Per Terrail, Bayardning senyori, 1475-1524

Per Terrail, Bayardning senyori, 1475-1524



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Per Terrail, Bayard seigneur, 1475-1524

Per Terrail, Bayardning seigneur (1475-1524)-frantsuz harbiy boshlig'i, Italiya urushlari paytida katta shuhrat qozongan va "Qo'rqmas va benuqson ritsar" nomi bilan mashhur bo'lgan, keyinchalik va'da beruvchilarni "Yangi Bayard" deb atashgan. .

Bayard Grenobl yaqinidagi Chateau Bayard shahrida tug'ilgan. Uning oilasida uzoq muddatli harbiy qurbonlik bor edi, oldingi ikki asr davomida oila boshliqlarining ko'pchiligi jangda o'lgan. Bayard Savoy gersoglari saroyida sahifaga aylandi, keyin Frantsiya qirollari saroyiga ko'chdi.

Bayard Charlz VIII ning Neapolga muvaffaqiyatsiz bostirib kirishida qatnashgan (Birinchi Italiya urushi/ Charlz VIII Italiya urushi). U Neopoldan frantsuzlarning chekinishi paytida Fornovo jangida (1495 yil 6 -iyulda) jang qilgan va jangdan keyin Charlz VIII tomonidan ritsar bo'lgan.

1499 yilda u frantsuzlarning Milanni bosib olishida qatnashdi (Ikkinchi Italiya urushi/ Lui XII Italiya urushi). Keyin u bu shohlikni bosib olishda qatnashish uchun Neapolga ko'chib o'tdi.

Ko'p o'tmay, frantsuzlar bu fathda ispan ittifoqchilari bilan kelisha olmadilar va Bayard o'zini o'sha davrning eng yaxshi ispan qo'mondonlaridan biri bo'lgan Gonsalo Fernandez de Kordova (El Gran Kapitan) bilan to'qnash keldi. 1502 yil avgustdan 1503 yil aprelgacha Kordova Barlettada blokadaga olindi. Bayard chiziqlar o'rtasida o'tkaziladigan muntazam turnirlarda o'z obro'sini oshirdi.

Garigliano jangida (1503 yil 28-29 dekabr) u 200 kishiga qarshi ikki soat davomida ko'prikni himoya qilgani aytilgan (jang hali ham Ispaniya g'alabasi bilan tugagan). Bu ekspluatatsiya Papa Yuliy II ni Bayardni o'z xizmatiga olishga undadi, lekin muvaffaqiyatsiz bo'ldi.

1508 yilda Bayard Genuya qamalida, 1509 yilda Padua qamalida qatnashib, har ikki holatda ham uning obro'sini oshirdi.

1512 yilda u Bremsiyada qattiq yaralangan (1512 yil fevral), Nemur gersogi Foix Gaston xizmatida. Ravennada jang bo'lib o'tishi aniq bo'lganida, u jarohatlariga e'tibor bermay, voqea joyiga yugurib, Ravenna jangida qatnashdi (1512 yil 11 aprel), Frantsiya g'alabasi Foix Gastonining o'limi bilan yakunlandi. jang. Bayard yana jang paytida o'z obro'sini oshirdi.

1513 yilda inglizlar jangga qo'shilishganda, Bayard shimolga yuborildi, lekin 1513 yil 16 avgustda Spurs jangida qo'lga olindi. Uning obro'si shu qadar ta'sirli ediki, u to'lovsiz ozod qilindi. uning jasoratiga hurmat.

1515 yilda yangi qirol Frensis I uni Dofinening general-leytenanti etib tayinladi. U Frensis I ning Italiyaga birinchi bosqinida qatnashgan va Frantsiyaning Marignano g'alabasi bilan kurashgan (1515 yil 13-14 sentyabr). Jangdan keyin Frensis Bayard tomonidan ritsarlik qildi, u jangda eng jasur kapitan bo'lgan.

1521 yil kuzida Nassau graf Genri boshchiligidagi imperiya armiyasi Frantsiyaning sharqiga bostirib kirdi. Mouzon tezda yiqildi va u Mezyèresga ko'chib o'tdi, u erda Bayard atigi 1000 kishilik garnizonga buyruq berdi. Bayard kuchli artilleriya bombardimoniga qaramay, qal'ani Frensis I asosiy qo'shin bilan paydo bo'lguncha ushlab tura oldi. Qamal 27 sentyabrda tegishli tartibda olib tashlandi. Bayard himoyadagi hissasi uchun Sent-Mishel ordeni bilan taqdirlangan.

1523 yilda Bayard Milanni qaytarib olish uchun Italiyaga yuborilgan Guillaume de Bonnivet qo'mondonlik qilgan frantsuz armiyasining bir qismi edi (o'tgan yili yo'qolgan). Bonnivetning ba'zi muvaffaqiyatlari bor edi, lekin 1524 yilning bahorida Neapol vitseri Sharl de Lannoy boshchiligidagi yangi imperiya armiyasi frantsuzlarni hayratda qoldirdi va ularni chekinishga majbur qildi. Bonnivet Robekkoda yaralangan va Bayardni orqa qo'riqchilar qo'mondonligiga qoldirgan. Sesiyani kesib o'tish paytida (1524 yil aprel) u harquebus to'pi bilan o'lik yaralangan. U orqaga chekinayotgan frantsuzlarning ortida qolishi kerak edi, lekin imperator qo'mondonlari unga katta hurmat bilan munosabatda bo'lishdi va uning jasadi Grenoblga qaytarildi.

Bayard qo'rquvsiz va aybsiz "le chevalier sans peur et sans reproche" nomi bilan mashhur edi. U talon -taroj qilishga qiziqmaganligi ma'lum edi, bu davr qo'mondonlari orasida deyarli yagona, shuningdek, razvedkadan mohirona foydalangani uchun.


Per Terrail, Senyor de Bayard (1475-1524)-frantsuz qahramoni, qo'rqmasdan va tanbeh bermaydigan ritsar. Bayard Frantsiyaning Charlz V shampan vinosiga bostirib kirishi paytida o'lgan. XIX asr savdo kartasi litografiyasi

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1518 yilga kelib Marignano jangidan keyin Evropada hukm surgan tinchlik buzila boshladi. Buyuk davlatlar (Frantsiya, Angliya, Ispaniya va Muqaddas Rim imperiyasi) tashqi tomondan do'stona munosabatda bo'lishdi va London Shartnomasiga binoan hujum qilingan har qanday imzo chekuvchilarga yordam berishga va tinchlikni buzgan har qanday davlatga qarshi birlashishga va'da berishdi. Biroq, ular imperator vorisligi masalasida ikkiga bo'lindi. Muqaddas Rim imperatori Maksimilian I, Gabsburgning o'rnini egallash niyatida, Ispaniya Charlz nomidan kampaniya boshladi, Frensis esa o'zini boshqa nomzod sifatida ko'rsatdi. Shu bilan birga, Papalik va Muqaddas Rim imperiyasi ba'zi imperator zodagonlari orasida qo'llab -quvvatlangan Martin Lyuterning kuchayib borayotgan ta'siri bilan kurashishga majbur bo'lishdi, Frensis qit'adagi janjallarga aralashgan kardinal Tomas Volsi bilan to'qnash keldi. Angliyaning ham, uning ham ta'sirini kuchaytirishga urinib.

