Richard Tidd

Richard Tidd


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Richard Tidd 1775 yilda Linkolnshirda tug'ilgan. U yoshligida Londonga ko'chib o'tgan va Grey's Inn Leyn yaqinidagi xarobalar ko'chasida joylashgan 5-Hole-in-the-Wall Passage-da poyabzalchi bo'lgan. Avvaliga u etikchilik bilan shug'ullangan, biroq Frantsiya bilan urushning boshlanishi uning biznesida tanazzulni keltirib chiqardi. Sakkiz bolaning otasi va hozir juda kambag'al Tidd ingliz armiyasiga qo'shildi. Soxta ism ishlatib, u o'zining mukofot pulini olgan zahoti tashlab ketdi. Tidd keyingi bir necha yil ichida buni bir necha bor qilganini aytdi.

1806 yilda Tidd radikal nomzod Ser Frensis Burdettga Middleseks uchun Jamoat palatasiga saylanish uchun yordam berdi. Burdettga ovoz berish uchun u o'zini Middlesex erkin egasi deb yolg'on gapirgan. Tiddga yolg'on guvohlik berganlikda ayblanishdi, lekin hibsga olishdan oldin u Shotlandiyaga qochib ketdi va u erda besh yil qoldi. 1814 yilda Tidd Londonga qaytdi. Yillar o'tib, uning siyosiy g'oyalari inqilobiy bo'lib, endi Tomas Spensning izdoshi bo'ldi.

1814 yilda Spens vafotidan so'ng, Jeyms Uotson va Artur Tistlvud Spensiyalik filantroplar jamiyatini tuzishga yordam berishdi. Guruhning boshqa a'zolari orasida Jon Brunt, Jeyms Ings, Uilyam Devidson, Tomas Preston va Jon Xopper bor edi. Hukumat bu guruhdan juda xavotirga tushdi va Spensiyaliklarga qo'shilish va ularning faoliyati to'g'risida hisobot berish uchun josus Jon Qal'ani ishga oldi. 1816 yil oktyabr oyida Qal'a Ichki ishlar idorasi josuslari nazoratchisi Jon Staffordga spensiyaliklarning kichik bir guruhi Britaniya hukumatini ag'darishni rejalashtirayotgani haqida xabar berdi.

1816 yil 2 -dekabrda Spence guruhi Islingtonning Spa Fields shahrida ommaviy yig'ilish tashkil qildi. Uchrashuvda Genri "Orator" Xant va Jeyms Uotson so'zga chiqdilar. Magistratlar yig'ilishni tarqatishga qaror qilishdi va Stafford va sakson politsiya xodimi shunday qilayotganlarida, erkaklardan biri Jozef Rodsga pichoq bilan urishdi. Guruhning to'rtta etakchisi - Jeyms Uotson, Artur Tistlvud, Tomas Preston va Jon Xopper hibsga olinib, davlatga xiyonat qilishda ayblangan.

Richard Tidd Londonda Spencean uchrashuvlarida qatnashishni davom ettirdi. Tidd, ayniqsa, Peterloo qirg'inidan qattiq g'azablandi va keyin bu voqeadagi roli uchun Lord Castlereagh va Lord Sidmutni o'ldirish ehtimoli haqida gapirdi.

1820 yil 22 -fevralda Jorj Edvards Artur Tistlvudga kitobni ko'rsatdi Yangi vaqtlar Britaniya hukumatining bir necha a'zolari Grosvenor maydonidagi 39 -uyda lord Harroubining uyida kechki ovqatga borishadi. Richard Tidd 23 fevral kuni Lord Xarrobi uyida ovqatlanayotgan hukumat vazirlarini o'ldirish uchun Tistlvud va boshqa yigirma etti nafar Spensiyaliklarga qo'shilishga rozi bo'ldi.

23 fevralda Tistlvud to'dasi Grosvenor maydonidan bir oz narida joylashgan Kato ko'chasidagi pichanxonaga yig'ildi. Biroq, hukumat vazirlari Xarlobi Xarlining uyida yig'ilishmagan. Spensiyaliklar Spensiya jamiyatiga kirib kelgan hukumat ayg'oqchisi Jorj Edvards tomonidan tashkil etilgan. Jorj Rutven boshchiligidagi 13 politsiya xodimi pichan maydoniga bostirib kirdi. Guruhning bir necha a'zolari qurollarini topshirishdan bosh tortishdi va bitta politsiyachi Richard Smiters Artur Tistvud tomonidan o'ldirildi. To'rt fitnachi, Tistvud, Jon Brunt, Robert Adams va Jon Xarrison derazadan qochib ketishdi, lekin politsiya josuslari ularning kimligini bilishgan va to'rttasi ham keyingi ikki kun ichida hibsga olingan.

Oxir -oqibat, 11 kishi Kato ko'chasidagi fitnaga aloqadorlikda ayblangan. Robert Adams sudda boshqa odamlarga qarshi ko'rsatma berishga rozi bo'lganida ayblovlar olib tashlandi. 1820 yil 28 aprelda Richard Tidd, Artur Tistlevud, Jeyms Ings, Jon Brunt va Uilyam Devidson davlatga xiyonat qilishda aybdor deb topilib, o'lim jazosiga hukm qilindi. Jon Harrison, Jeyms Uilson, Richard Bredbern, Jon Stranj va Charlz Kopper ham aybdor deb topilgan, biroq ularning dastlabki hukmlari umrbod transport bilan almashtirilgan. Richard Tidd 1820 yil 1 mayda Nyugeyt qamoqxonasida qatl qilindi.

Ko'p qaltiragan jallod uzoq vaqt mahbuslarni bog'lab qo'ydi; Bu operatsiya davom etayotganida olomon orasida jimjitlik hukm surdi, lekin tomchi tushganda, umumiy tuyg'u chuqur xo'rsinish va nola bilan namoyon bo'ldi. Ings va Brunt osilgan paytda og'riqni namoyon qilganlar edi. Birinchisi jim qoldi; lekin ikkinchisi bir necha daqiqa davomida, yuzining dahshatli burilishlaridan, eng achchiq qiynoqlarni boshdan kechirayotganday tuyuldi.

Tistlvud bir necha daqiqaga ozgina kurashdi, lekin har bir harakat avvalgisiga qaraganda kuchsizroq edi; va jasad tez orada xuddi o'lim qo'lining harakatiga o'xshab asta -sekin aylana boshladi.

Tidd, uning o'lchami, u ozgina og'riqli og'riqlar bilan "o'tib ketadi", deb taxmin qilishga sabab bo'ldi, yiqilgandan keyin deyarli qimirlamadi. Inglarning kurashlari ajoyib edi. Jallodning yordamchilari oyoqlarini bor kuchi bilan tortdilar; va shunda ham ruhning o'z joyidan ajralishni istamasligi tananing har bir a'zosining harakatlarida kuzatilishi kerak edi. Devidson, uch -to'rt to'rdan keyin harakatsiz qoldi; Ammo Brunt juda azob chekdi va jallodlar va boshqalar uning azoblarini qisqartirish uchun ko'p harakat qilishdi.


1906 yildan 2011 yilgacha AEP ’ ning eng yaxshi rahbarlari

Nikolas K. Akins American Electric Power kompaniyasining 10-prezidenti va oltinchi bosh ijrochi direktori, American Gas & amp Electric (AGE) kompaniyasining 104 yildan ortiq tarixiga ega. 1960 -yillarning boshlariga qadar, AEPda maxsus bosh direktor deb nomlangan lavozim yo'q edi.

1906 yil 20 -dekabrda AGE tashkil etilganidan so'ng, bir qancha odamlar yangi kompaniyaning rahbarligini bo'lishdi. Millard Xumston prezident etib saylandi va Brigam Kertis boshqaruv kengashi raisi etib saylandi. Ular o'z lavozimlarini vaqtincha 25 kun ushlab turishdi va keyin iste'foga chiqishdi. Doimiy ofitserlar 1907 yil 15 yanvarda saylandi.

1907-1910 yillarda AGE ni Genri L. Doherti (1870-1939), Sidney Z. Mitchell (1862-1944) va Richard E. Breed (1866-1926) triumvirati boshqargan. Mitchell moliyalashtirish, Doherti muhandislik va operatsiyalar bilan shug'ullangan, Breed esa kompaniyaning franchayzing uchun mas'ul bo'lgan.

Yillar davomida AEP va 039 -ning etakchi rahbarlari (yuqori qatorda, chapdan o'ngga): Richard Breed, Jorj Tidd, Filipp Sporn, Donald Kuk (pastdagi qator, chapdan o'ngga): Pit Uayt, Richard Disbrou, Linn Draper, Mayk Morris.

Breed 1910 yildan 1923 yilgacha prezident bo'ldi va 1923 yildan 1926 yilgacha raislik qildi.

1923 yilda Jorj N. Tidd (1874-1952) prezidentlik lavozimini 1947 yilda tugagunga qadar egalladi, u 1947 yildan 1949 yilgacha raislik qildi.

Filipp Sporn (1896-1978) Tiddni 1947 yildan 1961 yilgacha prezident qilib tayinladi. Garchi u boshqa ko'plab rahbarlik lavozimlarida ishlagan bo'lsa-da, Tidd ’ dan keyin rais lavozimidan chetlatilgan va bosh direktor lavozimi o'sha paytda bo'lmagan.

Donald C. Kuk (1909-1981)-bosh ijrochi direktor etib rasman saylangan birinchi shaxs. U 1961 yilda kompaniyaning prezidenti va bosh ijrochi direktori bo'ldi, 1972 yilgacha prezident lavozimini saqlab qoldi (1971 yildan 1972 yilgacha prezident va rais, faqat 1976 yilgacha rais edi). Jorj V. Patterson (1912-1993) 1972 yildan 1977 yilgacha prezident bo'lgan.

W.S. “Pete ” White Jr. (1926 yil tug'ilgan) 1976 yildan 1991 yilgacha rais va bosh direktor bo'lib ishlagan va 1992 yilgacha rais bo'lib ishlagan. Richard E. Disbrou (1930-1996) 1979 yilda kompaniya prezidenti etib saylangan va u prezident deb nomlangan. va 1991 yilda bosh direktor, 1992 yilda rais va bosh direktor etib saylangan.

