Sanoat inqilobi

Sanoat inqilobi


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Sanoatgacha bo'lgan iqtisodiyotning ko'pchiligida yashash standartlari tirikchilik darajasidan yuqori emas edi, shu jumladan aholining aksariyati o'z yashash vositalarini ishlab chiqarishga qaratilgan edi. Masalan, O'rta asrlarda Evropada ishchi kuchining 80% ga yaqini qishloq xo'jaligida ishlagan. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Klassik Afina kabi sanoatga qadar bo'lgan ba'zi iqtisodiyotlar muhim omillar sifatida savdo va tijoratga ega bo'lgan, shuning uchun mahalliy yunonlar qullikdan foydalanib, turmush darajasining farovonligidan ham ko'proq boylikka ega bo'lishlari mumkin edi. [2] Sanoatgacha bo'lgan jamiyatlarning ko'pida ocharchilik tez-tez ro'y berar edi, garchi ba'zilari, masalan, 17-18-asrlardagi Gollandiya va Angliya, 15-asrdagi Italiya shahar-davlatlari, O'rta asrlar islomiy xalifaligi, qadimgi Yunon va Rim tsivilizatsiyalar savdo va qishloq xo'jaligi sektorini tijoratlashtirish orqali ochlik davridan qutulib qolishdi. [ iqtibos kerak ] Hisob -kitoblarga ko'ra, 17 -asrda, Mug'al Bengalidan Gollandiyaning Sharqiy Hindiston kompaniyasigacha bo'lgan ulkan hajmdan so'ng, [3] [ oydinlashtirmoq ] Gollandiya don etkazib berishning qariyb 70 foizini va miloddan avvalgi V asrda Afina oziq-ovqat mahsulotining to'rtdan uch qismini import qilgan. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Proto-sanoatlashtirish deb nomlangan jarayon Evropada ham, Mo'g'ul Hindistonida ham sodir bo'lgan [4] va sanoat inqilobidan oldingi birinchi bosqich edi. [5]

1728 yilda Angliya iqtisodiyotiga bag'ishlangan "Ingliz tijoratining rejasi" asarida Daniel Defo Angliya xom jun ishlab chiqaruvchilardan tayyor jun to'qimachilik ishlab chiqarishgacha qanday rivojlanganligini tasvirlab beradi. Defoning yozishicha, Tudor monarxlari, xususan Angliya Genrix VII va Yelizaveta I, bugungi kunda protektsionist deb ta'riflanadigan siyosatni amalga oshirgan, masalan, tayyor jun mahsulotlarini import qilish uchun yuqori tariflarni joriy etish, Angliyadan chiqib ketayotgan xom jun eksportiga yuqori soliqlarni kiritish. Angliya to'qimachilik sanoati uchun mos deb topilgan geografik hududlarda hukumat tomonidan tanlab olingan monopol huquqlarni berib, ingliz to'qimachilik sanoatining erta rivojlanishi uchun hukumat tomonidan homiylik qilingan sanoat josusligini berib, past mamlakatlardan jun to'qimachilik ishlab chiqarishda mahoratli hunarmandlar. [6]

Sharqiy Hindiston kompaniyasi Plassey jangida Bengal Subah hukmdorlari ustidan g'alaba qozonganidan so'ng, 18-asrda Angliya shimoli-g'arbiy va Midlandlar sanoat inqilobi bilan ishlab chiqarish jarayonlarida innovatsiyalar orqali sanoatlashtirish boshlandi. [7] 19 -asrda Yevropa va Shimoliy Amerikaga tarqaldi.

Buyuk Britaniya dunyoda birinchi bo'lib sanoatlashgan mamlakat bo'ldi. [8] 18-19 -asrlarda Buyuk Britaniyada "qishloq xo'jaligi inqilobi" deb nomlanuvchi qishloq xo'jaligi mahsuldorligi sezilarli darajada oshdi, bu aholi sonining misli ko'rilmagan o'sishiga imkon berdi, ishchi kuchining katta qismini dehqonchilikdan ozod qildi va sanoat inqilobini boshqarishga yordam berdi. .

Ekin maydonlarining cheklanganligi va mexanizatsiyalashtirilgan dehqonchilikning katta samaradorligi tufayli aholi sonining ko'payishi qishloq xo'jaligiga bag'ishlana olmadi. Yangi qishloq xo'jaligi texnikasi bitta dehqonga avvalgidan ko'ra ko'proq ishchilarni boqish imkonini berdi, ammo bu usullar an'anaviy ravishda shahar hunarmandlari tomonidan ta'minlangan mashinalarga va boshqa uskunalarga talabni oshirdi. "Burjua" deb nomlangan hunarmandlar o'z mahsulotlarini ko'paytirish va mamlakat ehtiyojlarini qondirish uchun qishloqdan chiqib ketish ishchilarini ish bilan ta'minladilar.

Britaniya sanoatlashuvi ishlarni bajarish uslubida jiddiy o'zgarishlarni o'z ichiga oldi. Tovar yaratish jarayoni oddiy vazifalarga bo'lindi, ularning har biri hosildorlikni oshirish va shu orqali daromadni oshirish maqsadida bosqichma -bosqich mexanizatsiyalashtirildi. Yangi mashinalar har bir ishchining mehnat unumdorligini oshirishga yordam berdi. Shu bilan birga, sanoatlashtirish, shuningdek, energiyaning yangi turlaridan foydalanishni o'z ichiga oladi. Sanoatgacha bo'lgan iqtisodiyotda ko'pchilik mashinalar odam mushaklari, hayvonlar, o'tin yoqish yoki suv kuchi bilan quvvatlangan. Sanoatlashtirish natijasida bu yoqilg'i manbalari ko'mirga almashtirildi, bu esa muqobillarga qaraganda ancha ko'p energiya etkazib berishi mumkin edi. Sanoat inqilobi bilan birga kelgan yangi texnologiyalarning aksariyati ko'mir bilan ishlaydigan mashinalarga tegishli edi. Buning natijalaridan biri iqtisodiyotda iste'mol qilinadigan energiyaning umumiy hajmining oshishi bo'ldi - bu tendentsiya barcha sanoati rivojlangan mamlakatlarda hozirgi kungacha davom etmoqda. [9]

Kapitalning to'planishi yangi texnologiyalarning ilmiy kontseptsiyasi va qo'llanilishiga sarmoya kiritishga imkon berdi, bu esa sanoatlashtirish jarayonining rivojlanishini davom ettirishga imkon berdi. Sanoatlashtirish jarayoni qishloq xo'jalik qarindoshlariga qaraganda ko'proq pul sarflaydigan sanoat ishchilari sinfini shakllantirdi. Ular buni tamaki va shakar kabi narsalarga sarfladilar, bu esa yangi ommaviy bozorlarni yaratdi, bu esa savdogarlar ulardan foydalanishga harakat qilganda ko'proq investitsiyalarni rag'batlantirdi. [10]

Ishlab chiqarishning mexanizatsiyasi Evropaning geografik jihatdan Frantsiya kabi Angliya atrofidagi mamlakatlariga va Buyuk Britaniyaning ko'chmanchi koloniyalariga tarqaldi, bu hududlarni eng boy qilishiga yordam berdi va hozir G'arb dunyosi deb ataladi.

