Pokaxontas haykali

Pokaxontas haykali


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Pokaxontas, Arkanzas shtatining qisqacha tarixi

Bug 'qayiqlari Pokaxontas portiga joylashdi. 1890 -yillar. Surat Randolf okrugi sayyohlik uyushmasidan olingan.

Pokaxontas Qora daryo bo'yida joylashgan va Arkanzas shtatining Randolf okrugining okrugidir. Ransom S. Bettis Pocahontas asoschisi hisoblanadi. 1827 yilda u Missuri shtatining Grinvill shahridan parom bilan Qora daryo bo'yida savdo punkti va parom uchun joy qidirib keldi. U Pokaxontasdagi ideal joyni topdi - daryoning katta burilishidagi baland qirg'oq ustidagi keng, nisbatan tekis tekislik, u Pokaxontas portiga aylanadi. Port maydonining tepasida, ohaktoshli blöf 200 futdan oshdi. Bu juda muhim edi, chunki bu chivinlar va bezgak va sariq isitmadan xoli bo'lgan daryo bo'yidagi daryo bo'yida joylashishga imkon beradi. Bettis eski frantsuz savdo shoxobchasi o'rnida savdo punktini o'rnatdi, u erda daryo paromini o'rnatdi va daryo ustidagi portlashda katta uy qurdi. Dastlab nom berilgan bluff va aholi punkti Boshsuyagi singan sifatida tanildi Bettis Bluff. Mahalliy afsonalarda aytilishicha, Pocahontas hiyla -nayrang tufayli okrug o'rindig'iga aylangan. 1835 yilda Bettis va uning kuyovi Tomas S. Drew okrug yig'ilishida qaysi shahar okrugiga aylanishini aniqlash uchun ko'p miqdordagi bepul likyor bilan bepul barbekyu berishdi. Ovoz berish vaqti kelganida, Bettis Bluff delegatsiyasi hushidan ketmagan yoki boshqa ta'sir o'tkazmagan. O'sha paytda Drew va Bettis shahar nomini Bettis Bluffdan o'zgartirdilar Pokaxontas. Ism nima uchun o'zgartirilgani haqida ko'plab nazariyalar mavjud, ammo bu o'zgarishlarni tushuntirib beradigan biror hujjat yoki hujjat yo'q. Bu shahar Virjiniya shtatining Jeymstaun shahridan kelgan tubjoy amerikaliklar sharafiga nomlangan. Uning haykali Qora daryo bo'yidagi Overlook bog'ida joylashgan (Pokaxontas, 2019 yil).


Pocahontas (Rebekka Rolfe) haqidagi haqiqiy voqeani bilasizmi?

Disneyning mashhur filmini hamma ko'rgan, Pokaxontas. Ammo, bu erda Jeymstaun hind malikasi va ingliz ko'chmanchilarining haqiqiy hikoyasi.

1607 yilda inglizlar Virjiniya shtatining Jeymstaun shahrida mustamlaka tuzdilar. Ammo qattiq qish ko'chmanchilar rejalashtirganidan ko'ra qiyinroq edi va tez orada ularning ta'minlanishi xavfli darajada kamayayotganini payqashdi.

Bir kuni, 1608 yil davomida kapitan Jon Smit va uning ba'zi odamlari ovqat qidirayotgan paytda tubjoy amerikaliklar tomonidan asirga olindi. Kapitan Smitning odamlari o'ldirildi va u bosh Powhatanga olib ketildi. Qudratli Hind boshlig'i Smitni o'ldirishni buyurdi. Oxirgi paytda boshliqning qizi 13 yoshli Pokaxontas otasiga iltijo qilib, kapitan Smitning hayotini saqlab qoldi.

Bir necha yil o'tgach, Pocahontas, Hindiston hujumi haqida ko'chmanchilarni ogohlantirish orqali, yana Jeymstaundagi ko'p odamlarning hayotini saqlab qoladi. U ko'chmanchilar bilan do'stlashdi va tez orada ularga ishonishdi.

1613 yilda, 18 yoshida, Pokaxontas Isoni hayotiga qabul qildi va suvga cho'mdi. U, shuningdek, yangi hayotining boshlanishini belgilash uchun "xristian" deb nomlangan Rebekka ismini oldi.

Suvga cho'mganidan ko'p o'tmay, Pokaxontas sevib qoldi va Jeymstaun shahrida yashovchi Jon Rolfga uylandi. Ularning Tomas ismli bolasi bor edi (1615). 1616 yilda Jon, Rebekka va ularning o'g'li Angliyaga jo'nab ketishdi, ularga qirol saroyidan tomoshabinlar berildi. Ular 1617 yilda Virjiniyaga uyiga qaytishga tayyorgarlik ko'rishganida, Pokaxontas kasal bo'lib, vafot etdi. U Angliyada dafn qilindi.

Pokaxontas har doim o'z hayotini xavf ostiga qo'yib, kapitan Jon Smit va Jeymstaun ko'chmanchilarini qutqarish uchun hind malikasi sifatida esda qoladi. Ammo uning qisqa umrining diqqatga sazovor tomoni shundaki u yangi dunyoda Iso Masihni qabul qilgan birinchi tubjoy amerikalik edi.

Muallif: Xristian javoblaridan Mark Van Bebber

Mualliflik huquqi © 1995, 2003, Masih uchun filmlar, Barcha huquqlar himoyalangan


Pokaxontas

1922 yilda Uilyam Ordvey Partridj tomonidan o'rnatilgan ushbu haykal, Powhatan Paramount Chiefdom hukmdori Paramount boshlig'i Wahunsenacawhning (Powhatan nomi bilan mashhur) sevimli qizi Pocahontas sharafiga o'rnatilgan.

Pokaxontas taxminan 1595 yilda tug'ilgan, ehtimol Jeymstaundan 15 mil uzoqlikdagi Werowocomoco shahrida. 1608 yilda u tez -tez Jeymstaunga tashrif buyurib, tez -tez otasidan sovg'alar olib kelardi. Kapitan Jon Smit koloniyaning birinchi yillarida uning hayotini ikki marta qutqarganiga ishondi.

1613 yil aprel oyida kapitan Argall Pokaxontasni o'g'irlab, uni Jeymstaunga olib keldi. Garovda bo'lganida, u nasroniylikdan saboq oldi, dinini o'zgartirdi va suvga cho'mdi.

Uning 1614 yil aprelda Jon Rolfe bilan uylanishi Powhatan va mustamlakachilar o'rtasida tinch munosabatlar o'rnatishga yordam berdi. 1616 yilda u Rolfe va ularning o'g'li Tomas bilan Angliyaga tashrif buyurdi va qirollik sudiga taqdim etildi. U 1617 yil 21 martda vafot etdi va Angliyaning Gravesend shahridagi Avliyo Jorj cherkoviga dafn qilindi.

Bugungi kunda ko'plab amerikaliklar uning o'g'li va nevarasidan kelib chiqqanligini da'vo qilmoqdalar.

Mustamlaka milliy tarixiy bog'i, Milliy bog'lar xizmati tomonidan qurilgan.

Mavzular. Bu tarixiy belgi quyidagi mavzular ro'yxatida keltirilgan: Cherkovlar va din va buqa mustamlaka davri va buqaning tubjoy amerikaliklari va buqa ayollari. Bu kirish uchun muhim tarixiy oy 1849 yil mart.

37 va daraja 12.524 va#8242 N, 76 va 46.7 va#8242 W. Marker Uilyamsburgda (Virjiniya), Jeyms Siti okrugida. Markerga Colonial Parkway -dan, o'ng tomonda, g'arbga sayohat qilish mumkin. Marker mustamlaka milliy tarixiy bog'ining Tarixiy Jeymstaun bo'limining "Old Towne" bo'limida. Xarita uchun bosing. Marker ushbu pochta bo'limida joylashgan: Williamsburg VA 23185, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari. Yo'nalish uchun bosing.

Yaqin atrofdagi boshqa belgilar. Kamida 8 ta boshqa marker bu markerdan masofada joylashgan. Jeymstaun (bu belgidan bir necha qadam) Jeymstaun cherkovlari (bu belgidan bir necha qadam) Qabr toshlari (bu belgidan baland ovozda) Jeyms va Sara Bleyr qabrlari (bu belgidan baland ovozda) Jeyms Fort Sayti 1607-1624 (bu belgining baqiruv masofasida) Virjiniya shtatining birinchi Bosh assambleyasi (bu belgidan baqirish masofasida) Katta yo'l-1607-1700 yillargacha bo'lgan erta yo'l bu belgining qichqiriq masofasi). Uilyamsburgdagi barcha markerlarning ro'yxati va xaritasini ko'rish uchun bosing.

