Jeyms V, Shotlandiya xronologiyasi

Jeyms V, Shotlandiya xronologiyasi



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  • 1512 yil 10 aprel

    Shotlandiyalik Jeyms V Linlitgo saroyida tug'ilgan.

  • 1513 - 1542

  • 1513 yil 21 sentyabr

  • 1528 yil may

    Shotlandiyalik Jeyms V hokimiyatni tugatdi va o'z -o'zidan hukmronlik qildi.

  • 1532

    Shotlandiyalik Jeyms V Adliya kollejiga asos soladi.

  • 1536 - 1537

    Shotlandiyalik Jeyms V Fransiyaga etti oyga tashrif buyuradi.

  • 1537

    Shotlandiyalik Jeyms V Angus grafining singlisi Ledi Glamisni olovda yondirishni qoralaydi.

  • 1537 yil 1 yanvar

    Shotlandiyalik Jeyms V Frantsisk I Frensisning qizi Madlen de Valoisga uylanadi.

  • v. 1538

    Shotlandiyalik Jeyms V saroy binosini Stirling qal'asiga qo'shib qo'ydi.

  • 1538 yil 12 -iyun

    Shotlandiyalik Jeyms V ikkinchi xotini Giza Maryamga uylanadi.

  • 1541 yil sentyabr

    Shotlandiyalik Jeyms V tinchlik shartnomasini muhokama qilish uchun Yorkda Angliya Genrix VIII bilan uchrashishdan bosh tortdi.

  • 1542 yil 24 -noyabr

    Ingliz kuchlari Shotlandiya chegarasidagi Solvey Mossda shotlandlarni mag'lub etdi.

  • 1542 yil 8 -dekabr

    Meri, Shotlandiya qirolichasi, Shotlandiya Jeyms V va Giz Meri tug'ilgan.

  • 1542 yil 14 -dekabr

    Shotlandiyalik Jeyms V Folklend saroyida kasallikdan vafot etdi.


Jeyms V Shotlandiya xronologiyasi - Tarix

Chiziqlarning kengligi va chuqurligi o'zgarib turadigan ranglarni o'zgartirish orqali farqlar paydo bo'ladi. Tartan naqshlari & quotsetts & quot deb nomlanadi, bu to'liq naqsh bo'lib, tartan uzunligi naqshni takrorlash yoki qayta -qayta o'rnatish orqali amalga oshiriladi.

Ko'p ming yillar davomida Keltlar katak yoki chiziqli mato to'qilganligi ma'lum va bu qadimiy namunalarning bir nechtasi Evropa va Skandinaviyada topilgan. To'qimachilikning bu shakli Shimoliy Britaniyaning g'arbiy qismiga temir davri keltlari bilan kelgan deb ishoniladi Skoti 5-6 -asrlarda Irlandiyadan (skotslar). Miloddan avvalgi

Dastlabki rimliklar kelt qabilalari yorqin chiziqli kiyim kiyganlari haqida gapirishgan - o'sha paytda shashka haqida hech qanday so'z yo'q edi. Shotlandiyada topilgan tartanning eng qadimgi namunalaridan biri miloddan avvalgi III asrga to'g'ri keladi, u erda loydan yasalgan idishda tiqin sifatida ishlatilgan Falkirk tartani (hozir Shotlandiya milliy muzeyida) deb nomlanuvchi jun chekning kichik namunasi topilgan. kumush tangalar xazinasini Falkirk yaqinidagi Antonin devorining yonida ko'milgan. Bu oddiy ikki rangli chek yoki tartan bo'lib, u mahalliy Soay qo'ylarining bo'yalmagan jigarrang va oqi sifatida tanilgan. Ranglar bo'yoqlar uchun ishlatilishi mumkin bo'lgan mahalliy o'simliklar tomonidan aniqlangan.

Tartan tarixidagi navbatdagi muhim bosqich 1745 yildagi Kulloden jangi bilan tugagan 1745 yilgi qo'zg'olon va tog'li hududlarda sodir bo'lgan genotsid edi. Romantik Yosh Pretender, Charlz Edvard Styuart - Bonni shahzoda Charli - Kamberland gersogi hukumat kuchlariga qarshi o'zining past darajadagi yakobit tog'li tog'li kuchlari. Yoqub armiyasi klan polklari va tarixchi sifatida tashkil etilgan Jeymi Skarlett tushuntiradi & quot; bizda tartanni klan formasi sifatida ishlatish haqida birinchi maslahat bor. & quot Qanday qilib bu jang buyuk klan -tortan afsonasining katalizatori bo'lganini tushunish uchun, biz o'sha paytda Shotlandiyaning ko'plab yirik oilalari yoki klanlari yashagan turmush tarziga va hududiga qarashimiz kerak.

Agar klandan tortanlar tushunchasi Kulodenda tug'ilgan bo'lsa, bu hammaga ma'lum emas edi - o'sha jangda u kiygan tartandan do'stini dushmanidan ajrata olmasdi. Yagona ishonchli usul - bu qanday tasma bilan ko'rish edi - novdasi Bir oz o'simlik - har bir jangchi o'z kapotini bezatgan edi, bu klanga mansubligini ko'rsatish uchun farq qiladi. Bu bugun Shotlandiya Heraldryida "O'simlik nishoni" sifatida tasvirlangan bo'lib, uni izdoshlari o'z Boshlig'iga sodiqligini ko'rsatish uchun taqishadi. Bunga qarama -qarshi fikrlar borki, bu klan -tortanlarning yo'qligi emas, balki tog'li hududning og'ir filamxorini (belbog'li plaid) jangga kirishdan oldin tashlab yuborish moyilligidan kelib chiqqan.

Culloden va tog'li hududlarda sodir bo'lgan quyidagi genotsiddan so'ng, hukumat klan tizimini yo'q qilishga qaror qildi va "Qurolsizlantirish to'g'risidagi qonun" deb nomlangan parlament aktini chiqardi. Keyingi 36 yil 1782 yilgacha. Bu cheklov faqat tog'li oddiy erkaklarga taalluqli edi - tog'li jamiyatning yuqori pog'onalariga emas, pasttekislik shotlandlarga va ayollarga emas. Ammo eng muhimi, bu hukumat armiyasida tuzilayotgan tog'li polklarga taalluqli emas edi.

Klan identifikatsiyasi va Tartan

Uilsonning tortanlari 1746 yilgacha bo'lgan har qanday qadimiy mintaqaviy naqshlar bilan hech qanday aloqasi yo'qligiga hech qanday dalil yo'q. Sherifmuir yoki Kulloden janglarida kiyilgan tartanlar deyarli barchasi abadiy yo'qolgan. 1816 yilda Klanni "haqiqiy" Tartanga moslashtirishga urinishdi. Tartanlar yig'ilgan edi, lekin ular polk formasi va Uilsonning muvaffaqiyatli marketingiga har qanday eski naqshlardan ko'ra ko'proq bog'liq edi. Ammo Tartan va Klan juftlashgan degan fikr mustahkam o'rnashdi.

bu uzoq davom etgan qatag'on davridan keyin Londonda (1778) va Edinburgda (1780) yangidan tashkil topgan Highland jamiyatlari tomonidan rag'batlantirildi.