1519 yilda Maksimilianning o'limi imperiya saylovlarini Evropa siyosatining birinchi pog'onasiga olib chiqdi. Vatikandan qirq mil narida ispan qo'shinlari borligi bilan tahdid qilingan Papa Leo X frantsuz nomzodini qo'llab -quvvatladi. Saylovchilar shahzodalarining o'zlari, Saksoniya Frederikidan tashqari, saylovoldi tashviqotini rad etishdan bosh tortishdi, har ikkala nomzodni ham birdaniga qo'llab-quvvatlashga va'da berishdi. O'limidan oldin Maksimilian saylovchilarga ularning ovozlari evaziga 500 ming florin va'da qilgan edi, lekin Frensis uch milliongacha taklif qildi va Charlz Fuggerlardan katta miqdorda qarz olib, qasos oldi. Ammo yakuniy natijani Leo Maynts arxiyepiskopini doimiy merosxo'r qilib qo'yishni va'da qilgan o'ta pora bilan belgilanmagan. Frantsuz imperatorining g'oyasidan xalqning g'azabi saylovchilarga pauza berdi va Charlz Frankfurt yaqinidagi dalaga qo'shin qo'yganida, saylovchilar majburiy ravishda unga ovoz berishdi. [6] U 1520 yil 23 oktyabrda Muqaddas Rim imperatori bo'ldi, shu vaqtgacha u past mamlakatlardagi ispan tojini ham, merosxo'r Burgundiya erlarini ham boshqargan.

Genrix VIII ning qit'adagi ta'sirini kuchaytirishga umid qilib, kardinal Uolsi Angliya xizmatlarini Frensis va Charlz o'rtasidagi turli nizolarga vositachi sifatida taklif qildi. Genri va Frensis "Oltin mato" maydonida g'ayrioddiy uchrashuv o'tkazdilar. Darhol, Volsi Charlzni Kale shahrida mehmon qildi. Uchrashuvlardan so'ng, Uolsi, asosan, navbatdagi papalik konklaviga tayyorgarlik ko'rishda o'z salomatligini yaxshilash bilan shug'ullanib, 1522 yil apreliga qadar davom etadigan, ichi bo'sh bo'lgan arbitraj konferentsiyasini o'tkazdi.

Dekabrda frantsuzlar urush rejasini tuza boshladilar. Frensis Charlzga ochiqchasiga hujum qilishni xohlamadi, chunki Genri tinchlikni buzish uchun birinchi partiyaga aralashish niyatida ekanligini aytdi. Buning o'rniga u Germaniya va Ispaniya hududiga bostirib kirishni yashirinroq qo'llab -quvvatladi. Bir hujum Robert de la Mark boshchiligida Meuz daryosiga qilingan. Bir vaqtning o'zida Frantsiya-Navarrez qo'shini Sent-Jean-Pied-de-Portni egallab olganidan so'ng Navar orqali o'tdi. [7] Ekspeditsiyani nominal ravishda 18 yoshli Navarrez qiroli Genri d'Albret boshqargan, uning shohligi 1512 yilda Aragon Ferdinand II tomonidan bosib olingan, ammo armiyani amalda Andre de Foix boshqargan va uni moliyalashtirgan va jihozlagan. frantsuz. [8] Nassau Genrixining aralashuvi Meuza hujumini qaytarib yubordi va de Foix dastlab Pamplonani qo'lga kiritishda muvaffaqiyat qozongan bo'lsa -da, 1521 yil 30 -iyunda Esquiroz jangida mag'lubiyatga uchraganidan keyin Navarrdan haydab chiqarildi. [9]

Bu orada Charlz 1521 yil mart oyida qurtlar dietasida duch kelgan Martin Lyuter masalasi bilan ovora edi. Imperator katoliklikni Muqaddas Rim imperiyasining turli knyazliklarini bog'lashning tabiiy usuli deb bildi. Papa Leo X, o'z navbatida, o'z hokimiyatining ochiqchasiga qarshi chiqishiga toqat qilmaganligi sababli, u va imperator hozirda Saksoniya Frederik va Frants fon Siksen tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlanadigan Lyuterga qarshi bir -birini qo'llab -quvvatlashga majbur bo'lishdi. 1521 yil 25 -mayda Charlz va kardinal Girolamo Aleandro, papa nunsiiolari, Lyuterga qarshi qurtlar farmonini e'lon qilishdi. Bir vaqtning o'zida, imperator Papaga Medichiga Parma va Piacenza va Sforzaga Milanni tiklashni va'da qildi. Leo xavfli bid'at deb hisoblagan kampaniyasi uchun imperatorlik mandatiga muhtoj bo'lib, frantsuzlarni Lombardiyadan haydab chiqarishga yordam berishga va'da berdi va Frensisni faqat ittifoqchi Venetsiya respublikasi bilan qoldirdi.

Iyun oyida Nassau Genri boshchiligidagi imperiya qo'shinlari Frantsiyaning shimoliga bostirib kirib, Ardres va Mouzon shaharlarini vayron qilib, Turnayni qamal qilishdi. Per Terrail, Seigneur de Bayard va Anne de Montmorency boshchiligidagi frantsuzlarning Mezierni qamal qilish paytida qattiq qarshilik ko'rsatishi tufayli kechiktirildi, bu Frensisga hujumga qarshi turish uchun qo'shin yig'ishga vaqt berdi. [8] 1521 yil 22 oktyabrda Frensis Valensen yaqinida Charlz Vning o'zi qo'mondonlik qilgan asosiy imperator qo'shiniga duch keldi. Charlz de Burbonning da'vatiga qaramay, Frensis hujum qilishdan tortindi, bu esa Charlzga chekinishga vaqt berdi. Frantsuzlar nihoyat oldinga siljishga tayyor bo'lgach, kuchli yomg'irning boshlanishi samarali ta'qibga to'sqinlik qildi va imperator kuchlari jangsiz qochib qutuldi. Ko'p o'tmay, Bonnivet va Lotaringiya Klod boshchiligidagi frantsuz-navar qo'shinlari frantsuzlarga shimolda ustunlik qilib, uzoq davom etgan manevrlardan so'ng, frantsuz-ispaniya chegarasidagi Bidasoa daryosining og'zidagi Fuenterrabiya shahrini egallab olishdi. Ispaniya keyingi ikki yil davomida ularning qo'lida qoladi.