Bu marker haqida batafsil. Markerning o'ng tomonida 1616 yilda Londonda o'yilgan Pokaxontasning 17-asrga oid tasviri bor. Pokaxontas suvga cho'mgandan keyin ingliz turmush tarzini qabul qildi va 1614 yilda Jon Rolfga uylandi. Simon Van de Passe, Matoaka taxallusi Rebekka, 1616. Virjiniya tarixiy jamiyati ruxsati bilan, Richmond Virjiniya. ”

Shuningdek qarang. . .
1. Tarixiy Jamestaun. Milliy bog'lar xizmati veb -saytidan mustamlaka milliy tarixiy bog'i. (2008 yil 11 sentyabrda Nyu -Jersi shtatining Woodland Park shtatidan Bill Koflin tomonidan taqdim etilgan.)

2. Tarixiy Jamestaun. Tarixiy Jeymstaun - Amerikadagi birinchi doimiy ingliz aholi punkti. Sayt APVA Preservation Virginia tomonidan birgalikda boshqariladi


Pocahontas haqida haqiqiy hikoya

Pokaxontas uy nomi bo'lishi mumkin, lekin uning qisqa, ammo kuchli hayotining haqiqiy hikoyasi 17 -asrdan buyon saqlanib kelayotgan afsonalarga ko'milgan.

Bu Hikoyadan

Pocahontas va Powhatan dilemma: Amerika portretlari seriyasi

Boshlash uchun, Pocahontas hatto uning haqiqiy ismi ham emas edi. Taxminan 1596 yilda tug'ilgan, uning haqiqiy ismi Amonute edi va uning shaxsiy ismi Matoaka edi. Pokaxontas uning taxallusi edi, siz kimdan so'rashingizga qarab, "o'ynoqi" yoki "odobli bola" degan ma'noni anglatadi. ”

Pokaxontas inglizlarning ilk ko'chmanchilari Virjiniya shtati Jeymstaun deb da'vo qiladigan 30 dan ortiq alqonkiyzabon qabilalar hukmdori Powhatanning sevimli qizi edi. Yillar o'tib — yildan keyin hech kim dalillarni bahslasha olmadi —John Smit, qudratli mahalliy etakchining go'zal qizi, uni, ingliz sarguzashtchisi, otasi tomonidan qatl qilinishidan qanday qutqargani haqida yozdi.

Pocahontasning o'z xalqidan yuz o'girib, inglizlar bilan ittifoq tuzishi va shu orqali ikki madaniyat o'rtasida umumiy til topishi haqidagi bu hikoya asrlar davomida saqlanib kelgan. Lekin aslida Pocahontas hayoti Smit yoki asosiy madaniyat aytganidan ancha farq qilardi. Hatto 11 yoki 12 yoshli Pokaxontas hatto savdogar askar va kashfiyotchini ham qutqarganmi yoki yo'qmi, bahslashdi, chunki Smit marosim marosimini noto'g'ri talqin qilgan yoki hatto ertakni mashhur Shotlandiya balladasidan olib tashlagan bo'lishi mumkin.

Endi, u vafotidan 400 yil o'tgach, haqiqiy Pokaxontas haqidagi hikoya nihoyat aniq o'rganilmoqda. Smitson kanalida ’ ning yangi hujjatli filmi Pokaxontas: Afsona ortida, premyerasi 27 -mart kuni, Virjiniya shtatining Pamunkey qabilasidan mualliflar, tarixchilar, kuratorlar va vakillar, Pokaxontas avlodlari, aqlli va jasur yosh ayol bo'lib ulg'aygan, aravachali Pokaxontasning rasmini chizish uchun ekspert guvohliklarini berishadi. Evropa qudrati oldida tarjimon, elchi va etakchi bo'lib xizmat qiladi.

Kamilla Townsend, nufuzli muallif Pokaxontas va Powhatan dilemmasi va Rutjers universiteti tarix professori Mifdan tashqari, Smithsonian.com bilan suhbatda nima uchun Pocahontas haqidagi hikoya shunchalik uzoq vaqtdan beri buzilganligi va nima uchun uning haqiqiy merosi bugungi kunda tushunish uchun muhim ekanligi haqida gapiradi.

Qanday qilib Pocahontas olimi bo'ldingiz?

Men ko'p yillar davomida tubjoy amerikaliklar tarixi professori bo'lganman. Men loyiha ustida ishlayotgandim, ular Ispaniya va Angliya Amerikasidagi mustamlakachilar va hindular o'rtasidagi dastlabki munosabatlarni solishtirgan. Men boshqa odamlarga Pocahontas, Jon Smit va Jon Rolf bilan ishlashga murojaat qila olaman deb o'yladim. U haqida ko'p yillar davomida haqiqatan ham yozilgan yuzlab kitoblar bor. Lekin men buni ko'rib chiqmoqchi bo'lganimda, ularning ko'pchiligi cho'chqa go'shti bilan to'la ekanini ko'rdim. Ularning ko'pini tarixchi bo'lmagan odamlar yozgan. Boshqalar tarixchilar edi, [lekin] ular boshqa masalalarga ixtisoslashgan odamlar edilar va agar biror narsa boshqa odamlarning asarlarida bir necha bor takrorlangan bo'lsa, bu haqiqat bo'lishi kerak deb o'ylardilar. Orqaga qaytib, o'sha davrdagi saqlanib qolgan hujjatlarni ko'rib chiqsam, u haqida takrorlanganlarning ko'pi haqiqat emasligini bilib oldim.

Hujjatli filmda ta'kidlaganingizdek, nafaqat uning hikoyasini noto'g'ri tushungan Disney. Bu ularning munosabatlarini sevgi hikoyasi sifatida sotgan Jon Smitga qaytadi. Qaysi sinfiy va madaniy omillar bu afsona davom etishiga yo'l qo'ydi?

Pokaxontas Jon Smitni sevib qolgani haqidagi hikoya ko'p avlodlarga davom etdi. Siz aytganingizdek, u buni mustamlakachilik davrida aytib o'tgan. Keyin u vafot etdi, lekin 1800 -yillarning boshidagi inqilobdan keyin, biz haqiqatan ham millatchilik hikoyalarini qidirayotganimizda, qayta tug'ildi. O'shandan beri u Disney filmigacha va hatto hozirgi kungacha u yoki bu shaklda yashagan.

Menimcha, bu tubjoy amerikaliklar orasida emas, balki dominant madaniyat odamlari orasida juda mashhur bo'lgan va bu bizga juda yoqadi. Bu g'oya shundan iboratki, bu yaxshi hind. ’ U oq tanli odamga, nasroniylikka, madaniyatga qoyil qoladi, bu odamlar bilan tinch bo'lishni xohlaydi, o'z xalqi bilan emas, bu odamlar bilan yashashga tayyor. u o'znikidan ko'ra. Bu butun g'oya oq tanli Amerika madaniyatidagi odamlarga bizning tariximiz haqida yaxshi taassurot qoldiradi. Biz hindularga hech qanday yomonlik qilmaganmiz, lekin ularga haqiqatan ham yordam berganmiz va buni yaxshilar qadrlashdi.

1616 yilda "Rebekka" deb suvga cho'mgan Pokaxontas Jon Rolfga uylanib, Angliyaga jo'nab ketdi. U Virjiniyaga qaytishdan oldin kasal bo'lib qoldi. U Angliyada, ehtimol pnevmoniya yoki sil kasalligidan vafot etgan va 1617 yil 21 martda Avliyo Jorj cherkoviga dafn etilgan. (Smitson kanali)

Haqiqiy hayotda Pocahontas Virjiniyadagi Pamunkey qabilasining a'zosi edi. Pamunkey va boshqa mahalliy odamlar bugun uning hikoyasini qanday gapirishadi?

Bu qiziq. Umuman olganda, yaqin vaqtgacha Pokaxontas tubjoy amerikaliklar orasida mashhur shaxs emas edi. Men kitob ustida ishlayotganimda, masalan, hindular bo'yicha Virjiniya Kengashiga qo'ng'iroq qilganimda, ular inqirozga duch keldim, chunki ular juda charchagan edilar. Ko'p yillar mobaynida tubjoy amerikaliklar Pokaxontasni sevishni yaxshi ko'radigan va Pokaxontasni sevganlari uchun bellarini silashdan juda charchashgan, aslida ular haqiqatan ham oq madaniyatga sig'inadigan hindlarning hikoyasi edi. Ular bundan charchashdi va ishonishmadi. Bu ularga haqiqiy emasdek tuyuldi.