Sir Vater Skottning shaxsiy rejasi tufayli, 1822 yil qirol Jorj IV Edinburgga tashrif buyurganida, tog'li boshliqlar o'zlarining klan tartanlarida kiyingan live va boshqa tadbirlarga ko'ndirilganini ko'rishgan (ba'zilari bormagan). Deyarli bir kechada tartan mashhur bo'lib ketdi va ilgari hech qachon tortan kiymagan (va tog'lilardan nafratlangan) oilalar tartanlar oilasining mag'rur egalariga aylanishdi. Bu Ser Uolterning romanlaridagi Tartan haqidagi romantizm bilan bir qatorda, bu Klan va Tartanning sinonim bo'lishiga yordam berdi.

GENTLEMEN - TARTAN
Mana!
Uning jangovar yorqinligi,
Sariq, yashil,
Oq, ko'k,
Burilish, uning rangi,
Qorong'i, qizil,
Uning har bir ipi.

So'nggi ellik yil ichida tartan bir necha yirik tegirmonlar hukmronlik qiladigan ko'p millionli funtli sanoatga aylandi. Bugungi kunda tartan har yili to'qimachilik tarixida o'ziga xos o'rin egallaydi va butun Shotlandiya xalqining madaniy o'ziga xosligini, kilt va torbalar bilan birga ramziy ma'noda keladi.

Merdok Maklin o'z she'rida unutgan narsa bu ediBundan faxrlaning


Abernethy yaqinidagi tanlangan diqqatga sazovor joylar

Pert – ‘Tog'li joylar darvozasi ’

Pertning "Fair yarmarkasi" va baland tog'lari va sayoz daryosi Tay orqali oqib o'tadigan shahar, Uolter Skottni qalam yozishga ilhomlantirgan shahar, "o'z navbatida Bizetni ilhomlantirgan" opera Bir vaqtlar Shotlandiya poytaxti, Jeyms I tomonidan juda yaxshi ko'rilgan, Pert boy tarixga ega, yaxshi yashaydigan okrug shahri muhitiga ega.

Pertning shimoli -sharqida Kinnoul tepaligi joylashgan bo'lib, unga qisqa masofada va yarim millik o'rmonzor bo'ylab, avtoturargohdan (qisman tik) yoki shahardan 40 daqiqalik piyoda borish mumkin. Panoramik manzaralar Pertning sharqiy chekkasida, Tay daryosi va Govri Karzasida joylashgan. Kinnoul tepaligidagi Branklyn bog'lari (hammaga ochiq) mamlakatning eng yaxshi ikki gektarlik xususiy bog'i sifatida tasvirlangan.

Ajoyib xaridlar, kafe va restoranlar dam olish maskani sifatida Perthning jozibasini oshiradi.

Skone saroyi (talaffuz qilinadi)

42 Shotlandiya qiroli toj kiygan Shotlandiya va "Taqdir toshi" ning asl uyi. 9 -asrdan boshlab barcha Shotlandiya hukmdorlari toj kiygan mashhur Moot tepaligidagi ulug'vor joylar. An'anaga ko'ra, 1296 yilda Angliyalik Edvard I Taqdir toshini olib tashlaganidan keyin ham davom etdi va eski bashoratlar hukmronlik qilishi kerak, bu tosh qaerda topiladi va 1603 yilda Shotlandiya Jeyms VI ingliz taxtini egallaganida amalga oshdi. Mansfild Erlzining oilaviy uyi. Pertdan atigi 2 mil uzoqlikda joylashgan.

Folklend qirollik saroyi

Abernetidan tepaliklar bo'ylab qisqa masofada sayohat sizni Shotlandiyada birinchi tabiatni muhofaza qilish hududi bo'lgan ajoyib saroyi bo'lgan go'zal go'zal shaharcha Folklendning Burg shahriga olib boradi. Saroyda dunyodagi yagona va Buyuk Britaniyadagi eng qadimiy yagona qirollik tennis korti joylashgan. U 1539 yilda qirol Jeyms V uchun qurilgan va bu sudning yagona misolidir. XV asr oxirida qurib bitkazilgan saroy ajoyib bog'lar bilan o'ralgan ajoyib bino. Shotlandiya milliy trasti tomonidan saqlanadi.

Loch Leven.

1567 yilda Shotlandiya qirolichasi Maryam mashhur baliq ovi baliq ovining o'rtasida joylashgan oroldagi qal'aga surgun qilindi. Bu erga Kinrossdagi Kirkgeyt parkidan kichik parom orqali borish mumkin.

Ov minorasi qal'asi

Qal'ali saroy, dastlab Rutven grafining ov joyi. Sharqiy minoraning birinchi qavatidagi yog'ochdan yasalgan shift - bu 1540 yillarning eng qadimiylaridan biri. G'arbiy minora garretidagi kabutar.

Abernetining fotosuratlari (tartibda) Rob Burk va Lis Burk. Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 umumiy litsenziyasi ostida litsenziyalangan.


5) 1745

Ko'p skotslar ittifoqning afzalliklariga ishonishmadi va yangi siyosiy kelishuvdan norozi bo'lganlar Styuart monarxiyasini tiklash urinishlari atrofida to'planishdi.

Yakobitlar, ular deyilganidek, Charlz Edvard Styuart Britaniya taxtini qaytarib olish uchun Shotlandiyaga qo'nganida, eng yaxshi zarbani berishdi.

1745 yilda Shotlandiyaning ozchilik qismi uning ishini qo'llab -quvvatladilar. Yana bir ozchilik Gannover monarxiyasini ag'darishga qarshi edi. Boshqalar, ehtimol ko'pchilik, hech bir tomonni qo'llab -quvvatlamaslikni tanladilar.

Valiahd kuchlari puxta tayyorgarlik ko'rmagan va Prestonpans jangidan keyin Charlz Shotlandiyani samarali nazorat qilgan.

Bu g'alabani Angliyaga etkazish urinishi Derbida to'xtadi. Yakobit kuchlari tomonidan Angliyadan birinchi chekinish tartibli ish edi, lekin keyingi yili ular Kulodenda ingliz armiyasi bilan to'qnash kelganda, mag'lubiyat hal qiluvchi va qonli edi.

Charlzni qo'llab -quvvatlaganlar, ayniqsa tog'li klanlar, shafqatsizlarcha bostirildi.

Charlzning o'zi 22 yil o'tib Italiyada o'limidan oldin ichkilikbozlikdan voz kechdi.

Britaniyaning Shotlandiyadagi hukmronligi yana kuch bilan jiddiy e'tiroz bildirmadi.


Kashf qilinmagan Shotlandiya

1600 yil 5 -avgust: Govri fitnasi paytida Pertdagi Gowri oilasi tomonidan Jeyms VI va 39 -chi odamlarning hayotiga urinish qilingan. Boshqalar, bu qirolning oilaga toj uchun qarzi bo'lgan 80,000 funtni to'lamaslik uchun qilingan fitna edi, deb taxmin qilishadi.