Noyabrga kelib, frantsuz ahvoli ancha yomonlashdi. Charlz, Genrix VIII va Papa 28 noyabrda Frensisga qarshi ittifoq tuzdilar. [10] Odet de Foix, Frantsiyaning Milan gubernatori Vicomte de Lautrec, unga Prospero Kolonnadan ustun kelgan imperatorlik va papalik kuchlarga qarshilik ko'rsatish vazifasini yuklagan, ammo noyabr oyining oxiriga kelib, Milandan quvib chiqarilib, orqaga chekingan edi. Adda daryosi atrofidagi shaharlar halqasi. [11] U erda Lautrek yangi shveytsariyalik yollanma askarlarning kelishi bilan kuchaytirildi, lekin ularni to'lashga puli yo'qligi sababli, u darhol imperiya kuchlarini jalb qilish talablarini bajardi. [12] 1522 yil 27 aprelda u Bikokka jangida Milan yaqinida Kolonnaning birlashgan imperiya va papalik qo'shiniga hujum qildi. Lautrek artilleriyada o'z ustunligini o'z foydasiga ishlatishni rejalashtirgan edi, lekin dushmanni jalb qilishga sabri yo'q shveytsariyaliklar qurollarini niqoblab, ispan tilovchilariga qarshi ayblov qo'yishdi. Natijada, shveytsariyaliklar ispaniyaliklar tomonidan Fernando d'Avalos, Markes Peskara va Jorj Frundsberg qo'mondonligi ostidagi er osti kuchlari tomonidan yomon talon -taroj qilindi. Ularning ruhiy holati buzildi, shveytsariyaliklar Lautrec kantonlariga qaytishdi, kampaniyani davom ettirish uchun juda oz sonli askarlar bilan Lombardiyadan butunlay voz kechishdi. [13] Kolonna va d'Avalos, hech qanday qarshiliksiz, 30 mayda shaharni egallab, Genuyani qamal qilishdi. [14]

Lotrekning mag'lubiyati Angliyani ziddiyatga ochiq olib kirdi. 1522 yil may oyining oxirida ingliz elchisi Frensisga Frantsiyaga qarshi ayblovlarni, xususan, Shotlandiyadagi Albani gersogini qo'llab -quvvatlash ayblovlarini qo'ydi. Genrix VIII va Charlz 1522 yil 16-iyunda Vindzor shartnomasini imzoladilar. Shartnomada Frantsiyaga qarshi ingliz-imperiya qo'shma hujumi tasvirlangan, har bir tomon kamida 40 ming kishini ta'minlagan. Charlz Angliyaga Frantsiya bilan ziddiyat tufayli yo'qoladigan pensiyalarni to'lashga va ittifoqni yopish uchun o'tgan qarzlarni to'lashga rozi bo'ldi, shuningdek, Genrixning yagona qizi Meri bilan turmush qurishga rozi bo'ldi. Iyul oyida inglizlar Kale shahridan Brittani va Pikardiga hujum qilishdi. Frensis katta qarshilik ko'rsatish uchun mablag 'yig'a olmadi va ingliz armiyasi qishloqlarni yoqib yubordi.

Frensis pul yig'ishning turli usullarini sinab ko'rdi, lekin diqqatini Burbon gersogi Charlz IIIga qarshi sudga qaratdi. Burbon gersogi o'z mulklarining ko'p qismini urush boshlanishidan sal oldin vafot etgan Burbon gersoginyasi Syuzannaga uylanishi orqali olgan. Suzannaning singlisi va qirolning onasi Savoyning Luizasi, marhum bilan yaqinroq qarindoshligi tufayli, bu hududlar unga o'tishi kerakligini ta'kidlagan. Frensis bahsli erlarni tortib olish urushni davom ettirish uchun o'z moliyaviy ahvolini yaxshilaydi, deb ishongan va Luiza nomidan ularning bir qismini musodara qila boshlagan. Burbon, bu muomaladan g'azablanib, sudda tobora yakkalanib, Frantsiya qiroliga xiyonat qilish uchun Charlz Vga uvertura qila boshladi. [15]

1523 yilga kelib frantsuz ahvoli butunlay qulab tushdi. Doge Antonio Grimanining o'limi Kambrey Ligasi urushi qatnashchisi Andrea Grittini Venetsiyada hokimiyat tepasiga olib keldi. U tezda imperator bilan muzokaralarni boshladi va 29 iyulda respublikani urushdan olib tashlagan qurtlar shartnomasini tuzdi. [16] Burbon Charlz bilan hiyla -nayrangini davom ettirdi, pul va nemis qo'shinlari evaziga Frensisga qarshi qo'zg'olon boshlashni taklif qildi. Bu fitnadan xabardor bo'lgan Frensis oktyabr oyida uni Lionga chaqirganida, u o'zini kasallikka o'xshatib, imperator Besanson shahriga qochib ketdi. G'azablangan Frensis Burbonning sheriklarini qo'lga oladigan darajada ko'pini qatl qilishni buyurdi, lekin Dyukning o'zi yarashish haqidagi yakuniy taklifni rad etib, ochiqchasiga imperator xizmatiga kirdi.

Keyin Charlz Fransiyaning janubiga Pireneylar ustidan bostirib kirdi. Lautrek Bayonni ispanlardan muvaffaqiyatli himoya qildi, lekin Charlz 1524 yil fevralda Fuenterrabiyani qaytarib olishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. [17] 1523 yil 18 sentyabrda Suffolk gersogi boshchiligidagi inglizlarning katta armiyasi Klemadan Flamand bilan birgalikda Frantsiya hududiga bostirib kirdi. Imperatorlik kuchi. Imperatorlik hujumidan cho'zilib ketgan frantsuzlar qarshilik ko'rsata olmadilar va Suffolk tez orada Somadan o'tib, qishloqlarni vayron qildi va Parijdan atigi ellik mil narida to'xtadi. Charlz ingliz hujumini qo'llab-quvvatlay olmaganida, 30 oktyabr kuni Frantsiya poytaxtiga hujum qilishni istamagan Suffolk Parijdan yuz o'girdi va dekabr oyining o'rtalarida Kalega qaytdi. [18]

Endi Frensis e'tiborini Lombardiyaga qaratdi. 1523 yil oktyabr oyida Bonnivet boshchiligidagi 18000 kishilik frantsuz armiyasi Pyemont orqali Novara tomon yo'l oldi va unga shveytsariyalik yollanma askarlar ham xuddi shunday kuch bilan qo'shildi. Frantsiyaning oldinga siljishiga qarshi bor -yo'g'i 9000 kishi bo'lgan Prospero Kolonna Milanga chekindi. [19] Ammo Bonnivet imperiya armiyasining sonini haddan tashqari oshirib yubordi va shaharga hujum qilishdan ko'ra, qishki kvartiralarga ko'chib o'tdi va imperator qo'mondonlari 28 -dekabrgacha Charlz de Lannoy almashtirilganda Burbon qo'mondonligi ostidagi 15000 ta erni va katta kuchni chaqira olishdi. o'layotgan Kolonna. [20] Ko'pchilik shveytsariyaliklar endi frantsuz armiyasini tark etishdi va Bonnivet chekinishni boshladi. Frantsiyaning orqa qo'riqchisiga qo'mondonlik qilib, Bayard o'ldirilgan Sesiya jangidagi frantsuzlarning mag'lubiyati, frantsuz armiyasi ko'proq an'anaviy qo'shinlarga qarshi ommaviy jangchilarning kuchini yana bir bor namoyish etdi, keyin tartibsiz Alp tog'lari ustidan chekinishdi. [21]