Ba'zi iqtisodiy tarixchilarning fikricha, "ekspluatatsion koloniyalar" ga ega bo'lish ularga ega bo'lgan mamlakatlarga kapital to'planishini osonlashtirdi va ularning rivojlanishini tezlashtirdi. [11] Natijada, bo'ysunuvchi mamlakat ishlab chiqariladigan tovarlarni talab qiladigan va xom ashyoni taklif qiladigan qishloqlarni taqlid qilib, o'z o'rnini egallab turgan katta iqtisodiy tizimni birlashtirdi, mustamlakachilar esa shahar holatini ta'kidladilar, tovar etkazib berdilar va oziq -ovqat import qildilar. Bu mexanizmning klassik namunasi Angliya, AQShning janubi va G'arbiy Afrikani o'z ichiga olgan uchburchak savdodir. Ba'zilar Buyuk Britaniyaning chet eldagi ko'plab koloniyalaridan olgan tabiiy yoki moliyaviy resurslarning muhimligini yoki Afrika va Karib dengizi o'rtasidagi ingliz qul savdosidan tushgan daromad sanoat sarmoyalarini jalb qilishga yordam berganini ta'kidladilar. [12]

Bu dalillar hanuzgacha koloniyalar tarixchilaridan ma'qul kelmoqda, Britaniya sanoat inqilobining aksariyat tarixchilari mustamlaka mulklari mamlakatni sanoatlashtirishda muhim rol o'ynagan deb hisoblamaydilar. Angliya bu kelishuvdan foyda ko'rishini inkor qilmasa ham, ular sanoatni koloniyalar bilan yoki ularsiz davom etishiga ishonishgan. [13]

Sanoat inqilobi Shimoliy -G'arbiy Evropada paydo bo'lganidan janubga va sharqqa tarqaldi.

Komodor Metyu C. Perri Kanagava konventsiyasidan so'ng Yaponiyani Shimoda va Hakodat portlarini Amerika savdosiga ochishga majbur qildi, Yaponiya hukumati G'arb ta'sirini to'xtatish uchun keskin islohotlar zarurligini tushundi. Tokugava shogunati feodal tuzumni bekor qildi. Hukumat yapon armiyasini modernizatsiya qilish uchun harbiy islohotlar o'tkazdi, shuningdek sanoatlashtirish bazasini qurdi. 1870 -yillarda Meiji hukumati texnologik va sanoat taraqqiyotini jadal ilgari surdi, natijada Yaponiya kuchli zamonaviy mamlakatga aylandi.

Xuddi shunday, ittifoqchilarning Rossiya fuqarolar urushiga aralashuvi paytida ham jabr ko'rgan Rossiya. Sovet Ittifoqining markazdan boshqariladigan iqtisodiyoti o'z resurslarining katta qismini sanoat ishlab chiqarishi va infratuzilmasini yaxshilash uchun sarmoya kiritishga qaror qilib, uning omon qolishini ta'minlab, jahon super kuchiga aylandi. [14] Sovuq urush davrida, Comecon doirasida tashkil etilgan Varshava shartnomasining boshqa mamlakatlari, og'ir sanoatga unchalik ahamiyat bermasalar ham, xuddi shu rivojlanayotgan sxemaga amal qilishdi.

19 -asr oxiri - 20 -asr boshlarida Ispaniya yoki Italiya kabi Janubiy Evropa mamlakatlari o'rtacha darajada sanoatlashgan, keyin esa Ikkinchi jahon urushidan keyin Evropa iqtisodiyotining sog'lom integratsiyasi natijasida iqtisodiy yuksalishlarni boshdan kechirgan. [15] [16]

Sovuq urush davrida deyarli barcha Uchinchi Dunyo davlatlarida, xuddi sotsialistik mamlakatlarda, lekin, ayniqsa, Kolonizatsiyadan keyin Sahroi-Sahroi Afrikasida, xuddi shunday davlat boshchiligidagi rivojlanish dasturi amalga oshirildi. [ iqtibos kerak ] Bu loyihalarning asosiy maqsadi ilgari import qilingan tovarlarni mahalliy ishlab chiqarish, qishloq xo'jaligini mexanizatsiyalash va ta'lim va sog'liqni saqlashni tarqatish orqali o'zini o'zi ta'minlashga erishish edi. Biroq, bu tajribalarning barchasi muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi [ iqtibos kerak realizmning etishmasligi tufayli [ iqtibos kerak ]: ko'pchilik mamlakatlarda kapitalistik rivojlanishni davom ettira oladigan, hatto barqaror va osoyishta davlatga ega bo'lgan sanoatdan oldingi burjuaziya yo'q edi. Bu bekor qilingan tajribalar g'arb davlatlari oldida katta qarzlarni qoldirdi va jamoatchilikda korruptsiyani kuchaytirdi. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Benzin ishlab chiqaruvchi mamlakatlar Tartibga solish

Neftga boy mamlakatlar iqtisodiy tanlovlarida ham shunday muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchragan. EIA hisobotida aytilishicha, OPEKga a'zo davlatlar 2008 yilda neft eksportidan 1,251 trln. [17] Neft ham muhim, ham qimmat bo'lgani uchun katta neft zaxiralariga ega bo'lgan hududlar katta likvidlik daromadiga ega edi. Biroq, bundan keyin kamdan -kam hollarda iqtisodiy rivojlanish kuzatildi. Tajriba shuni ko'rsatadiki, mahalliy elita neft eksporti orqali olingan neft dollarlarini qayta sarmoya qila olmagan, valyuta esa hashamatli mahsulotlarga sarflangan. [18]

Bu, ayniqsa, Fors ko'rfazi davlatlarida yaqqol ko'rinib turibdi, bu erda jon boshiga daromad G'arb davlatlari daromadlari bilan taqqoslanadi, lekin sanoatlashtirish boshlanmagan. Ikki kichik mamlakatdan tashqari (Bahrayn va Birlashgan Arab Amirliklari), Fors ko'rfazi davlatlari o'z iqtisodiyotlarini diversifikatsiya qilmagan va yaqinda neft zaxiralarining tugashini almashtirish ko'zda tutilmagan. [19]