1600 yil 19 -noyabr: Dunfermlayn saroyida bo'lajak qirol Charlz I tug'ilishi.

1603 yil 7 -fevral: Glen Fruin jangi Loch Lomond yaqinida, Klan Gregor va Klanxolun o'rtasida bo'lib o'tadi. Kolxun klani va ularning ittifoqchilari bo'lgan 200 ga yaqin odam o'ldirilgan, Gregor klanidagi qurbonlar esa yengil.

1603 yil 24 mart: Angliya qirolichasi Yelizaveta I vafot etdi. Ikki kundan so'ng, Edinburgdagi 36 yoshli Shotlandiyalik Jeyms VIga, u hozir Angliya qiroli Jeyms I bo'lgani haqida xabar keladi. U o'zini "Buyuk Britaniya qiroli" va "34", Shotlandiya va Angliya tojlari Styuartlar sulolasi ostida birlashtirilgan, garchi familiyasi tobora "34 Styuart" deb yozilsa.

1603 yil 3 aprel: Shotlandiya qiroli Jeyms VI Angliyaning Jeyms I bo'lish uchun janubdan Londonga ko'chib o'tadi. U har uch yilda qaytib kelishga va'da beradi, lekin o'limigacha 22 yilda atigi bir marta Shotlandiyaga qaytadi.

1609 yil: To'qqizta tog'li boshliqlar dengiz kemasida asirga olindi va faqat Gael tili va madaniyatiga putur etkazish uchun mo'ljallangan dasturga rozi bo'lganlarida Iona orolidan ozod qilindi.

1609: Jeyms I/VI tinchlantirish vositasi sifatida Ulsterga skots protestantlarini ekishni boshladi.

1611: Shotlandiya protestantlari tomonidan ingliz tilidagi King James Injilining qo'llanilishi Gael tilining zaiflashishiga yordam beradi.

1614: Jon Napier "Logarifmlarning ajoyib kanonining ta'rifi" ni nashr etadi.

1614 yil 23 -avgust: Orknining 2 -chi grafi Patrik Styuartning o'g'li Robert Styuart qo'zg'olonini bostirish uchun Orkniga Keyts Grafi qo'mondonligi ostidagi kuchlar qo'ndi.

1615 yil 6 -fevral: Orknining 2 -chi grafi Patrik Styuart o'g'lining Orknidagi qo'zg'olonidan keyin xiyonat qilgani uchun boshi kesilgan.

1616: Shotlandiya cherkovi har bir cherkovda bolalarga "xudojo'ylik va bilim" ni o'rgatish uchun maktablar ochadi va "odamlarning barbarligi va madaniyatsizligining asosiy sababi" deb hisoblaydigan Gael tilida emas, balki ingliz tilida o'qish va yozishni o'rgatadi. "

1617 yil 15 mart: Jeyms I/VI 1603 yilda Angliya qiroli bo'lganidan beri Shotlandiyaga birinchi tashrifi uchun shimolga sayohat qiladi.

1617 yil 4 -aprel: Edinburgda Jon Napierning o'limi, logarifmlarni ixtiro qilgan, hisob -kitob mashinasini ishlab chiqargan va matematikaning o'nli kasrining manfaatlarini ta'minlash uchun ko'p ish qilgan katta matematik.

1619 yil 2 mart: London yaqinidagi Xempton sud saroyida vafot etdi, Daniya Annasi, Angliya qiroli Jeyms I va VI Shotlandiya qirolichasi.

1623 yil 5 aprel: Jorj Keyt vafot etdi, 5 -chi Earl Marischal, Marischal kollejiga asos solgan nufuzli Shotlandiya zodagonlari, Aberdin.

1624 yil 12 -fevral: Londonda Goldsmit va xayriyachi Jorj Heriotning o'limi.

1625 yil 27 mart: Qirol Jeyms I/VI 58 yoshida vafot etdi. Uning to'ng'ich o'g'li knyaz Genri 1612 yilda vafot etgan, shuning uchun Jeymsning o'rniga uning kenja o'g'li Charlz keladi. Charlz I 24 yoshda va qirol bo'lish haqida ko'p narsa bilmaydi: faqat Xudodan hukmronlik qilish ilohiy huquq bilan birga keladi, deb hisoblaydi.

1625 yil 6 -may: Fayfadagi Kulrosda ko'mir qazib olishning yuqori innovatsion tizimini ishlab chiqqan dastlabki sanoatchi, Karnokdan ser Jorj Bryus vafot etdi.

1625 yil 13 -iyun: qirol Charlz I Frantsiya qiroli Genrix IV ning qizi Anrietta Mariyaga uylanadi.

1630 yil 29 may: Londonda bo'lajak qirol Charlz II ning tug'ilishi.

1633 yil: Charlz I Shotlandiyaga Shotlandiya qiroli sifatida taxtga o'tirish uchun keladi, Shotlandiya cherkovida ko'pchilikni xavotirga solish uchun to'liq anglikan marosimlaridan foydalanadi.

1633 yil 24 aprel: Ser Jon Xepbernga Shotlandiyada erkaklar jasadini Frantsiyada xizmat qilish uchun qirollik buyrug'i berilgan. Bu polk Shotlandiya qiroli deb nomlanadi.

1633 yil 18 -iyun: Sent -Geyls soborida qirol Charlz I ning taxtga o'tirishi Anglikan xizmati bilan birga keladi, bu kelgusi mojaroning alomati.

1637 yil 23-iyul: Edinburgdagi Sent-Gilz soborida tartibsizliklar boshlandi, Jenny Geddes ismli ko'cha sotuvchisi, qirol Charlz I tomonidan yangi qo'llanilgan namoz kitobidan foydalanishga urinib, dekanga najas tashlaganida. butun Buyuk Britaniyada.

1638 yil 28 -fevral: Milliy pakt, minglab skotslar tomonidan imzolandi. U Charlz I ning o'zboshimchalik bilan va Shohlik miqyosidagi yondashuviga qarshi o'ziga xos Shotlandiya madaniy va diniy amaliyotlarini saqlab qolishga intiladi.

1638 yil 21-noyabr: Shotlandiya cherkovining Bosh assambleyasi bir oylik yig'ilishni Glazgoda boshlaydi, Shotlandiyadagi qirol lord oliy komissari, Hamilton Markiz uni tarqatib yuborishga harakat qilsa ham. Uchrashuvni davom ettirib, Assambleyaning a'zolari o'zlarini qirolga qarshi isyonchilar deb e'lon qilishadi.

1639 yil may: Ahd urushlari Birinchi episkoplar va#39 urushi bilan boshlanadi. Jang Shotlandiyaning shimoli -sharqida joylashgan. Covenanters uchun Montrose markasi Aberdinni egallaydi va qirollik qo'mondoni, Hunts markasi qo'lga olinadi. Huntly ' ning o'g'li 19 -iyun kuni Brig o ' Dee -da kaltaklandi. Angliya va Ulsterdagi Charlz I va#39 kuchlarining va'dasi amalga oshmadi.