Doktor E. Linn Draper, kichik (1942 yil tug'ilgan), 1992 yilda prezident bo'ldi va 1993 yilda Disbrovning raisi va bosh direktori lavozimiga o'tdi, 2003 yilgacha uch lavozimda ham ishladi.

Maykl G. Morris (1946 yil tug'ilgan) 2004 yil 1 yanvardan rais, prezident va bosh direktor bo'ldi. 2011 yil 1 yanvarda Akins (1960 yil tug'ilgan) prezident etib saylandi, u 12 noyabrda bosh ijrochi direktor bo'ldi. 2011. Morris rais sifatida davom etmoqda.

Manbalar: Va yorug'lik bor edi: Amerika elektr energiyasi hikoyasi, uning birinchi 85 yilligi va#8212 1906-1991, Uilyam U.Korbit, 1991 yil Amerika elektr quvvati: bir asrlik asarlar, Lyuk Fek, 2006 AEP hozir: AEP Tarix.


Biografiya

Kelib chiqishi

Jon Tiddning kelib chiqishi yoki ota -onasi haqida hech qanday dalil yo'q, ammo Anderson uning Xertfordshirlik ekanligi haqidagi dalillarni qabul qiladi. [5] Jon Tidd va Anna Deyn ota -onalari ularni olib tashlashga tayyorgarlik ko'rishda noaniq deb belgilashgan. Hech qanday muhim nasabnomachi ularni ota -onasi deb atamaydi va ular Yarmutdan. Jonning ismi uning vasiyatnomasida "Tid" va vasiyatnomasida "Tidd" deb yozilgan. O'g'li Jon voyaga etganidan so'ng, ularni mahalliy yozuvlarda farqlash uchun odatda "katta" va "kichik" deb atashardi. Keyingi avlodlar asosan "Tidd" imlosi bo'yicha standartlashtirilgan.

"Jon Deynning hikoyasi, 1682" deb nomlangan qo'lda yozilgan jurnalda "Charlstounda yashagan, janob Tead, taxminan 1630 yil, Xertford, Xertfordshir, Ingliz tijoratchisi. U yosh edi. keyin odam ". Yozuvchi ism -sharifini aniq aytmagan va keyinchalik Charlestownda yashagan Joshua Tidd bor edi, ammo uning joylashuvi va mashg'ulotlari shuni ko'rsatadiki, bu hech bo'lmaganda o'zini "Teylor" deb ataydigan Jon Voburn bilan bir xil oila va oila. uning irodasi. [6] Bu, Jon Voburnning onasi Deyn deb nomlangani isbotlanmagan gipotezaga asos bo'lishi mumkin. [7]

Migratsiya va yashash joyi

Jon Tidd va uning oilasi Mary Backusning so'zlariga ko'ra, "erta kelishgan", u 1637 yilda Massachusets shtatining Charlestaun shahrida yashagan. [1] (Charlestown 1628 yilda tashkil etilgan va 1629 yilda joylashgan.) 1638 yil 23 aprelda Tiddlar oilasi Charlestown shahridagi 68 -sonli lot. [4] U 1643 yil 10 mayda erkinlik uchun ariza berdi. [8]

1640 yil 18-dekabrda Jon Tidd 1642 yilda rasman Voburn nomini olgan shahar buyruqlariga imzo chekkan o'ttiz ikki kishidan biri edi. [9]

1652 yilda Jon Tid Charlztounda Genri Bullokdan keyin, Jon Burridj yaqinidagi kemachi uy Uilyam Jonsonga guvohlar: Maykl Bakon va Jon Seerga murojaat qiladi. [10]

1655 yilda Jon Tidd, kichik va o'g'li Jon Tidd Charlztounda soliq ro'yxatida paydo bo'ladi.

Oila

Jon birinchi bo'lib Margaretga uylandi (tug'ilgan ismi noma'lum kimsa Grinlef). U o'z xohishiga ko'ra ikkinchi Elisga (tug'ilgan ismi noma'lum kimdir Teel yoki Kleytonga) uylangan. (Elis undan omon qoldi va keyingi Uilyam Mannga uylandi.)

Torreyning bu yozuvi, albatta, Elisning Teel deb nomlanganligini ko'rsatadi, lekin hech qanday haqiqiy nikoh qaydnomasi topilmadi va Teel bu oila tomonidan ishlatilgan "Tidd" turlaridan biri bo'lgan "Teed" ning noto'g'ri yozuvi bo'lishi mumkin.

  1. Samuel Tidd 1617 yil
  2. Meri Tidd 1620 m Frensis Kendall
  3. Ebenezer Tidd
  4. Jozef Tidd 1620 yildan keyin
  5. Xanna Tidd b. 1622 m Uilyam Savel
  6. Elizabet Tidd b 1622 m ____ Fuller
  7. Jon Tidd b. 1625
  8. Jeyms Tidd b. 1627

Doues-Geyts [4] Angliyada tug'ilgan beshta taniqli bolani beradi, ularning tug'ilish tartibi noma'lum: Samuel, Xanna, Meri, Yelizaveta va Jon (b. Ab. 1618-19)

O'lim

Jon 1656 yil 24 aprelda Voburnda vafot etdi. [13] (Ba'zi sabablarga ko'ra sana "1656/7 aprel 24" deb ko'chiriladi, lekin aprel yoki 2-oy ikki marta ko'rsatilmaydi).


2020 yil 16 -dekabr, chorshanba

2020 yil bilan xayrlashing!

Biroq, bir nechta vaktsinalarning paydo bo'lishi bizga yaqin kunlarda yaqinlarimizni yana bir bor xavfsiz tarzda quchoqlashimizga umid bag'ishladi.

Bu ob-havo sharoitida yilning yaxshi vaqti emas. Ammo men sayohat qila olmasligim bilan, mayda -chuyda narsalardan zavqlanaman: o'z fuqarolarimiz Robin Redbreastni ko'rish, oxirgi dekabrdagi yomg'irni olib kelayotgan so'nggi xrizantemalar va kelgusi yil lampochkalari paydo bo'lgach, bahorning birinchi taxminiy xabarchilari.

Barchangizni Rojdestvo bilan tabriklayman va yangi yilda eng yaxshi tilaklarimni tilayman.

Mana, kelgusi yil yaxshiroq vaqtlar!

Tasvir: Laplandiyadagi Aurora Borealis. Penny jurnali, 1833 yil 21 -dekabr.


Richard Tidd - Tarix

Manba:
Ogayo shtatining Hardin okrugining tarixi, uning tarixi, shaharchalari, shaharchalari, cherkovlari, maktablari va boshqalar, umumiy va mahalliy statistika Harbiy yozuvlar erta ko'chmanchilarning portretlari va mashhur erkaklarning Ogayo shtati tarixi tarixi va boshqalar. , Va boshqalar
Chikago: Warner, Beers & amp Co., 1883.

L. Dits va K. Torp tomonidan yozilgan


Dumaloq boshli
Bu Hardin okrugining o'n besh bo'linmasidan tashkil topgan birinchi shaharcha edi, u 1833 yilda bu graflik tashkil etilishidan bir yil oldin qurilgan va dastlab hozirgi chegaralaridan shimoli va sharqida katta mamlakatni qamrab olgan. Yillar o'tishi bilan boshqa shaharchalar barpo etildi va "O'qish davri" hozirgi o'lchamlariga qisqardi. Viloyat zobitlarining birinchi umumiy saylovi 1833 yil 1 aprelda Jonathon Karter kabinasida bo'lib o'tdi, berilgan ovozlar soni oltmish uchtani tashkil etdi. Bu saylov va uning natijalaridan o'quvchi umumiy tarixga havola qilinadi, bu erda pioner saylovlari va amaldorlar haqidagi hisobot ularning boshi ostida topiladi.
Bu shaharcha deyarli to'g'ri burchakli parallelogramma bo'lib, shimoldan janubga sakkizta oqadilar, o'rtacha kengligi sharqdan g'arbga qariyb uch chorak mil. U shimolda Marion shaharchasi, sharqda MakDonald shaharchasi, janubda Logan okrugi va g'arbda Auglaize okrugi bilan chegaradosh. U Kongress va Virjiniya harbiy erlarini qamrab oladi. Skioto daryosining shimolidagi erlarning katta qismi avvalgi sinfga tegishli va bu daryoning janubidagi qismi ikkinchi toifadagi erlarga tegishli.

Bug'ular, sirt, tuproq va mahsulotlar
Shaharning shimoli -g'arbiy burchagida, g'arbdan sharqqa 6 -bo'limning markazidan o'tib, u erdan 5 -bo'limning shimoli -g'arbiy qismidan Marion shaharchasiga o'tadigan shimoli -sharqiy yo'nalishda, Pretty Ran deb nomlanuvchi kichik oqim bor. 7 -bo'limda janubdan bir mil narida, Fordning yugurishi Auglaize okrugidan kiradi va shimoliy -sharqiy yo'nalishda, 7 -bo'lim va 8, 9 va 4 -bo'limlar orqali, shimoliy -sharqiy burchakdagi Marion shaharchasiga o'tadi. oxirgi deb nomlangan bo'lim. Ammo asosiy oqim - bu shaharchaning g'arbiy qismida va Auglaize okrugining sharqiy qismida, 30 -bo'limning janubi -g'arbiy burchagida cho'lda cho'zilgan Scioto daryosi va janubi -sharqiy yo'nalishda: u erdan sharqqa va shimoli -sharqqa. 33 -bo'limning shimoli -sharqiy burchagidagi shaharchaning sharqiy chizig'iga etib borgunga qadar, uning yo'nalishi shimoliy va shimoli -sharqiy bo'lib, shaharchaning sharqiy chegara chizig'ini tashkil etadi va Marion shaharchasiga shimoli -sharqiy burchagiga kiradi. Sirt tekis va siljiydi. Janubiy markaziy qismda, Skiotoning har ikki tomonida va shaharning sharqiy qismida, botqoqqa yetguncha, ma'lum bir masofada, yuzasi to'lqinli va ba'zi joylarda biroz tepalikli. Qishloq balansi odatda bir xil darajada. Tuproq, asosan, loy va qumloqdir, faqat quyi, tekis erlar va botqoqlikdan tashqari, chuqur, qora qumloqdan iborat. Bu deyarli hammasi boy va samarali, va. shaharcha sifatida qishloq xo'jaligi uchun juda yaxshi erlar. Bu shaharchadagi botqoq erlar o'n ikki dan o'n besh yuz gektargacha bo'lgan maydonlarni o'z ichiga oladi, bu esa hozircha deyarli yaroqsiz, chunki ekin etishtirish uchun juda nam, lekin biz bu erda boshqa hech narsa yozmaymiz, chunki bu bobda to'liq ko'rib chiqilgan. okrugning umumiy tarixi. Bug'doy, makkajo'xori, jo'xori, kartoshka va pichan mo'l -ko'l ekinlarda ishlab chiqariladi. Bu er dastlab yog'ochdan yasalgan edi, o'rmonlar ilgari bu okrugning boshqa shaharchalarida aytib o'tilgan navlardan iborat edi: oq, qora va qizil eman, kul, qarag'ay, olxa, chinor, yong'oq, hikor, qarag'ay va chinor.