19 -asr oxirida sanoatlashtirish boshlangan Yaponiyadan tashqari, Sharqiy Osiyoda sanoatlashtirishning boshqa shakli kuzatildi. Sanoatlashtirishning eng tez sur'atlaridan biri 20 -asrning oxirida, Osiyo yo'lbarslari deb nomlanuvchi to'rtta joyda (Gonkong, Singapur, Janubiy Koreya va Tayvan), barqaror hukumatlar va yaxshi tuzilgan jamiyatlar, strategik joylar, og'ir xorijliklarning mavjudligi tufayli ro'y berdi. investitsiyalar, kam xarajatli malakali va rag'batlantiruvchi ishchi kuchi, raqobatbardosh kurs va past bojxona to'lovlari. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Janubiy Koreyada, to'rtta Osiyo yo'lbarsining eng kattasi, 1950-1960 yillarda qo'shilgan qiymatli tovarlarni ishlab chiqarishdan tezroq chiqib ketgan po'lat, kema qurilishi va avtomobilsozlikka aylangani sababli, juda tez rivojlanayotgan sanoatlashuv yuz berdi. 70-80-yillardagi sanoat, 1990- va 2000-yillarda yuqori texnologiyalar va xizmat ko'rsatish sohasiga e'tibor qaratdi. Natijada Janubiy Koreya yirik iqtisodiy kuchga aylandi.

Ushbu boshlang'ich model keyinchalik Sharqiy va Janubiy Osiyoning boshqa yirik mamlakatlarida muvaffaqiyatli ko'chirildi. Ushbu hodisaning muvaffaqiyati katta ofshor to'lqiniga olib keldi - G'arb fabrikalari yoki uchinchi darajali korporatsiyalar o'z faoliyatini ishchi kuchi arzonroq va jamoaviy uyushmagan mamlakatlarga ko'chirishni tanladilar.

Xitoy va Hindiston, taxminan, ushbu rivojlanish uslubiga amal qilgan holda, o'z tarixi va madaniyatiga, dunyodagi asosiy hajmi va ahamiyatiga, o'z hukumatlarining geosiyosiy ambitsiyalariga va boshqalarga mos ravishda moslashuvlar qildilar.

Shu bilan birga, Hindiston hukumati tashqi bozorni zabt etishga qodir bo'lgan bir nechta ixtisoslash qutblarini yaratish maqsadida bioinjeneriya, yadro texnologiyasi, farmatsevtika, informatika va texnologik yo'naltirilgan oliy ta'lim kabi iqtisodiy sohalarga o'z ehtiyojlaridan yuqori sarmoya kiritmoqda.

Xitoy ham, Hindiston ham boshqa rivojlanayotgan mamlakatlarga katta sarmoya kiritishni boshladilar, bu esa ularni hozirgi jahon iqtisodiyotining muhim ishtirokchilariga aylantiradi.

20-asrning o'rtalaridan boshlab Lotin Amerikasi, Osiyo va Afrikaning aksariyat mamlakatlari, shu jumladan Braziliya, Indoneziya, Malayziya, Meksika, Filippin, Janubiy Afrika va Turkiya sanoati sezilarli darajada o'sdi, bu esa iqtisodiyoti katta bo'lgan mamlakatlarga eksport qilish hisobiga ro'y berdi. : AQSh, Xitoy, Hindiston va Evropa Ittifoqi. Ba'zan ularni yangi sanoatlashgan mamlakatlar deb atashadi. [ iqtibos kerak ]

2003 yildan beri neft narxining ko'tarilishi sun'iy ravishda ta'sir qilayotganiga qaramay, bu hodisa mutlaqo yangi emas va umuman spekulyativ emas (masalan, qarang: Maquiladora).


Sanoat inqilobi

Sanoat inqilobi - bu tovar ishlab chiqarish kichik do'konlar va uylardan yirik fabrikalarga ko'chgan davr edi. Bu o'zgarish madaniyatning o'zgarishiga olib keldi, chunki odamlar ishlash uchun qishloqlardan katta shaharlarga ko'chishdi. Bundan tashqari, ko'pchilik uchun yangi texnologiyalar, yangi transport turlari va boshqacha turmush tarzi joriy etildi.

Sanoat inqilobi qaerdan boshlandi?

Sanoat inqilobi Buyuk Britaniyada 1700 -yillarning oxirida boshlangan. Sanoat inqilobini ta'minlaydigan ko'plab birinchi yangiliklar to'qimachilik sanoatida boshlangan. Mato ishlab chiqarish uylardan yirik fabrikalarga ko'chdi. Buyuk Britaniyada fabrikalar uchun dastgohlar ishlab chiqarish uchun zarur bo'lgan ko'mir va temir ko'p edi.

  • Birinchi sanoat inqilobi - Sanoat inqilobining birinchi to'lqini 1700-yillarning oxiridan 1800-yillarning o'rtalariga qadar davom etdi. U to'qimachilik ishlab chiqarishni sanoatlashtirdi va ishlab chiqarishni uylardan fabrikalarga ko'chirishni boshladi. Bu davrda bug 'kuchi va paxta tozalash zavodi muhim rol o'ynadi.
  • Ikkinchi sanoat inqilobi - Keyingi to'lqin 1800-yillarning o'rtalaridan 1900-yillarning boshlariga to'g'ri keldi. Bu davrda yirik fabrikalar va kompaniyalar tovarlarni ommaviy ishlab chiqarish uchun ko'proq texnologiyalarni qo'llay boshladilar. Bu davrdagi muhim yangiliklar orasida elektr energiyasidan foydalanish, ishlab chiqarish liniyasi va Bessemer po'latdan ishlov berish kiradi.

Qo'shma Shtatlardagi sanoat inqilobining birinchi qismi Nyu -Angliya shimoli -sharqida sodir bo'lgan. Ko'pgina tarixchilar sanoat inqilobining boshlanishini 1793 yilda Rod -Aylendning Pawtucket shahrida Slater's Millning ochilishi bilan belgilaydilar. Semyuel Sleyter Angliyada o'sayotgan to'qimachilik fabrikalari haqida bilib, o'z bilimlarini AQShga olib kelgan. 1800 -yillarning oxiriga kelib, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari dunyoning eng sanoatlashgan davlatiga aylandi.

Sanoat inqilobi ko'plab madaniy o'zgarishlarga olib keldi. Inqilobdan oldin ko'pchilik odamlar mamlakatda yashagan va fermalarda ishlagan. Inqilob paytida odamlar fabrikalarda ishlash uchun shaharlarga ko'chib ketishdi. Shaharlar o'sib, odamlar gavjum, antisanitariya va ifloslikka aylandi. Ko'p shaharlarda kambag'al ishchilar gavjum va xavfsiz bo'lmagan binolarda yashar edilar. Bu oddiy odamning hayot tarzida keskin o'zgarish bo'ldi.