1524 yil iyul oyining boshlarida D'Avalos va Burbon 11000 ga yaqin odam bilan Alp tog'larini kesib o'tib, Provansga bostirib kirdi. "Provans grafligi" unvoni va Frensisga qarshi qo'llab -quvvatlash evaziga Genrix VIIIga sodiqligini va'da qildi. [23] Avgust oyining o'rtalariga kelib, Burbon va d'Avalos Frantsiya qo'lida qolgan Provansning yagona tayanchi bo'lgan Marselni qamal qilishdi. Biroq, ularning shaharga hujumlari muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi va Frensisning o'zi qo'mondonlik qilgan frantsuz armiyasi 1524 yil sentyabr oyining oxirida Avignonga etib kelganida, ular yana Italiyaga chekinishga majbur bo'lishdi. [24]

1524 yil oktyabr oyining o'rtalarida Frensisning o'zi Alp tog'larini kesib o'tib, 40 mingdan ziyod armiya boshchiligida Milanga yo'l oldi. Burbon va d'Avalos, ularning qo'shinlari Provansdagi kampaniyadan hali qutulolmaganlar, jiddiy qarshilik ko'rsatishga qodir emas edilar. [25] Frantsiya armiyasi bir necha ustunlar bo'ylab harakatlanib, imperiyaning oldinga siljishlarini to'xtatdi, lekin imperiya qo'shinlarining asosiy qismini jangga olib kira olmadi. Shunga qaramay, Milanga yopilgan 33000 frantsuz qo'shinlariga qarshilik ko'rsatish uchun 16000 ga yaqin odamni to'plagan Charlz de Lannoy shaharni himoya qila olmaslikka qaror qildi va 26 oktyabrda Lodi shahriga chekindi. [26] Milanga kirib, Lui II de la Tremoylni gubernator qilib o'rnatgach, Frensis (Bonnivetning chaqirig'iga binoan va chekinayotgan Lannoyni kuchliroq ta'qib qilishni yoqtirgan boshqa katta qo'mondonlarining maslahatiga qarshi) Paviyaga yo'l oldi. Antonio de Leyva katta imperator garnizonida qoldi. [27]

Frantsuz qo'shinlarining asosiy massasi 1524 yil oktyabr oyining oxirgi kunlarida Paviyaga keldi. 2 noyabrga kelib Montmorensi Ticino daryosidan o'tib, shaharni janubdan sarmoya kiritdi va uning qurshovini yakunladi. Ichkarida 9000 ga yaqin odam bor edi, asosan yollanma askarlar, ularni Antonio de Leyva faqat cherkov plastinkasini eritish orqali to'lay olardi. [28] Oradan otishma va artilleriya bombardimonlari davri o'tdi va noyabr oyining o'rtalariga kelib devorlarda bir nechta buzilishlar sodir bo'ldi. 21 -noyabr kuni Frensis shaharga ikkita buzg'unchilik orqali hujum uyushtirishga urinib ko'rdi, ammo yomg'irli ob -havo va porox yo'qligi tufayli og'ir talofatlar bilan mag'lubiyatga uchradi, frantsuzlar himoyachilar och qolishini kutishga qaror qilishdi. [29]

Dekabr oyining boshlarida Monkada Gyugo qo'mondonlik qilgan ispan kuchlari shahardagi Valois tarafdorlari va Gabsburg tarafdorlari o'rtasidagi ziddiyatga aralashish niyatida Genuya yaqiniga qo'ndi. Frensis ularni ushlab qolish uchun Saluzsolik Mishel Antonio I boshchiligida katta kuch yubordi. Ko'p sonli frantsuzlar bilan to'qnash kelgan va Andrea Doriya qo'mondonlik qilgan Valua tarafdorlari floti kelishi bilan dengiz yordamisiz qolgan ispan qo'shinlari taslim bo'lishdi. [30] Keyin Frensis Papa Klement VII bilan maxfiy shartnoma imzoladi, u Frantsiskning Neapolni zabt etishda yordami evaziga Charlzga yordam bermaslikka va'da berdi. Katta qo'mondonlarining maslahatiga qaramay, Frensis Albani gersogi ostidagi kuchlarining bir qismini ajratdi va ularni janubga Papaga yordam berish uchun yubordi. [31] Lannoy Fiorenzuola yaqinidagi ekspeditsiyani to'xtatishga urindi, lekin katta talafot ko'rdi va frantsuz xizmatiga endigina kirgan Jovanni de Medichining qora tanli guruhlarining aralashuvi natijasida Lodi shahriga qaytishga majbur bo'ldi. Medichi keyinchalik Pavyaga qurol -yarog 'va Ferrara gersogi tomonidan to'plangan o'q bilan qaytdi, lekin frantsuzlarning pozitsiyasi bir vaqtning o'zida 5000 ga yaqin Grisons shveytsariyalik yollanma askarlarining ketishi bilan zaiflashdi, ular kantonlariga qaytishdi va ularni er bosqinchilaridan himoya qilishdi. [32]

1525 yil yanvarda Lannoy Jorj Frundsbergning kelishi bilan kuchaytirildi va 15000 yangi quruqlik texnikasi bilan hujumni yangiladi. D'Avalos San -Anjelodagi frantsuz forpostini egallab, Paviya va Milan o'rtasidagi aloqa liniyalarini kesib tashladi, Belgiojoso bo'ylab alohida landsknechts kolonnasi o'tdi va Medici va Bonnivet boshchiligidagi reyd natijasida qisqa muddat orqaga surilgan bo'lsa ham, shaharni egallab oldi. [33] 2 fevralga kelib, Lannoy Paviyadan atigi bir necha chaqirim narida edi. Frensis o'z kuchlarining ko'p qismini shahar devori tashqarisidagi devor bilan o'ralgan Mirabello bog'iga joylashtirdi va ularni Leyva garnizoni bilan yaqinlashayotgan yordam armiyasi orasiga joylashtirdi. [34] Garnizonning otishmalari va janglari fevral oyigacha davom etdi. Medici og'ir jarohat oldi va sog'ayish uchun Piacenzaga qaytib ketdi, bu Frensisni Qora Bandaning ketishini bartaraf etish uchun Milan garnizonining ko'p qismini chaqirishga majbur qildi, ammo jang unchalik ta'sir qilmadi. 21 fevralda, imperiya qo'mondonlari, zaxiralari etishmayotgan va frantsuz kuchlari o'z kuchlaridan ko'ra ko'proq ekanligiga ishongan holda, yuzlarini qutqarish va frantsuzlarning ruhiy tushkunligini xavfsiz tarzda olib chiqish uchun Mirabello qal'asiga hujum uyushtirishga qaror qilishdi. [35]

