyutsiyasida chaqirilgandek, Liviya hukumati tomonidan hech qanday sulh alomatlarini ko'rmaganini aytdi. isyonchilarning Bengazi qal'asi.

Pan kengash a'zolariga "aksincha," Ajdabiya "," Misrata "va" Zinan "shaharlari atrofida qattiq janglar davom etayotganini aytdi. Uning qo'shimcha qilishicha, uning vakili Liviya hukumatiga, agar hukumat o't o'chirish to'g'risidagi qarorga rioya qilmasa, Xavfsizlik Kengashi qo'shimcha choralar ko'rishga tayyorligini aytgan.

Panning aytishicha, u o'z elchisini juma kuni Efiopiyaning Addis -Abeba shahrida bo'lib o'tadigan, Qaddafiy hukumati va muxolifat vakillari qatnashishi kutilayotgan yig'ilishga yuborgan. & quot; Ularning maqsadi: sulh tuzish va siyosiy yechimga erishish. & quot

Ammo bunday yechim yaqin bo'lganiga ishora yo'q edi. Liviyaning uchinchi yirik shahri Misrata uchun jang bir haftadan ko'proq davom etmoqda.

Buyuk Britaniya Tashqi ishlar vaziri Uilyam Xeyg payshanba kuni ko'plab fuqarolar o'z uylarida qamoqxonada qolayotganini, elektr va aloqasiz qolganini, oziq -ovqat va suv ta'minoti kamayayotganini aytdi.

Sharqda Qaddafiy tanklari bir kun oldin janglar bo'lgan Ajdabiyani o'qqa tutgan. Sadoqatli kuchlar hanuzgacha shaharning shimoliy va g'arbiy darvozalarini nazorat qilishgan.

& quot; Bu uning aholisi koalitsiya harakatisiz bo'layotgan dahshatli xavfni, shuningdek, Qaddafiy kuchlari tomonidan bombardimon qilinayotgan hududlarda aholini “qirg'in qilish” tahdidlarini davom ettirayotganini ko'rsatadi.

Koalitsiya Liviya qirg'oqlari bo'ylab sharqdan g'arbga qadar uchadigan hududni tashkil qildi. Frantsiya samolyotlari payshanba kuni Liviya jangovar samolyotiga havo-er raketalarini uchirdi, bu esa parvozga ruxsat berilmagan talabni buzib, uni yo'q qildi, dedi Fransiya Mudofaa vazirligi. Samolyot Misrata aerodromiga qo'nayotgan paytda urilgan.

Fuqarolar urushi fevral oyida Qaddafiyning qariyb 42 yillik boshqaruviga barham berishni talab qilgan namoyishlar tufayli boshlangan edi. Liviyalik kuchli odam tinch aholiga qarshi kuch bilan javob berdi, bu esa xalqaro hamjamiyatni o'tgan hafta boshidan harakatga undadi.

O'shandan beri isyonchilarning pozitsiyasi yaxshilangan bo'lishi mumkin bo'lsa -da, amerikalik mulozimning aytishicha, Qaddafiy kuchlari haliyam ustunlikda. Ular muxolifatga hujum uyushtirishga qodir, nisbatan uyushgan va samarali kurashni davom ettirmoqdalar, deydi rasmiy.

CNN muxbirlari Nik Robertson, Arva Deymon, Elis Labott, Paula Nyuton va Jim Bittermann ushbu hisobotga o'z hissalarini qo'shdilar.


AQSh siyosatining oqibatlari

1991 yildagi Iroqdagi vaziyat, bugungi kunda Liviyada uchish va haydash taqiqlangan hududlarning potentsial foydali ekanligidan dalolat beradi. Yigirma yil oldin, shu hafta, bunday zonalar Iroq intifazasi muvozanatini buzishi, mashhur bo'lmagan rejimni ag'darishi, katta azob -uqubatlarning oldini olishi va Iroqning AQShga minnatdorchiligini qozonishi mumkin edi. Iroq Kurdistoni misolida, G'arbning havo va quruqlikdan ajratilgan zonalari gumanitar falokatni yengillashtirdi.