Sanoat inqilobi davrida transport keskin o'zgarib ketdi. Odamlar ot, piyoda yoki qayiqda sayohat qilishdan oldin temir yo'llar, bug 'qayiqlari va avtomobillar kabi yangi sayohat usullari joriy qilingan. Bu odamlar va mahsulotlarning mamlakat va dunyo bo'ylab sayohat qilish imkoniyatlarini o'zgartirdi.

Sanoat inqilobining bir kamchiligi fabrikalarda odamlar uchun yomon mehnat sharoitlari edi. O'sha paytda ishchilarni himoya qiladigan qonunlar kam edi va ish sharoitlari ko'pincha xavfli edi. Odamlar ko'pincha uzoq vaqt ishlashlari kerak edi va bolalar mehnati odatiy hol edi. 1900 -yillarning oxiriga kelib, kasaba uyushmalari va yangi qonunlar xavfsizroq ish muhitini yaratishni boshladi.


Sanoat inqilobining xronologiyasi

Sanoat inqilobi XVIII asrdan to XIX asr o'rtalariga qadar bo'lib o'tdi, bu ishlab chiqarish va ishlab chiqarishning ko'payishi jarayonini belgiladi, bu esa sanoatni kuchaytirdi va yangi ixtirolar va yangiliklarni rag'batlantirdi.

Sharqiy Hindiston kompaniyasining bosh qarorgohi, London, 1828 yil

1600- Sharqiy Hindiston kompaniyasining tashkil topishi. Keyinchalik aktsiyadorlik kompaniyasi savdo monopoliyasini saqlab qolishda hal qiluvchi rol o'ynaydi, bu esa talab, ishlab chiqarish va foydani ko'paytirishga yordam beradi. Kompaniya Buyuk Britaniyaga yevropalik qo'shnilari bilan raqobatlashib, iqtisodiy va savdo kuchining o'sishiga yordam berdi.

1709 yil- Ibrohim Darbi birinchi marta muvaffaqiyatli ishlatadigan pechni ijaraga oldi. Darbi o'sha yili 81 tonna temir buyum sotishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. U ko'mirdan ko'ra koks bilan ishlaydigan cho'yan ishlab chiqarish usulini kashf qilib, sanoatda hal qiluvchi shaxsga aylanadi.

1712 yil- Tomas Nyukomen birinchi bug 'dvigatelini ixtiro qildi.

1719 yil- Ipak fabrikasini Jon Lombe ishga tushirdi. Derbishirda joylashgan Lombe's Mill, Angliyada birinchi muvaffaqiyatli ipak tashlaydigan fabrika sifatida ochiladi.

1733- Oddiy to'quv mashinasi "Kayar uchuvchi" deb nomlanuvchi Jon Kay tomonidan ixtiro qilingan. Yangi ixtiro kengroq matolarni to'qadigan va ishlab chiqarish jarayonini tezlashtiradigan avtomatik dastgohlarga ruxsat berdi.

1750 yil- paxta matolari chet eldan olib kelingan paxta xom ashyosi yordamida ishlab chiqarila boshlandi. Paxta eksporti Buyuk Britaniyani tijoriy muvaffaqiyatga olib keladi.

1761 yil- Britaniyada birinchi bo'lib Bridgewater kanali ochildi. U Bridgewater gersogining 3 -gersogi Frensis Egerton nomi bilan atalgan, u Vorslidagi konlaridan ko'mirni tashish uchun buyurtma bergan.

1764 yil- Jeyms Hargrevz tomonidan Lankashirda Spinning Jenny ixtirosi. Bu g'oya sakkizta yog'och milli metall ramkadan iborat edi. Ixtiro ishchilarga matoni tezroq ishlab chiqarishga imkon berdi, shuning uchun mahsuldorlikni oshirdi va keyingi mexanizatsiyalash uchun yo'l ochdi.

1764 yil- Shotlandiya ixtirochisi Jeyms Vattga Tomas Nyukomen bug 'dvigatelini ta'mirlashni topshirishdi va uni yanada samarali ishlash uchun o'zgartirish usullarini tezda tan olishdi. Tsilindrni isitish va sovutish usulini o'zgartirib, bug'ni ishlab chiqarish uchun suvni isitish uchun ishlatiladigan ko'mir miqdori 60%dan ko'proq kamayishi mumkin edi.

1769 yil- Jeyms Vatt o'zining yangi bug 'dvigatelining noyob dizayni uchun birinchi ingliz patentini (913-son) oldi. Yangi dvigatellarining ulkan kuchini aniqlash uchun Jeyms Vatt yangi o'lchov birligini - ot kuchini ixtiro qildi. Jeyms Vattning bug 'dvigatellari bug' bilan ishlaydigan temir yo'l lokomotivlari va bug 'kemalarini joriy etish orqali dunyoni tom ma'noda harakatga keltiradi va transport butunlay inqilobga aylanadi. Uning bug 'dvigatellari Sanoat Shimolida paydo bo'la boshlagan yangi tegirmonlarni quvvatlantirishda davom etardi.

1769 yil- Yangi Spinning Jenni ishlab chiqaradigan ip unchalik kuchli emas edi, lekin tez orada Richard Arkrayt yigiruv mashinasini suv g'ildiragiga mahkamlaydigan suv ramkasini ixtiro qilganidan keyin tez o'zgarib ketdi.

1774 yil- ingliz ixtirochisi Semyuel Krompton yigiruv va to'quv jarayonlarini bir mashinaga birlashtiradigan yigiruv xachirini ixtiro qildi va shu bilan sanoatda inqilob qildi.

1779 yil- Ixtirochi Richard Arkrayt tadbirkor bo'lib, suv ramkasini ixtiro qilgan holda paxta yigiruv fabrikasini ochdi.

1784 yil- Temir ustasi Genri Kort temir ishlab chiqarish uchun ko'lmakli pechni yaratish g'oyasini ilgari surdi. Bunga tayoqlar bilan aralashtirilgan rezinali o'choqli temirdan temir yasash kerak edi. Uning kashfiyoti temirni tozalash texnikasida muvaffaqiyatli bo'ldi.

1785 yil- Edmund Kartrayt tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan elektr dastgohi ixtiro qilindi, keyinchalik u to'quv jarayonining mahsuldorligini oshirish uchun suv ishlatadigan mexanizatsiyalashgan dastgohni patentladi. To'qimachilik sanoati uchun avtomatik dastgoh yaratish uchun uning g'oyalari yillar davomida shakllanib, rivojlanib borar edi.