1525 yil 24 -fevral kuni erta tongda imperatorlik muhandislari Mirabello devorlarini buzishdi, bu esa Lannoy kuchlarining bog'ga kirishiga ruxsat berdi. Shu bilan birga, Leyva Paviyadan garnizon qoldiqlari bilan ajralib chiqdi. To'rt soat davom etgan jangda, o'n yil oldin Marignanoda shveytsariyaliklarga qarshi juda samarali bo'lgan frantsuz og'ir otliqlari, o'z artilleriyasini tez sur'atda niqoblab, landshnechts va d'Avalosning katta ispan arquebusiers tomonidan qurshab olindi. . Shu bilan birga, bir qancha cho'zilgan piyoda qo'shinlari Shveytsariya va Frantsiya piyodalarini mag'lubiyatga uchratdi. Frantsuzlar katta yo'qotishlarga duch keldilar va qo'shinlarining ko'p qismini yo'qotdilar. Bonnivet, Jak de la Palis, La Tremoyl va Richard de la Pole o'ldirilgan, Anne de Montmorensi, Robert de la Mark va Frensisning o'zi asirga olingan. [36] Jangdan keyingi kechada Frensis Lannoyga Parijdagi onasiga topshirish uchun maktub berdi, unda unga nima bo'lganini aytib berdi: "Qolgan baxtsizligim qanday ketayotgani haqida sizga xabar berish uchun. Men uchun yo'qolgan, shon -sharaf va hayotni qutqar ". [37] Ko'p o'tmay, u nihoyat Albani gersogi qo'shinining katta qismini yo'q qilish va qochish uchun yo'qotib qo'yganini va Neapolga etib bormasdan Frantsiyaga qaytib kelganini bilib qoldi. [38] Frantsuz kuchlarining vayron bo'lgan qoldiqlari, Milandagi Castel Sforzeskoni ushlab turish uchun qoldirilgan kichik garnizondan tashqari, Alpenon qiroli Charlz IV ning buyrug'i ostida Alp tog'lari bo'ylab chekinishdi va 1525 yil martgacha Lionga etib kelishdi. [37]

Paviyadan keyin frantsuz qiroli va Frantsiyaning taqdiri g'azablangan diplomatik manevrlarga aylandi. Charlz V, urush uchun to'lash uchun mablag 'yo'qligi sababli, Genrix VIIIga va'da bergan Tudor uyida nikohdan voz kechishga qaror qildi va uning o'rniga Portugaliyalik Izabella bilan turmush qurishga intildi, u o'zi bilan ancha mahr olib keladi. Burbon, Genri bilan Frantsiyani bosib olish va bo'lishni rejalashtirdi va shu bilan birga d'Avalosni Neapolni bosib olishga va o'zini Italiya qiroli deb e'lon qilishga undadi. [39]

O'g'li yo'qligida Frantsiyada regent bo'lib qolgan Luiz Savoy ingliz qo'shinlari Artoisga bostirib kirishdan himoya qilish uchun qo'shin va mablag 'yig'ishga harakat qildi. [40] U, shuningdek, Buyuk Sulaymonga yordam so'rab, birinchi frantsuz missiyasini yubordi, lekin missiya Bosniyada yo'lda yo'qoldi. [41] 1525 yil dekabrda Jon Frangipani boshchiligidagi ikkinchi missiya yuborildi, u Usmonli poytaxti Konstantinopolga etib borishga muvaffaq bo'ldi, maxfiy maktublar bilan qirol Frensis I ning qutqarilishini va Gabsburgga hujumni so'radi. Frangipani 1526 yil 6 fevralda Sulaymonning javobi bilan qaytdi va frantsuz-usmonli ittifoqining birinchi qadamlarini boshladi. [41] Oxir -oqibat, Sulaymon Charlzga ultimatum yozib, Frensisni zudlik bilan ozod qilishni so'radi va bu kutilmaganda Muqaddas Rim imperiyasidan har yili soliq to'lashni talab qilib, Usmonlilar 1526 yilning yozida Vengriyaga bostirib kirishdi. Vena shahriga etib borish.

Agar Charlz bilan shaxsiy auditoriya topa olsam, yana ozodlikka erishaman deb ishongan Frensis d'Avalos va Lannoyni bosdi, ular podshohni Neapoldagi Castel Nuovo shahriga ko'chirish niyatida, uni Ispaniyaga yuborishdi. Burbonning hiyla -nayrangidan xavotirga tushib, ular rozi bo'lishdi va Frensis 12 -iyun kuni Barselonaga keldi. [42]

Frensis dastlab Valensiya yaqinidagi Benisano shahridagi villada saqlanar edi, lekin Charlz Montmorensi va Lannoyni muzokaralar olib borishga undadi, u italiyaliklar yaqinda imperatorlik ittifoqiga sodiq bo'lishini aytdi, qirolni Madridga olib kelishni va qamoqqa tashlashni buyurdi. u erda qal'a. [43] Biroq, Charlz Frensis kelishuvni qabul qilmaguncha, uni shaxsan qabul qilishdan qat'iy bosh tortdi. [44] Shu bilan birga, Paviyada Frensis bilan birga jang qilgan va Madridda ham qamoqda saqlangan Navarr Genrix II qochib ketdi. Navarre uchun kurash davom etdi, Charlz Quyi Navarning janubiy chekkalarini egalladi va Genrix ozodlikda qoldi. [45]

Charlz nafaqat Lombardiyaning, balki Burgundiya va Provansning taslim bo'lishini ham talab qilib, Frensisni Frantsiya qonuni Parlementning roziligisiz tojga ega bo'lgan har qanday erni taslim bo'lishiga to'sqinlik qildi, deb da'vo qilishga majbur qildi. [46]

Sentyabr oyida Frensis og'ir kasal bo'lib qoldi va uning singlisi Marguerite de Navarre Parijdan Ispaniyaga bordi. [47] Qirolni tekshirayotgan imperator shifokorlar uning kasalligi uning imperator tomonidan qabul qilinmaganidan achinishidan kelib chiqqan deb hisoblab, Charlzni unga tashrif buyurishga undashdi. Buyuk kanslerining maslahatiga qaramay, Mercurino Gattinara (Frensisni o'lim to'shagida ko'rish, rahmdillik emas, balki yolg'iz tashvishlar tufayli qilingan harakat, va shuning uchun imperatorga noloyiq edi), Charlz rozi bo'ldi va Frensis tez orada to'liq sog'ayib ketdi. [48] ​​Qochishga urinish natija bermadi va faqat Marjeritni Frantsiyaga qaytarishga muvaffaq bo'ldi.