1639 yil 18-iyun: Qirol Charlz va#39 ingliz qo'shinlari Bervik-apid-Tvidga etib kelishdi, lekin ancha katta Shotlandiya armiyasi bilan to'qnash kelganda, u sulhga rozi bo'ldi.

1639 yil sentyabr: Shotlandiya va#34 erkin parlamenti#34 Bosh assambleyaning o'tgan yilgi qarorlarini tasdiqlaydi.


Jeyms V Shotlandiya xronologiyasi - Tarix

Keng tarqalgan Shotlandiya
Tarixiy Shotlandiya janglari


Asrlar mobaynida Shotlandiyaning rivojlanish yo'nalishiga uning tuprog'ida yoki Angliya chegarasida sodir bo'lgan ko'plab janglar natijasi ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Shonli g'alabalar va dahshatli mag'lubiyatlar bor edi. Ko'pchilik, lekin hamma janglar ham inglizlarga qarshi o'tkazilmagan. Aytish kerakki, shotlandlar o'z qo'shnilariga hujum qilib, musobaqani boshlashlari noma'lum edi!

Bu 40 ta to'qnashuvlarning keng ro'yxati ushbu janglarning ko'pini tasvirlab beradi va hamma hollarda boshqa veb -saytlarga havolalar mavjud, bu erda siz ko'proq bilib olishingiz mumkin.

Aldearn jangi - 1645 yil
Nairndan ikki chaqirim narida joylashgan Auldearnda lagerda bo'lganida, Montrose Dyukasi Kovenanterlarning katta kuchidan hayratda qoldi, lekin ular jang qilib, ularni mag'lub etdi. Kovenanter armiyasi o'sha kuni 2000 kishini yo'qotdi.

Ancrum Moor jangi - 1545 yil
"Qo'pol vuing" paytida Angliya qiroli Genrix VIII Shotlandiya qirolichasi Maryamni o'g'liga uylanishga ko'ndirmoqchi bo'lganida, ingliz qo'shini Shotlandiya chegaralariga bostirib kirib, Melroz Abbeyni vayron qildi. Bosqinchilar Ancrum Murda Duglas, Lesli, Lindsay va Skotlardan tashkil topgan, atigi yarmi kuch bilan mag'lub bo'lishdi.

Bannokbern jangi - 1314 yil
Stirling qal'asini yengillashtirish uchun yurgan Edvard II boshchiligidagi ingliz qo'shinini Stirling yaqinidagi Bannok Bernda qirol Robert Bryus kutib oldi. O'ziga ishongan ingliz armiyasi kuchli mag'lubiyatga uchradi, 3/4000 askarini yo'qotdi, Shotlandiya qurbonlari engil edi. Qirol Eduard II Angliyaga qaytib ketdi.

Flodden jangi - 1513 yil
Qirol Jeyms V 1503 yilda Genrix VII ning qizi Margaret Tudorga uylanganida, u Shotlandiya va Angliya o'rtasida "Abadiy tinchlik shartnomasi" ni imzolagan edi. Ammo Angliya qiroli Genrix VIII Frantsiyaga bostirib kirganida, Jeyms Frantsiya bilan "Auld Ittifoqi" ni yangilagan edi. Jeymsga chora ko'rishga hojat yo'q edi, lekin shunga qaramay qisman Angliyaga kirdi, chunki Genrix VIII Shotlandiya hukmdori bo'lishni da'vo qilib eski yaralarni ochib qo'ydi, bu esa Shotlandiya va qirolni g'azablantirdi. Papa Jeymsni Angliya bilan tuzgan tinchlik shartnomalarini buzgani uchun ruhoniy tanqid bilan qo'rqitdi va keyinchalik Jeyms chetlatildi. Kichik muvaffaqiyatlardan so'ng, u 1513 yil 9 sentyabrda Floddenda ingliz qo'shinlari bilan uchrashdi. Bu jang Shotlandiya armiyasi boshidan kechirgan eng og'ir mag'lubiyat edi, qirol va Shotlandiya zodagonlarining gullari - kamida o'nta quloq, son -sanoqsiz lordlar va taxmin qilinishicha, tog'li va pasttekisliklardan 10 ming skotslik o'lgan.

Bothwell ko'prigi jangi - 1679 yil
Monmut gersogi va Klaverxaus Grem boshchiligidagi 10 ming hukumat kuchlari Hamiltonga yig'ilgan 6000 ta Covenanterni tarqatib yuborishdi.

Boyne jangi - 1690 yil
Frantsuz Lui XIV tomonidan ta'minlangan moliya va qo'shinlardan foydalanib, Jeyms VII o'z taxtini qaytarib olish uchun oxirgi urinishni amalga oshirdi. U Irlandiyaga etib keldi, u erda katolik jamoasining ko'plab tarafdorlari bor edi. Qirol Uilyam (apelsinlik) yakubitlardan ko'p bo'lgan 30 ming kishilik armiyani shaxsan boshqargan. Jeyms Dublin tomon yurganida, qo'shinlar Drogedaning g'arbida, Boyne daryosida uchrashishdi. Jeyms mag'lubiyatga uchradi va Frantsiyaga qaytib ketdi.

Braes jangi - 1882 yil
Garchi Shotlandiya tuprog'idagi boshqa janglar kabi bir ligada bo'lmasa ham, o'sha paytda Braes jangi ko'p shuhrat qozondi. Bu Portli yaqinidagi Braesda o'tirgan bir guruh sherif ofitseriga chaqiruv qog'ozini berishga ruxsat berishdan bosh tortganida, Tog'li "Tozaliklar" doirasida paydo bo'lgan. "Qo'zg'olon" ni bostirish uchun Glazgo shahrining 50 nafar politsiyachisi yuborildi va Braesda jang bo'lib o'tdi. Keyingi sud ishlari ko'pchilikning e'tiborini tortdi va qishloq xo'jaliklari duch kelayotgan muammolarni yoritishga yordam berdi.

Carberry Hill jangi - 1567 yil
Shotlandiya qirolichasi Meri va Morton grafi Jeyms Duglas boshchiligidagi lordlar qo'shini o'rtasidagi qarama -qarshilik. Lordlar Maryamning eri Lord Bervelni hibsga olmoqchi edilar, chunki ular ishonishicha, ikkisi ham Maryamning ikkinchi eri lord Darnli o'ldirilishida ishtirok etgan. Uzoq muzokaralardan so'ng (haqiqiy jang bo'lmagan) Meri rozi bo'ldi, lekin Bothwell Orkneyga qochib ketdi. Bir necha kundan keyin Meri Loch Leven qal'asida qamoqqa tashlandi.

Karxem jangi - 1018 yil
Shotlandiya qiroli Malkolm II tomonidan qo'lga olingan Lotianni qaytarib olmoqchi bo'lgan Nortumberlend armiyasi Tvid daryosi bo'yidagi Karxemda Malkom bilan to'qnashuvga uchradi. Shotlandlar g'alaba qozonishdi va bundan keyin Tvid daryosi Shotlandiya va Angliya chegarasi sifatida qabul qilindi.