YO'LLAR VA PIKES
Bu shaharcha temir yo'l bilan chegaralanmagan, unga eng yaqin stantsiya va yuk tashish joyi - Belle Center. Ammo yo'llar va pikenlar uchun u juda ko'p materialga ega, tepaliklar va dumalab erlar yaxshi shag'al bilan qoplangan. Round Head & amp Ada pike shaharchaning butun uzunligi bo'ylab, uning markazi yaqinida, shimoldan janubgacha o'tadi. "Round Head & ampy Belle Center" va "Kenton & amp Round Head", bir yoki ikkita boshqa sayohatchilar - yaxshi sayohat va barcha asosiy nuqtalarga sayohatni oson va yoqimli qiladi.

PIONERLAR.
Bu shaharchaning birinchi ko'chmanchisi, Pensilvaniya shtatining fuqarosi Samuel Tidd edi, u 1822 yil fevral oyida 21 -bo'limga joylashdi, u erda 1851 yil 8 -martda vafot etdi. Keyin, vaqt tartibida, beva ayol Richi va uning ikkisi keldi. o'g'illari, Samuel va Endryu, 20 -bo'limda joylashgan. Ular ham Pensilvaniyadan edi, u erdan Ogayo shtatining Logan okrugiga hijrat qilishdi. Bu erda otasi vafot etdi va shu kuni aytilgan oila shu shaharga ko'chirildi, u erda o'g'illari hali ham yashaydilar. Bu oilalarning to'liqroq eskizi graflikning umumiy tarixida uchraydi.

Jeyms Xilt 1825 yil Round Head Townshipga keldi, shuningdek, 20 -bo'limga joylashdi. U Baltimor yaqinida tug'ilgan, Pensilvaniya shtatining Lankaster okrugiga, keyin esa Logan okrugiga, Ogayodan Hardinga. U bu erda bir-ikki yil qolib, Logan okrugiga qaytdi, lekin 1833 yilda u yana shu shaharchaga keldi va o'sha bo'limda joylashgan, 1862 yil 25 sentyabrda, to'qson to'qqiz yoshida vafot etdi. Uning xotini, 1851 yilda, yetmish ko'rish yoshida vafot etdi. Umrining so'nggi o'n bir yilida u butunlay ko'r edi. U yoshligida Presviterian cherkovining a'zosi bo'lgan, keyinchalik u rafiqasi bilan metodist episkop cherkovi bilan birlashgan va oltmish yildan ko'proq vaqt davomida jiddiy va amaliy, har kuni nasroniy va sadoqatli a'zosi bo'lib qolgan. U quyidagi bolalarning otasi edi: Jon S, Nensi, Martin, Sara, Jeyms, Rozanna, Samuel va Meri.

Kentukki shtatida tug'ilgan Jon Mahan Syuzanna Tillottga uylandi, keyin Rossiyaning Ogayo shtatiga ko'chib o'tdi va 1828 yil oktyabr oyida Round Head Townshipga keldi va 19 -bo'limning janubi -sharqiy kvartaliga joylashdi va u erda vafotigacha yashadi. . U 1845 yil 30 aprelda oltmish sakkiz yoshida vafot etdi. Uning xotini 1862 yil 4 sentyabrda oltmish ikki yoshida vafot etdi. Bu erga kelganidan bir necha yil o'tgach, janob Mahan, bu yangi aholi punktiga eng yaqin tegirmon bo'lgan, silliqlash uchun Logan okrugiga yigirma mil yoki undan ko'p masofani bosib o'tishning noqulayligini ko'rdi va shu zahotiyoq ot kuchiga tegirmon qurdi. Buxarlar qora boshli toshdan yasalgan: g'ildirak g'ildiraklari yog'och bloklardan yasalgan, uchburchak shaklda, poydevori oval bo'lib, tepasida o'rtada joylashgan. Bu g'ildirak hiqichoq po'stlog'ining belbog'i bilan ot kuchi bilan bog'langan edi, va ot, aylana bo'ylab aylanib o'tadigan, qutbga mahkamlangan, donni bunkerga qo'yganda, butun mashinani harakatga keltirgan. buharlar orasidan o'tdi va shu tariqa nonga aylandi. Garchi bu bizning fabrikalarimiz bilan taqqoslaganda, bir oz nomukammal va sekin ishlagan bo'lsa -da, baribir, bu birinchi ko'chmanchilar uchun katta qulaylik va ko'p vaqt va mehnatni tejash edi va bir necha yillar davomida odamlarni yaxshi holatga keltirdi. tegirmonlar qurildi. Janob Mahan ikki marta uylangan. Birinchi xotini vafotidan so'ng, u Pensilvaniya shtatida tug'ilgan Syuzan Xillmanga uylandi. Uning birinchi xotini bo'lgan bolalari Meri, Metti, Nensi, Yelizaveta, Jeyms, Jon va Lidiya edi. Hammasi hozir Charlz, Nensi va Lidiya edi. Ikkinchi xotini bilan u Samuel, Devid, Uesli, Uilyam, Genri, Sara J., Eliza Enn, Asa, Edvard X., Margaret va Kley bo'lgan, ikkinchisi isyon urushida armiyada o'ldirilgan.

Merilend shtatidan bo'lgan Jozef V. Bowdle 1800 yilda Ogayo shtati Ross okrugiga hijrat qilgan, u erda Delaver shtatining fuqarosi Lucretia Braunga uylangan. 1831 yilning kuzida u oilasi bilan bu shaharchaga ko'chib kelgan va joylashgan. 19 -bo'limning shimoli -g'arbiy qismida, u 1856 yil noyabrda vafotigacha yashagan va uning qoldiqlari hozirda Allen okrugidagi Salem qabristonida. Uning xotini o'limidan bir necha yil oldin vafot etgan. U 1833 yildan 1839 yilgacha Hardin okrugida yordamchi sudya bo'lgan. Ularning bolalari Jeyms B., Jessi L., Rebekka C., Nelson R., Priskilla, Isaak N., Tomas V., Milton V., Enn C. va Uilyam D. janob Bowdle bu mamlakatning birinchi yordamchi sudyalaridan biri edi. Dinda u metodist bo'lgan va ko'p yillar davomida, hatto Hardin okrugiga joylashishidan ancha oldin, o'sha cherkovda nasihatchi bo'lgan.

Jessi Bowdle, yuqoridagi Jozef Bowdlning ukasi, Ross okrugidagi Lili Bowdlega uylandi va 1832 yilning kuzida bu erga keldi va 1862 yilda vafot etgan 18 -bo'limning janubi -g'arbiy choragida joylashdi. qirq yildan ko'proq vaqt davomida metodist cherkovida mahalliy va'zgo'y bo'lgan. Uning bolalari Devid S., Samuel P., Genri S. va Elizabet edi.

Xardin okrugining bu qismiga birinchi ko'chmanchilar orasida Uilyam va Jeyn Given bor edi. U Merilend shtatining tug'ilgan va Virjiniya rafiqasi edi. 1797 yilda Uilyam Given Ogayo shtatining Ross okrugiga hijrat qildi: u erda turmush qurgan va. 1829 yilda Ogayo shtatining Hardin shirkati Round Head Townshipga ko'chirildi, u erda u 1848 yilda vafotigacha yashadi, uning bevasi 1851 yilgacha tirik qoldi, u ham vafot etdi. Farzandlaridan Aleksandr hanuzgacha tirik qoldi va uning tarjimai holi topiladigan McDonald Townshipda istiqomat qiladi.

Uilyam Ford bu erga Ogayo shtatining Adams okrugidan kelgan va 1831-32 yillarda Skioto daryosining shimoliy qirg'og'ida, Dumaloq boshning tepasida joylashgan. U Adams okrugidan Elizabeth Donaldson xonimga uylandi. U bu erda vafotigacha yashadi. U 1865 yil 9 sentyabrda, etmish uch yoshida vafot etdi. Uning xotini bir yil o'tib, 1866 yil 9 sentyabrda oltmish etti yoshida vafot etdi. Bolalar -Uilyam, Ellis, Xarvi, Milton va Jeyn.

Jeykob Tomson Ross okrugida tug'ilgan, Elizabet Klark bilan Pickaway okrugida turmush qurgan va taxminan 1832-33 yillar "Round Head" ga joylashib, aytilishicha, u shahar qurilgan va yotqizilganidan keyin birinchi idishni qurgan. Ho bu erda vafotigacha yashadi. Uning bolalari quyidagicha edi: Elizabet, Uilyam, Genri, Marta va Lyuis.

Jon T. Skott bu erga Ogayo shtati Champeyn okrugidan keldi va janubiy Uilyam Irvin bilan qo'shni erning shimoliy qirg'og'ida joylashdi. U Ogayo shtati, Logan okrugidan bo'lgan Lyusi Genriga uylandi, undan quyidagi farzandlar tug'ildi: Jon, Eliza, Benjamin, Jeyn, Permeliya, Nensi va boshqa bir necha kishi.