1526 yil boshida Charlz Venetsiya va Papadan Frantsesko II Sforzani Milan gersogligi taxtiga qaytarish talabiga duch keldi va boshqa urush boshlanishidan oldin frantsuzlar bilan kelishuvga erishish uchun tashvishga tushdi. Frensis, Burgundiyani saqlab qolishga da'vogarlik qilsa -da, ozodlikka chiqish uchun uni topshirishga tayyor edi. [49] 1526 yil 14 -yanvarda Charlz va Frensis Madrid bitimiga rozi bo'lishdi, unga ko'ra frantsuz qiroli Italiya, Flandriya va Artoisdagi barcha da'volaridan voz kechdi, Burgundiyani Charlzga topshirdi va ikki o'g'lini garovga yuborishga rozi bo'ldi. Ispaniya sudida Charlzning singlisi Eleanorga uylanishga va Burbonga undan tortib olingan hududlarni tiklashga va'da berdi. [50] "Eng nasroniy qiroli" unvoniga ega bo'lgan Frensis, shuningdek, Genrixni "lyuteran sektasi va qolgan hukm qilingan mazhablarning xatolarini yo'q qilish uchun" Charlz foydasiga Navar taxtidan voz kechishga ko'ndirishga rozi bo'ldi. [51]

Frensis 6 mart kuni qo'yib yuborildi va Lannoy hamrohligida shimoldan Fuenterrabiyaga yo'l oldi. 18 martda u Bidasoa shimolidan Frantsiyaga o'tdi, shu bilan birga Luiza va Lotrek Bayonga olib kelgan Daufin va uning ukasi Ispaniyaga o'tib, asirlikka tushishdi. [52] Bu vaqtga kelib, Frensis Xempton sud saroyida Frantsiya elchisi Tomas Volsi tomonidan tuzilgan Hampton sudi shartnomasi bilan Angliya bilan tinchlikka erishdi, shartnoma 1526 yilda imzolangan va 1527 yil aprelda frantsuz delegatsiyasi tomonidan ratifikatsiya qilingan. Grinvichda.

Biroq, Frensis Madrid shartnomasining qolgan qoidalarini bajarish niyatida emas edi. 22 mart kuni, Papaning duosi bilan, u Madrid shartnomasi majburiyatsiz imzolangani uchun unga bog'liq emasligini e'lon qildi. Imperatorning kuchayib borayotgan kuchi Italiyadagi o'z mavqeiga tahdid solayotganiga amin bo'lgan Klement VII Frensis va Genrix VIIIga elchilar yuborib, Charlzga qarshi ittifoq tuzishni taklif qildi. [53] Genri, Madrid shartnomasidan hech narsa olmagan holda, takliflarni qabul qildi. May oyida Frensis va Papa frantsuzlar Genridan ayrilgan hududni qaytarib olish uchun Konyak Ligasi urushini boshladilar, ittifoqni Angliyada imzolashga urinishidan qaytarib, 1527 yilgacha qo'shilmadilar. [54] Urush muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi, lekin Frensis va uning vorisi Genrix II Italiya urushlarining qolgan qismi davomida Milanga bo'lgan da'volarini davom ettiradilar, faqat 1559 yildagi Kato-Kembrez tinchligidan keyin voz kechadilar.


1515 yil - Frantsiya qiroli Frensis I ning xizmati

1515 yilda Frensis I qo'shilganidan so'ng, Bayard Daufinening general-leytenanti etib tayinlandi, lekin ko'p o'tmay qirol va qo'shin bilan birga shveytsariyaliklar tomonidan nazorat qilinadigan Milan hududiga kirdi. Marignano jangida qarama -qarshi qo'shinlar uzoq va qonli kurash olib borishdi, bu urushda frantsuzlar asosan Bayard, qirol Frensis va frantsuz jandarmlari (zirhli lanserlar) jasorati tufayli g'alaba qozonishdi. Jangdan so'ng Bayard o'zining yosh suvereniga ritsarlik unvonini berish sharafiga ega bo'ldi. [1]

1521 yil - Mezyers qamal qilinishi

Frensis I va Charlz V o'rtasida yana urush boshlanganda, Muqaddas Rim imperatori Bayard, 1000 kishidan iborat, 3500 kishilik qo'shinga qarshi, deb e'lon qilinmagan Mezierni ushlab turdi va olti haftadan so'ng, imperiya generallarini qamalni ko'tarishga majbur qildi. . Bu o'jar qarshilik Frantsiyaning markaziy qismini bosqindan qutqardi, chunki shoh Muqaddas Rim imperiyasiga qarshi turish uchun etarli kuchga ega emas edi. [1]

Butun Frantsiya bu yutuqni nishonladi va Frensis bosqinchilarni quvib chiqargan qirol qo'shinini yig'ishga vaqt topdi (1521). The parlement Bayardga o'z vatanining qutqaruvchisi sifatida minnatdorchilik bildirib, qirol uni Sankt -Maykl ordeni ritsariga aylantirdi va o'z nomi bilan 100 -sonli qo'mondon qildi. gens d'armes, shon -sharaf shu paytgacha qon knyazlari uchun ajratilgan. [1]

1524 yil - Italiyada o'lim

After allaying a revolt at Genoa, and striving with the greatest assiduity to check a pestilence in Dauphiné, Bayard was sent into Italy with Admiral Bonnivet, who, being defeated at Robecco and wounded in a combat during his retreat, implored Bayard to assume command and save the army. He repulsed the foremost pursuers, but in guarding the rear at the passage of the river Sesia between the towns of Romagnano Sesia and Gattinara, was mortally wounded by an arquebus ball, on 30 April 1524. [2]

He died in the midst of the enemy, attended by Pescara, the Spanish commander, and by his old comrade, Charles, duc de Bourbon, who was now fighting on the opposite side. Charles is reported to have said "Ah! Monsieur de Bayard. I am very sad to see you in this state you who were such a virtuous knight!" Bayard answered,

"Sir, there is no need to pity me. I die as a man of honour ought, doing my duty but I pity you, because you are fighting against your king, your country, and your oath."

His body was restored to his friends and interred at Saint-Martin-d'Hères. In 1822, his remains were finally buried in the collegiate church Saint-André of Grenoble. [3]


1515 – Service of King Francis I of France

On the accession of Francis I in 1515, Bayard was made lieutenant-general of Dauphiné but soon accompanied the King and army into the territory of Milan, control of which was challenged by the Swiss. At the Battle of Marignano the opposing armies engaged in a protracted and bloody struggle which the French won largely because of the valour of Bayard, King Francis, and the French gendarmes (armored lancers). After the battle, Bayard had the honour of conferring knighthood on his youthful sovereign.

1521 – Siege of Mézières

When war again broke out between Francis I and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Bayard, with 1000 men, held Mézières, which had been declared untenable, against an army of 35,000, and after six weeks, compelled the imperial generals to raise the siege. This stubborn resistance saved central France from invasion, as the king had not then sufficient forces to withstand the Holy Roman Empire.

All France celebrated the achievement, and Francis gained time to collect the royal army which drove out the invaders (1521). The parlement thanked Bayard as the saviour of his country the king made him a knight of the Order of Saint Michael, and commander in his own name of 100 gens d’armes, an honour until then reserved for princes of the blood.

1524 – Death in Italy

After allaying a revolt at Genoa, and striving with the greatest assiduity to check a pestilence in Dauphiné, Bayard was sent into Italy with Admiral Bonnivet, who, being defeated at Robecco and wounded in a combat during his retreat, implored Bayard to assume command and save the army. He repulsed the foremost pursuers, but in guarding the rear at the passage of the river Sesia, was mortally wounded by an arquebus ball, on April 30, 1524.