Klanlar jangi - 1396 yil
Chattan va Kaye klanlari o'rtasidagi bahsni hal qilish uchun qirol Robert III ikki klan vakillarini Pertdagi Shimoliy dyuymdagi janglarda uchrashishni tashkil qildi. Podshoh, uning xizmatkorlari va katta olomon tomonidan kuzatilgan, Kaye klani yo'q qilindi - go'yoki faqat bittasi tirik qoldi, ular yaqin atrofdagi Tay daryosi bo'ylab suzishdi.

Kuloden jangi - 1746 yil
Yakoblar qo'zg'olonining 1745/46 yillardagi oxirgi jangi. Shahzoda Charlz Eduard Styuartning asosan Highlandlardan tashkil topgan armiyasi Kamberlend gersogi tomonidan qattiq mag'lubiyatga uchrab, "Yosh da'vogar" ning Styuartlar sulolasi taxtini qaytarib olish ambitsiyalariga barham berdi.

Dunbar jangi, 1296 yil
Angliya qiroli Eduard I o'z qo'g'irchog'i qirol Jonga (Balliol) Frantsiyada jang qilish uchun skots qo'shinlarini etkazib berishni buyurganida, parlament bunga ruxsat bermadi va Balliolni sodiqligidan voz kechishga majbur qildi. Edvard darhol Shotlandiyaga bostirib kirib, Bervikni qo'lga kiritdi va bir necha hafta o'tgach, Dunbar tashqarisidagi jangda Shotlandiya armiyasini tor -mor etdi. Qo'lga olingan Shotlandiya zodagonlarining ko'pchiligi garovga olish uchun janubga yuborilgan.

Dunbar jangi - 1650 yil
Oliver Kromvel Shotlandiyaga kirib keldi, dastlab qirol Charlz I ning ta'qibida sharqiy qirg'oq bo'ylab kemalar tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlangan 16000 kishidan iborat Shotlandiya armiyasi Devid Lesli boshchiligida Leyt portini egallashga urinishlarini puchga chiqardi va Kromvel Dunbarga nafaqaga chiqdi. Ta'qib qilayotgan Shotlandiya armiyasi jangga yaxshi tayyorgarlik ko'rmagan va Kromvel g'alaba qozonibgina qolmay, balki Shotlandiya pasttekisligining ko'p qismini egallab olgan.

Dunkeld jangi - 1689 yil
Ajoyib Jeyms Grem, Viskount Dandi, Killiecrankie vafotidan so'ng, yakobitlar armiyasida sifat etakchisi yo'q edi. Avgust oyida 5000 ta klanlar Kameroniyaliklarning hukumat kuchlari qo'lidagi Dunkeldga hujum qilishdi. Ular shahar bo'ylab orqaga qarshi kurashda qat'iyat bilan jang qilishdi va bu jarayonda ko'plab hujumchi yakobitlarni o'ldirishdi. Oxir -oqibat, yakobliklar chekinishdi va qish boshlanishi bilan tog'liklar tarqalib ketishdi. Keyingi yili Shimoliy Irlandiyadagi Boyn jangida qirol Jeyms VII mag'lubiyatga uchrashi bilan, Dunkeld 17 -asrda Shotlandiyada Styuartlarni taxtga qaytarish uchun oxirgi jang bo'ldi.

Dunnixen jangi - 685 yil
Agar piktlar qiroli Bryuid 685 yil 20 -mayda Shimoliyumbriya qiroli Ecgfritning bosqinini yengmaganida, Shotlandiya alohida millat sifatida vujudga kelmagan bo'lar edi. Northumbrianslar allaqachon Fort daryosining janubidagi Lotiangacha etib borgan va Gododdinni mag'lubiyatga uchratgan va Piktlarning janubiy erlarini bo'ysundirgan edi. Piktalar "Manau" tekisligida (Grangemut yaqinida) jiddiy mag'lubiyatga uchrashdi va 12 yil o'tib, shimoliy shimoliylarning katta kuchi Piktlar yurtiga kirib keldi. Ammo Dunnixen atrofidagi mahalliy ma'lumotlardan foydalanib (keyingi janubiy tarixchilar Nechtansmere nomi bilan tanilgan), piktlar katta g'alabani qo'lga kiritib, shimoliy shimoliylarning oldinga siljishini tugatdi.

Dupplin Moor jangi - 1332 yil
1314 yilda Bannokbernning mag'lubiyati Edvard III bilan tenglashdi va u Edvard Balliol (Jon Balliolning o'g'li) boshchiligidagi surgun qilingan Shotlandiya zodagonlarini ingliz qiroli etkazib bergan kemalar yordamida Shotlandiyaga bostirib kirishga undadi. Kinghornga qo'nish amalga oshirildi, lekin ular qirol Devid II ozligida Shotlandiya regenti bo'lgan Marning qulog'i Donald boshchiligidagi Shotlandiya kuchlari bilan to'qnash kelishdi. Balliol muvaffaqiyatli bo'ldi, Mar, Menteyt va Morayning quloqlarini va 2000 himoyachini o'ldirdi. Balliol taxtni faqat o'sha yili Morayning qulog'i bo'lgan yangi Regent tomonidan ag'darilishi uchun da'vo qildi.

Falkirk jangi - 1298 yil
1297 yil sentyabr oyida Uollesning Stirling ko'prigidagi g'alabasi qisqa umr ko'rdi. Qirol Eduard shimolga yurdi va 1298 yil iyulda Uolles armiyasi bilan Falkirkda uchrashdi. Inglizlar (va uelsliklar) kamonchilar Shotlandiya saflarini tugatdilar, ularning ko'plari o'qimagan harbiy xizmatchilar edi. Uolles jangni davom ettirishi kerak edi, lekin partizan urushida, xiyonat qilib, 1305 yilda asirga olindi.

Falkirk jangi - 1746 yil
Kamberlend gersogi ta'qib qilgan shahzoda Charlz Edvard Styuartning chekinayotgan yakobit qo'shini 1746 yil 3 yanvarda Glazgodan Stirling tomon yurdi. Ikki qo'shinning bo'linmalari to'qnashdi, ayniqsa MakDonald polklari o'zlari haqida yaxshi ma'lumot berishdi va yakobliklar g'alaba qozonishdi. Shunga qaramay, ular yana shimolga yo'l olishdi - uch oy o'tgach, Culloden shahridagi so'nggi jangga.

Flodden jangi - 1513 yil
Shotlandiya va Frantsiya o'rtasidagi "Auld Ittifoqi" yana kuchga kirdi va qirol Jeyms IV Angliya qiroli Genrix VIII hujumiga uchragan Frantsiya Lui XIIning iltimosiga javob berdi. 1502 yilda Shotlandiya va Angliya o'rtasida tuzilgan shartnomalarga qaramay, Jeyms IV 30 ming kishilik armiya bilan Angliyaga kirdi. Erta muvaffaqiyatlardan so'ng, ko'plab qal'alar Shotlandiya to'piga tushdi. Ammo ingliz armiyasi Surrey qulog'i boshchiligida Northumberlanddagi Flodden maydonida skotslar bilan uchrashdi. Qirol Jeyms va Shotlandiya zodagonlarining guli tushgan qonli jangdan so'ng, ingliz qo'mondoni 10 ming Shotland askari o'ldirilganini taxmin qildi.