Aytmoqchimanki, yaqinda o'zgarish yuz berdi. Qisman, menimcha, Disney filmi kinoya bilan yordam berdi. Garchi u ko'proq afsonalarni bildirgan bo'lsa -da, tubjoy amerikalik qahramon - bu yulduz, u qiziqarli, kuchli va chiroyli va tubjoy amerikaliklar bu filmni tomosha qilishni yaxshi ko'radilar. Bu ular uchun haqiqiy o'zgarish.

Boshqa narsa shundaki, stipendiya hozir juda yaxshi. Biz hozir uning haqiqiy hayoti haqida juda ko'p narsani bilamiz, chunki tubjoy amerikaliklar ham biz u haqida gapirishimiz, u haqida ko'proq bilib olishimiz va u haqida ko'proq o'qishimiz kerakligini anglay boshladilar, chunki aslida u o'z jonini sotmagan va qilmagan. t o'z xalqidan ko'ra oq madaniyatni ko'proq sevadi. U o'z xalqiga yordam berish uchun qo'lidan kelganini qilgan, baquvvat qiz edi. Bir marta ular uning hikoyasiga qiziqib qolishlarini tushunishni boshladilar.

Oddiy madaniyatdan olingan saboq shundaki, o'z xalqini tashlab, nasroniylikni qabul qilib, Pokaxontas madaniyatlarni qanday qilib birlashtirishning namunasi bo'ldi. Sizningcha, Pocahontas ’ haqiqiy hayotidan qanday haqiqiy saboqlar olish kerak?

Umuman olganda, dars juda qiyin sharoitlarda ham ajoyib kuchdir. Pokaxontas odamlari, ehtimol, Uyg'onish Evropasining kuchini mag'lubiyatga uchrata olmasdi, bu Jon Smit va keyinchalik kelgan mustamlakachilar. Ular kuchliroq texnologiyaga, nafaqat qurol -yarog ', balki yuk tashish, kitob bosib chiqarish va kompas yasash borasida kuchliroq texnologiyalarga ega edilar. Evropaning Yangi Dunyoga kelishi va zabt etishiga imkon yaratgan barcha narsalar, va ularning etishmasligi tubjoy amerikaliklarning Eski Dunyo tomon harakatlanishi va zabt etishiga imkon bermadi. Shunday qilib, hindular o'ta og'ir sharoitlarga duch kelishdi. Shunga qaramay, Pokaxontas va biz o'qigan va o'rganadigan boshqa ko'plab odamlar, ular ishlatgan strategiyasini tuzishda juda jasorat va zukkolikni, ba'zan esa yorqinligini ko'rsatdilar. Menimcha, eng muhim dars nima bo'ladi, u o'ylab topilgan Pokaxontasdan ko'ra jasur, kuchli va qiziqroq edi.

Keng ko'lamli tadqiqotlar davomida Pokaxontas bilan yaxshiroq tanishishga qanday tafsilotlar yordam berdi?

Haqiqatan ham menga qaragan hujjatlar Jon Smitdan saqlanib qolgan yozuvlar edi. U bu erga kelganidan bir necha oy o'tgach, tubjoy amerikaliklar tomonidan o'g'irlab ketilgan. Oxir -oqibat, so'roq qilingandan so'ng, uni qo'yib yuborishdi. Ammo u tubjoy amerikaliklar orasida asir bo'lganida, biz bilamizki, u Powhatanning qizi Pokaxontas bilan vaqt o'tkazgan va ular bir -birlariga o'z tillarining asosiy jihatlarini o'rgatishgan. Va biz buni bilamiz, chunki uning omon qolgan yozuvlarida "Pokaxontasga menga uchta savat olib kelishini ayt" kabi jumlalar yozilgan. Yoki "Pokaxontasda oq munchoqlar ko'p". To'satdan, men bu odam va bu qizaloqni bir -biriga o'rgatmoqchi bo'lganini ko'rdim. Bir holda ingliz tili, boshqa holatda algonquian tili. Haqiqatan ham, 1607 yilning kuzida, biron bir daryo bo'yida o'tirib, ular bu jumlalarni aytdilar. U ularni Algonquian tilida takrorlardi va u buni yozardi. Bu tafsilot ikkalasini ham men uchun hayotga olib keldi.

Pocahontas ko'pincha Powhatan imperiyasining tarjimoni va elchisi bo'lib xizmat qilgan. (Smitson kanali)

O'limidan to'rt yuz yil o'tgach, uning hikoyasi aniqroq aytilmoqda. Nima o'zgargan?

Televidenie va boshqa pop -madaniyatni o'rganish shuni ko'rsatadiki, 80 -yillar boshidan 90 -yillarning boshigacha bo'lgan o'n yillikda Amerikaning umidlari nuqtai nazaridan haqiqiy o'zgarish sodir bo'ldi, biz haqiqatan ham boshqa odamlarning nuqtai nazariga qarashimiz kerak. nafaqat hukmron madaniyat. Shunday qilib, bu birinchi navbatda sodir bo'lishi kerak edi. Aytaylik, 90 -yillarning o'rtalaridan oxirigacha bo'lgan voqea. Keyin yana ko'p yillar o'tishi kerak edi. Mening "Pokaxontas" kitobim, masalan, 2004 yilda nashr etilgan. Boshqa bir tarixchi u haqida jiddiy bo'lim yozgan, u 2001 yilda men aytganimdagidek, xuddi shunday edi. Shunday qilib, multikulturalizm g'oyalari bizning dunyomizda hukmronlik qildi. #821790s, lekin odamlar buni hazm qilib, qog'oz, maqola va kitoblarga joylashtirishdan oldin yana besh -o'n yil o'tishi kerak edi.

Asosiy stipendiya o'zgarishi juda yaqin bo'lgani uchun, uning hikoyasidan o'rganish uchun ko'proq narsa bor deb o'ylaysizmi?

O'ylaymanki, u haqida ko'proq bilish kerak, bu zamonaviy siyosatga yordam beradi degan ma'noni anglatadi, agar ko'proq odamlar fath paytida ham, undan keyingi yillarda ham asl xalq nima kechirganini tushunishsa. Mamlakatimizda, hech bo'lmaganda, ba'zi odamlar orasida shunday tuyg'u borki, tubjoy amerikaliklar va boshqa qudratli odamlar buni yaxshi ko'rishgan, ular maxsus stipendiyalar va maxsus maqomga ega bo'lganlar. Bu ularning haqiqiy tarixiy tajribasini aks ettirishdan juda uzoqda. Bu qabilalar boshidan kechirgan voqealarning haqiqiy tarixini bilganingizdan so'ng, bu juda achinarli, va oxirgi besh avlod mobaynida ba'zi odamlar boshqalarga qaraganda ko'proq boshdan kechirgan og'riq va yo'qotishlarni hisobga olish kerak. O'ylaymanki, bu ham, ham mahalliy madaniyatga, ham umumiy madaniyatga yordam beradi, agar ko'proq odamlar fath paytida ham, o'shandan beri ham mahalliy tajriba haqiqatan ham qanday ekanligini tushunsalar edi.

Jeki Manskiy haqida

Jaklin Manskiy - Los -Anjelesda yashovchi mustaqil yozuvchi va muharrir. U ilgari gumanitar fanlar bo'yicha veb -muharririning yordamchisi bo'lgan Smitsonlik jurnal.


Pokaxontasning dam olish joyi

Barcha fotosuratlarni ko'rish

Kentiskning Gravesend shahridagi oddiy cherkov bog'ida tarixdagi eng mashhur amerikalik ayollardan biri Pokaxontasning haykali turibdi, u o'zining muloyimligi va diplomatiyasi bilan ingliz ko'chmanchilari va uning qabilasi - povxotanlar o'rtasidagi urushni oldini oldi. .

Bu hayajonli bronza haykal 1913 yilda Uilyam Ordvey Partridj tomonidan haykaltaroshlik qilingan nusxaning nusxasi bo'lib, asl nusxasi bir vaqtlar Powatan xalqining vatani, Virjiniya shtatining Jeymstaun shahrida joylashgan. U 1958 yilda Virjiniya gubernatori tomonidan Gravesend aholisiga sovg'a sifatida berilgan.