Yet history also shows that imposing no-fly zones is a slippery slope: such missions are easy to begin but exceedingly difficult to end. If a zone is established in Libya to protect a rebel enclave but the Qadhafi regime survives, the United States would need to be careful not to inherit the open-ended protection of a new ministate.

The no-fly zones of the 1990s provide a bevy of practical lessons for planners weighing the advantages and disadvantages of such operations today:

  • Seek out a clear mandate from the UN Security Council, which provided the foundation for previous no-fly zones.
  • Make the prohibitions mandated by no-fly and no-drive zones as clear as possible, banning the movement and use of all recognizable military forces within defined geographic zones. Do not exempt any forms of fixed-wing or helicopter assets, nor artillery. For example, UNSC Resolution 816 banned all civil and military air transportation in Bosnia-Herzegovina not expressly authorized by UN air traffic controllers, reducing potential loopholes and the risk of collateral damage. Planners should also draw the zone boundaries in relation to real-world social, tribal, or geographic fracture lines rather than arbitrary features such as latitude or longitude lines.
  • To provide a way out of an open-ended commitment, seek a UN resolution that requires renewal within a specified time limit.

If the United States and its allies decide to pursue exclusion zones in Libya, these and other lessons can increase the chance that military options offer a credible and controllable means to protect civilians from repression.

Michael Knights is a Lafer fellow in The Washington Institute's Military and Security Studies Program.


Concern About Gadhafi P.R. Win

One fear is a public relations victory for Gadhafi if he managed to shoot down a U.S. jet.

"There may be in the end cheaper and more effective ways to deal with the situation such as providing covert arms to the rebels," said former deputy assistant secretary of state Steve Ganyard, who is a former fighter pilot who enforced no-fly zones.

"We can't just go in and put airplanes over Libya. It's going to take a campaign to take out these surface-to-air-missile systems, to bomb where the aircraft are being parked. It's not just go in and establish a no-fly zone with no cost.

"We will have to blow things up on the ground in Libya if we want to establish a no-fly zone. It's a two step process and it will take time and a significant military package to accomplish," Ganyard said.

Another option is to deploy cell-phone "base stations" on aircraft flying outside Libya to prevent the regime from jamming rebels' phone and Internet connections.

But such options would take time to implement.

"Almost all the options that the U.S. has now will take weeks if not months to put into effect . " Ganyard said.

Obama last week said the administration is considering a range of options to respond to the unrest.

"I want us to be making our decisions based on what's going to be best for the Libyan people in consultation with the international community," Obama said Thursday.

While Obama acknowledged the danger of a stalemate that "could be bloody" if rebels do not push out Gadhafi, Obama also indicated a willingness to avoid any sort of military action in Libya.

"We did not see anti-American sentiment arising out of that movement in Egypt precisely because they felt that we hadn't tried to engineer or impose a particular outcome, but rather they owned it," he said of the revolution in Egypt.


The Libyan War of 2011

Colonel Muamar Gadhafi, killed after his fall from power

The Libyan War (also referred to as the 1st Libyan Civil War or the February 19 Revolution) began as a protest movement against long-time Libyan leader Colonel Muamar Gadhafi and quickly escalated into a full-scale civil war. As the Libyan government forces increased their use of deadly force on the rebels, the United Nations imposed a "No-Fly Zone" over Libya in order to "protect Libyan civilians." The Libyan No-Fly Zone's enforcement was undertaken by a coalition of European nations and the United States. The Libyan No-Fly Zone was begun with airstrikes and ship-borne missile strikes at Libyan air-defense installations as well as Libyan ground forces.

The coalition enforcing the No-Fly Zone includes (as of March 31, 2011), the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Belgium, Italy, Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, and Spain.

From March 19 to March 31, the foreign military operation was under American command. On March 31, the United States turned over command of the operation to NATO. President Obama cited this hand-over in his televised speech to the American public on March 29 as a significant downsizing of American involvement in the Libya War. As many analysts and commentators rightly pointed out, this claim was somewhat obsequious, as any NATO operation has significant American military, diplomatic, and political involvement, as the U.S. is NATO's most powerful member.