Glenfruin jangi - 1603 yil
400 MacGregors glenda ko'proq Colquhounlarni pistirmaga oldi. Ular asir olmagan va 140 kolxun o'ldirilgan. Ko'p sonli qo'y va qoramol o'g'irlangan. U Angliya va Shotlandiya qiroli unvonini olish uchun Londonga jo'nab ketishidan ikki kun oldin qirol Jeyms VI voqeani sudda ko'rib chiqdi. MacGregor nomi taqiqlangan

Glenshiel jangi - 1719 yil
1715 yilgi yakobitlar qo'zg'olonidan so'ng, "Old Pretender" Frantsiyaga, keyin Italiyaga qaytdi. Biroq, 1719 yilda u Ispaniyadan Angliyaga bostirib kirishi kerak bo'lgan armada qatnashdi. Asosiy flot bo'ronlar bilan vayron bo'ldi va Shotlandiyaning g'arbiy sohilidagi Loch Duichdagi Eilan Donan qal'asiga faqat kichik bir kuch keldi. Ispanlar va klanlarning aralash kuchi Glenshielga yurish qildi va ularni hukumat kuchlari kutib olishdi va mag'lubiyatga uchrashdi.

Xalidon tepaligidagi jang - 1333 yil
Edvard Balliol Shotlandiyadan quvilganiga qaramay, Shotlandiya taxtini egallash uchun yana bir urinish qildi. Bu safar ingliz qiroli Edvard III o'zi shimolga yurdi va Bervikni qamal qildi. Duglas xo'jayini Archibald boshchiligidagi yordam kuchlari Halidon tepaligida ingliz qo'shinlari bilan to'qnash keldi. Duglasning son -sanoqsiz armiyasi bor edi, lekin inglizlar kamonchilarni yo'q qilishdi. Ko'p o'tmay Bervik yiqildi.

Harlav jangi - 1411 yil
Orollar hukmdori Donald, o'z qarorgohidan sharqqa, ehtimol, 10 mingga yaqin klanlar bilan yurib, Invernessni ishdan bo'shatib, Aberdinga yo'l oldi. Marning eshigi Aleksandr ko'ngillilar guruhini yig'di va kichik kuchlari bilan bosqinchilarni kutib olish uchun yurdi. Klanlar ko'plab ayblovlarga qaramay, ular Marning chiziqlarini kesib o'tolmadilar va oxir -oqibat Inverness va g'arbga chekinishdi. "Qonli Harlav" da qurbonlar har ikki tomondan ham yuqori bo'lgan.

Homildon tepaligidagi jang - 1402 yil
Duglasning 4 -chi grafi Archibald ingliz isyonchisi Persi "Hotspur" tomonidan mag'lubiyatga uchradi. Buning ortidan, to'lov orqali Duglas Hotspur uchun qirol Genrix IVga qarshi jang qilishga rozi bo'ldi - lekin yana mag'lub bo'ldi va ingliz qiroli tomonidan asirga olindi.

Inverlochi jangi - 1645 yil
Montrose Marquis, Tippermuir jangidagi muvaffaqiyatidan so'ng (pastga qarang), Argyll va uning Kempbell klani Marquis boshchiligidagi ahd kuchlari tomonidan ta'qib qilindi (garchi general Beyli ham qo'mondonlik qilsa ham, bu ikki kishi) Bir -birining ko'rishiga dosh berolmadim!). Argyll kuchlari 3000 ta tajribali Highland jangchilaridan iborat edi Montrose, ularning yarmiga yaqini bor edi, lekin ular ham yaxshi o'qitilgan - va Kempbells bilan kelishish uchun ballari bo'lgan MacDonalds kontingentini o'z ichiga olgan. Montrose o'z mahoratini umumiy va chalkash Covenanters sifatida ko'rsatdi, keyinchalik u mag'lubiyatga uchradi - aytilishicha, o'sha kuni 1500 Kempbell va ularning ittifoqchilari o'ldirilgan.

Killiecrankie jangi - 1689 yil
Viskont Dandi Jeyms Grem boshchiligidagi yakobitlar Killiecrankie -ga yig'ilishdi. Ko'plab Highland klanlari u erda Jeyms VIIni qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun yig'ilishdi, jumladan Lochielli Kameron, Makart Duart, MakDonald, Styuart, Maknil, MakLeods va Freyzer. Qirol Uilyamning hukumat qo'shinlari, Skuri Xyu Makki boshchiligida, Killiekranki dovonidan o'tib, jangga qo'shilishdi. Shiddatli to'qnashuvdan so'ng hukumat kuchlari orqaga chekinishga majbur bo'ldi. Ammo yakobliklar uchun xarajat juda katta edi - ularning qo'mondoni Viskont Dandi ,, mushuk o'qidan o'ldirilgan. G'alabaning ayni lahzasida, yakobliklarning maqsadi yo'qoldi, chunki ularning etakchisi bo'la olmadi.

Kilsit jangi - 1645 yil
Marquis of Montrose o'zining tog'li va irlandiyalik qirollik kuchlarini Kilsitda navbatdagi g'alabaga olib keldi va uni Shotlandiyaning ko'p qismini nazoratda qoldirdi. Angliyada qirol Charlz I Kromvelga qarshi unchalik yaxshi harakat qilmagan, Nasebi jangida mag'lub bo'lgan.

Langsayd jangi - 1568 yil
Fife shahridagi Loch Leven qal'asidan qochib, Shotlandiya malikasi Meri g'arbda Dumbarton qal'asiga etib borishga harakat qildi. Moray qulog'i tezda armiyani yig'di va u Glazgo janubiga borganida uni kesib tashlashga urindi. Moray Langsaydda baland joyni egalladi va to'p otishidan so'ng, bu qo'lda jang qilishda ustunlikka aylandi. Maryamning armiyasi yo'q qilindi va u Angliyaga qochdi, u erda 19 yillik qamoqdan so'ng, amakivachchasi, qirolicha Yelizaveta I tomonidan Fotheringay qal'asida boshi kesilgan.

Largs jangi - 1263 yil
13 -asr o'rtalarida Norvegiya qiroli Xakon nafaqat Skandinaviyada, balki G'arbiy Shotlandiya orollari, Man oroli va Islandiya ustidan ham hukmronlik qilgan. 1263 yilda u eng katta flot bilan suzib ketdi va Shotlandiyaga yo'l oldi. Yomon ob -havo tufayli Xakon oxir -oqibat Klayd daryosining etagiga keldi. Ular Loch Long atrofida talon -taroj qilishdi, lekin 30 sentyabrda kuchli shamol ularni qirg'oqqa olib ketdi. Shotlandlar kemalarni talon-taroj qildilar va Xakon o'z kemalarini qaytarib olish uchun qirg'oqqa 700-800 jangchini yubordi. Shotlandlar yana hujum qilishdi va vikinglar chekinishdi. Katta jang bo'lmasa -da, bu ularning Shotlandiya g'arbida pasayishining boshlanishini ko'rsatdi.