Unda tomoshabinni oldinga qadam tashlash uchun xushmuomalalik bilan kutib olgandek, uning chiroyli va ochiq qurollangan yurishi tasvirlangan. Ammo, ehtimol, haykalning eng qiziqtiradigan xususiyati uning yuz ifodasidir, u havodor va havodor bo'lib, unda og'riq va hayratni inkor etib bo'lmaydi. Bu tafsilot bu yosh ayolning qisqa va voqealarga boy hayotining asosiy fojiasini ko'rsatganga o'xshaydi.

1596 yilda tug'ilgan, Powhatan qabilasi etakchisi Vaxunsenakavning qizi va tug'ilishda vafot etgan onaning qizi, uning haqiqiy ismi Matoaka bo'lib, algonquian tilida "Tog'lar orasidagi yorqin bug '" deb tarjima qilingan. Qiziqarli va sarguzashtli tabiat tufayli unga bolalikdan Pokaxontas taxallusi berilgan, deb ishoniladi, bu "o'ynoqi" deb tarjima qilingan.

Bolaligida Matoaka kattalarga ovqat yig'ish va tayyorlash, o'tin yig'ish va makkajo'xori etishtirishda yordam berib o'sgan bo'lardi va o'z xalqining ma'naviy dunyoqarashiga ega bo'lardi. Powhatan o'rmonlarda yashaydigan, lekin ikkita asosiy xudolari bo'lgan Axon, insoniyatning mehribon yaratuvchisi xudosi va uning qarama -qarshisi, Okey, yovuz makkor xudosi bo'lgan ko'plab ruhiy mavjudotlarga ishongan.

1600 -yillarning boshlariga kelib, Powhatan dunyosi ingliz mustamlakachilarining Amerikaga joylashishi bilan o'zgardi. Ikki xalq o'rtasida ziddiyat zudlik bilan paydo bo'ldi va Britaniya kelganidan ikki hafta o'tgach, har ikki tomondan ham mushtli o'qlar va o'qlar o'qqa tutildi, natijada ko'plab odamlar o'ldi. Yil oxirida ingliz mustamlakachilaridan biri Jon Smit kiyik ovlagan paytda qo'lga olindi va Powhatan qabilasi tomonidan asirga olindi.

Keyinchalik Smitning keyingi voqealar haqidagi xotiralariga ko'ra, u deyarli yo'lboshchi Vaxunsenakav tomonidan o'ldirilgan, u g'azablanib jang klubini o'ldirishga urgan. Biroq, uning hayotini Matoaka saqlab qoldi, u o'zini erkaklar orasiga qo'yib, otasini iltimos qilib, Smitni ozod qilishga va mustamlakachilar bilan sulh tuzishga ko'ndirdi.

Olimlar asrlar davomida Smit hisobining haqiqiyligini bahslashishgan, ba'zilari bu dramatik bezak, boshqalari esa bu voqeani tarixiy haqiqat sifatida himoya qilishgan. Ammo voqea sodir bo'lgan taqdirda ham, qattiq qish paytida mustamlakachilarni oziq -ovqat bilan ta'minlagan mustamlakachilar va mintaqaning tub aholisi o'rtasida vaqtincha bo'lsa ham tinchlik darajasi qaytganga o'xshaydi.

Ammo ikki yildan so'ng, aholi punktlarining kengayishiga javoban, yana to'qnashuvlar avj oldi va urush boshlandi, unda Matoakani bir guruh mustamlakachilar o'g'irlab ketishdi. U qarorgohda bir yil garovda ushlab turilgan va go'yoki haqiqiy yoki pragmatik sabablarga ko'ra xristianlikni qabul qilgan va "Rebekka" sifatida suvga cho'mgan.

Bu vaqt mobaynida unga qanday munosabatda bo'lganligi noma'lum, bir olim unga zo'ravonlik qilganini, boshqalarga hurmat bilan munosabatda bo'lishini aytdi, ammo dalillar, unga xushmuomalalik bilan muomala qilinganligini va asirlariga nisbatan Stokgolm sindromini rivojlantirganini ko'rsatadi. Natijada, otasi bilan kelishuvga erishilgach, u qolishga qaror qilganga o'xshaydi.

Ko'p o'tmay, u tamaki plantatsiyasining egasi va bevasi Jon Rolfga uylandi va er -xotin o'rtasida haqiqiy muhabbat paydo bo'ldi. Ko'rinib turibdiki, nikoh mahalliy aholi va mustamlakachilar o'rtasidagi munosabatlarga foyda keltirdi va sakkiz yil davomida mavjud bo'lgan guruhlar o'rtasida tinchlik hukm surdi. 1615 yilda bola tug'ildi va oila Buyuk Britaniyaga qaytib keldi, u erda ikki yil London tashqarisidagi shaharchada joylashdilar. Angliyada bo'lgan vaqt mobaynida, Matoaka, ehtimol, qirollik mehmoni sifatida ko'rilgan va qirol va zodagonlar bilan uchrashgan.

1617 yilda oila Shimoliy Amerikaga qaytishni rejalashtirgandi, lekin safarga tayyorgarlik ko'rishar ekan, Matoaka, ehtimol pnevmoniya kasalligiga chalingan va ko'p o'tmay vafot etgan. Uning oxirgi so'zlari, aftidan: "Hammasi o'lishi kerak, lekin" bola yashashi uchun etarli ".

Borishdan oldin biling

Pokaxontas Kentning Gravesend shahridagi Avliyo Jorj cherkovi qabristoniga dafn qilindi, u erda uning qisqa, ammo dramatik hayoti yodgorligi joylashgan.

Jamoatning to'g'ridan -to'g'ri ko'chasi bo'ylab katta maydonda pullik mashinalar ko'p.


Pokaxontas haqida siz bilmagan 10 ta narsa

Afsuski, Millennial avlod uchun, biz Disneyning "Pocahontas" versiyasida va uning Jon Smitga bo'lgan oshiqligida o'sganmiz. Bu rostmi? Pokaxontasning hayoti aslida qanday edi? Siz, biz bilmagan bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan tubjoy amerikalik jangchi malika haqida ba'zi narsalarni o'rganayotganimizda, siz bilmoqchisiz. (Aytgancha, Disneyga bizga yolg'on gapirgani va uni Pocahontas 2 yordamida tuzatmoqchi bo'lgani uchun).

1. Jon Smit Pocahontasning sevgisi emas edi

Pokaxontas kapitan Jon Smitning hayotini qutqaradi, Yoxann Fridrix Engel, moyli rasm

Eng og'riqli haqiqatdan boshlash og'riqli, lekin biz shu erdamiz. Jon Smit va Pokaxontas sevishganlar emas, hatto yoshiga yaqin ham emas edilar! Yangi dunyoga ko'chmanchilar kelganida Pokaxontas taxminan 11 yoki 12 yoshda edi, Jon Smit esa yigirmanchi yoshlarning oxirlarida edi. Mavjud hujjatlarni Smit yozgan, ammo shuni esda tutingki, Pocahontas uni sevib qolgan bo'lishi mumkin, lekin u unga muhabbat emas, balki otasi va do'sti sifatida qaraydi.

Pocahontas otasi bosh Powhatandan o'z hayotini qutqarganidan so'ng, Smitga Algonkinni asirlikda bo'lganida tarjima qilish va o'rganishga yordam beradi. U Bosh Powhatan bilan oziq -ovqat va boshqa tovarlar uchun barter qildi, 1609 yilda qurol -yarog 'halokatidan keyin Angliyaga qaytgunga qadar. Hatto yozma hisoblari bilan ham, Smit yolg'onchi va bezakchi sifatida ko'rilgan. Smit tez -tez o'zini hikoyaning qahramoni sifatida ko'rsatishga harakat qilardi va uni qiyin vaziyatlardan chiqish uchun ishlatardi, ayniqsa u qorong'i yo'ldan borib, Virjiniya shirkati tomonidan qo'zg'olon qilishga urinishdan keyin.

2. Pokaxontas uning haqiqiy ismi emas edi

Pokaxontas - biz hammamiz bilamiz, lekin bosh Powhatanning qizining ismlari ko'p edi. Uning haqiqiy ismi Amonute edi, lekin yaqin do'stlari va oilasi uni Matoaka deb atashardi. Pokaxontas - unga qabilasi tomonidan berilgan taxallus. "Pocahontas" nomi "o'ynoqi" yoki "yomon xulqli bola" degan ma'noni anglatadi. U quvnoq va qiziquvchan edi, bu Riverbend atrofini tushuntiradi va ingliz aholi punktlarini aylanib chiqadi, shunday emasmi?