Devid Groves, Virjiniya, Frederik okrugida, 1798 yilda tug'ilgan, Sara Sheetsga uylangan, Merilenddan u erga, Ogayo shtatining Madison okrugiga ko'chirilgan va 1833 yilda bu shaharchaga kelib, 7 -bo'limning janubi -g'arbiy qismida joylashgan. 18 -bo'limda u 160 gektarga, shuningdek, sakson gektarga qo'shni maydonga kirdi. Bu erda u o'ttiz yil yashagan, fermasini sotganda va nihoyat 8 -bo'limda joylashgan, 1880 yil 26 -fevralda vafot etgan. U deyarli metodist cherkovining a'zosi bo'lgan. butun umri, va ko'p yillar davomida mahalliy voiz. Bolalar-Meri, Sevilya, Genri, Sara, Enn, Rebekka va Jeyn-Sara va Jeyndan boshqa hamma vafot etgan.

Richard Rutleg Logan okrugidan kelgan va 1832 yilning kuzida 19 -bo'limning shimoli -sharqiy kvartaliga joylashib, vafotigacha shu erda va qo'shni uchastkada istiqomat qilgan. U 1875 yil 12 yanvarda, etmish olti yoshida vafot etdi. U ikki marta uylangan: birinchi navbatda Meri Lyuisga, undan farzandlari bo'lgan: Lyuis, Benjamin V., Tomas J., Xarriet va boshqalar. Uning ikkinchi xotini Sara Ley xonim edi, u bir o'g'il ko'rdi-Sampson M. janob Rutledge bir necha yil tinchlik sudyasi bo'lib xizmat qildi: metodist cherkovining sadoqatli a'zosi, mehribon qo'shni va munosib fuqaro.

Tomas Livingston bu erga Ogayo shtatining Klark okrugidan keldi va 1834 yilda Round Headga joylashdi, u erda o'z kabinasini qurdi va shahardagi birinchi kabinani saqlab qoldi. U Nensi Ridga uylandi. Ular bu erda taxminan 1840 yilgacha bo'lishdi, ular Roes okrugiga ko'chib ketishdi: u erdan Indiana shtati va Vinchester shtatining yangi aholisi. Farzandlaridan biz quyidagi ismlarni bilamiz: Mariya, Jonson, Sofroniya, Tomas va Sara. Janob Livingston metodist episkop cherkovida litsenziyalangan va'zgo'y edi.

Uriah MakKennan 1834 yilda Ogayo shtatining Logan okrugidan tug'ilgan va 17 -bo'limga joylashib, u erda vafot etgan. U ikki marta uylangan, birinchi bo'lib Miss Inskeep bilan, u Jon M., Margaret A., Benjamin U., Levi va Daniel F.ga ega edi. Ikkinchi xotini Jeyn Sharp edi, u Nensi va Genrini tug'di. lekin ular yosh o'lishdi. Janob MakKennan ko'p yillar davomida xushxabar xizmatchisi va fe'l -atvori bo'lgan odam edi.

Aleksandr Templeton, Pensilvaniya shtatida tug'ilgan, lekin Bellefonteynda erta ko'chmanchi bo'lib, u savdo savdosi bilan shug'ullangan va 1833 yilda Round Head -ga ko'chirilgan bo'lib, o'sha shaharda birinchi do'konini ochdi. Bu erda u bir necha yil savdo -sotiq ishlarini olib bordi, so'ng vafotigacha qishloq xo'jaligiga e'tibor qaratdi, 1863 yil 10 sentyabr. U Virjiniya shtatida tug'ilgan Meri Enn Veypasga uylandi. U 1857 yil 25 -noyabrda vafot etdi. Ularning bolalari Ann Mariya, Samuel, V. Uolles, Robert R., Sara Jeyn, Milton va Devid edi. Janob Templeton o'zining yuksak fe'l -atvorini saqlab qoldi va juda hurmat va hurmatga sazovor edi. U Presviterian cherkovining oqsoqoli edi.

Uch aka -uka - Uilyam, Robert va Tompson Irvin - Ogayo shtati, Champeyn okrugining tub aholisi, 1835 yil bahorida bu shaharchaga joylashdilar. Ikkinchisi ancha yosh edi va ukasi Robert bilan bir muddat yashab, keyin ketdi. , lekin keyinchalik turmushga chiqdi va qaytib keldi va shu erda istiqomat qildi, u o'sha paytdan beri rezident bo'lib qoldi. Uilyam, otasi Tomas Irvin bilan, Scioto qirg'og'ida, 31 -bo'limda istiqomat qilgan. U Miss Eliza J. Zimmermanga uylangan va deyarli butun umrini 31 -bo'limda yashagan, hozir u yashaydi. U quyidagi bolalarning otasi: Rut J., Rachel L., Ahasuerus C. va Robert McHatton. Robert turmushga chiqdi va Uilyamning tepasida, o'sha erda yashadi.

Endryu Zimmerman, Merilend shtatining fuqarosi Rut Teylorga uylandi va taxminan 1800 yil Ogayo shtatining Ross okrugiga hijrat qildi. 1835 yilning kuzida u bu shaharchaga ko'chib o'tdi va 32 -bo'limning shimoli -g'arbiy kvartaliga joylashdi. 1844 yil 14, yetmish yoshda. Xotini 1855 yil 24 -noyabrda etmish yoshida vafot etdi. Ularning bolalari Jon, Endryu, Jefferson, Obadiya, Ilyos D., Jorj, Elizabet, Margaret, Delila, Mariya, Laviniya va Eliza Jeyn edi.

Yuqoridagi Endryu akasi Maykl Zimmerman Barbara Teylorga uylandi va shu erda, 33-bo'limning janubi-g'arbiy qismida, "Round Head" yaqinida, 1849 yil 12 martda, etmish ikki yoshida vafot etdi. Uning xotini 1852 yil 21 sentyabrda, etmish olti yoshida vafot etdi. Ularning farzandlari Genri, Maykl, Samuel, Sintiya, Mariya va boshqalar vafot etgan. Uels millatidan bo'lgan Robert Breis bu erga Logan okrugidan keldi va 1835 yilning kuzida 32 -bo'limga joylashdi. U Logan okrugidan Miss Lidiya Genriga uylandi. U 1849 yil 19-iyulda, ellik besh yoshida vafot etdi. Xotini 1866 yil 9-noyabrda oltmish uch yil vafot etdi. Ularning bolalari Jon, Jorj, Uilyam, Griffit, Jeyn, Nensi, Margaret, Meri va Amanda edi.

Jon F. Henkle, Virjiniya shtatidan, 1835 yil mart oyida Logan okrugiga keldi, Round Head Townshipga keldi va 10 -bo'limga joylashdi, u erda bir necha yil yashab, Round Headga ko'chib, shaharda va ko'p yillar davomida, lekin keyinchalik u Kentonga ko'chib o'tdi, u erda vafot etdi, 1872 yil 11 -noyabr. U ikki marta birinchi bo'lib Sara Vanmeterga uylangan, undan quyidagi farzandlar bo'lgan: Genri R. Ann Mariya, Meri E., Set V. va Ira A. Uning ikkinchi xotini Eliza A. Skott bo'lib, unga uchta bola tug'di-Skott, Jon F. va Eva.

Reuben Xenkle, o'n yoshida, otasining oilasi bilan, Ogayo shtati, Bedford okrugidan Klark okrugiga keldi, u erda keyinchalik Elizabet Yazelga uylandi va 1838 yil fevralda bu shaharchaga ko'chib, janubi -sharqiy kvartalga joylashdi. 20 -bo'lim, u vafot etgan, 1854 yil 23 oktyabr, ellik yoshda. Uning xotini hali ham tirik qolgan va eski uy -joyida yashaydi. Ularning bolalari quyidagicha edi: Eliza A., Mariya, Sara, Ishoq, Amanda, Jon M., Kir Uus, Ambrose D., Meri va Lather.

Pensilvaniya shtatida tug'ilgan Uilyam Mur Sara Samplga uylandi va 1834 yilning bahorida Ogayo shtatiga ko'chib o'tdi va singlisi Jorj Xuver xonimga Logan okrugidan qo'ng'iroq qilib, oilasini bir necha haftaga tark etdi. Round Head Townshipga keldi va 160 gektar erga kirdi- 5-bo'limning janubi-sharqiy choragi va shu yilning iyun oyida u oilasi bilan shu erga joylashdi va u erda vafotigacha yashadi. U 1853 yil 9 fevralda oltmish uch yoshida vafot etdi, xotini oltmish uch yoshida, 1851 yil 3 sentyabrda vafot etdi. Janob Mur hayoti davomida dehqonchilik bilan shug'ullangan, temirchilik bilan shug'ullangan. U quyidagi bolalarning otasi edi: Jon, Jeyms, Jeyn, Eliza, Asenit, Uilyam, Sara, Xulda, Kundalik, Letitiya va Urzilla.

Uotson Spenser bu erga 1835 yilda Ogayo shtati, Champeyn okrugidan kelgan. U Nelli Rutledga uylangan, undan farzandlari bo'lgan: Meri Enn, Tomas Jefferson, Elizabet, Luiza, Melisa va Jon. Xotini vafot etdi va u keyinchalik Nensi Rutledga uylandi, u Aleksandr va Jeymsdan bir nechta farzand ko'rdi.

Lorenzo Dow Lay 1832-33 yillardayoq bu erda istiqomat qilgan bu shaharchaning birinchi ko'chmanchilaridan biriga aylandi, lekin u vafotigacha bir necha yil qoldi.

Jorj Blekok ko'chmanchi bo'lgan, deb ishoniladi, 1830-31 yillardayoq temirchi o'ziga xos xarakterga ega edi, biz ulardan juda kam narsani bilib oldik.

Bizning fikrimizcha, 1822 yildan 1835 yilgacha bo'lgan asosiy ko'chmanchilar, shundan so'ng shaharcha juda tez joylashdi.