He died in the midst of the enemy, attended by Pescara, the Spanish commander, and by his old comrade, Charles, duc de Bourbon, who was now fighting on the opposite side. Charles is reported to have said "Ah! Monsieur de Bayard… I am very sad to see you in this state you who were such a virtuous knight!" Bayard answered,

His body was restored to his friends and interred at Saint-Martin-d’Hères. In 1822, his remains were finally buried in the collegiate church Saint-André of Grenoble.Gilles-Marie Moreau, Le Saint-Denis des Dauphins : histoire de la collégiale Saint-André de Grenoble, L’Harmattan, Paris, 2010.


Meros

As a soldier, Bayard was considered the epitome of chivalry and one of the most skillful commanders of the age. He was noted for the exactitude and completeness of his information on the enemy's movements, which he obtained by careful reconnaissance and a well-arranged system of espionage. In the long history of mounted warfare, he rates highly as one of the greatest cavalry leaders of all time.

In the midst of mercenary armies, Bayard remained absolutely disinterested, and to his contemporaries and his successors, he was, with his romantic heroism, piety, and magnanimity, the fearless and faultless knight (le chevalier sans peur et sans reproche). His gaiety and kindness won him, even more frequently, another name bestowed by his contemporaries, le bon chevalier.

Monuments and memorials

  • Equestrian statue at Pontcharra (Isère).
  • Statue at Grenoble, place Saint-André.
  • Bayard Mausoleum, (1625), Saint-André Collegiate church at Grenoble.
  • Musée Bayard at the Château Bayard in Pontcharra.
  • Statue at Charleville-Mézières, inaugurated October 2005. An earlier statue was damaged during World War I and demolished by the Germans in World War II.
  • Statue in the Collège Stanislas de Paris
  • Statue in Saint-Denis
  • Statue in Sainte-Anne-d'Auray , an auto-mobile manufacturer of Mézières, was named in his honour and his image was incorporated in the logo. , an entrepreneur who created the Clément-Bayard auto-mobile company in honour of the knight in 1903, and then added Bayard to his family name in 1908.

In popular culture

Bayard is a recurring character in three novels by author Samuel Shellabarger:

The name Chevalier Bayard is used in reference to a character in Dashiell Hammett's The Dain Curse.

Patrick O'Brian's fighting captain Aubrey is compared by another character to Bayard in The Mauritius Command.


Legacy [ edit ]

As a soldier, Bayard was considered the epitome of chivalry and one of the most skillful commanders of the age. He was noted for the exactitude and completeness of his information on the enemy’s movements, which he obtained by careful reconnaissance and a well-arranged system of espionage. In the long history of mounted warfare, he rates highly as one of the greatest cavalry leaders of all time.

In the midst of mercenary armies, Bayard remained absolutely disinterested, and to his contemporaries and his successors, he was, with his romantic heroism, piety, and magnanimity, the fearless and faultless knight (le chevalier sans peur et sans reproche). His gaiety and kindness won him, even more frequently, another name bestowed by his contemporaries, le bon chevalier.

Monuments and memorials [ edit ]

  • Equestrian statue at Pontcharra (Isère)
  • Statue at Grenoble, place Saint-André
  • Bayard Mausoleum, (1625), Saint-André Collegiate church at Grenoble
  • Musée Bayard at the Chà¢teau Bayard in Pontcharra
  • Statue at Charleville-Mézières, inaugurated October 2005. An earlier statue was damaged during World War I and demolished by the Germans in World War II.
  • Statue in the Collège Stanislas de Paris
  • Statue in Saint-Denis
  • Statue in Sainte-Anne-d’Auray , an auto-mobile manufacturer of Mézières, was named in his honour and his image was incorporated in the logo. , an entrepreneur who created the Clément-Bayard automobile company in honour of the knight in 1903, and then added Bayard to his family name in 1908

In popular culture [ edit ]

Bayard is a recurring character in three novels by author Samuel Shellabarger:

The name Chevalier Bayard is used in reference to a character in Dashiell Hammett‘s The Dain Curse.

Patrick O’Brian‘s fighting captain Aubrey is compared by another character to Bayard in The Mauritius Command.

Phineas Finn compares the Duke of Omnium to Sir Bayard in Anthony Trollope’s novel The Prime Minister.

In Ford Madox Ford‘s 1915 novel Yaxshi askar, the character Edward Ashburnham is twice compared to Bayard.

Nick Burden refers to Colum McInnes as “the Bayard of the film world” in L. P. Hartley‘s 1951 novel My Fellow Devils.

Kino Sans peur et sans reproche directed in 1988 by Gérard Jugnot is based on him.

Louis Auchicloss mentions Chevalier Bayard in The Rector of Justin.


Tarixda tug'ilgan kunlar

    Luis de Camões, Portuguese poet (d. 1580) Albrecht Giese, German politician and diplomat (d. 1580) Charles de Guise, archbishop/cardinal of Reims

Selim II

May 28 Selim II "the blonde", 11th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1566-74, born in Constantinople, Ottoman Empire (d. 1574)

    Francois Hotman/Hotomanus, French lawyer and diplomat (Anti-Tribonien), born in Paris (d. 1590) Thomas Erastus, Swiss physician and theologist, born in Baden, Switzerland (d. 1583)

Peter Terrail, seigneur de Bayard. Pierre du Terrail, seigneur de Bayard.

Dates / Origin Date Issued: 1757 - 1772 Place: London Publisher: T. Jefferys Library locations The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Art & Architecture Collection Shelf locator: MMC+ (Collection of the dresses of different nations) Topics Costume -- History Men -- Clothing & dress -- France -- 1400-1499 Men -- Clothing & dress -- France -- 1500-1599 Bayard, Pierre Terrail, Seigneur de, ca. 1473-1524 Genres Prints Notes Content: Originally published in 1650 in Portraits of the illustrious persons of France. Physical Description Engravings Hand-colored Type of Resource Still image Languages English French Identifiers NYPL catalog ID (B-number): b14140320 Universal Unique Identifier (UUID): 69558570-c5fc-012f-b718-58d385a7bc34 Rights Statement The New York Public Library believes that this item is in the public domain under the laws of the United States, but did not make a determination as to its copyright status under the copyright laws of other countries. This item may not be in the public domain under the laws of other countries. Though not required, if you want to credit us as the source, please use the following statement, "From The New York Public Library," and provide a link back to the item on our Digital Collections site. Doing so helps us track how our collection is used and helps justify freely releasing even more content in the future.


The Battle of Garigliano

In the aftermath of the First Italian War, Cordoba overhauled the Spanish army. He reorganised his infantry by replacing the bulk of his swordand-buckler foot soldiers with pikemen and arquebusiers. His pike and shot troops were taught to manoeuvre over rough ground, resist cavalry attacks, and deliver shock attacks.

Charles VIII died in 1498 and was succeeded by Louis XII. Louis was keen on retaining some portion of the Kingdom of Naples and therefore proposed to Ferdinand that they divide the Kingdom of Naples between themselves. Pope Alexander, who condoned the agreement, conveniently deposed the Trastamara ruler of the kingdom. A treaty signed in 1500 gave Charles the northern part of the kingdom and Ferdinand the southern part.

