Kommagen

Kommagen

Commagene Qirolligi (miloddan avvalgi 163-milodiy 72-yil)-ellinistik siyosiy tashkilot, kuchli arman va qadimgi fors madaniyati va urf-odatlari ta'sirida, janubiy-g'arbiy Anatoliyada (hozirgi Turkiya) Kommagen Ptolemey tomonidan tashkil etilgan (mil. Av. 163-130). ilgari Selevkiylar imperiyasi davrida (miloddan avvalgi 312-63) mintaqada satrap (gubernator) bo'lgan Orontidlar sulolasi. Salavkiylar imperiyasi miloddan avvalgi 190 yilda Rim bilan ziddiyatga kelganidan beri barqaror tanazzulga yuz tutdi va miloddan avvalgi 163 yilga kelib, u o'zining oldingi birligini saqlab qolishga qodir emas edi. Ptolemey kuchsizlikni bosib, Kommagenni mustaqil davlat deb e'lon qildi va uning birinchi qiroli bo'ldi.

Ism xuddi shu hududda joylashgan temir asrining neo-xett podshohligi Kummuhdan kelib chiqqan va Commagene o'zining arxitekturasida mahalliy Luviya va Xet urf-odatlari va motiflarini saqlab qolgan. Bu viloyat Axarmoniylar imperiyasi tarkibiga kirgan Sofen nomi bilan proto-arman podshohligi Urartu tarkibiga kirgan (eramizdan avvalgi 550-330 yillar). Eramizdan avvalgi 330 yilda Ahamoniylar imperiyasi Aleksandr Makedonskiyga o'tdi va Iskandar vafotidan keyin bu hudud Salavkiylar imperiyasi tarkibiga kirdi, o'shanda Sofen o'z shohligiga aylandi.

Kommagen odatda mintaqaning katta kuchlari o'rtasida "bufer davlat" deb nomlanadi, chunki u to'rttasi bilan do'stona munosabatlarni saqlab kelgan.

Orontidlar sulolasi Sofeni boshqargan va Kommagen eramizdan avvalgi 163 yilda Ptolemey ajralib ketgunga qadar o'sha mintaqadagi ko'pchilik orasida faqat bitta kichik shohlik bo'lgan. Kommagen sharqda Furot daryosi bilan, g'arbda Toros tog'lari bilan chegaradosh edi, shuning uchun savdo yo'liga aylandi va savdogarlarning Furot daryosining Mesopotamiyaga o'tishini nazorat qilishi bilan boyidi.

Kommagen odatda Armaniston, Parfiya, Pont va Rimning buyuk davlatlari o'rtasidagi "bufer davlat" deb nomlanadi, chunki u har to'rt kishi bilan do'stona munosabatlarni saqlab turar va har xil vaqtda boshqasidan ustun turardi. Savdo va qishloq xo'jaligidan olgan boyligi uni mintaqaning yirik davlatlari uchun jozibali mukofotga aylantiradi, lekin Kommagen qirollari miloddan avvalgi 72 yilgacha Rim imperiyasi tarkibiga kirguncha o'z avtonomiyasini saqlab qolishga muvaffaq bo'lishgan. U o'zining to'rtinchi qiroli Antiox I Teosning (mil. Av. 70-38 yillar) qurilish loyihalari, ayniqsa Nemrut tog'idagi Nemrut Dag (shuningdek Nemrut Dagi) nomi bilan mashhur bo'lgan yodgorlik haykali bilan mashhur.

Erta tarix va imperiyalar

Urartuning bir qismi sifatida kelajakdagi katta hudud-Kommagen-bu mahalliy xalqlar nomi bilan atalgan Sophene nomi bilan tanilgan, shu bilan birga kelajak-Kommagenni qamrab oladigan haqiqiy maydon-luviyaliklar va xetliklar Kummuh nomi bilan tanilgan. yoki Ossuriya belgisi bilan Kuinux; uning tarixi haqida hozircha hech narsa ma'lum emas. Miloddan avvalgi 714 yilgi Neo-Ossuriya podshohi Sargon II (mil. Av. 722-705 y.) Harbiy yurishidan keyin Urartu rad javobini berdi, bu g'alaba shunchalik muhim ediki, bu mintaqani beqarorlashtirdi va bu skiflarning keyingi bosqinlari uchun oson belgi bo'ldi. Miloddan avvalgi 612 yilda Neo-Ossuriya imperiyasi qulaganidan so'ng, bu hududni Axamoniylar imperiyasi vujudga kelgunga qadar ushlab turgan Midiyaliklar egallab olishgan. Miloddan avvalgi 550 yil.