MAKTABLAR.
Viloyatning bu qismida joylashgan birinchi ko'chmanchilardan keyin bir necha yillar davomida ular bir -biridan juda uzoq masofada joylashgan edilar, shuning uchun butun mamlakat zich o'rmon edi, shuning uchun hech qanday maktab tashkil etishning iloji bo'lmadi, lekin bir mahallada ko'chmanchilar etarli bo'lganda. o'qituvchini ishga joylashtirish uchun etarli miqdorda obunani yig'ish uchun biz buning uchun zarur choralarni ko'rmoqdamiz. Erta tongda, bir nechta oilalar o'z kuchlarini birlashtirib, 21 -bo'limda kichkina yog'ochdan yasalgan kabin qurdilar, u erda Piter C. Makartur birinchi o'qituvchi sifatida ishlagan. Bu Round Head Townshipdagi birinchi maktab bo'lgan deb ishoniladi. Ko'p o'tmay, Bowdle va Rutledge mahallasida yana bir maktab, so'ngra Round Headda bitta maktab o'tkazildi. Nihoyat, shaharcha maktab tumanlariga bo'lindi, bepul maktab qonuni o'rnatildi va maktablar ko'payib, gullab -yashnadi. Hozir shaharcha ettita maktabga bo'linadi, sakkiz xonali ettita yaxshi maktab uyi bor, ularda sakkizta o'qituvchi ishlaydi. O'qituvchilarning o'rtacha oylik maoshi, erkak, $ 36. ayollar, $ 24. Maktablarning o'rtacha haftalik soni: 30. Olimlar, o'g'il bolalar, 151 qiz, 128 jami, 279. Maktab maqsadlari uchun jami tushumlar, jami xarajatlar 3 104,08 dollar, 2332,38 dollar qoldiq 1882 yil 1 sentyabr, maktabning umumiy bahosi 771,70 dollar. mulk, 4200 dollar.

Shaharlar va qishloqlar.
Bu shaharchada faqat bitta qishloq bor - "Dumaloq bosh" - 1832 yil 16 -iyul, egasi Jonatan Karter uchun Logan okrugining tadqiqotchisi Jeyms U. Marmon tomonidan uchastkalar, ko'chalar va xiyobonlarga joylashtirilgan. Logan County Records-da, D kitobi, 356-bet, va o'ttiz oltita lotni o'z ichiga olgan. Jonatan Karterning Shimoliy qo'shimchasi 1839 yil 17 oktyabrda tuzilgan va o'rganilgan va 1841 yil 30 apreldagi tinchlik adolati Richard Rutledge oldida e'lon qilingan. Shahar hech qachon temir yo'l yoki ishlab chiqarish manfaatlariga ega bo'lmagan, uning o'sishini kuchaytirish, lekin qat'iy qishloq qishloq bo'lgan. A post office was early established here, and a considerable amount of mercantile trade has continued to be done down to the present time. The first cabin erected here was by Mr. Carter, when he first settled here, but after the town was laid out, Jacob Thompson is said to have built the first house. Thomas Livingston kept the first tavern. Alexander Templeton opened the first store. Dr. Smith and Dr. Starrett were the first physicians.

This town was named after the township, which is said to have been named in honor of the Indian chief of that name, of whom a further account is given-together with the Indian town at this place in the general history of the county. Some fine, large apple trees are still standing here, which are said to have been planted by Indians. One tree, on Mr. Jacobs' lot, is a very large and thrifty tree, and continues to bear good crops of fine apples. The business interests of Round head now embrace four general stores, one saw mill, two blacksmith shops and one blacksmith and carriage and wagon shop, one drug store, one milliner and dress-maker, two hotels, one livery and feed stable and two physicians.

CHURCHES
Methodist Episcopal Church, of Round Head.
-- The exact date of the organization of the first class here is difficult to figure with certainty, but from certain circumstances and evidences that are obtainable, it was probably between 1830 and 1832, and consisted of the following persons: Donald McArthur and wife, John McArthur and wife, Margaret McArthur, Jonathan Carter and wife, William Given and wife, James D. Lay, Rebecca Campbell and perhaps a few others, with Rebecca Campbell as Class Leader. The class, it is believed, was organized at the house of Donald McArthur and services were held there, and at the house of Jonathan Carter for several years. About 1840-42, a house was erected for church purposes, which served them until about 1852-54, when they erected their present frame church, in which services have since been held. The present membership of the church is twenty-seven, with Jeremiah Kelly as Pastor, and Marion Herford as Steward Class Leader, Martin Wilson, Trustees, Marion Herford, Isaac Gilman, William Jacobs and Hiram Cooney.

Fletcher Chapel Methodist Episcopal Church
-- This society was organized, it is believed, in the fall of 1832, at the house of Joseph W. Bowdle, consisting of the following members: Joseph W. Bowdle, Lucretia Bowdle, James B. Bowdle, Elizabeth Bowdle, Jesse L. Bowdle, Rebecca Bowdle. Priscilla Bowdle, James Hill, Sarah Hill, John Hill, Martin Hill, Nancy Hill, James Hill, Jr., David Groves, Sarah Groves, Richard Rutledge, Mary Rutledge, Harriet Rutledge, and, it is possible, one or two others, with Joseph W. Bowdle as Class Leader. Services were held at Mr. Bowdle's house, until the erection of a log house on the same lot occupied by the present house, which served as a house of worship and it was burned in 1860. Then, in the same, year, they erected the present frame house, at a cost of about $700, besides voluntary contributions in labor and material. Some of the early ministers who served as pastors of this church, were Revs. John Stewart, Patrick G. Good, Daniel D. Davidson, Ethan Allen and Spafford. Early class leaders: Aaron Oram, Samuel P. Bowdle and Joseph W. Bowdle. The church now has a membership of about seventy, with Jeremiah Kelly as Pastor F. A. Perry, William Lowrey and William B. Bowdle. Class Leaders William T. Bowdle, Steward, and F. A. Berry, William Ohler, William Hiatt and James B. Bowdle, Trustees.

Pleasant Hill Methodist Episcopal Church.
-- About 1835, this society was organized at the house of James Hill, by Rev. John Brakefield, consisting of the following members: James Hill, Elizabeth Hill, Samuel Rutledge, Rosanna Rutledge, James Lay, Viletta Lay, and possibly one or two others, with James Hill as Class Leader. They held services at the house of Mr. Hill, until the erection of a log house for church purposes, in 1848, which was built on the same lot of the present church. This house served them until, in 1856, the present frame house was erected, at a cost of about $800. The church was dedicated in December of that year, by Rev. Hiram Shaffer. The following ministers have served this church as pastors: Revs. Brakefield, Wareham, S. L. Yourtee, Aries Rumfield, John Blanpied, William Godman, Thomas Gard, Hibbard P. Ward, Jacob Holmes and Samuel Boggs. Class Leaders: James Hill, John A. Dunlap, William Romack, John Goslee, Samuel Hill, Alexander Dempster, Jacob Johnson, Samuel Tidd, Thomas Birchfield, Marion Dunlap and J. R. Hill. The present membership is about fifty, with Rev. J. S. Kelly as Pastor Thomas Birchfield, Marion Dunlap and J. R. Hill, Class Leaders Arsamous Ripley and James Goslee, Stewards, and John Goslee, A. Ripley, Harrison Waiters, A. Dempster and J. R. Hill, Trustees.

Methodist Protestant Church
-- It is difficult now to ascertain the exact year in which this society was organized, or what minister officiated in its organization But from the best and most definite information we could gather, a class must have been formed about 1840, embracing the following persons: John Mahan and wife, Mathew Mahan and wife, Reuben Henkle and wife, Mr. McGinnis and wife, Uriah McKennan and wife, and two or more of John Mahan's children. Services were held in private houses and in the schoolhouse until about 1858-60, when they erected the present frame church, which has served them to the present time as a house of worship.

United Presbyterian Church of Round Head
-- This society was organized at the Newburg Church, May 2, 1859, by Rev. Joseph McHatton, with the following members: A. Templeton, C. I. Brooks. John Ghormley, Samuel G. Rogers, Samuel Templeton, Robert Irwin. Sr., Robert Irwin Jr., Harriet N. Brooks, Jane Irwin, Ann E. Rogers, M. N. Rogers, Agues Coffelt, Eliza Hindman, Joseph Junkins, Martha Junkins, Ira Morton, Sarah J. Templeton, Robert R. Templeton, Milton Templeton, Minerva J. Ghormley, William Erwin, Eliza J. Erwin, Andrew Reed, Mary Reed and Eliza Irwin with Alexander Templeton, William Irwin and C. I. Brooks elected Ruling Elders. Services have been held every four weeks, with considerable regularity, in the Methodist Church at Round Head, until about one year ago, since which they have been without a pastor. The following ministers have served the church: Revs. John L. Bull, William C. Dun, J. L. Buchanan, the latter eleven years, followed by J. E. Kerr, William Brooks and Rev. Ferguson. Present membership, about thirty. Present Elder: William Irwin, Robert Irwin, John J. Irwin and Russell Hutchison.

CEMETERIES.
Henkle Cemetery - This piece of land is situated on the extreme southeast corner of the southeast quarter of Section 20, and was donated for this purpose by Reuben Henkle. The first occupant of this land was James Hill, who settled here in 1825, and whose aged mother died either in 1825 or in 1826, and was the first person interred in this cemetery. The second person was Phoebe Lay, since which it has received the remains of many of the pioneers - John Mahan, Samuel Tidd, William Given and others.

Round Head Cemetery - This was first dedicated to use by the reception of the body of Samuel Zimmerman, a son of Michael Zimmerman, who died August 1, 1836, aged nineteen years since which the grounds have been filled with the dead of the early settlers and others of this vicinity. A few years since, the Trustees purchased grounds just east of Round Head, on nice, elevated lands, which they have laid off into lots and fenced and improved, so that it is now a pleasant location, and well suited for the purposes intended.

Pleasant Hill Cemetery -- This consists of about two-thirds of an acre, which was donated for the purpose by James Hill, about 1848. The first person buried here was Margaret Sharp. It has since become nearly filled. In the spring of 1879, the Trustees purchased two acres of land of Samuel J. Wirick, a little south of the church, and on the east side of the pike, fenced and laid it off into lots, and have made it a nice cemetery. First buried here was Marietta Hill, a daughter of James R. and Elizabeth Hill. She died November 11, 1879.


Fascinated by Charlestown, MA and the Tidd Family

When studying the Tidd family, who seem to have first come to the colonies in about 1637, I reviewed the works of many authors. Recently I purchased two books relative to the town of Charlestown, Massachusetts where they are known to have first inhabited. The first book is From Deference to Defiance, Charlestown, Massachusetts, 1629-1692 by Roger Thompson, published by the New England Historical Genealogical Society, Boston, 2012, 593 pages. The second book is Charlestown, Mass. Vol. 1Vital Records to 1850 by Roger D. Joslyn, published by the New England Historical Genealogical Society, Boston, 1984, 919 pages.