Xristianlikni qabul qilib, 1613 yilda suvga cho'mgandan so'ng, uning ismi Rebekka deb o'zgartirildi va u o'limigacha qoldi.

3. Pokaxontas Jon Rolfdan oldin uylangan

Pokaxontas va Jon Rolf

Disney Pocahontas filmlarida to'g'ri ko'rgan narsalardan biri bu uning Jon Rolfga uylanishi va Kocumning qo'shilishi edi. Bu tasdiqlanmagan, lekin Pocahontas 1610 yilda yaqin Patawamake qabilasi vakiliga uylangan: Kocum. U Disney talqiniga o'xshashmi yoki yo'qmi, bu biroz sir. Kapitan Samuel Argall 1613 yilda o'z kemasida asirga olingandan so'ng, Pokaxontas Birinchi Angliya-Poxatan urushida asirga aylandi. Qamoqda u beva qolgan tamaki dehqoni Jon Rolf bilan uchrashdi va ikkalasi ham sevib qolishdi. Otasining roziligi va xristianlikni qabul qilishi bilan ular 1614 yil aprelda turmush qurishdi.

Lekin nima? Qanday qilib u 1610 yilda Kokumga uylangan, keyin 1614 yilda Jon Rolfga uylangan bo'lishi mumkin? Kocum bilan nima bo'lgani noma'lum, lekin ko'pchilik tarixchilar uni Powhatan madaniyatida ruxsat berilganidan beri ajrashgan deb hisoblashadi. Hech bo'lmaganda, o'q otish va onasining marjonini yirtishdan ko'ra yaxshiroqdir, to'g'rimi?

4. Malika hali ham ayollik vazifasini bajargan

Garchi Pokaxontas malika bo'lganiga qaramay, uning oddiy vazifalari ko'p edi. Uning tarbiyasi tubjoy amerikalik qizlar uchun odatiy bo'lgan, lekin ko'proq erkinlik va hashamatga ruxsat berilgan. U, shuningdek, kulbalar qurishni, dehqonchilikni, oshpazlikni, terini terishni, o'tlarni yig'ishni va go'shtni so'yishni o'rganishi kerak edi. U, shuningdek, olov yoqishni o'rganar va boshqa bolalar bilan o'ynar edi. Tez orada u bularning barchasini boy ingliz liboslari, zargarlik buyumlari va Angliyada xonim bo'lish hashamati bilan almashtiradi.

5. Pokaxontas bosh Powhatanning sevimli qizi edi

Shunga qaramay, biz Disney fantaziyasidan ba'zi farqlarni ko'ramiz. Pokaxontasning birodaru opa -singillari bor edi, lekin uni otasining sevimlisi sifatida hurmat qilishardi. U malika kabi yashagan va uni "zavq va sevgilisi" deb atashgan. Bosh Povxatan uning tabassumini ko'rish uchun hamma narsani qilardi. Lekin nima uchun u uning sevimlisi edi?

Pokaxontas avlodlari bo'lgan Mattaponi xalqining so'zlariga ko'ra, onasi tug'ish paytida vafot etgan. Bosh Povxatan Pokaxontasga mehribon edi, chunki u ham tashqi ko'rinishi, ham ruhi onasiga juda o'xshardi.

Pocahontasning 19-asr tasviri.

6. Pokaxontas Jeymstaun ko'chmanchilari va tubjoy amerikaliklar o'rtasida tinchlikparvar bo'lgan

Pokaxontas nafaqat o'zining o'ynoqligi va ruhi uchun laqab oldi, balki uning aholisi yangi ko'chmanchilar uning kimligini bilishini xohlamagani uchun. Powhatan xalqi, agar yangi ko'chmanchilar uning kimligini bilib qolsalar, bu ma'lumotdan unga zarar etkazish uchun foydalanishlariga ishonishgan. Hatto uning ismini bilmasam ham, bu oxir -oqibat sodir bo'ldi.

U Smit bilan do'stlashganidan so'ng, Pokaxontas ikki guruh o'rtasida tinchlikparvarga aylandi. U otasi bilan Smit o'rtasida muzokaralar olib bordi. Inglizlar va tubjoy amerikaliklar qurol -yarog ', oziq -ovqat va boshqa tovarlar savdosi bilan shug'ullanadigan sulh tuzdilar. 1608 yilga kelib, sulh muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi va yana ikkala guruh bir -biri bilan urushdi. Pokaxontas tinchlik harakatlarini davom ettirishga harakat qildi, lekin oxir -oqibat uning vazifasi behuda ketdi.

Pokaxontas, oq kiyimda, Anglikan vaziri Rebekka suvga cho'mdi

7. Inglizlar Pocahontasni hiyla ishlatgan

Pokaxontas hayoti davomida sodir bo'lgan voqealarning ko'plab versiyalari mavjud. Mattaponi xalqining versiyasi, inglizcha versiyasi va biz bilgan haqiqat bor. Yozma yozuvlarni to'g'ri saqlamaslikning quvonchi. Uning hayotining ko'p qismi sirligicha qolmoqda, lekin biz bilgan narsa shundaki, inglizlar mahalliy malikani qabul qilishmagan.

Virjiniya shirkati Amerikadagi sa'y -harakatlari nafaqat Angliya, balki qirol va qirolichaga ham yaxshi ko'rinishini xohlardi. Ular dunyoning qolgan qismini ko'rishni xohlashdi: "Hey, biz yirtqichlarni nasroniylik va irqlararo nikohga muvaffaqiyatli aylantirdik!" Garchi unga qirollik kabi munosabatda bo'lishganga o'xshasa ham, u haqiqatan ham g'aroyib shou kabi qiziquvchan bo'lib ketardi. Uning Angliyaga safari faqat siyosiy hiyla edi.

8. Uning o'limi sir bo'lib qolmoqda

1617 yil mart oyida Pokaxontas atigi 21 yoshida vafot etdi. Bu vaqtda uning o'g'li Tomas bor va u va uning eri Jon Rolfning yonida vafot etgan. U nima sababdan vafot etgani hozircha sir bo'lib qolmoqda. U oilasi Amerikaga qaytishidan oldin kasal bo'lib qoldi va asta -sekin yomonlashdi.

U Angliyaning Gravesend shahrida qirg'oqqa olib ketilganida, oila zo'rg'a sayohat qilayotgan edi. Uning oxirgi so'zlari: "Hamma o'lishi kerak. Bolam yashashi uchun etarli. Pokaxontas qanday vafot etgani noma'lum, ammo tarixchilar buni sil, pnevmoniya, dizenteriya yoki chechak kasalligi deb hisoblashadi. Biroq, Mattaponi og'zaki tarixida aytilishicha, u zaharlangan. Aytishlaricha, uning singlisi Mattachanna vafot etganida hozir bo'lgan. Uning so'zlariga ko'ra, kechki ovqatdan keyin Pokaxontas qattiq kasal bo'lib qolgan va kimdir uni ovqatidan zaharlagan deb ishongan.

9. Uning dam oladigan joyi noma'lum

Afsuski, Pokaxontas hech qachon Amerikadagi o'z qabilasiga qaytmagan. Uning oxirgi dam olish joyi Angliyaning Gravesend shahrida joylashgan deb ishoniladi. Biroq, dafn marosimi yaxshi hujjatlashtirilmagan va u shahardagi ma'lum bir cherkov ostida yashaydi deb ishoniladi. Afsuski, cherkov 1727 yilda yonib ketgan va uning qabridagi barcha izlarni o'chirib tashlagan. Kichkina qabr oviga boradiganlar bormi?

Sent -Jorj cherkovidagi Pokaxontas haykali, Gravesend, Kent

10. Uning o'limi yangi dunyoda nizolarni keltirib chiqardi, lekin abadiy meros qoldirdi

Garchi Pokaxontas hayoti faktlari to'g'risida bir -biriga zid bo'lgan ingliz va Mattaponi og'zaki tarixlari mavjud bo'lsa ham, bir narsa aniq bo'lib qoladi, u tarixda unutilmas taassurot qoldirgan. Bosh Powhatan qizining o'limini bilgach, u ruhiy tushkunlikka tushdi. Bir yil o'tgach, ehtimol qayg'udan bosh Powhatan ham vafot etdi. Powhatanlar va Jeymstaun ko'chmanchilari o'rtasidagi munosabatlar butunlay buzildi. 1622 yilda mojaro o'zining avjiga chiqdi va Jeymstaun qirg'iniga olib keldi. Qanday kulgili, qurbonlardan biri Pokaxontasning bevasi Jon Rolf edi. Uning hayotida shunchaki omad bo'lmadi.