Mintaqaning joylashuvi va savdo -sotiqdagi ahamiyati uni yunon madaniyati bilan aloqaga olib keldi va bu o'zaro ta'sir Sofeni (keyinroq Kommagen) arman, yunon va fors ta'sirlari, urf -odatlari va diniy urf -odatlarining madaniy aralashmasi sifatida belgilab beradi. Orontid hukmron uyi zardushtiylik edi, lekin ular zardushtiylik o'rnini bosgan ilk eronlik dindagi eng mashhur xudolardan biri - Anaxitaga ma'budaga sajda qilayotganlardan edi.

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Zardushtiylik davrida Anaxita haqiqiy xudo Axura Mazdaning bir qismi sifatida mashhurligini davom ettirdi, lekin ba'zi hududlarda unga Zardushtiydan oldingi Forsda bo'lgani kabi sig'inishdi. Anaxitaga ibodatxonalar va ziyoratgohlar va boshqa xudolarga (masalan, Mitra) ibodatxonalar bilan ifodalangan ko'rinadigan ko'p xudolik, ko'p xudolik an'analaridan kelib chiqqan va Anaxitada o'z ma'budalari tomonlarini tan olgan yunon savdogarlari bilan qulay munosabatlarni o'rnatdi. Bu munosabatlar, tabiiyki, yaqinroq aloqada bo'lishga va arman, fors va yunon madaniyatlarini birlashtirishga undadi.

Ahamoniylar imperiyasi qulaganidan so'ng, Sophen o'zini Buyuk Armanistonning satrapligidan ajralib, Salavkiylar hukmronligi ostida o'zini alohida qirollik deb e'lon qildi. Uning poytaxti Karkatiocerta shahri (hozirgi Egil, Turkiya) va uning yirik shahar savdo markazi Arsamosata (keyinchalik Samosata, Turkiyaning Adiyaman viloyatida hozirgi Samsat nomi bilan tanilgan) bo'lgan. Bu yangi satrapiya, Komontenli Ptolemey orqali (miloddan avvalgi miloddan avvalgi 201-163 yillar) Orontid satraplari Sames I (eramizdan avvalgi 290-260 yillar) davrida, Ptolemey ta'kidlaganidek, Kommagenga asos solgan paytgacha birlashgan birlik bo'lib qoldi.

Erta shohlar va Antiox I Teos

Ptolemey o'z hukmronligini qonuniylashtirish uchun uchinchi Axamaniylar podshohi Doro I (Buyuk, mil. Av. 522-486 y.) Dan kelib chiqqanligini da'vo qilib, yangi qirolligining poytaxtini keyinchalik Samosata deb o'zgartirilgan Arsamosataga ko'chirgan. Miloddan avvalgi 163-145 yillar mobaynida, u o'z hukmronligidan ko'ra o'z farovonligi va mavqei haqida qayg'urgan uchta podshoh hukmronlik qilgan Selevkiylar imperiyasiga qarshilik ko'rsatmasdan, o'z shohligini Kapadokiyaga kengaytirdi.

Ptolemey keyingi shohlarning paradigmasini Axamoniylar imperiyasi bilan oilaviy aloqalariga asoslangan holda qonuniylikni da'vo qilgan.

U o'z saltanatini Salavkiylar modeliga taqlid qilib, o'z hududini soliq yig'ib, podshohga yuborgan va qo'shinni qo'shinlar bilan ta'minlashga mas'ul bo'lgan gubernator nazorati ostidagi satrapiyalarga ajratdi. Qirollikning rasmiy tili yunon edi, lekin arman va fors tillarida ham gaplashilgan. Uning hukmronligi haqida boshqa hech narsa yozilmagan, lekin u keyingi podshohlarning axamoniylar imperiyasi bilan oilaviy aloqalariga asoslangan holda qonuniylikni talab qilish paradigmasini o'rnatgan.

Ptolemeyning o'rniga Samosatani mustahkamlagan va asosan uning hukmronligi davrida chiqarilgan tangalar va Nemrut tog'idagi yozuvlar orqali tanilgan o'g'li Sames II (miloddan avvalgi 130-109 yillar, Samos II Theosebes Dikaios nomi bilan atalgan) voris bo'ldi. Ehtimol, Sames II Kommagenaning yirik shaharlarini: Samosata, Nimfaosdagi Arsameyani va Furot daryosidagi Arsameyani rivojlantirgan. Uchala shahar ham keyinchalik Antiox I Teos davrida o'z ulug'vorlik cho'qqisiga ko'tariladi.