The first book covers the following topics, with notations about the Tidd family:
Peopling, the Origins - includes the tax list of 16 November 1658, Josh Tid page 49.
Town - includes a list of officeholders, J. Tidd held several, pages 60, 62, 73, 77.
Land - includes a map ca. 1638 showing Tidd property between Harvard St. and Crooked Lane, page 100 Josiah Tidd one of the founding elite, page 96.
Sea - includes a list of Charlestown Maritime Inhabitants, 1630-1685, J Tidd merchant and retailer 1656-1678, page 150 Joshua Tidd battle with neighbor John Trumball, page 155 Joshua Tidd v. Richard Collicutt court case 1656-1657, pages 174-180 his eldest daughter Sarah married the successful sea captain Zechariah Long, page 176 Trumball cases and Tidd family references, note on page 176 Joshua Tidd merchant, small business, Maine, pages 255, 258 Sarah (Tidd) Long died on 3 July 1674, page 274.
Cherkov
Ayollar
Violence - Joshua Tidd customer of John Cromwell embroiled in the beaver trade with the Indians in the Kennebec Valley in Maine, other customers were Francis Norton, Richard Russell, and Richard Sprague, found in Cromwell's records, page 474 and note.
Qarama -qarshilik
Epilog
Index - pages 537-593.

On page 176, " Joshua Tidd or Tead (1607-78), by now about fifty, had arrived in Charlestown in 1637 from Hertford, a renowned Puritan center twenty-five miles north of London, which gave its name to the capital of Connecticut. He became a church member in 1639. By trade he was a carpenter, a highly valued and well paid profession. He served the town as constable, and Middlesex County as grand juryman, acting as foreman in 1655. In 1648 he built a shop and portal by the east door of the meetinghouse. In the 1660s and 1670s he was twice a selectman, as well as rate commissioner, ensign, and then lieutenant of the militia. In the year of the seizure, his eldest daughter Sarah married the successful sea captain Zechariah Long. During the 1650s, Tidd used Chelmsford fur trader John Cromwell as his agent in small transactions with Indian trappers. He also dealt with Captain John Trumbell for English goods, especially fabrics and haberdashery. His bruising experiences with both Trumball and the Kennebec residents seem to have driven him back to woodworking. In 1668, he managed major renovations of the meetinghouse. Inside the building he had been recruited as reliably orthodox by the three deacons in 1665 to help them contain and control the Baptist challenge. He refused an unusual third term in the responsible but time-consuming job of constable, and his reasons were eventually accepted. He lived a long and useful life in Charlestown, a reliable middle manager in the militia, church, and town government. The Kennebec imbroglio appears a rare external venture."
The sources for this information include Hertford: "John Dane's Relation", R8 (1854), 147-56 life: Wyman, Savage, Cromwell Rodgers, 2:60, and below, "Mass Violence." Trumbull and Tidd fell out in 1658 and again in 1663Tidd won three cases of debt as defendant, MxCCRB, 1:161, 278, 292 D&O, 1 docs 758, 763, 2228, 2245, 2253 see above, "The Sea: Introduction." On 31 December 1671, he had bought L5 worth of carpenters' nails and steel imported from London. Hull, Letter Book, 46."

The second book covers the following topics, with notations about the Tidd family:
Earliest Charlestown Vital Records in the Massachusetts Bay Colony Record Volume, pages 1-10
Charlestown Vital Records in Middlesex County Records, pages 11-32
Charlestown Town Vital Records Volume 1- Part I, pages 33-262
Charlestown Town Vital Records Volume 1- Part II, pages 263-446
Charlestown Marriage Intentions Volume 1- Part I, pages 447-496
Charlestown Marriage Intentions Volume 1- Part I, pages 497-586
Charlestown Marriage Intentions Volume 2, pages 587-742
Charlestown Marriage Intentions Volume 3, pages 743-752
Other Charlestown Marriages from Transcript, pages 753-756
Index of Persons, pages 757-910
Index of Subjects and Places Outside of Charlestown, pages 911-919

Tidd, Ted, Teed, Tid
Elizabeth Ted married Samuel Lords, by Mr. Ric. Russell, Oct. 15 [altered from 10], 1667, page 25.
Miss Hannah Tidd of Medford, married Mr. Caleb Brooks of Charlestown, entered Sept. 7, 1806, page 524.
John Tid, son of Joshua & Sara, b. 15 (4) 1641, page 9.
Joseph Tid, son of Joshua & Sarah, b. 15 (10) 1643, page 9.
Joshua pages 9 as above, 103 as below.
Samuel Tidd of Woburn & Lucy Gardner of this town, entered Dec. 9, 1769, page 488.
Sara Tid, page 9 as above.
Sarah Tid, pages 9 as above Sarah Tid married Zach. Long by Mr. Ri. Russell, Commr. Sept. 24, [16] 56, page 20 Sarah Teed, wife [of] Joshua Teed, 71, d. Oct. 15, 1677, page 103.

His will dated Apr. 9, 1656, probated Nov. 10, 1656, bequeathes to wife Alice, son John, Daus. Mary and Elizabeth to son Savell's children, Benjamin, Hannah, John and Samuel to son Samuel's daus. to grandchildren, Thomas Fuller and John Kendall.
The Snow-Estes Ancestry at ancestry.com

In the first book on page 125 there is the following:
"In 1637, Charlestown's grazing common, on the Mainland (roughly modern Somerville), was assigned by the town meeting to a hundred and thirteen inhabitants, known as the Proprietors."
Were John and Joshua part of this group?

From the Hertford, England church records three of the children of Joshua and Sarah have been located. Their family is as follows:
1. Joshua Tidd, christened 17 June 1631/32 in Hertford, married Ruth Gardner 15 Oct. 1677 in Charlestown.
2. Elizabeth Tidd, christened 20 August 1634 in Hertford, married Samuel Lords 15 Oct. 1667 in Charlestown.
3. Sarah Tidd, christened 15 January 1636 in Hertford, she probably died there.
4. Sarah Tidd, christened 2 June 1639 in Charlestown, married Zachariah Long 24 September 1656 in Charlestown, died 2 July 1674 in Charlestown.
5. John Teed, born 15 June1641 in Charlestown, married Mary Jennings in 1666 in Huntington, Suffolk, New York, and died there in 1685.
6. Joseph Teed, born 15 December 1643 in Charlestown, died 15 September 1678.

From the Field Dalling, Norfolk, England church records the first five children of John and his wife Margaret Greenleaf have been located. Their family is as follows:
1. Elizabeth Tidd, 15 September 1617 in Field Dalling, married Thomas Fuller 13 April 1643 in Woburn, died in 1684.
2. Susan Tidd, born in 1619 in Field Dalling.
3. John Tidd, born in 1621 in Field Dalling, married Rebecca Wood 14 April 1650 in Woburn, died 13 April 1703 in Lexington.
4. Mary Tidd, born in 1623 in Field Dalling, married Francis Kendall 24 December 1644 in Woburn, died 1705 in Woburn.
5. William Tidd, born 1626 in Field Dalling, no record in New England.
6. Samuel Tidd, birth unknown, married Sarah 13 April 1650 in Salem.
7. Hannah Tidd, birth unknown, married William Savell, children Benjamin, Hannah, John and Samuel, she died before 1656.

Many people have researched these families. With the availability of records increasing every day, there may be answers to the questions surrounding them. They were held in high esteem in each of their respective towns. Reading the first book, From Deference to Defiance, I am learning more about the cultures that they lived in even if little of the information is specific to them. It is time that I return to the original records available for these locations and explore the records for more information about the Tidd famiies. From the information about the children's births it appears that the families lived in specific locations in England. Learning about whom they may have traveled with, the direct connection between John and Joshua, and then what became of their children will help me in piecing together the family history. I appreciate that I came across both books and ordered them for personal reading. It takes a lot of time to read and decipher the content, but I am gaining valuable insight into the records that will help in my search.

Consider ordering a book about a locality you are researching to explore the culture that affected your ancestor's lives. Now I need to go finish reading the first book, as I am still only halfway through.


Another Version

Thomas Spence, a schoolteacher from Newcastle arrived in London in December 1792. Over the next twenty-two years Spence developed a reputation as an important radical figure in Britain. He wrote books, pamphlets and produced a journal, Pigs Meat, where he argued for the radical transformation of society. The publication of this material resulted in him enduring several periods of imprisonment.

Spence did not believe in a centralized radical body and instead encouraged the formation of small groups that could meet in local public houses. At these meetings Thomas Spence argued that "if all the land in Britain was shared out equally, there would be enough to give every man, woman and child seven acres each". At night the men walked the streets and chalked on the walls slogans such as "Spence's Plan and Full Bellies" and "The Land is the People's Farm". In 1800 and 1801 the authorities believed that Spence and his followers were responsible for bread riots in London. However, they did not have enough evidence to arrest them for this offence.

Drawing of Arthur Thistlewood killing Richard Smithers

Thomas Spence died in September 1814. He was buried by "forty disciples" who pledged that they would keep his ideas alive. They did this by forming the Society of Spencean Philanthropists. The men met in small groups all over London. These meetings mainly took place in public houses and they discussed the best way of achieving an equal society. Places used included the Mulberry Tree in Moorfields, the Carlisle in Shoreditch, the Cock in Soho, the Pineapple in Lambeth, the White Lion in Camden, the Horse and Groom in Marylebone and the Nag's Head in Carnaby Market.

The government became very concerned about this group that they employed a spy, John Castle, to join the Spenceans and report on their activities. In October 1816 Castle reported to John Stafford, supervisor of Home Office spies, that the Spenceans were planning to overthrow the British government.

1816 yil 2 -dekabrda Spence guruhi Islingtonning Spa Fields shahrida ommaviy yig'ilish tashkil qildi. The speakers at the meeting included Henry 'Orator' Hunt and James Watson. The magistrates decided to disperse the meeting and while Stafford and eighty police officers were doing this, one of the men, Joseph Rhodes, was stabbed. Spenceansning to'rtta etakchisi Jeyms Uotson, Artur Tistlevud, Tomas Preston va Jon Xopper hibsga olinib, davlatga xiyonat qilishda ayblangan.