Mons Graupius jangi - AD84
Kaledoniya etakchisi Kalgakus Agrikola boshchiligidagi rimlar bilan uchrashgan aniq joy noma'lum, lekin u, ehtimol, Shotlandiyaning shimoli-sharqida, hozirgi Aberdinshirda bo'lgan. Aytishlaricha, shimoldagi yagona ma'lum jang jangida intizomli Rim legionlari tomonidan mag'lubiyatga uchragan 30,000 Kaledoniylar bor edi. 1300 yil o'tgach, transkripsiya xatosi "Grampian" ga aylandi, bu nom hozirda Spey daryosining sharqiy va janubidagi Kairngorm tog'lariga berilgan.

Nevill xochidagi jang - 1346 yil
Frantsiya qiroli Filippning yordam so'roviga javoban, qirol Devid II qo'shinni Angliyaning shimoliga olib borib, Duramgacha bordi. Shimoliy ingliz baronlari - Nevill va Persi qo'shin to'plashdi, ular soni bo'yicha ustun bo'lgan bosqinchilarni kutib olishdi. Yana ingliz uzunbo'ri va yaxshiroq taktika g'alaba qozondi va nafaqat skotslar mag'lubiyatga uchradi, balki shoh Devid qo'lga olindi. He remained a prisoner in the Tower of London for eleven years.

Battle of Otterburn - 1388
A successful foray by James, second earl Douglas, into northern England, swept as far as Durham and then fell back destroying and pillaging as it went. Henry Percy, better known as "Hotspur" assembled an army and set off in pursuit. Douglas was leading a force of around 3,000 men and Hotspur had twice that number. The two forces met south of Otterburn late in the evening of 19 August. The battle continued into the night - the darkness meant that the English bowmen were ineffective. By morning, the wounded Hotspur had been captured and 1,000 English had been killed. However, Douglas himself, leading a charge into the enemy, was fatally wounded.

Battle of Pinkie - 1547
King Henry VIII of England tried to persuade Mary Queen of Scots to marry his son, and undertook a series of incursions into Scotland known as the "Rough Wooing". The Duke of Somerset assembled an English army in Newcastle in 1547 and marched into the Borders of Scotland with 16,000 men. The Regent of Scotland at that time was the Earl of Arran and he allowed the English to advance as far as the river Esk in Lothian. The Scots army of 25,000 men looked formidable but the greater fire power of English cannon (both on land and from a fleet off the coast) and better tactics crushed the Scottish army. It is estimated that 10,000 Scots fell that day and English losses were said to be only 250.

Battle of Prestonpans - 1745
After raising his standard at Glenfinnan on August 19, Prince Charles Edward Stewart marched south to Edinburgh, reaching there by September 14. The Hanoverian army under Sir John Cope gathered near the hamlet of Prestonpans to the east of the city. A local force of Jacobite sympathisers surprised the Government forces by picking their way across a marsh during the night and attacking at dawn. They soon put the redcoats to flight. Casualties on both side were relatively light but 1600 government soldiers and their supplies were captured.

Battle of Rullion Green - 1666
After the Restoration of King Charles II in 1660, the king attempted to impose his Episcopalian ideas on the Church of Scotland, replacing clergy who would not co-operate. The new ministers were not popular and in November 1666 and there was a rebellion, starting in Galloway but spreading throughout the south-west. As the Covenanters advanced towards Edinburgh they were pursued by Sir Thomas (Tam) Dalyell who caught up with around 1,000 of them in the Pentland Hills at Rullion Green. The rebels made a brave stand but were overwhelmed. Some were hung, many others were transported abroad.

Battle of Sauchieburn - 1488
James III alienated a number of his nobles, and a number of barons he had dispossessed rebelled, supported by the king's son. James III led his forces, mainly from the north, to confront the rebels and they met at Sauchieburn (not far from Bannockburn). King James was killed (he escaped the battle but was murdered shortly afterwards). His son, now James IV, wore an iron chain round his waist for the rest of his life to atone for his part in his father's death.

Battle of Sherrifmuir - 1715
The Earl of Mar, leading the Jacobite forces in support of James Francis Edward Stewart (the "Old Pretender"), had taken control of most of Scotland north of Perth. The government forces led by the Duke of Argyll advanced from the south and the two armies met on the hills of Sherrifmuir, east of Dunblane in November 1715. The battle was inconclusive but afterwards the Jacobites withdrew. The Old Pretender arrived in Scotland (much later than expected) in December 1715 but stayed only six weeks before being persuaded to return to France.

Battle of Solway Moss - 1542
After a raid into Scotland by the Earl of Norfolk, King James V sent a force of 10,000 into England in retaliation. Led by Lord Maxwell, the Scots were met short of Solway Moss by an English force led by Sir Thomas Wharton. Badly led, the Scots army disintegrated. A few weeks later King James V died at Falkland Palace, leaving the infant Mary Queen of Scots to inherit the throne.

Battle of Stirling Bridge - 1297
William Wallace fought a guerrilla war for a number of years against the English who were effectively in occupation with the English king's puppet, John Balliol on the throne. The Earl of Surrey led an punitive force to confront Wallace and they met at Stirling Bridge. The overconfident English army advanced across a narrow bridge across the Forth. At the right moment, Wallace ordered the attack and the English foot soldiers were swept into the river.

Battle of the Standard - 1138
Taking advantage of the precarious hold King Stephen of England had on the throne, King David I of Scotland made a number of successful incursions into northern England. In 1138, in another push into Northumberland, his mixed force of Lowlanders, Highlanders and Galloway men were confronted by an army of Northern nobles recruited by the Archbishop of York. Their flying banners gave the battle, beyond Northallerton in Northumberland. A number of charges were beaten back by English bowmen and King David decided to make an orderly withdrawal back across the border.

Battle of Tippermuir - 1644
Marching towards Perth, the Duke of Montrose found his way blocked by a force of Covenanters led by Lord Elcho who commanded the garrison at Perth. Montrose was victorious and marched into Perth, much to the discomfort of the local clergy.

Battle of Worcester - 1651
After the Royalists had been defeated by Cromwell at Dunbar in September 1650, Charles II was nevertheless crowned at Scone in January 1651. Harried by Cromwell, the King decided to march south into England, hoping for a popular rising in his favour. He was disappointed and Cromwell cornered him and his army at Worcester in September. The 16,000 Royalist forces were overwhelmed by the 28,000 "New Model Army" of Cromwell.


The Battle of Flodden: The Largest Battle Fought Between England and Scotland

Until their unification in the 17 th century, England and Scotland had a long history of war against each other.

The greatest battle of these conflicts took place in 1513, just south of the village of Branxton in Northumberland. This was the Battle of Flodden.

The Road to War

In the early 16 th century, the Scottish and English royal families were bound together by blood. King James IV of Scotland was married to Margaret Tudor, the sister of King Henry VIII of England who had inherited the English throne in 1509.

But politics put them in opposition. Border raids and semi-official naval conflict saw blood spilled between the two nations.

James IV of Scotland

Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII of England, sister of Henry VIII, wife of James IV of Scotland and mother of James V.