Sames II ning o'rnini Rim va Pontus VI Mitridati o'rtasida (mil. Av. 89-63 yillar) hukmronlik qilgan o'g'li Mitridat I Kallinik (eramizdan avvalgi 109-70 yillar) egallagan (mil. Av. 120-63). Mitridatlar I Kallinik o'z shohligining omon qolishidan xavotirlanib, kuchli Kleopatra Teaning (mil. Av. 164-121) o'g'li, Salavkiy shohi Antiox VIII Griposning (mil. Av. 125-96 yillar) qizi Laoditsaga uylandi. . Kleopatra Tea o'sha paytda Salavkiylar taxtining ortida turgan kuch sifatida tanilgan edi, lekin uning turli hiylalari Salavkiylarning tanazzulini tezlashtirishdan boshqa ish bermadi va Mitridat I Kallinik yoki Komagene xalqiga hech qanday yordam kelmadi.

Buyuk Armaniston Tigranlari (eramizdan avvalgi 95-56 yillar) shu vaqt mobaynida hech qanday qarshilik ko'rsata olmagan holda, Kommagen bo'ylab yurish qilishdi va Selevkiylar xayolparastlikdan keyin, Rim va Pont esa uni Armaniston Qirolligining bir qismi deb da'vo qilishdi. bir -birining tomog'ida. Mitridatlar I Kallinik Tigranning fathi haqida hech narsa qila olmadi va shuning uchun vassal podshoh bo'ldi.

Uning o'rnini Antiox I Teos egalladi, u doimiy ravishda nizoning har uch tomonini-Pontus, Rim va Armanistonni muvozanatlashtirishga harakat qilib, o'zi uchun alohida tinchlikni saqlashga harakat qildi, shu bilan birga sharqda Parfiya haqida ham o'ylardi. Bir marta Pont Mitridati VI mag'lubiyatga uchragach, keyin Tigranlar Rimga taslim bo'lishdi, Antiox I Teos, garchi Parfiyaga sodiq bo'lsa-da, Buyuk Pompeyga (miloddan avvalgi 106-48 y.) O'zlarini va'da qilgan. U sharqiy mintaqalar, jumladan, Parfiya (mil. Av. 227 - mil. 224) savdogarlari va Rim Mesopotamiyasi va Kilikiya savdogarlari o'rtasida foydali savdo shartnomalari bilan mukofotlangan.

Antiox I Teos Fors shohi sifatida o'zining qonuniyligini Doro I bilan aloqasi orqali saqlab qoldi, lekin uni Selevk I Nikatordan (mil. Av. 305-281 yillar) onasi Laodis VII Tea (mil. Av. Salavkiylar imperiyasi asoschisi va Misr Ptolemeylar sulolasidan Ptolemey I Soter (mil. av. 305/304-282 yillar), shuningdek, Aleksandr Makedonskiyning generali bo'lib xizmat qilgan boshqalar. U shu tariqa o'zini yunon-fors monarxi sifatida ko'rsatdi va "Antiox-adolatli xudo, rimliklar va yunonlarning do'sti" unvonini oldi, bu esa Rimga yoqdi, shu bilan birga qizi Laoditsani qirolga uylantirdi. Parfiya II Orodes (mil. Av. 57-37 yillar) va sharq bilan tinchlikni ta'minlash.

Uning aqlli siyosiy manevrlari Commagene -ni na Rim, na Parfiyaliklar tomonidan singib ketishiga to'sqinlik qildi va savdo -sotiqdan boyib ketganda ijtimoiy barqarorlikni saqlab qoldi. O'zini odam qiyofasida xudo deb hisoblagan holda, u o'ziga sajda qilishga asoslangan yunon-fors xudolari panteonini o'z ichiga olgan qirollik kultini yaratdi. U o'z xalqining qalbida abadiy yashashi uchun - va uning xudolari orasida - tengdoshi - Nemrut tog'ida o'likxonaning katta majmuasini qurishni buyurdi, uning ichida ulug'vor va bezakli haykal, boshqa xudolar va himoya bor edi. hayvonlar.