In addition to air and naval firepower in open aid to the rebels, it was disclosed on March 31, that the American Central Intelligence Agency was on the ground aiding the rebels.

Throughout April, 2011, NATO airstrikes continued to pound Libyan military positions and units, while the ground war between Gadhafi's forces and the rebels took on a see-saw effect, as several towns and positions changed hands between them. Many outside analysts saw the war grinding into a stalemate, with Gadhafi's forces controlling most of western Libya, while the rebels held most of eastern Libya.

In the last week of April, the United States announced the introduction of its unmanned Predator drones to the war.

On April 30, 2011, the Libyan government announced that a NATO airstrike killed Gadhafi's youngest son, Saif al Arab Gadhafi, aged 29, and three of Gadhafi's grandchildren. In the rebel capital of Benghazi, celebratory gunfire erupted upon word that the younger Gadhafi's death. The Libyan spokesman who announced Said Gadhafi's death also claimed that the NATO strike was a failed attempt to kill the Libyan leader himself, implying that Muamar Gadhafi himself was in the house at the time of the attack.

By mid-August, 2011, the rebel advance had placed Tripoli in a siege. NATO airstrikes continued to aid the rebels, and speculation continued as to whether Gadhafi would flee Libya or make a bloody last stand in Tripoli. Amid that speculation, though, the Gadhafi regime fell in a spectacular military collapse August 21, 2011, as rebels advanced almost unopposed into Tripoli. The night before, rebel cells within the capital city rose up against Gadhafi's forces, seizing control of several neighborhoods. As of the evening of August 21, some reports indicate that Saif al-Islam, Gadhafi's son and one-time heir, had been captured.

After the liberation of Tripoli, the rebels besieged the two remaining Gadhafi strongholds of Bani Walid, and Sirte, which was the hometown of the fallen dictator. In October, 2011, forces of the new Libyan government overcame Gadhafi loyalist opposition, and captured the two towns. On October 20, after a U.S. Predator drone destroyed the first vehicle in a convoy fleeing Sirted, a French airstrike devastated a the convoy, forcing the survivors of the attack to flee on foot. Muamar Gadhafi and some of his bodyguards survived and attempted to hide in a concrete drainage ditch. They were found, and Gadhafi was reportedly captured alive, though he was soon shot dead. Photos of Gadhafi's body were shown on televisions and internet devices around the world.

Libya's new government, the Interim Transitional Council (NTC), announced that October 23, 2011 would mark Libya's Libertion Day. NATO announce that the military mission would conclude at the end of October.

In the chaotic aftermath of Gahafi's fall, the various rebel factions began fighting among themselves for control of Libya and her oil in what became the Second Libyan Civil War. Foreign intervention continued as each Libyan militia gained outside sponsors. Al-Qaida and the Islamic State (ISIS) also gained footholds, prompting further American and British involvement.

Names of the Conflict:

The Libyan War of 2011

Libyan No-Fly Zone War

Libyan Uprising of 2011

Libyan Civil War

Operational Names of Nations Intervening in Libya:

Operation Odyssey Dawn (United States)

Operation Ellamy (United Kingdom)

Op ration Harmattan (France)

Operation Mobile (Canada)

Operation Unified Protector (NATO)

BEGAN: February 15, 2011--Protests against the Libyan government began


Gaddafi threatens armed resistance against no-fly zone

Colonel Muammar Gaddafi has warned that the imposition of a no-fly zone in Libyan airspace will be met with armed resistance and taken as proof that western powers are trying to steal his country's oil.

His defiant remarks came as pro-Gaddafi forces continued their assault on the city of Zawiyah and the country's rebel leadership pleaded for the international community to close down Libyan airspace.

Britain and the US have discussed the creation of an internationally backed no-fly zone as a contingency plan in case Gaddafi refuses to step down in response to the popular uprising that erupted last month.

In an interview broadcast on Wednesday by Turkey's state-run TRT news channel, Gaddafi said: "If they take such a decision it will be useful for Libya, because the Libyan people will see the truth, that what they want is to take control of Libya and to steal their oil.