Left:James IV of Scotland. Right:Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII of England, sister of Henry VIII, wife of James IV of Scotland and mother of James V.

In 1511, Henry VIII joined England to the Holy League, an alliance between Spain, Venice, and the Papal States fighting against France. Scotland had a long-standing friendship with the French, known as the Auld Alliance, and in 1512 James IV renewed this pact. England and Scotland were now on opposite sides of a war.

By the summer of 1513, James had promised that, if England invaded France, he would invade England, and in doing so try to draw Henry’s forces away from his allies. In June, Henry crossed the Channel, and so James began preparations to fulfill his pledge.

In August, James assembled an army near Edinburgh. Drawn from all over Scotland, it also featured a French contingent under the Count d’Aussi, sent to teach the Scots modern military techniques.

Henry VIII of England

Marching to Battle

James set out with an army that probably amounted to around 40,000 men, a quarter of whom would desert with their loot before they even faced the English. They took with them 17 artillery pieces, superior to those the English would bring.

The army marched south, seizing the castles of Norham, Etal, and Ford. Etal was not properly fortified, and James made sure to damage the other two, to make them less useful to his enemies in the future.

Meanwhile, the Earl of Surrey, left in charge of England’s defense by Henry, mustered his own army. With the main force of English soldiery in France, he drew men from across the north of England, many of whom had long experience fighting Scottish raiders.

Site of the Battle of Flodden Field. Taken near the monument showing the field of battle (1513) with Branxton Steads in the background.Photo: Christine Westerback CC BY-SA 2.0

Flodden Field Panorama

The army totaled around 26,000 men, mostly armed with bows or bills. There was some irregular cavalry, but little heavy cavalry or artillery.

In early September, the Scots took up position on Flodden Hill, between the villages of Flodden and Branxton in Northumberland.

Surrey was in communication with James, trying to convince him to leave this strong position to fight elsewhere. But James recognized the value of what he had. If Surrey wanted to move him, he would have to force the Scottish king’s hand.

Knight attacks

The Battle of Flodden

On the 9 th of September, Surrey divided his army into two columns, each with two parts. All crossed the River Till to be on the same side as the Scots. It is likely that this division was done to make the crossing easier, though it made them vulnerable to being picked off piece by piece.

Having crossed the river and got around the Scottish flanks, the English lined up around Branxton.

Seeing the English maneuvers, James realized that his opponents might take the high ground on Branxton Hill. Though not as advantageous as Flodden Hill, this would still give the English good defensive ground. Rather than let that happen, James marched his men down off Flodden Hill onto Branxton Hill.

Medieval Knights in a fight

The Scots advanced onto the hill in five columns, four at the front and one held in reserve.

The battle began with an artillery bombardment by both sides. This did little damage but unnerved soldiers on the Scottish left flank. Rather than stand and be shot at, they charged down the hill and into the English right.

Despite its impetuous nature, this charge initially went well for the Scots. They almost broke the right-hand English formation, which was saved from total disaster by the small reserve of cavalry. The Scottish left then set to looting, taking no further part in the battle.

Medieval soldiers on the battlefield

The Scottish center advanced, possibly because James wanted to capitalize on success on the left or because he could no longer hold his men back. It was a difficult march across wet ground, down one slope and up another, all while carrying 18-foot pikes.

Despite being bombarded by English artillery and archers, the Scots kept up the pace and soon hit the English center.

On the English left, Sir Edward Stanley’s column had arrived late to the battle. Seeing how the Scottish right flank held back, Stanley decided to tackle them before they could intervene in the center.

Half his force kept the Scots busy at the front while the other half attacked them in the flank. The Scottish right crumbled, most of them fleeing.

Medieval soldiers on the battlefield at historical reenactment

In the center, the Scots were struggling with their weapons. The pikes were a relatively new acquisition, one of the weapons the French had come to teach them about. Without proper training, the weapons were unwieldy. The English billmen cut through them, causing havoc among the Scottish infantry.

It was this fighting in the center that decided the day. There, the Scots fell in terrible numbers during two or more hours of fierce fighting. Most of their leaders were killed, including King James himself. By the time Stanley came charging into their rear, the battle was already lost.

On the 500th anniversary of the battle a minute’s silence for the town’s dead was observed at the Mercat Cross in Edinburgh.Photo: Kim Traynor CC BY-SA 3.0

Counting the Cost

The English dead at Flodden were counted in their hundreds, the Scots in their thousands. Few men of importance on the English side died, while the Scots lost two dozen earls and barons, three bishops, and most critically their king.


How the King James Bible Came to Be

P recisely 451 years after the June 19, 1566, birth of King James I of England, one achievement of his reign still stands above the rest: the 1611 English translation of the Old and New Testaments that bears his name. The King James Bible, one of the most printed books ever, transformed the English language, coining everyday phrases like &ldquothe root of all evil.&rdquo

But what motivated James to authorize the project?

He inherited a contentious religious situation. Just about 50 years before he came to power, Queen Elizabeth I&rsquos half-sister, Queen Mary I (&ldquoBloody Mary&rdquo), a Catholic, had executed nearly 250 Protestants during her short reign. Elizabeth, as Queen, affirmed the legitimacy of her father Henry VIII&rsquos Anglican Church, but maintained a settlement by which Protestants and Puritans were allowed to practice their own varieties of the religion. The Anglican Church was thus under attack from Puritans and Calvinists seeking to do away with bishops and their hierarchy. Eventually, in the 1640s, these bitter disputes would become catalysts of the English Civil War. But during James&rsquo reign, they were expressed in a very different forum: translation.

Translations of ancient texts exploded in the 15th century. Scholars in Italy, Holland and elsewhere perfected the Latin of Cicero and learned Greek and Hebrew. The &ldquorediscovery&rdquo of these languages and the advent of printing allowed access to knowledge not only secular (the pagan Classics) but also sacred (the Bible in its original languages). The new market for translated texts created an urgent demand for individuals capable of reading the ancient languages. Its fulfillment was nowhere better seen than in the foundation at Oxford University in 1517, by one of Henry VIII&rsquos personal advisors, of Corpus Christi College &mdash the first Renaissance institution in Oxford, whose trilingual holdings of manuscripts in Latin, Greek and Hebrew Erasmus himself celebrated. At the same time, Protestant scholars used their new learning to render the Bible into common tongues, meant to give people a more direct relationship with God. The result, in England, was the publication of translations starting with William Tyndale&rsquos 1526 Bible and culminating in the so-called &ldquoGeneva Bible&rdquo completed by Calvinists whom Queen Mary had exiled to Switzerland.


Pneumatic Tyre

Few names are more synonymous with a product than the name Dunlop is with tyres - but did you know that the pneumatic tyre you find on every bike or car was invented by a Scotsman. Yes, the name behind Dunlop's famous tyres is that of John Boyd Dunlop, who was born in Ayrshire. Dunlop was actually a veterinary surgeon by trade, running a hugely successful practice, but it was his attempts to make pneumatic tyres for his son's tricycle that made him famous. Dunlop's invention was picked up by a group of cyclists, who instantly began winning races and the success of the design quickly spread.


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