Uning hikoyasi 400 yildan oshdi, natijada bitta Disney filmi va boshqa to'qqizta film, jumladan Terrens Malikning "Yangi dunyo" filmi paydo bo'ldi. Bolalar uning qiyofasida kiyinishadi va uning hikoyasi tarixning qaysi qismiga ishonganingizga qarab, qahramon, yovuz yoki qurbon sifatida yashashda davom etadi. Vingapo!

History.com muharrirlari. "Pokaxontas." History.com, A&E Television Networks, 29 Oct. 2009, www.history.com/topics/native-american-history/pocahontas.
Mansky, Jackie. “The True Story of Pocahontas.” Smithsonian.com, Smithsonian Institution, 23 Mar. 2017, www.smithsonianmag.com/history/true-story-pocahontas-180962649/.
Nelson, Ken. “Biography for Kids: Pocahontas.” Ducksters, Technological Solutions, Inc. (TSI), www.ducksters.com/history/colonial_america/pocahontas.php. Accessed 11 September 2020.
Burke, Matthew. “Unforgettable Facts About Pocahontas, The Powhatan Princess.” Factinate, 5 Sept. 2020, www.factinate.com/people/24-powerful-facts-pocahontas/.

Siz kabi Tarix Buffs uchun haftalik axborot byulleteni. Xaftada bir marotaba. Faqat salqin narsalar.


The True Story of Pocahontas: Historical Myths Versus Sad Reality

Despite what many people believe due to longstanding and inaccurate accounts in history books and movies such as Disney’s Pokaxontas, the true story of Pocahontas is not one of a young Native Powhatan woman with a raccoon friend who dove off of mountain-like cliffs off the coasts of Virginia. (Note: there are no cliffs on the coast of Virginia.)

The true story of Pocahontas is a tale of tragedy and heartbreak.

Disney&aposs Pocahontas -Buena Vista/courtesy Everett Collection

It is time to bust up the misconceptions perpetuated over 400 years regarding the young daughter of Powhatan chief Wahunsenaca. The truth—gathered from years of extensive research of the historical record, books, and oral histories from self-identified descendants of Pocahontas and tribal peoples of Virginia —is not for the faint of heart.

A Warning To Our Readers: Mature Subject Matter Not Suitable for Children

The story of Pocahontas is a tragic tale of a young Native girl who was kidnapped, sexually assaulted and allegedly murdered by those who were supposed to keep her safe.

Pocahontas’ Mother, Also Named Pocahontas, Died While Giving Birth to Her

This is in many historical accounts, though not always. It is important to note that Pocahontas was born to her mother, named Pocahontas and her father Wahunsenaca, (sometimes spelled Wahunsenakah), who later became the paramount chief.

Her name at birth was Matoaka, which means 𠇏lower between two streams,” and according to Mattaponi history was likely given to her because she was born between the two rivers of Mattaponi and Pamunkey (York).

An image of a young Pocahontas.

Due to his wife’s death, Wahunsenaca was devastated and little Matoaka became his favorite because she looked like her mother. She was raised by her aunts and other women of the Mattaponi tribe at Werowocomoco.

As was the custom at the time, as the Paramount Chief of the Powhatan Chiefdom, Wahunsenaca had other wives from the other villages and little Matoaka had many loving brothers and sisters.

Because of his lingering grief and due to the reminder she gave to him of her mother, Wahunsenaca often called his daughter the endearing name of Pocahontas.

John Smith Came to the Powhatan When Pocahontas Was about 9 or 10

According to Mattaponi oral history, little Matoaka was possibly about 10 years old when John Smith and English colonists arrived in Tsenacomoca in the spring of 1607. John Smith was about 27 years old. They were never married nor involved.

Pocahontas Never Saved the Life of John Smith

The children of the Powhatan were very closely watched and cared for by all members of the tribe. Since Pocahontas was living with her father, Chief Powhatan Wahunsenaca, at Werowocomoco, and because she was the daughter of a chief, she was likely held to even stricter standards and provided with more structure and cultural training.

When she was a child, John Smith and English colonists stayed near the Powhatan on the nearby Jamestown Island, but later began to explore outlying areas. Smith was feared by many Native people because he was known to enter villages and put guns to heads of chiefs demanding food and supplies.

In the winter of 1607, the colonists and Smith met with Powhatan warriors and Smith was captured by the chief’s younger brother.

Because the English and Powhatan feared the actions of the Spanish, they formed an alliance. Eventually and according to oral history and contemporary written accounts by the Mattaponi, Wahunsenaca grew to like Smith, eventually offering him the position of ‘werowance’ or leader of the colonists as recognized by the Powhatan as well as a much more livable area for his people with great access to game and seafood.

A portrait of Pocahontas saving the life of John Smith with Father Wahunsenaca. Oral history from the descendants of Pocahontas dictates such a thing could never have happened.

Years later, Smith alleged that Pocahontas saved his life in the four-day process of becoming a werowance. But according to Mattaponi oral and contemporary written accounts, there would be no reason to kill a man designated to receive an honor by the chief.

Additionally, children were not allowed to attend any sort of religious ritual similar to the werowance ceremony.

She could not have thrown herself in front of John Smith to beg for his life for two reasons: Smith was being honored, and she would not have been allowed to be there.

Pocahontas Never Defied Her Father to Bring Food to John Smith or Jamestown

Some historical accounts claim Pocahontas defied her father to bring food to the colonists of Jamestown. According to the history of the Mattaponi tribe as well as simple facts, these claims could not be true.

Jamestown was 12 miles from Werowocomoco and the likelihood that a 10-year-old daughter would travel alone are inconsistent with Powhatan culture. Sheਊs well as other tribal members did travel to Jamestown, but as a gesture of peace.

Additionally, travel to Jamestown required crossing large bodies of water and the use of 400-pound dugout canoes. It took a team of strong people to lift them into the water.

It is likely Pocahontas served as a symbol of peace by simply being present as a child among her people to show no ill intentions when her people met with the Jamestown settlers.

Pocahontas Did Not Sneak Into Jamestown to Warn John Smith About a Death Plot

In 1608 and 1609, John Smith’s role as the werowance (chief) of the colonists had taken an ugly turn. The colonists made inadequate attempts to plant crops to harvest, and Smith violently demanded supplies from surrounding villages after once again holding a gun to the heads of village leaders.

Accounts from Mattaponi histories tell of one tribal woman proclaiming to Smith, “You call yourself a Christian, yet you leave us with no food for the winter.”

Pocahontas’ father, who had befriended Smith, once said to him, “I have not treated any of my werowances as well as you, yet you are the worst werowance I have!”

Smith claimed Wahunsenaca wanted to kill him, and asserted he knew of the plot because Pocahontas had come to warn him.

Due to the icy conditions at the time and because of the many watchful eyes attending to the daughter of a chief, as well as gestures of peace by the Powhatan to include additional provisions, Native historians rebuff the historical claims of Smith as completely fabricated.

To further prove Smith’s tale was a fabrication, a letter by Smith written in 1608 was published without Smith’s knowledge. The letter makes no claim of Pocahontas trying to save his life on two separate occasions. It wasn’t until Smith published his book General Historie of Virginia in 1624 that he claimed Pocahontas had twice saved his life. Any of the people who could have refuted Smith’s claims by that time were no longer alive.

As Colonists Terrorized Native People, Pocahontas Married and Became Pregnant

The early 1600s were a horrible time for tribes near Werowocomoco. Native tribes once comfortable wearing clothing suitable for summer — including exposed breasts for Native women and little or nothing for children — found themselves being sexually targeted by English colonists.

Young children were targets of rape and Native women in the tribe would resort to offering themselves to men to keep their children safe. The Powhatan people were shocked by the behavior and were horrified that the English government offered them no protections.

In the midst of the horrible and atrocious acts committed by the colonists, Matoaka was coming of age. During a ceremony, Matoaka was to choose a new name, and she selected Pocahontas, after her mother. During a courtship dance, it is likely she danced with Kocoum, the younger brother of Potowomac Chief Japazaw.

She married the young warrior at about 14 and soon became pregnant.