Ferdinand, who became dissatisfied with the arrangement, went to war in 1502 to win control of the Kingdom of Naples for Spain. The French made the first strategic move when Louis d’Armagnac, Duke of Nemours, besieged Cordoba in the Apulian fortress of Barletta. After receiving a large body of reinforcements in early 1503, Cordoba seized the nearby French base at Cerignola.

Cordoba ordered his troops to widen a ditch at the base of the hilltop town. His men drove sharp stakes into the bottom of the ditch to prevent the enemy from crossing the ditch. The excavated dirt was then used to build a parapet behind the ditch.

As the French approached Cerignola, Cordoba deployed his 2,000 arquebusiers four ranks deep in the centre behind the parapet. To protect them, he placed 1,000 pikemen on each side of the arquebusiers. Any French troops near the ditch would be within the 40-metre range of the arquebusiers. Spanish guns on the hillside supported the troops behind the rampart.

Clash at Cerignola

Even with the field works the Spanish were in for a desperate battle. Nemours’s 9,000-strong army was nearly twice the size of Cordoba’s army however the various arms were not well integrated. The French right division consisted of lance-wielding heavy cavalry, the centre division was composed of mercenary Swiss pikemen, and the left division was made up of French and German crossbowmen.

Nemours attacked before his artillery had a chance to deploy. Cordoba’s Spanish jinetes screened the ditch so superbly that the French had no knowledge of the existence of a ditch until their heavy cavalry reached it.

The French cavalry attack stalled at the ditch. As Nemours looked for a way through the ditch he was slain by the arquebus fire. When the surviving French gendarmes withdrew from the ditch, the Swiss pikemen attacked with all of their fury. Although they tried desperately to fight their way into the Spanish position they could not breach the field works.

As the French army began withdrawing Cordoba launched a counterattack with his pikemen. The Spanish swept the field, inflicting 5,000 casualties on the French at the loss of a few hundred Spanish troops.

Stalemate on the Garigliano

The remnant of Nemours’s army withdrew to the safety of the citadel at Gaeta to await the arrival of a new French army. King Charles XII sent 20,000 French troops overland to Naples and gave overall command of the army to Italian Condottiero Francesco II Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua. Meanwhile Cordoba took possession of the city of Naples on 13 May 1503.

Cordoba deployed his 12,000 troops behind the Garigliano River in October to block the anticipated French advance against Spanish held Naples. As expected Mantua marched south only to find Cordoba’s army heavily entrenched on the south bank.

After his pioneers laid a pontoon bridge over the lower Garigliano, Mantua established a tete de pont on the far bank in early November, but Cordoba bottled up the forces in the bridgehead. When Mantua was stricken with a fever command devolved to Marquis Ludovico II of Saluzzo.

A six-week stalemate followed. Troops on both sides suffered acute hardship encamped on the marshy ground during the rainy season. While Cordoba remained at the battlefront with his troops throughout this time, the high-ranking French commanders billeted themselves in comfortable quarters in nearby towns. Believing the Spanish would remain on the defensive the French did not keep a close watch on the Spanish.

Flank attack

Spanish ally Condottiero Bartolomeo d’Alviano reinforced Cordoba’s army with 5,400 troops in mid-December. In preparation for a surprise attack on the French army Cordoba instructed his chief engineer, Pedro Navarro, to construct a pontoon bridge that could be deployed in a matter of hours when needed.

In a driving rain in the pre-dawn darkness of 29 December Navarro’s pioneers laid the bridge on a narrow portion of the swollen river opposite the extreme left flank of the French army.

For the surprise attack Cordoba had organised his army into three divisions. Alviano led the vanguard, Cordoba led the centre division, and Fernando Andrada commanded the rearguard. Alviano’s Italian troops streamed across the bridge at dawn while the French and Swiss foot soldiers were fast asleep in their huts. His light cavalry swept past the disorganised French infantry and turned east to secure the village of Castleforte to prevent the French from using it as a strongpoint. Believing the day was lost the troops on the French left streamed north towards Gaeta.

Cordoba then led his mounted Spanish men-at-arms and pikemen across the pontoon bridge to the north bank. He caught the French centre in the flank and dislodged it from the river line. At that point Saluzzo ordered a general retreat to Gaeta. A heroic French nobleman, Pierre Terrail, Seigneur de Bayard, began rallying the retreating French at a defile between the mountains and the sea near the village of Formia.

Meanwhile Andrade crossed the French bridge on the lower Garigliano and captured most of the French artillery since the French gendarmes had fled north to Formia.

Up to that point there had only been light fighting, but the two sides became locked in furious combat for an hour at the defile. When Andrada’s troops arrived to reinforce the Spanish forces already engaged at Formia, it proved too much for the French. Those French soldiers who had not been taken prisoner proceeded west to Gaeta.

Viceroy of Naples

On 1 January 1504 the French capitulated. Cordoba freed his French prisoners on the condition that they return home by sea. At the end of the month, Charles XII and Ferdinand of Aragon signed the Treaty of Lyon by which Charles ceded the Kingdom of Naples to Spain. In appreciation for the military achievement of defeating the French, King Ferdinand made Cordoba the Viceroy of Naples.

Isabella, who had always championed Cordoba, died in November 1504. Ferdinand who grew jealous of Cordoba’s reputation recalled him to Spain in 1507. He was called out of retirement in 1512 to command the Spanish forces in Italy after a major reverse at the hands of the French at Ravenna during the War of the League of Cambrai. Three years later, at the age of 62, he returned to Spain stricken with malaria. He died at Granada on 1 December 1515.

Cordoba’s genius lay in his ability to correct the shortcomings of his forces by adopting the best tactical concepts of his enemies. He readily embraced the greater use of firearms in the belief that they would transform infantry tactics. In this he was correct, for his initial integration of shot and pike troops laid the foundation for the Spanish tercios. From a geopolitical standpoint his decisive victories in the First and Second Italian Wars enabled Spain to control Sicily and southern Italy for two centuries.

Pierre Terrail, seigneur de Bayard (1474-1524)

Nobleman, military leader Known in legend and tradition as “chevalier sans peur et sans reproche” (fearless and blameless knight), Pierre Terrail, seigneur de Bayard, considered a model of chivalry, was born in Dauphiné, near GRENOBLE. As a young soldier, he came to the attention of CHARLES VIII, and was knighted for his bravery after the battle of Fornovo in Italy (1495). He was cited for contributing to LOUIS XII’s conquest of Milanais (1499-1500) and distinguished himself in the defense of the bridge at Garigliano (1503) against a Spanish force, and in the battle against the Venetians at Agnadel (1509). Such was Bayard’s reputation for valor that several incredible stories were told of him, including one in which he singlehandedly defended a bridge against 200 of the enemy. He was captured twice, but his chivalrous character and reputation secured his release without a ransom payment. During the war between FRANCIS I of France and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Bayard held the fortress town of Mezieres with only 1,000 men for six weeks, against a force of 35,000. He also played a part in the decisive victory of Marignan (1515). Bayard was mortally wounded while covering the retreat at the Sesia River in Italy.


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