"They want to take your petrol," he said. "This is what America, this is what the French, those colonialists, want." But he warned: "The Libyan people will take up arms against them."

Barack Obama and David Cameron have agreed "to press forward with planning, including at Nato, on the full spectrum of possible responses, including surveillance, humanitarian assistance, enforcement of the arms embargo, and a no-fly zone".

The US secretary of state, Hillary Clinton, has made it clear that Washington believes any decision to impose a no-fly zone is a matter for the UN and should not be a US-led initiative.

Opponents of Gaddafi on the front line between the rebel-controlled east and the regime's forces in the west have become increasingly frustrated at the international community's failure to act. Rebels constantly fire machine guns into the air to try to fend off attacking warplanes.

"They had a no-fly zone in Iraq," a rebel volunteer, Naji Saleh, told Reuters near the oil town of Ras Lanuf. "Why is Gaddafi their darling and Saddam Hussein was not?".

The rebel leadership in the eastern city of Benghazi said their representatives were in touch with foreign capitals about the imposition of a no-fly zone.

"We are concentrating our diplomatic efforts and working hard. But as always, they [foreign powers] are reluctant. One day we think they will take action soon," said Iman Bugaigis, a spokesman for the rebel February 17 coalition.

An opposition group fighting Gaddafi's regime has called for a no-fly zone over Libya even without the UN's blessing, but has ruled out the presence of foreign troops on Libyan soil.

Speaking at the European parliament, an official with the umbrella group for eastern rebels said that if it came to a choice between preventing people being slaughtered or accepting political disagreement within the UN security council, the decision was easy.

Mahmoud Jebril said the only condition would be to enforce the zone from outside Libya.

EU parliament groups meeting in Strasbourg are preparing to call on member states to recognise Jebril's newly created interim governing council in Benghazi.

Gaddafi has also accused the UN security council of bypassing its own processes to act against Libya and repeated his claims that the revolt had been inspired by foreign al-Qaida militants who have freed prisoners and paid young men to fight for them.

He has accused western governments and media of falling for al-Qaida propaganda that blamed government forces for unleashing violence on the Libyan people.

In an interview with France's LCI television, Gaddafi said: "I'd have to be mad to shoot at peaceful demonstrators. I'd never have done that. I'd never have allowed anyone to be shot."

He also warned the international community that the collapse of Libya would bring an end to security in the region, telling TRT: "The world will change its attitude towards Libya because Libyan stability means the security of the Mediterranean sea.

"It will be a huge disaster if al-Qaida takes over Libya. Al-Qaida would flood Europe with immigrants. We are the ones who prevent al-Qaida from taking over control. They would drag the whole region into chaos … Al-Qaida would take over north Africa."

Meanwhile, Libyan forces loyal to Gaddafi have closed in on rebels in the western city of Zawiyah, surrounding them with tanks and snipers in the main square, according to a resident and a rebel fighter.

"We can see the tanks. The tanks are everywhere," Ibrahim told Reuters by phone from inside Zawiyah, the closest rebel city to the capital, Tripoli.

A resident added: "They have surrounded the square with snipers and tanks. The situation is not so good. It's very scary. There are a lot of snipers."

Ibrahim said forces loyal to Gaddafi were in control of the main road and the suburbs. Although rebel forces still controlled the square, pro-Gaddafi fighters were about 1,500 metres away.

Ibrahim said army snipers were on top of most of the buildings, shooting at anyone who dared to venture from their homes.

"There are many dead people and they can't even bury them," he said. "Zawiyah is deserted. There's nobody on the streets. No animals, not even birds in the sky."

A government spokesman said that while troops were mostly in control of Zawiyah, there was still a small pocket of 30-40 "desperate" resistance fighters.

Foreign reporters have been prevented from entering Zawiyah, 30 miles west of Tripoli, and other cities near the capital without an official escort.

Human rights activists estimate more than 1,000 people have been killed since the uprising began in mid-February.


U.N.-Sanctioned No-Fly Zone Enforced Over Libya

French President Nicolas Sarkozy said Saturday that his nation's warplanes have begun enforcing a U.N.-sanctioned no-fly zone over Libya. NPR's Eric Westervelt is in Eastern Libya, and discusses the latest developments with Scott Simon.