U o'zining ulkan xazinasidan har yili tug'ilgan kunida va taxtga o'tirgan kuni Nemrut tog'ida uning qabri yonida ziyofatlar o'tkazish uchun ma'lum miqdorda mablag 'ajratdi. U aniq aytganidek, tashrif buyurgan har bir kishi, uning bayramiga ko'tarilishdan oldin, tog'ning tagida bo'lgan g'amxo'rlik va qarama -qarshiliklarni chetga surib, o'zlarini to'liq zavq olishlari kerak edi. U, shuningdek, Kommagenaning uchta yirik shahrini jonlantirdi, ehtimol, Samosataning II Samosatasi atrofidagi devorlarni mustahkamladi, Ptolemeyning ma'muriy qarashlarining samaradorligini oshirdi va qirollikni iqtisodiy va madaniy yuksalishga olib keldi, u Antiox hukmronligiga qadar ko'rilmagan edi. IV, Kommagenaning oxirgi qiroli.

Antiox I Teos hukmronligi davomida do'stona munosabatlarni saqlab qolishga muvaffaq bo'lgan bo'lsa-da, u nihoyat qaynotasi Orodes II tarafini tanlashga majbur bo'ldi va Orodesning o'g'li Pacorus I (miloddan avvalgi 38-yil vafoti) Suriyada Rimga qarshi urushda qo'llab-quvvatladi. . Pakor I mag'lubiyatga uchradi va o'ldirildi, g'olib Rim generali Publius Ventidius Bass Antiox I Teosdan keyin Rimga xiyonat qilib, uni Samosata qamalida qamab qo'ydi. Antiox qiyin vaziyatdan chiqish uchun pora bermoqchi bo'ldi, lekin Ventidius Bass uning taklifini rad etdi.

Ventidius Bass qal'alarni buzolmasligi aniq bo'lganda Mark Entoni (miloddan avvalgi 83-30-yillar) qamalni o'z qo'liga oldi, lekin uning omadi kelmadi va 300 talant pora olganidan keyin chekinib ketdi, bu Antiox Bassga taklif qilganidan ancha kam. oldin Antiox I Teos miloddan avvalgi 38-yilda Parfiya qiroli Phraates IV (mil. Av. 37-2-yillar) tomonidan to'ntarish natijasida o'ldirilgan, u II Orodes II (Phraates IV ning otasi) va uning rafiqasi Laoditsani, IV Phraatesning aka-ukalari va ukalarini o'ldirgan. va Antiox I Komagen Teosidan qasos olmoqchi edi.

Keyinchalik Shohlar va Antiox IV

Uning o'rniga o'g'li Mitridat II (eramizdan avvalgi 38-20 yillar), Oktavian bilan to'qnashuvda rimlik Mark Antoniy bilan ittifoqchi bo'lgan (kelajakdagi Avgust Tsezar, mil. Av. 27 - mil. 14 yil). Mitridat II otasi bilan birga hukmronlik qilgan va Antoni Samosatani qamal qilishda, shubhasiz, Antoni o'zini Bassdan ko'ra oqilona isbotlaganida qatnashgan. Miloddan avvalgi 31 -yilgi Aktium jangida Mitridat II o'zining kuchlariga shaxsan qo'mondonlik qilib, Antoniyga sodiqligini isbotladi, bunda Misrlik Antoniy va Kleopatra VII Oktavian tomonidan mag'lubiyatga uchradi. Keyin u Avgustga sodiq qasamyod qildi va o'z shohligini Rim manfaatlari bilan uyg'unlashtirishda davom etdi. O'limidan keyin uning o'rniga o'g'li Mitridat III (mil. Av. 20-12 yillar) hukmronligi haqida deyarli hech narsa ma'lum emas.

Mithridates III ning o'rnini uning o'g'li Antiox III Epiphanes egalladi (mil. Av. 12 -asr - mil. 17 -yil), uning hukmronligi ham beqiyos edi, uning kutilmaganda o'limi Komageni shohsiz qoldirdi. Antiox III ning ikki farzandi-Antiox IV (milodiy 72-milodiy 72; milodiy 38-72 yillar) va Iotapa (milodiy 38-52 yillar)-taxtni egallash uchun juda yosh edilar va saroy maslahatchilari, ehtimol, rad etishgan. regent tayinlash. Ular buning o'rniga Rimga shoh topishga yordam so'rab murojaat qilishdi va Rim 17-38 yillar oralig'ida Antiox IVga ishonib, shohlikni o'z nazoratiga oldi. Antiox IV va Iotapani Rimga olib ketishdi, Rim fuqaroligini olishdi va rimliklar sifatida etishtirishdi.