It was at this time rumors began to surface that colonists planned to kidnap the beloved chief’s daughter Pocahontas.

Pocahontas Was Kidnapped, Her Husband Was Murdered and She Was Forced to Give Up Her First Child

When Pocahontas was about 15 or 16, the rumors of a possible kidnapping had become more of a threat and she was living with her husband Kocoum at his Potowomac village.

An English colonist by the name of Captain Samuel Argall sought to find her, thinking that a captured daughter of the chief would thwart attacks by Natives.

Hearing of her whereabouts, Argall came to the village and demanded Chief Japazaw, brother of Pocahontas’ husband, to give up Pocahontas or suffer violence against his village. Overcome with grief at a horrible choice, he relented with a hopeful promise that she would only be gone temporarily. That was a promise Argall quickly broke.

Before Argall left the village, he gave Chief Japazaw a copper pot. He later claimed to have traded it for her. This “trade” is still taught by historians. This is akin to the way that Smith ‘traded’ for corn by holding a gun to the heads of chiefs.

Before leaving the village, Pocahontas had to give her baby (referred to as little Kocoum) to the women of the village. Trapped on board an English ship, she was not aware that when her husband returned to their village, he was killed by the colonists.

The tribal chiefs of the Powhatan never retaliated for the kidnapping of Pocahontas, fearing they would be captured and that the beloved daughter of the chief and the “Peace Symbol of the Powhatan” might be harmed.

Pocahontas Was Raped While in Captivity and Became Pregnant With Her Second Child

According to Dr. Linwood Custalow, a historian of the Mattaponi Tribe and the custodian of the sacred oral history of Pocahontas, soon after being kidnapped, she was suffering from depression and was growing more fearful and withdrawn. Her extreme anxiety was so severe her English captors allowed Pocahontas’ eldest sister Mattachanna and her husband Uttamattamakin to come to her aid.

Dr. Custalow writes in his book, The True Story of Pocahontas, The Other Side of History, that when Mattachanna and her husband Uttamattamakin, a spiritual advisor to Chief Wahunsenaca, Pocahontas confided in her sister.

When Mattachanna and Uttamattamakin arrived at Jamestown, Pocahontas confided in that she had been raped. Mattaponi sacred oral history is very clear on this: Pocahontas was raped. It is possible that it had been done to her by more than one person and repeatedly. My grandfather and other teachers of Mattaponi oral history said that Pocahontas was raped.

The possibility of being taken captive was a danger to be aware of in Powhatan Society, but rape was not tolerated. Rape in Powhatan Society was virtually unheard of because the punishment for such actions was so severe. Powhatan society did not have prisons. Punishment for wrongful actions often consisted of banishment from the tribe.

Historians differ on where Pocahontas was held, but tribal historians believe she was likely held in Jamestown, but was relocated to Henrico when she was pregnant.

Pocahontas had a son, Thomas.

John Rolfe Married Pocahontas to Create a Native Alliance in Tobacco Production

Mattaponi history is clear that Pocahontas had a son out of wedlock, Thomas, prior to her marriage to John Rolfe. Prior to that marriage, the colonists pressed Pocahontas to become 𠇌ivilized” and often told her that her father did not love her because he had not come to rescue her.

Pocahontas often tore off her English clothes, because they were uncomfortable. Eventually, Pocahontas was converted to Christianity and took the name Rebecca.

Pocahontas as Rebecca Rolfe.

In the midst of her captivity, the English colony of Jamestown was failing. John Rolfe was under a 1616 deadline to become profitable or lose the support of England. Rolfe sought to learn tobacco curing techniques from the Powhatan, but curing tobacco was a sacred practice not to be shared with outsiders. Realizing the political strength of aligning himself with the tribe, he eventually married Pocahontas.

Though some historians claim Pocahontas and Rolfe married for love, it is not a certainty, as Pocahontas was never allowed to see her family, child or father after being kidnapped.

The Pocahontas wedding with John Rolfe.

After the two were married, the Powhatan spiritual leaders and family to Pocahontas shared the curing practice with Rolfe. Soon afterward, Rolfe’s tobacco was a sensation in England, which saved the colony of Jamestown, as they finally found a profitable venture.

The Powhatan tribal lands were now highly sought after for the tobacco trade and the tribe suffered great losses of life and land at the hands of greedy tobacco farmers.

It is worth noting that though it was custom for a Powhatan father to give away his daughter at a marriage, Wahunsenaca did not attend the wedding of his daughter to Rolfe for fear of being captured or killed. He did send a strand of pearls as a gift.

Pocahontas Portrait by Thomas Sully. v. 1852

As Dr. Custalow wrote in The True Story of Pocahontas, The Other Side of History:

Although Wahunsenaca did not attend the wedding, we know through sacred Mattaponi oral history that he gave Pocahontas a pearl necklace as a wedding gift. The pearls were obtained from the Chesapeake Bay oyster beds. The necklace was notable for the large size and fine quality of the pearls. Pearls of the size were rare, making them a suitable gift for a paramount chief&aposs daughter. No mention of this necklace has been found in the English writings, but a portrait of Pocahontas wearing a pearl necklace used to hang in the Gov.&aposs mansion in Richmond.

Pocahontas Was Brought to England To Raise Money and Was Then Likely Murdered

Rumors of the colonist&aposs desire to bring Pocahontas made its way to the Powhatan, who feared for her well-being and considered an attempt to rescue her. But Wahunsenaca feared his daughter might be harmed.

Rebecca “Pocahontas” Rolfe traveled to England with John Rolfe, her son Thomas Rolfe, Captain John Argall (who had kidnapped her) and several Native tribal members, including her sister Mattachanna.

Though many settlers were committing atrocities against the Powhatan, many elites in England did not approve of the mistreatment of natives. The bringing of Pocahontas to England to show friendship with Native nations was a key to continued financial support for the colonists.

Pocahontas at Court of King James.

According to the accounts of Mattachanna, she realized that she was being used and desperately desired to return home to her father and little Kocoum. During her travels in England, Pocahontas did meet John Smith and expressed outrage due to the mistreatment of his position as leader of the colonists and the betrayal to the Powhatan people.

After the journey and showing off of Pocahontas to the English elites, plans were made to return to Virginia in the spring of 1617. According to a recounting by Mattachanna, she was in good health while in England and on the ship preparing to go home.

Shortly after dinner with Rolfe and Argall, she vomited and died. Those tribal members who were accompanying her, including her sister Mattachanna, said she was in previously good health and assessed she must have been poisoned due to her sudden death.

According to Mattaponi oral history, many of the Native people accompanying Pocahontas were sold as servants or carnival attractions or sent to Bermuda if they became pregnant after being raped and sold into slavery.

Pocahontas grave, St. Georges Church Kent UK.

Pocahontas was just under 21 at the time of her death. Instead of being taken home and laid to rest with her father, Rolfe and Argall took her to Gravesend, England, where she was buried at Saint George’s Church, March 21, 1617. Though Virginia tribes have requested that her remains returned for repatriation, officials in England say the exact whereabouts of her remains are not known.

Wahunsenaca learned from Mattachanna that his beloved daughter had died but had never betrayed her people, as some historians claim. Heartbroken that he had not ever rescued his daughter, he died from grief less than a year after the death of Pocahontas.

The Descendants of Pocahontas

Oral histories of both the Mattaponi and Patawomeckਊnd historical references say she mothered two children, Thomas Rolfe, who was left in England after the death of his mother, and ‘little Kocoum.’

According to Deyo, Little Kocoum was the name that Dr. Linwood Custalow usedਏor the purpose of his book to reference a small child whose name was not yet known. In the sacred oral history of the Mattaponi, the child was raised by the Patawomeck Tribe. The name of that child was passed down in the Patawomeck oral history was discovered to be Ka-Okee, a daughter.


Pokaxontas

In 1994, the work of Adolf Sehring, internationally renowned realist painter and sculptor, was unveiled and became an iconic image for Gloucester County. The statue of Pocahontas, which is located on Main Street, portrays Pocahontas as an 11 year old girl. The bronze, life-sized statue honors Pocahontas, daughter of Paramount Chief Powhatan who lived in Gloucester. It was at Werowocomoco, in Gloucester, that Pocahontas met Captain John Smith and where the legend of her saving Smith’s life took place.

Sehring ’s model for the statue was Debbie “White Dove” Custalow, daughter of Chief Webster Custalow of the Mattaponi Tribe in King William County. The statue was paid for by philanthropists and community members and the piece was dedicated at a large public festival attended by chiefs and representatives of eight Virginia tribes and descendants of Pocahontas.