This is WEEKEND EDITION from NPR News. I'm Scott Simon.

Moammar Gadhafi today warned Britain, France, and the United Nations they'll regret it if they attack his country. This is the voice a Libyan government spokesman reading Gadhafi's letter to reporters a short while ago.

MOAMMAR GADHAFI (Through Libyan Government Spokesman Ibrahim Moussa): Who gave you the right to intervene in our internal affairs? You will regret it if you take the step towards intervening in our internal affairs.

SIMON: That's Libyan government spokesman, Ibrahim Moussa in Tripoli, speaking to journalists, including NPR's David Greene who joins us on the line. David, thanks for being with us.

DAVID GREENE: Good to be here, Scott.

SIMON: And is this just I dare you from Gadhafi?

GREENE: It sure sounds that way. I mean, it certainly sounds at least like Gadhafi is bracing for what he thinks will be attacks from France, Britain, perhaps others.

He also said in that letter Libya is not yours. Libya is for Libya's people. And Gadhafi went on in that letter. He said he would never fire a bullet at his own people, which is exactly what western powers have been suggesting he is doing, which is the whole reason for the United Nations Security Council to protect the civilians in Libya.

And so a different story coming from them and from Gadhafi himself.

SIMON: Help us understand what I gather is a second letter that Mr. Gadhafi addressed to President Obama.

GREENE: Yeah. That was a strange moment in this press conference. And I want to play you a little more tape from that government spokesman. So this is reading a letter from Gadhafi to President Obama.

MOAMMAR GADHAFI (Through Libyan Government Spokesman Ibrahim Moussa): To our son, his Excellency, the President of the United States, Barack Hussein Obama. I have said to you before that even if Libya and the United States of America enter into a war, God forbid, you will always remain my son, and I have all the love for you as a son.

SIMON: David, I just don't know what to make of that.

GREENE: Neither do we, Scott. And Gadhafi often sends messages that you don't exactly know what to make of. I mean, he went on to say in that letter, President Obama, what would you do if you had Al Qaida, or elements of Al Qaida, running your cities? He said that's what's happening in Libya.

In that letter, Scott, Gadhafi said that all of Libya is with him. He, Gadhafi, is prepared to die and all the Libyan people, including women and children are prepared to die.

SIMON: Help us understand where we stand now. Because we heard a cease-fire announced by Libya, and then today defiance from Gadhafi, and of course the continued military action that you mentioned.

GREENE: Yeah. And I don't know if you can hear it behind me that there's been sporadic gunfire here in the capital of Tripoli a lot of today, and what the government says is that's celebration. There's no way we can confirm that. We're not able to get out of the hotel for much of the day to go check out these reports.

It certainly still has the feeling of a conflict here in Libya. The reports from Benghazi, the rebel stronghold in the east, witnesses have told NPR that it's still getting shelled by mortars and artillery. There as a plane that was actually shot down in the sky.

Several of our colleagues, both from the AP and BBC saw that plane go down in a fireball. It's not clear - there are conflicting reports whether it was a rebel plane, or whether it was actually one of Gadhafi's planes.

But, you know, these mixed messages coming from Gadhafi, he has said nothing yet that would suggest he can convince President Obama, France, Britain, and others to do anything but come at him. And so I think this is a country that is waiting to see if it is attacked. If these - if the international community acts on the no-fly zone that was approved by the United Nation Security Council, and what President Obama and France and Britain have said is that they want to give the Libyan people the chance to meet their aspirations for a different leader, and that they're going to do anything to make that happen.

SIMON: So what's the mood of people in Tripoli as you can talk to them? Bracing themselves? Resigned?

GREENE: I think so. They're angry. A lot of them who we talked to - and we should say, this is on trips where the government minders take us out into the streets. But a lot of them are Gadhafi supporters who say we would die for our leader, and very angry that the United States, Britain, and France would try and intervene in this country.

But obviously there are a lot of critics of Gadhafi who are just not really speaking out to reporters right now. I think they're very fearful.

SIMON: NPR's David Greene in Tripoli, thanks so much.

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