1790 yil- Edmund Kartrayt jun tarash mashinasi deb nomlangan yana bir ixtironi ishlab chiqdi. U jun tolalarini tartibga soluvchi ixtironi patentladi.

1799 yil- Kombinatsiya to'g'risidagi qonun iyul oyida qirollik roziligini oldi, bu Angliyadagi ishchilarga to'lash va ish sharoitlarini yaxshilash uchun guruhlar yoki kasaba uyushmalari orqali jamoa savdosining oldini oldi. Xuddi shu yili, 9 oktyabr kuni Manchesterdagi ingliz to'qimachilarining bir guruhi o'z mahoratiga tahdid soladigan texnikaning kiritilishiga qarshi isyon ko'tarishdi. Bu Luddite harakati ostida yuz beradigan dastlabki tartibsizliklardan biri edi.

1800 yil- Buyuk Britaniyada taxminan 10 million tonna ko'mir qazib olindi.

Trevitick lokomotivi

1801 yil- Richard Trevit, kon muhandisi va ixtirochi Kornuolldagi Kemborn ko'chalarida bug 'bilan ishlaydigan lokomotivni haydab ketdi. U bug 'bilan ishlaydigan transportning kashshofi bo'lgan va birinchi ishlaydigan temir yo'l lokomotivini qurgan.

1803 yil- Paxta Buyuk Britaniyaning eng yirik eksporti bo'lib, junni ortda qoldirdi.

1804 yil- Birinchi lokomotiv temir yo'l sayohati fevral oyida bo'lib o'tdi, Trevitick ixtirosi Merthyr Tydfildagi tramvay yo'li bo'ylab poezdni muvaffaqiyatli olib ketdi.

1811 yil- Nottingemning Arnold shahrida birinchi yirik Luddite g'alayoni bo'lib o'tdi, natijada mashinalar vayron bo'ldi.

1812 yil- tartibsizliklarga javoban, parlament sanoat mashinalarini yo'q qilishni o'lim jazosiga tortadigan qonun qabul qildi.

1813 yil- Bir kunlik sud jarayonida o'n to'rt Luddit Manchesterda osildi.

1815 yil- Cornish kimyogari Ser Xamfri Devi va ingliz muhandisi Jorj Stivenson konchilar uchun xavfsizlik lampalarini ixtiro qilishdi.

1816 yil- muhandis Jorj Stivenson bug 'lokomotivini patentladi, bu unga "temir yo'llarning otasi" unvonini beradi.

1824 yil- G'azab, norozilik va zo'ravonlikni keltirib chiqargan, deb hisoblangan birlashma aktining bekor qilinishi.

1825 yil: Birinchi yo'lovchi temir yo'li umumiy yo'lda yo'lovchilarni tashuvchi №1 Lokomotiv bilan ochiladi.

1830 yil- Jorj Stivenson dunyodagi shimoliy buyuk Manchester va Liverpul shaharlarini bog'laydigan birinchi shaharlararo temir yo'lni yaratdi. Sanoat quvvati va dengizga chiqa olmaydigan Manchester shahri endi Liverpul porti orqali tez dunyoga chiqishi mumkin edi. Amerikadagi plantatsiyalardan kelgan paxta Manchester va Lankashir to'qimachilik fabrikalarini etkazib beradi, tayyor mato Liverpulga qaytariladi va Britaniya imperiyasi bo'ylab eksport qilinadi.

1833 yil- To'qqiz yoshgacha bo'lgan bolalarni to'qimachilik sanoatida ishlashdan himoya qilish uchun zavod to'g'risidagi qonun qabul qilindi. O'n uch va undan katta yoshdagi bolalar haftasiga oltmish to'qqiz soatdan ortiq ishlay olmasdilar.

1834 yil - Yo'qolganlar uchun ish uylarini yaratish maqsadida "Kambag'al qonun" qabul qilindi.

1839 yil- Jeyms Nasmit temir va po'latdan yasalgan katta qismlarga ehtiyojni qondirish uchun qurilgan bug'li bolg'ani ixtiro qildi.

1842 yil- konchilarga nisbatan qo'llaniladigan qonun, o'n yoshgacha bo'lgan bolalarga, shuningdek ayollarga er ostida ishlashni taqiqlaydi.

1844 yil- Qonunga ko'ra, sakkiz yoshdan kichik bolalarga ishlash taqiqlangan. O'sha yili Fridrix Engels "Angliyadagi ishchilar sinfining holati" da sanoat inqilobining ta'siri haqidagi kuzatuvlarini e'lon qiladi.

1847 yil- To'qimachilik fabrikalarida ayollar va bolalarning ish vaqti kuniga o'n soatgacha cheklanganligi haqidagi yangi qonun.

1840 yilda Manchester va#8211 ‘Cottonopolis ’ –

1848 yil- Sanoatlashtirish va shaharlarning paydo bo'lishi Britaniyaning barcha shaharlarida vabo epidemiyasini keltirib chiqardi.

1851 yil-Qishloqdan shaharga migratsiya natijasida Angliya aholisining yarmidan ko'pi hozir shaharlarda istiqomat qiladi.

1852 yil- Jarrouda Britaniyaning Palmer Brothers & amp Co kemasozlik kompaniyasi ochildi. Xuddi shu yili birinchi temir vintli kollyajchi Jon Bouz ishga tushirildi.

1860 yil- HMS Warrior birinchi temir kemasi ishga tushirildi.

HMS Warrior, hozir Portsmutdagi muzey kemasi

1867 yil- Fabrika to'g'risidagi qonun ellikdan ortiq ishchi ishlaydigan barcha ish joylarini o'z ichiga oladi.

1868 yil- TUC (Kasaba uyushmalari kongressi) tuzildi.

1870 yil- Forsterning ta'lim to'g'risidagi qonuni majburiy ta'limni joriy etish bo'yicha birinchi qadamlarni qo'yadi.

1875 yil- Yangi qonun o'g'il bolalarni tozalash uchun bacalarga chiqishni taqiqladi.

1912 yil- Buyuk Britaniya sanoati o'zining eng yuqori cho'qqisiga chiqdi, to'qimachilik sanoati 8 milliard yard mato ishlab chiqaradi.

1914 yil- Birinchi jahon urushi sanoat markazlarini o'zgartirdi, tashqi bozorlar o'z ishlab chiqarish sanoatini o'rnatdi. Britaniya sanoatining oltin davri tugadi.

Voqealar ketma -ketligi Buyuk Britaniyani savdo va ishlab chiqarishning global bosqichida asosiy o'yinchi sifatida joylashtirdi, bu esa unga etakchi tijorat davlati bo'lishga imkon berdi, shuningdek Buyuk Britaniyaning ijtimoiy va iqtisodiy tarixida ulkan burilish yasadi.