Several years ago, the land surrounding the statue was landscaped with native plants focusing on plants described by John Clayton, the Clerk of the Court for Gloucester County and author of Flora Virginia, a survey of native plants in 1792.

The County government recognized Pocahontas in 1988 with the installation of a plaque dedicated to her. The Colonial Courthouse in Gloucester was erected in 1766 and contains antique plaques and markers along its walls that honor people who played a prominent role in the history of the County. The Board of Supervisors approved the addition of the Pocahontas plaque which was the first addition to the structure in more than 50 years.

Pocahontas Mural

Commissioned by the Cook Foundation in 2006 as part of the 400th Anniversary of Jamestown, the mural, located on the side of the Gloucester Library on Main Street, commemorates the Life and Legend of Pocahontas. The mural tells the story of how Pocahontas was able to transcend two worlds: the English and the Powhatan nation. The artist, Michael Kirby, did extensive historical research to portray as accurately as possible the lives of the Indians and the settlers. The mural was unveiled at the Pocahontas Family Festival, June 2+3, 2007. https://www.prweb.com/releases/2007/05/prweb525884.htm

Pocahontas Museum

The Pocahontas Museum, located on Lewis Avenue in Gloucester, is open by appointment. The museum includes thousands of items that highlight her legacy through preservation and education with collections in memorabilia, music, art, pop culture and crafts.

Werowocomoco Exhibit

The Gloucester County Visitors Center with the historic Court circle contains a room dedicated to telling the story of Werowocomoco. The site was purchased by the National Park Service but is not open to the public at this time. It is known for being a spiritual center of the Tidewater Indians for more than 400 years. Exhibits describe the site as well as information on Powhatan, John Smith and Pocahontas.


At the time Mr. Reeves brought the statue to West Jefferson, Ashe County locals endearingly dubbed the statue Pokaxontas. She has been a staple piece of art over several decades, only having been away from downtown West Jefferson for a brief period.

No one in West Jefferson knows why the locals selected the name, Pocahontas. But she is a local icon.

As with her sister in Geneva, people would occasionally paint and decorate her, usually around Halloween. It was a tradition of high school graduates to place a brasserie on Pokaxontas the night of their graduation.

The return of Pokaxontas was a welcoming homecoming and well received by Ashe County locals.

Take a drive through downtown West Jefferson to see West Jefferson&rsquos treasured Pokaxontas for yourself! Visit her on her pedestal in the town&rsquos Back Street Park.

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The History of West Jefferson

History of West Jefferson, North Carolina The people of Ashe County and West Jefferson often hold deep ties to the area&rsquos history. There is a sense of magnificence when entering the mountains of north western North Carolina &ndash possibly looking back to the sense of wonder the first explorers felt as they ventured into the Blue Ridge Mountain&rsquos immense beauty for the first time. Colonel Ben Cleveland, Revolutionary War hero particularly known for his leadership at the Battle of King&rsquos Mountain, was the first settler to own land where West Jefferson now stands. History tells us, Ben Cleveland received the large tract of Appalachian mountain land, including what is now Ashe County, in 1795.

Ashe County Farmers Market in West Jefferson

Visit the Farmers Market in West Jefferson There are many reasons to shop local at the Ashe County Farmers Market. Choosing our local farmers market means stimulating the economy of northwestern North Carolina. It also means fresher food as food is gown locally instead of transported hundreds &ndash sometimes even thousands of miles. When you shop at the Ashe County Farmers Market you will find fresh vegetables, there is seasonal produce, local honey, free-range eggs, maple syrup, jams, and freshly baked breads and pastries. Local all-natural beef, chicken, pork, and lamb as well as (occasionally) fresh mountain trout are also available in a wide variety of cuts and sizes. In addition to fruits, meats, and vegetables the Ashe County Farmers Market features the works from talented local artisans including hand-woven baskets, pottery, candles, quilts, and soaps. Fine wood crafts are also available for sale: one-of-kind cutting boards, bird houses, furniture, and boutique picture frames just to name a few. The market has a wide choice of nursery items, bedding plants and flowering arrangements ready for landscaping and outdoor gardens. During the Christmas season, the Farmers Market features Christmas trees, garland, handmade ornaments, and all types of greenery for the holiday season. More than a Farmers Market During the summer, the Farmers Market will sponsor different activities, such as a sheep-sheering Saturday, a day for Llamas, Alpacas, occasional live music and many more activities.

NC Mountains winter snow

Winter is on the Agenda in NC Mountains. Now that the autumn days has ended and the colorful October days have turned toward winter, one must look back to the foggy days of August.

The Haunted Factory in West Jefferson

Update October 2020: The Haunted Factory is open every Friday and Saturday evenings during October &ndash Halloween is Saturday, October 31. Doors open at 7pm and close at 11pm. Admission is $10.00. For more information click here. Halloween in West Jefferson, NC.

Ashe County NC Lost Province

North Carolina&rsquos Lost Province | Ashe County Up until the dawn of the 20th century there were many corners of North Carolina that remained relatively inaccessible for travelers and trade. Roads, railways, and other major forms of transportation were extremely limited due to the rugged nature of the Blue Ridge Mountains rising sharply in the western part of our beautiful state.

Gemstones and Gold Found in NC Mountains

If you are a rockhound, pan for gold, or enjoy digging for treasures, Gem Valley NC is a gem mining, fluming, and gold panning facility found in Jefferson, North Carolina. Gem Valley NC, Ashe County's only public gem mining facility, is near the site of the former Ore Knob Copper Mine, which was in operation from the mid-1800s to the mid-1900s. Gem Valley opened in 2006 for gem mining, pluming, and gold panning, and those looking for treasures hidden below the surface. The secret to finding gemstones is knowing where to look and where to shovel.

Whitetop Virginia Ramp Festival

Mark Your Calendar for May 16th Ashe County and the surrounding mountains have rich soil that grows some of the most delicious ramps in the region. Neighboring Ashe County, Virginia&rsquos Whitetop Mountain Ramp Festival, sponsored by Mount Rogers Fire Department, celebrates the end of ramp harvesting season with unique ramp delicacies. Each year the festival features a BBQ chicken dinner, Appalachian Arts & Crafts, and Old-Time Mountain Bluegrass music and dancing, and much more. The small community of Whitetop, located in Grayson County, VA, is a short and scenic drive from the West Jefferson area. The Whitetop Mountain Ramp Festival is a great outing for the full family with activities for all ages and tastes (even if you do not care for the unique ramp taste). The 2021 edition of the Whitetop Mountain Ramp Festival is on May 16th and lasts all day. Come out to enjoy delicious Appalachian cuisine and beautiful views of Mount Rogers and the surrounding area. The festival is located at 511 Firehouse Road, Whitetop, VA 24292.

Ashe County Hiking Trails

Ashe County Hiking Trails With the warmer weather here to stay for the season, it is time to plan a few trips to enjoy the beautiful scenery that Ashe County has to offer. North Carolina&rsquos &ldquoLost Province&rdquo is in the heart of the Blue Ridge Mountains - offering a perfect respite from hotter weather experienced in the summer months at lower elevations in the southeast. While there are near endless options to explore the great outdoors in western North Carolina, some of the best hikes in the state are in and around Ashe County. Clear mountain rivers, panoramic views of the majestic Blue Ridge Mountains, rushing waterfalls &ndash you name it. Locals in Ashe County are blessed with multiple nearby well-maintained trail systems, and terrain suited for all abilities. Some of these hikes are virtually in our listings&rsquo backyard, so check our website to find your perfect mountain getaway.

Spring in North Carolina Mountains

Spring comes slowly to the North Carolina Mountains. It seemed ages ago since we first saw the daffodils creeping up ever so slowly, or experienced the wonderful fragrance of the first buds on lilac bushes which will tell us that the dreary days of winter will soon be gone. As the mountains awaken with the sounds of songbirds perching on the gray twigs, the trees begin to bud and tinge with green when the dogwoods and the tiny colorful wildflowers are covering the landscape, and the mountain streams are rapidly flowing from the winter&rsquos higher elevations melting snow, it will be spring. What a magnificent time to be in the mountains.

Why Get a Home Inspection

Why a Home Inspection? The well-informed buyer will request a home inspection. It could be prior to the contract or after but prior to the closing of the property.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Färger i en vind - Pocahontas


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