George Cruikshank, Cato Street Conspiracy (1820)

Jeyms Uotson birinchi bo'lib sud qilindi. Biroq, ayblovning asosiy guvohi hukumat josusi Jon Kastl edi. Mudofaa kengashi Qal'aning sudlanganligi va uning guvohligi ishonchsiz ekanligini ko'rsatishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. The jury concluded that Castle was an agent provocateur (a person employed to incite suspected people to some open action that will make them liable to punishment) and refused to convict Watson. Uotsonga qarshi ish muvaffaqiyatsiz tugagani uchun, xuddi shu jinoyat uchun sud qilinishi kerak bo'lgan boshqa uch kishini ozod qilishga qaror qilindi.

The Spenceans continued to meet after the trial but the members now disagreed about the future strategy of the group. Arthur Thistlewood was convinced a successful violent revolution was possible. James Watson now doubted the wisdom of this strategy and although he still attended meetings, he gradually lost control of the group to the more militant ideas of Thistlewood.

The government remained concerned about the Spenceans and in January, 1817 John Stafford asked a police officer, George Ruthven, to join the group. Ruthven discovered that the Spenceans were planning an armed rising. Arthur Thistlewood, claimed at one meeting that he could raise 15,000 armed men in just half an hour. Bu ma'lumot natijasida, Jon Uilyamson, Jon Shego, Jeyms Xanli, Jorj Edvards va Tomas Dvayer ham Stafford tomonidan spensiyaliklarga josuslik qilish uchun yollangan.

The Peterloo Massacre in Manchester increased the amount of anger the Spenceans felt towards the government. At one meeting a spy reported that Arthur Thistlewood said: "High Treason was committed against the people at Manchester. I resolved that the lives of the instigators of massacre should atone for the souls of murdered innocents."

On 22nd February 1820, George Edwards pointed out to Arthur Thistlewood an item in the New Times that said several members of the British government were going to have dinner at Lord Harrowby's house at 39 Grosvenor Square the following night. Thistlewood argued that this was the opportunity they had been waiting for. It was decided that a group of Spenceans would gain entry to the house and kill all the government ministers. The heads of Lord Castlereagh and Lord Sidmouth would be placed on poles and taken around the slums of London. Thistlewood was convinced that this would incite an armed uprising that would overthrow the government. This would be followed by the creation of a new government committed to creating a society based on the ideas of Thomas Spence.

Over the next few hours Thistlewood attempted to recruit as many people as possible to take part in the plot. Many people refused and according to the police spy, George Edwards, only twenty-seven people agreed to participate. This included William Davidson, James Ings, Richard Tidd, John Brunt, John Harrison, James Wilson, Richard Bradburn, John Strange, Charles Copper, Robert Adams and John Monument.

William Davidson had worked for Lord Harrowby in the past and knew some of the staff at Grosvenor Square. He was instructed to find out more details about the cabinet meeting. However, when he spoke to one of the servants he was told that the Earl of Harrowby was not in London. When Davidson reported this news back to Arthur Thistlewood, he insisted that the servant was lying and that the assassinations should proceed as planned.

One member of the gang, John Harrison, knew of a small, two-story building in Cato Street that was available for rent. The ground-floor was a stable and above that was a hayloft. As it was only a short distance from Grosvenor Square, it was decided to rent the building as a base for the operation. Edwards told Stafford of the plan and Richard Birnie, a magistrate at Bow Street, was put in charge of the operation. Lord Sidmouth instructed Birnie to use men from the Second Battalion Coldstream Guards as well as police officers from Bow Street to arrest the Cato Street Conspirators.

Birnie decided to send George Ruthven, a police officer and former spy who knew most of the Spenceans, to the Horse and Groom, a public house that overlooked the stable in Cato Street. On 23rd February, Ruthven took up his position at two o'clock in the afternoon. Soon afterwards Thistlewood's gang began arriving at the stable. By seven thirty Richard Birnie and twelve police officers joined Ruthven at Cato Street.

The Coldstream Guards had not arrived and Birnie decided he had enough men to capture the Cato Street gang. Birnie gave orders for Ruthven to carry out the task while he waited outside. Inside the stable the police found James Ings on guard. He was quickly overcome and George Ruthven led his men up the ladder into the hayloft where the gang were having their meeting. As he entered the loft Ruthven shouted, "We are peace officers. Lay down your arms." Arthur Thistlewood and William Davidson raised their swords while some of the other men attempted to load their pistols. One of the police officers, Richard Smithers, moved forward to make the arrests but Thistlewood stabbed him with his sword. Smithers gasped, "Oh God, I am. " and lost consciousness. Smithers died soon afterwards.

Some of the gang surrendered but others like William Davidson were only taken after a struggle. Four of the conspirators, Thistlewood, John Brunt, Robert Adams and John Harrison escaped out of a back window. However, George Edwards had given the police a detailed list of all those involved and the men were soon arrested.

Eleven men were eventually charged with being involved in the Cato Street Conspiracy. After the experience of the previous trial of the Spenceans, Lord Sidmouth was unwilling to use the evidence of his spies in court. Fitna haqida juda ko'p ma'lumotga ega bo'lgan Jorj Edvards hech qachon chaqirilmagan. Politsiya, agar qolgan fitnachilarga qarshi ko'rsatma berishga tayyor bo'lsa, to'daning ayrim a'zolariga qo'yilgan ayblovlarni bekor qilishni taklif qildi. Bu odamlardan ikkitasi, Robert Adams va Jon Monument rozi bo'lishdi va ular to'daning qolgan a'zolarini ayblash uchun zarur bo'lgan dalillarni taqdim etishdi.

William Davidson said in court: "It is an ancient custom to resist tyranny. And our history goes on further to say, that when another of their Majesties the Kings of England tried to infringe upon those rights, the people armed, and told him that if he did not give them the privileges of Englishmen, they would compel him by the point of the sword. Would you not rather govern a country of spirited men, than cowards? I can die but once in this world, and the only regret left is, that I have a large family of small children, and when I think of that, it unmans me."

On 28th April 1820, Arthur Thistlewood, William Davidson, James Ings, Richard Tidd, and John Brunt were found guilty of high treason and sentenced to death. John Harrison, James Wilson, Richard Bradburn, John Strange and Charles Copper were also found guilty but their original sentence of execution was subsequently commuted to transportation for life. Thistlewood, Davidson, Ings, Tidd and Brunt were executed at Newgate Prison on the 1st May, 1820.


Inquisitive Minds Want to Know - Part III

By now you are probably wondering if Part III of this series is ever going to be posted. Rest assured that this inquisitive mind has been hard at work comparing the families who settled in Charlestown, MA by 1640. Twenty-three of them are on the map of the town created in 1638 and are the focus of the study.

From the book, Charlestown Vital Records to 1850, by Roger D. Joslyn, we learn more about the makeup of these early families. Other details were gleaned from the book, Genealogical Register of the First Settlers of New England, by John Farmer. The following is a synopsis of the twenty-three families and the information found with regards to the recorded events in their lives. Keep in mind that in some of the lists all of the children's births are listed together, which makes the birth information questionable.

This group is from the center of the town. In this area are the Three Cranes Tavern, the Market Place, the Meeting House and Windmill Hill.

Nowell/Newell is probably Increase and his wife Parnell of Middlesex, Stepney. The births of their children are recorded from 1630-1643. He preformed several marriages in 1654, probably as a town official as he was the town assistant from 1630-1655. In 1632 he was a founder of the church. From 1644-1649 he was the Secretary of the Colony. Parnell died 2 May 1683, but there is no record of his death.
Mary Newell of Bristol, the widow of a Mariner, is included in the list of immigrants.

Harvard surely refers to John and he is noted to have had a wife, but probably no children. He was a minister from Surrey, Southwark, S. Saviour and came to New England in 1636, and admitted freeman in 1637. John died 14 September 1638, leaving money for what is now Harvard College.

Allen is probably Thomas and his wife Anna. He was a minister of Charlestown. Coming to New England in 1638, admitted to the church in Boston in 1639, then moving to Charlestown. The births of their children are recorded from 1639-1646. He died 21 September 1673, age 65, in England.
Ship Captain John Allen and his wife Sarah, from Norfolk or Suffolk, were also there early. He was in Salem in 1626, came to Charlestown in 1639 and admitted freeman 1640. The births of their children are recorded from 1640-1643, but some were born in Salem from 1627. He was born in 1602 and died 27 March 1675.

Symmes is probably Zechariah and his wife Sarah from Bedfordshire, Dunstable. He was the second minister, settled in 1634, and admitted freeman 1635. The births of their children are recorded from 1635-1642, but others were probably born elsewhere. He was born 5 April 1597 in Canterbury and died 4 February 1670.

Long is probably Robert and his wife Elizabeth from Bedfordshire, Dunstable. He was the Innkeeper of the Three Cranes Tavern in the center of the town, which would have been the primary gathering place of the early settlers. The births of their children are recorded from 1673-1647 but others were probably born elsewhere. He served several times as representive of the town and admitted freeman 1635. Robert died on 9 January 1663 and Elizabeth died on 29 May 1687, both in Charlestown.

Hills is probably Joseph and his wife Rose, of Essex, Billericay, with whom he had several children and two of their births are recorded in 1639 and 1640. He came to New England early, was a merchant and was admitted freeman in 1645. Moved to Malden and then to Newbury where he died 5 February 1688. Married second to Anne the widow of Henry Lunt.
Abraham Hills and Sarah also were in Charlestown early. The births of their children are recorded from 1640-1643.

Sedgewick is probably Robert of Surrey, Southwark, who was a merchant and was admitted freeman in 1637. There is no mention of a wife, only two possible sons William and Robert. He served in the military for most of his life, both in New England and abroad. In Charlestown he was owner of a brew house and a merchant. Robert died 24 May 1656 in Jamaica.

Converse is probably Edward and his wife Joanna who died in 1677. They were of Essex, Navestock or Stenfield. He was in New England early and admitted freeman in 1630. By 1643 he was in Woburn. He operated the Charlestown ferry.

This group is just southwest of the center of the town, living along the shoreline just up from the Willoughby shipyards and ferry.