Jessica Brain - tarixga ixtisoslashgan mustaqil yozuvchi. Kentda joylashgan va tarixiy narsalarni sevuvchi.


Uchinchi sanoat inqilobi 1969

Yana bir asr o'tadi va biz uchinchi sanoat inqilobining guvohi bo'lamiz. Yilning ikkinchi yarmida 20 th asr, biz o'sha paytda ishlatilmaydigan, energiyaning yana bir manbaining paydo bo'lishini ko'ramiz. Yadro energiyasi!

Uchinchi inqilob yuksalishga olib keldi elektronika, telekommunikatsiya va albatta kompyuterlar. Uchinchi sanoat inqilobi yangi texnologiyalar orqali kosmik ekspeditsiyalar, tadqiqotlar va biotexnologiyalarga yo'l ochdi.

Sanoat dunyosida, ikkita yirik ixtiro, Dasturlashtiriladigan mantiq boshqaruvchilari (PLC) va robotlar yuqori darajadagi avtomatlashtirish davrini yaratishga yordam berdi.


22a. Iqtisodiy o'sish va dastlabki sanoat inqilobi


Ushbu rasmda Erie kanalining bir qismida qulf ishlayotgan erkaklar tasvirlangan. Nyu -York shtati kanallari veb -saytidan "Mening xachirim bor, uning ismi Sal, Erie kanalida o'n besh yil" kabi boshqa so'zlarni toping.

Qo'shma Shtatlarda qishloq xo'jaligidan sanoat iqtisodiyotiga o'tish bir asrdan ko'proq vaqtni oldi, ammo bu uzoq rivojlanish 1790 -yillardan 1830 -yillarga qadar birinchi bosqichiga kirdi. 18-asr o'rtalarida Buyuk Britaniyada sanoat inqilobi boshlangan edi, lekin Amerika koloniyalari qisman ona mamlakatdan ancha orqada qolib ketishdi, chunki Yangi Dunyoda erning ko'pligi va ishchi kuchining etishmasligi mashinasozlik ishlab chiqarishga qimmat sarmoyalarga bo'lgan qiziqishni kamaytirdi. Shunga qaramay, qo'lda ishlab chiqarishdan mashinasozlik mahsulotlariga o'tish bilan insoniyat tajribasining yangi davri boshlandi, bu erda mahsuldorlikni oshirish sanoatgacha bo'lgan dunyoda ma'lum bo'lganidan ancha yuqori turmush darajasini yaratdi.

Amerika sanoat inqilobining boshlanishi ko'pincha 1790 yilda Qo'shma Shtatlarda ingliz modelidan katta qarz olgan dizayni bilan birinchi sanoat fabrikasini ochgan Semyuel Sleyter bilan bog'liq. Slaterning qaroqchilik texnologiyasi paxta ipini ipga aylantirish tezligini ancha oshirdi. U Qo'shma Shtatlarga hayotiy muhim texnologiyani joriy qilgan bo'lsa -da, sanoat inqilobining iqtisodiy yuksalishi Amerika hayotini o'zgartirishi uchun boshqa bir qancha elementlarni talab qildi.


Nyu -York gubernatori De Vitt Klinton 1825 yil kuzida Eri kanalining ochilishini nishonlash uchun Atlantika okeaniga bir chelak Eri ko'li quydi.

Sanoat inqilobining birinchi davridagi tez o'zgaruvchan iqtisodiyotning yana bir kaliti - bu ishlab chiqarish samaradorligini oshirishning yangi tashkiliy strategiyasi edi. Bu "ishlab chiqarish tizimi" dan boshlandi, bu orqali katta ishlab chiqarish jarayonining kichik qismlari ko'plab yakka tartibdagi uylarda amalga oshirildi. Bu tashkiliy islohot, ayniqsa, poyabzal va etik tikishda muhim ahamiyatga ega edi. Biroq, sanoat inqilobining asosiy tashkiliy yutug'i "fabrikalar tizimi" bo'lib, u erda ishlar bitta markazlashtirilgan joyda keng ko'lamda amalga oshirildi. Bu yondashuvning birinchi kashfiyotchilari orasida Boston Associates nomi bilan tanilgan bir guruh ishbilarmonlar bor edi, ular minglab Yangi Angliya fermer qizlarini yangi fabrikalarida mashinalarni ishlatish uchun yollashdi.

1823 yilda ochilgan Massachusets shtatining Lowell shahri, ularning qattiq nazorat qilinadigan tegirmon shaharlaridan eng mashhuri edi. Ayol -fabrikada ishlaydigan ishchilar ish beruvchiga ham, ishchiga ham afzalliklarni berdi. Boston Associates ayollar mehnatini afzal ko'rdi, chunki ular yosh qizlarga erkaklarga qaraganda kamroq maosh berishardi. Bu ayol ishchilar, odatda "Lowell qizlari" deb nomlanadi, erkaklar hukmron bo'lgan an'anaviy oilaviy fermadan tashqarida mustaqillikning yangi turini boshdan kechirishdi.

Sanoat inqilobining markazida ish haqining ko'payishi ham mehnatkashlarni yangi yo'llar bilan ekspluatatsiya qildi. The first strike among textile workers protesting wage and factory conditions occurred in 1824 and even the model mills of Lowell faced large strikes in the 1830s.

Dramatically increased production, like that in the New England's textile mills, were key parts of the Industrial Revolution, but required at least two more elements for widespread impact. First, an expanded system of credit was necessary to help entrepreneurs secure the capital needed for large-scale and risky new ventures. Second, an improved transportation system was crucial for raw materials to reach the factories and manufactured goods to reach consumers. State governments played a key role encouraging both new banking institutions and a vastly increased transportation network. This latter development is often termed the Market Revolution because of the central importance of creating more efficient ways to transport people, raw materials, and finished goods.

Alexander Hamilton's Bank of the United States received a special national charter from the U.S. Congress in 1791. It enjoyed great success, which led to the opening of branch offices in eight major cities by 1805. Although economically successful, a government-chartered national bank remained politically controversial. As a result, President Madison did not submit the bank's charter for renewal in 1811. The key legal and governmental support for economic development in the early 19th century ultimately came at the state, rather than the national, level. When the national bank closed, state governments responded by creating over 200 state-chartered banks within five years. Indeed, this rapid expansion of credit and the banks' often unregulated activities helped to exacerbate an economic collapse in 1819 that resulted in a six-year depression . The dynamism of a capitalist economy creates rapid expansion that also comes with high risks that include regular periods of sharp economic downturns.

The use of a state charter to provide special benefits for a private corporation was a crucial and controversial innovation in republican America. The idea of granting special privileges to certain individuals seemed to contradict the republican ideal of equality before the law. Even more than through rapidly expanded banking institutions, state support for internal transportation improvements lay at the heart of the nation's new political economy. Road, bridge, and especially canal building was an expensive venture, but most state politicians supported using government-granted legal privileges and funds to help create the infrastructure that would stimulate economic development.

The most famous state-led creation of the Market Revolution was undoubtedly New York's Erie Canal . Begun in 1817, the 364-mile man-made waterway flowed between Albany on the Hudson River and Buffalo on Lake Erie. The canal connected the eastern seaboard and the Old Northwest. The great success of the Erie Canal set off a canal frenzy that, along with the development of the steamboat, created a new and complete national water transportation network by 1840.


Asosiy ma'lumotlar va ma'lumotlar

LEADING TOWARDS THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

  • Before the Industrial Revolution took place in Britain, most people resided in rural areas and worked as farmers. Commoners often experienced malnourishment and diseases. Local rural shops and homes usually made simple tools and furniture.
  • By the mid-18th century, a number of European states including Britain, Spain, and France were under competition as rising colonial powers. Britain had engaged in tremendous wars such as the Austrian war of succession (1740-1783), Seven Years’ War (1756-1763), American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), and the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815). Due to massive pressure to produce the supply of goods needed for the war, Britain underwent industrial changes.
  • With the ideas of intellectuals like Isaac Newton, Galileo Galilei, and Nicolaus Copernicus, Europe became the seat of Scientific Revolution. European societies became more open to new and innovative ideas.
  • Beginning in the 17th century until the mid-19th century, methods in agriculture evolved in Belgium and Holland. Techniques such as crop rotation, enclosed fields, selective breeding, and manuring increased food production and promoted the idea of capitalism. Moreover, it led to rapid population growth.
  • By the 18th century, an inflow of immigrants led to the development of small industries. On the other hand, India as a British colony influenced the huge production and trade of cotton. As a result, Britain became known as a woollen industry, despite its inability to grow their own cotton due to cold climate. This established trading relations with India and southern United States.
  • Due to vast coal and iron reserves, Britain took advantage of these minerals to build industries such as shipbuilding, railroads, and construction.
  • Since the 18th century, Britain already had financial institutions like a central bank, countybanks, and the stock exchange which set the stage for entrepreneurship and capitalism.
  • The central bank of the United Kingdom, now known as the Bank of England was established in 1694 to secure Britain’s financial money and business flow.
  • With the rising economy of Britain, it put pressure on improving their transport system.

INVENTIONS AND INNOVATIONS

  • The Industrial Revolution occurred in the last part of the 18th century in Great Britain. This revolution was an economic one, and it changed the way the world produced goods.
  • The population went from being agricultural to industrial. This meant people moved off of the farms and out of the country. There were huge numbers of people that moved into cities. Many people were forced to move to the cities to look for work. They ended up living in cities that could not support them.
  • During this time, there were also many new advancements in technology. The assembly line was one of the biggest inventions. Henry Ford is credited with this invention.
  • Some of the biggest advancements were in steam power. New fuels such as coal and petroleum, were used in these new steam engines. This revolutionized many industries, including textiles and manufacturing.
  • Another invention was called the telegraph. This made communicating across the ocean easier and much faster. Messages could be sent and received in minutes and delivered the same day. Writing a letter and sending it overseas could take weeks.
  • In 1764, Englishman James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny (abbreviation of the word engine) which enabled production of multiple spools of thread continuously. In addition, English inventor Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom in the 1780s which mechanized weaving of cloth.
  • In the iron industry, Englishman Abraham Darby discovered an easier method to cast iron. By the 1850s, British engineer Henry Bessemer initiated a cheaper way to mass produce steel. Both iron and steel became a vital ingredient in building ships, infrastructure, and appliances.
  • Thomas Newcomen was the one who developed the first practical steam engine which was originally used to pump out water from mines. It was in the 1770s when James Watt, a Scottish inventor who improved on Newcomen’s work and used steam engines to power machines, locomotives, and ships.
  • Despite the effort of the British government to contain export of technologies and skilled workers within their country, they failed as industrialization moved out of Britain and spread to other European countries and the United States.

DRAWBACKS OF REVOLUTION

  • The Industrial Revolution was not a good revolution for the earth. Industry was releasing huge amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and waste into the waterways and soil. Pollution by nuclear waste, pesticides, and other chemicals were also the result of the Industrial Revolution.
  • Many natural resources were being used up at an alarming rate.
  • Advances in farming resulted in an increased supply of food and raw materials. The changes in industry and new technology resulted in increased production of thousands of goods. Companies were more efficient and earned bigger profits.
  • Due to unstoppable industrialization, urban areas were unable to keep up with the influx of migrant workers. Industrialized areas became overpopulated. People were living in overcrowded housing and were prone to unsanitary conditions which led to diseases. It was only in the late 19th century when the British government introduced labor reforms which enhanced working conditions.

What Caused the Industrial Revolution?

The causes behind the industrial revolution are still hotly debated today but are believed to be the result of the rise in capitalism, European imperialism, an increase in world trade and the growth of laissez-fair politics, according to R.M. Hartwell in his book The Causes of the Industrial Revolution:

“A full range of variables is listed below, but most historians have come down in favour of one or more of the following causes of the industrial revolution: an increase in the rate of capital information (either because of low interest rates encouraging investment, or because of profit inflation) an increase in world trade (the natural result of an expanding geographical frontier), in which England gained disproportionately (thus stimulating export industries, and, finally general growth) a technological revolution (the result of an autonomous increase in knowledge, the application of which transformed the machinery and organization of industry, making it much more productive) and growth of laissez-faire and of a rational ethic towards wealth (the result of changes both in philosophic and religious convictions), which liberalized the context and possibilities of enterprise.”

For more information about the industrial revolution, check out the following articles about the best books about the industrial revolution.


The Effects on Coal and Iron

The coal, iron and steel industries mutually stimulated each other during the revolution. There was an obvious need for coal to power steam engines, but these engines also allowed for deeper mines and greater coal production, making the fuel cheaper and steam cheaper, thus producing more demand for coal.

The iron industry also benefited. At first, steam was used to pump water back up into reservoirs, but this soon developed and steam was used to power bigger and better blast furnaces, allowing for an increase in iron production. Rotary action steam engines could be linked to other parts of the iron process, and in 1839 the steam hammer was first in use. Steam and iron were linked as early as 1722 when Darby, an iron magnate, and Newcomen worked together to improve the quality of iron for producing steam engines. Better iron meant more precision engineering for steam. More on coal and iron.