Graves or Greaves is probably Thomas and his wife Katherine. He was in Salem June 1629 and went to Charlestown that same year. The birth of their son is recorded in 1645. He died in Charlestown 31 July 1653. There is a record of a request to be made free on 19 October 1630 and a reference that he served as a rear admiral in England. He was a ship captain.

Willoughby is probably Francis and his wife Sarah of Middlesex, Stepney. The birth of their daughter is recorded in 1643. He probably married second to Mary and the births of their children are recorded in 1644 and 1647. Then there is a possible third marriage to Margaret and the births of their children recorded in 1662 and 1664. He came in 1638, admitted freeman in 1640, served as Deputy Governor and Governor, and worked as a shipwright or ship builder. Francis died 4 April 1671.

Edward Johnson and his wife Susan were of Kent, Canterbury, arrived in 1630 and admitted as freeman 18 May 1631. He worked as a joiner and a ship builder. Later he was a founder of Woburn and the church there. He was the town clerk of Woburn for about thirty years and a well-known historian. The births of their seven children are not listed in the Charlestown records.
William Johnson and his wife Judith of Bedfordshire, Dunstable,
arrived before 1643, as that is when the birth of their son James was recorded. William worked as a brickmaker. He died 9 December 1677.

This group is just northwest of the center of the town, living along Crooked Lane and continuing up the shoreline.

Trerice is probably Nicholas and his wife Rebecca of Middlesex, Stepney or Wapping. They first settled in Charlestown in 1636, and were there for the birth of their first son John in 1639. By 1643 they were in Woburn for the birth of their second son Samuel. He was a ship captain and she was a retailer.

Lynde, Lind or Line, is probably Thomas and his wife Margaret of Bedfordshire, Dunstable. He was admitted freeman in 1635 and served the town in many positions, for many years. The births of their children are listed from 1636-1647. He worked as a malster, making malt for brewing beer. Sometimes referred to as Deacon Thomas, he performed two marriages in 1656. He died 30 December 1676 and Margaret died 23 August 1662, both in Charlestown.

Tidd or Tead, is probably Joshua and his wife Sarah of Hertfordshire, Hertford. The births of their children are recorded in 1639, 1641 and 1643, but they had three other children born in England from 1631- 1636. The marriages of his two daughters are recorded: Sarah married Zachariah Long in 1656 and Elizabeth married Samuel Lords in 1667. Joshua was admitted to the church, March 10, 1639 and admitted as a freeman May 22, 1639. He worked as a carpenter and at times was a merchant/retailer transporting his goods by ship. Joshua died 15 September 1678 and Sarah, his wife, died 15 October 1677 age 71, both in Charlestown. Several stories about him are included in the book, From Deference to Defiance.
Sargeant John Tead and his wife Margaret of Norfolk, Norwich were in Charlestown by 1637 when he was listed as a proprietor and the next year owned eight lots, the sixth which was in Waterfield (now Woburn). They removed to Woburn, where he subscribed to "Town Orders," in December, 1640 and admitted as a freeman May 10, 1643. He worked as a tailor. There are no other records for this family in Charlestown. He died 24 April 1656 and Margaret died 15 October 1651, both in Woburn. Prior to his death he married Alice Teel and she is listed in his will, as well as his children.
Richard Tidd was admitted as a freeman in 1643m but there is no further information about him.

This group is just northeast of the center of the town and continuing east on Dock Wapping Road going out to Moulton's Point. There is located the Bunker and the Fort/Battery.

R. Cole is probably Rice who was from Kent, Sandwich. He was admitted as a freeman in 1633 and died 15 May 1646. Rice worked as a carpenter and was a selectman in 1634.
He may have been the father of Isaac, who with his wife Joannah were the parents of Abraham 1636, Jacob 1641, and Elizabeth 1643. Isaac was admitted as a freeman in 1638 and died 10 June 1674.

Stitson is probably William and his wife Elizabeth of Gloucestershire, Bristol, came early. He was admitted as a freeman in 1633 and served the town in many positions, over many years and the church as Reverend and Deacon. Elizabeth died 16 February 1669 age 93. William married the widow Marie Norton on 22 August 1670. He died 11 April 1691 age 91. No other records for the family are listed.

Coytmore is probably Thomas and his wife Martha of Middlesex, Stepney or Ratcliffe, came in 1636. He was a Ship Captain and died 27 December 1645 on the coast of Wales. The births of their sons are recorded, Thomas 1641 and William 1643 who died at twelve days.
Martha remarried to Governor Winthrop December 1647.
Isaac Coytmore was in Charlestown in 1639.
Katherine Coytmore was a widow in 1638 and she died in 1659.

W. Palmer is probably Walter J. and his wife Rebecca of Dorsetshire, Yetminster, was a selectman in 1634 and a constable in 1636. He was admitted as a freeman in 1638. The birth of his son Benjamin born 30 March 1642 is recorded.
William Palmer of Middlesex, Stepney or Norfolk, Ormsby, Great. He was in Newbury in 1637 and admitted as a freeman in 1638. He died August 1676.
John Palmer died a single man on 24 August 1677 in Charlestown.
Abraham of Kent, Canterbury, was admitted as a freeman in 1631. He worked as a merchant.

Walker is probably Augustine and his wife Hannah, of Northumberland, Berwick, who came in 1638. He was admitted as a freeman in 1641 and died before 1655. He worked as a shipwright and was a Ship Captain. The births of their children are recorded from 1640-1648.
Richard Walker of Hampshire, Keaton, lived in Lynn in 1630 and had four children. He was admitted as a freeman in 1634.
Robert Walker of Lancashire, Manchester, lived in Boston and was admitted as a freeman in 1634. He had six sons, all born in Boston.
William Walker of Norfolk, Norwich, was in Hingham in 1636.

So, how does all of this information help us to understand the town of Charlestown, MA. First of all it is a port town, where seafaring men and merchants met to exchange wares and arrange to transport items and people between England and the colony. Second it was made up of families, most seem to have married before coming to New England and brought children with them, while some had children born during this developing period. Some were famiies of Ship Captains who were gone for long periods of time, and yet these women carried on in the daily tasks of providing for their families. The risk of death to seafaring men was high, and at times their widows would have to carry on without them. I was pleased to identify the names of so many of the wives.

One can imagine that often more than one family would live together until more housing could be built. Compared to England they now lived in a culture where they could work hard and prosper. Every individual brought or would develop talents that would benefit the community. From the details listed above we can see that from this group and in blue those from the addendum to follow there were many types of occupations:


ExecutedToday.com

On this date in 1820 — which was not yet a red-letter day on the leftist calendar — five radicals were hanged at Newgate Prison for a plot to overthrow the government.

A British government that had tilted from reactionary after the French Revolution to furiously repressive after defeating Napoleon was energetically at work stamping out the wide-ranging upheaval convulsing the isles.

This day’s conspirators plotted to overturn the authoritarian rule of Lord Liverpool by murdering his ministers at a dinner party. Next steps:

This excellent plot was hatched by none other than a government informant, who planted the idea among the circle and arranged their arrest when they took the bait. Already-notorious subversive Arthur Thistlewood was the jewel in the crown’s crown, particularly after having slain an arresting officer in the fray when the trap was sprung.

Ten were condemned to death, five of those sentences commuted to transportation — leaving Thistlewood to hang* along with John Brunt, James Ings, Richard Tidd and the Afro-Caribbean tradesman William Davidson. The crowd was reportedly vocally supportive of the condemned.


The Cato Street Conspirators hanged. As represented at the bottom of the scaffold: the dead men were cut down after their execution and posthumously beheaded.

It was in the aftermath of this shocking affair that Byron completed his work on a long-ago Venetian putsch, Marino Faliero, with such stirring reflections upon the blood sacrifice of liberty as

They never fail who die
In a great cause: the block may soak their gore:
Their heads may sodden in the sun their limbs
Be strung to city gates and castle walls —
But still their Spirit walks abroad. Though years
Elapse, and others share as dark a doom,
They but augment the deep and sweeping thoughts
Which overpower all others, and conduct
The world at last to Freedom.

Still, even from the safety of Italy, the rakish rebel had a gentleman’s disdain for bular lowborn butchers overpowering anything at all.

What a set of desperate fools these Utican conspirators seem to have been. As if in London, after the disarming acts, or indeed at any time, a secret could have been kept among thirty or forty. And if they had killed poor Harrowby — in whose house I have been five hundred times, at dinners and parties his wife is one of ‘the Exquisites’ — and t’other fellows, what end would it have answered? ‘They understand these things better in France’, as Yorick says, but really, if these sort of awkward butchers are to get the upper hand, I for one will declare off. I have always been (before you were, as you well know) a well-wisher to, and voter for reform in parliament but ‘such fellows as these, who will never go to the gallows with any credit’ … and make one doubt of the virtue of any principle or politics which can be embraced by similar ragamuffins. I know that revolutions are not to be made with rose water, but though some blood may, and must be shed on such occasions, there is no reason it should be clotted in short, the Radicals seem to be no better than Jack Cade or Wat Tyler, and to be dealt with accordingly.

Ular ... bo'lgandi. Archive.org has the free text of An authentic history of the Cato-Street conspiracy with the trials at large of the conspirators, for high treason and murder a description of their weapons and combustible machines, and every particular connected with the rise, progress, discovery, and termination of the horrid plot. With portraits of the conspirators, taken during their trials, by permission, and other engravings.

Here’s a topical YouTube mashup combining the stylings of the band Cato Street Conspiracy with video of a different executed conspirator against the English government.

* “The men died like heroes. Ings, perhaps, was too obstreperous in singing ‘Death or Liberty’, and Thistlewood said, ‘Be quiet, Ings we can die without all this noise.'”


Videoni tomosha qiling: Todd Garlocks Road to Recovery Fund


Izohlar:

  1. Maetthere

    Sizning mavzuingiz bir oydan beri butun Internetda voyazytsya masaliga o'xshaydi. Uni ba'zan soqolli boyan deb ham atashadi. Lekin umuman olganda, rahmat kaneshn

  2. Vicage

    Qanday ajoyib xabar

  3. Niel

    ajoyib foydali ibora

  4. Morvyn

    Menimcha, u noto'g'ri. Men uni muhokama qilishni taklif qilaman. Menga PM orqali yozing, gapiring.



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