2nd Industrial Revolution

The Second Industrial Revolution began in the 19th century through the discovery of electricity va yig'ish liniyasi ishlab chiqarish. Genri Ford (1863-1947) took the idea of mass production from a slaughterhouse in Chicago: The pigs hung from conveyor belts and each butcher performed only a part of the task of butchering the animal. Henry Ford carried over these principles into automobile production and drastically altered it in the process. While before one station assembled an entire automobile, now the vehicles were produced in partial steps on the conveyor belt - significantly faster and at lower cost.


Industrial Revolution - History


Sanoat inqilobi

James Watt's improvements to the steam engine, and its subsequent application to manufacturing in the late 18th and early 19th century, resulted in a major societal shift. Traditionally manual laborers learned their trade by progressing through stages of apprenticeship under a master craftsman.

The new steam engine driven machines replaced the craftsmen system with faster and cheaper production but often greatly inferior results. The critical eye and artistry of the craftsman was sacrificed for speed. The worker now served the machine, feeding it raw materials and allowing it to determine the final product.

Negative Impact on Design

In the graphic arts field punchcutters, type casters, type setters and printers were losing their jobs as the result of new mechanized methods of type casting and printing. See our page about the new "19th Century Technologies that gutted the craft of printing and letterpress here.

Paper makers began producing paper from wood pulp — creating an acidic paper prone to yellowing and foxing. Book binding was mechanized and cheapened.

The loss of the professional book craftsmen had a detrimental effect on print and type design.

The Crystal Palace Exhibition

Awash with pride and profits from the Industrial Revolution the English upper class, spearheaded by Prince Albert (then husband of Queen Victoria) organized a showcase for modern industrial technology and design. In 1851 the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations was hosted in London. The centerpiece for the exhibition was a glass-enclosed steel beam supported structure, not unlike a huge greenhouse.

England and a number of invited countries displayed their achievements in four categories: Raw Materials, Machinery, Manufacturers and Fine Arts. The exhibition was a popular success but the critical reviews were not so positive. Critics found the work created by industrialized methods to be shoddy and poorly designed, full of superfluous ornaments that did not enhance the product. The Victorian propensity for over-decoration with a hodgepodge of unrelated styles was ridiculed as symptomatic of a tasteless and over-capitalistic society.

1856. In response to the failings at the Crystal Palace a call for better understanding of design and ornamentation was answered by Owen Jones who published an exhaustive inventory of international and historical decorative styles. Printed in colorful lithographs, the book includes 20 sections of illustrated motifs and Jones's 37 Propositions on what makes good design. Two examples:

Proposition 5 Construction should be decorated. Decoration should never be purposely constructed . That which is beautiful is true that which is true must be beautiful.

Proposition 37 No improvement can take place in the Art of the present generation until all classes, Artists, Manufacturers, and the Public, are better educated in Art, and the existence of general principles is more fully recognized.

Jones's book. “pioneered new standards in chromolithography. Jones used his printing press to enter the lucrative market for illustrated and illuminated gift books . He developed innovative new binding techniques . papier máché and terracotta . much of which could trace its aesthetic lineage back to sumptuous medieval illuminated manuscripts and religious bindings.” Read more

Born to wealth, John Ruskin was an author, poet and art critic whose socialist convictions caused him to reject his fortune to fulfill his ideologies. Ruskin's theorized that the Industrial Revolution's division of labor induced monotony and was the main cause of the unhappiness of the poor . He looked backward to an idealized medieval period as a paradigm of the union of art and labor in service to society . He romanticized “The organic relationship . between the worker and his guild, the worker and his community, between the worker and his natural environment, and between the worker and his God”

Ruskin's writings influenced many important social advocates including Mahatma Gandhi . His anti-capitalist essay, Unto This Last , 1862, criticized the destructive effects of industrialization on the natural world, a foreshadowing of today's Green Movement . Ruskin's critical art reviews could make or break the careers of contemporary painters. This explains why Ruskin's critical review of James Whistler's paintings engendered a law suit. (See Reinterpretation of the Manuscript)

Toward the middle of the 19th century, a small group of young painters formed a secret society in reaction against what they felt was the frivolous art of the day. They rejected the 'decadence' of the established Royal Academy and deeply admired the simplicities of the early 15th century. They wanted to bring English art back to a greater truth to nature, something they felt had been lost in the grand manner of Raphael.

John Ruskin's initial support of the Pre-Raphaelites gave the group the credibility they needed to be accepted as serious artists. Ruskin admired the group's commitment to nature and the belief that art should communicate truth. (Things went south however after Ruskin's wife left him for one of the Pre-Raphaelites).

. Brotherhood members were very concerned with the world in which they lived and the social problems brought about by the Industrial Revolution . In some cases, they painted scenes of modern life with a moral message, as in Rossetti's Found. This painting shows a young country woman turning in desperation to a life of prostitution, being unable to find suitable work in the burgeoning London metropolis. 1

“Although the official Brotherhood lasted only a few years, their work and objectives influenced a second wave of English painters and artisans, including Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris , who came down to London from Oxford University to begin their careers in 1856. They met Dante Gabriel Rossetti , whom they greatly admired, and even moved into his old rooms.

Morris and Rossetti set about designing a suite of furniture based on medieval models . These furnishings were an early foray into decorative arts. Within a few years, Morris founded Morris, Marshall, Faulkner, a firm devoted to producing artist-designed, hand-crafted household objects.”

Morris and his Pre-Raphaelite associates deeply believed that beautiful objects would improve individual lives adversely affected by the harsh industrial world.” For more information on the Pre-Raphaelites see the site for the Delaware Art Museum. 1

The Arts & Crafts Movement

The Arts and Crafts Movement was an international design movement that reacted against mass production, both the low quality of design and the demeaning conditions under which products were produced. The movement began in England in the late 1800s, and spread to the United States in the early decades of the 20th century.

The arts and crafts movement idealistically tried to rejoin art and industry together but the economies of scale worked against their goal of bringing good design to the masses. In the graphic arts field small private presses, forming under a model created by William Morris, reawakened fine printing and revivals of classic typefaces.Read more here

While the Arts and Crafts is not considered a true architectural movement, the Arts and Crafts cottage was a forerunner of a machine for living. The houses, designed to emulate medieval thatched huts, were cozy bungalows made from natural materials, (wood, stone and stucco). Doors were covered with wide eaves, porches with thick columns, chimneys, open floor plans, stained glass, and dark wood moldings.


Videoni tomosha qiling: УХХХ ГЕЙЛАР КЎЛГА ТУШДИ, ЗАПАЛ БЎЛГАН ИФЛОСЛАР!!!


Izohlar:

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