Aka -uka va opa -singillar, Rim zodagonlari va mehmonlari sifatida, elita patris doiralarida harakat qilishdi va o'sha kunning taniqli odamlari bilan do'stlashishdi. Antiox IV do'stlari orasida imperator Tiberiyning asrab olingan o'g'li yosh Kaligula (mil. 14-37 yillar) bor edi, u keyinchalik uning o'rnini egallaydi (mil. 37-41 yillar). Tiberius vafot etib, Kaligula hokimiyatni qo'lga kiritgandan so'ng, u Kommagenani Antiox IV ga va uning singlisi Iotapaga qaytarib berdi. U, shuningdek, Antiox IV ga Commagene milodiy 17 -yildan buyon Rim provinsiyasi sifatida topgan barcha daromadlarini (bir million oltindan yuqori) taqdim etdi va Kilikiyaning bir qismini (Kilikiya Aspera) qirollikka qo'shdi. Bir yil o'tgach, Kaligula Antiox IVdan norozi bo'lib, qirollikni qaytarib oldi (noma'lum sabablarga ko'ra), uni yana Rim hukmronligi ostiga qo'ydi. Antiox IV, hech qanday siyosiy kuchsiz, o'z saltanatida, Kaligula o'ldirilgunga qadar va uning vorisi Klavdiy (mil. 41-54 yillar) Kommagenani Antiox IV ga qaytarguncha yashashda davom etdi.

Antiox IV Kaligulaning pulini Kilikiya sohilida (hozir Komagenaning bir qismi Kaligulaning sovg'asi sifatida) Antiochia ad Cragum ("jarliklar ustidagi Antioxiya" yoki "Cragusdagi Antioxiya") nomi bilan mashhur bo'lgan buyuk shahar qurish uchun ishlatgan. Shaharda yunon, luvian, xet, fors va arman arxitekturasi, ramziyligi va bezaklari bor edi, ular Kommagenning barcha etnik guruhlarini ifodalagan. Katta ma'bad (55x33.8 fut/16.465x10.32 metr) qurilgan, u mahalliy dizaynlar bilan bezatilgan, xususan, bu mintaqada birinchi bo'lib yashagan Luviylar va Xetlarning oltita bargli guli. Antioch IV shuningdek, hammaga ochiq bo'lgan 5, 249 kvadrat fut (1600 kvadrat metr) maydonni o'z ichiga olgan, uzunligi 114 fut va eni 65 fut (35 x 20 metr) bo'lgan katta hammom majmuasini qurishni buyurdi. Ustun ustunli ko'cha mehmonlarni shahar darvozasidan mozaikli polli hovuz bo'yidagi bezatilgan portikoga olib keldi. Antiochia ad Cragum dagi mozaika, aslida, hozirgi Turkiyada topilgan eng kattasi bo'lib, Antiox IV o'z shahrining boyligidan dalolat beradi.

Xulosa

Uning singlisi xotini Iotapa milodiy 52 yilda vafot etgan va uning sharafiga qirg'oqda Aytap nomli boshqa shahar qurilgan. U o'sha paytda (taxminan milodiy 71 -yil) Rimning eng boy irmoq podshohlaridan biri bo'lgan va Rim hukumati bilan yaxshi munosabatda bo'lgan. O'sha paytda komagene o'zining eng yuqori cho'qqisida edi, Antiox I Teos va Antiox IV hukmronligi davrida yangi imperator Vespasianga (eramizdan avvalgi 69-79 yillar), uni taxtga boshqa da'vogarlardan qo'llab-quvvatlash va uni va uning o'g'il qo'shinlar.

Miloddan avvalgi 72 yilda senator Lucius Junius Caesennius Paetus (Rim Suriyasining hokimi, milodiy 70-72 yillar) Antiox IV va uning o'g'illarini Vespasianni ag'darishga urinishda ayblagan. Kommagen tomonidan biron bir fitna haqida hech qanday dalil yo'q edi, lekin bu muhim emasdek tuyuldi. Vespasian mashhur paranoyak edi, Antiox IV ning boyligi va mashhurligi shubhasiz edi, shuning uchun Vespasian Paetni tingladi va Antioxiyadagi ayblovni rad etishni so'ramasdan, unga Antokiya ad Cragumga yurish uchun ruxsat berdi.

Ba'zi ma'lumotlarga ko'ra, Antiox IV o'g'illari Paet qo'shinlari bilan jangda uchrashishgan, boshqalarga ko'ra, umuman jang bo'lmagan, lekin hamma Antiox IVning o'zi Rimga qurol ko'tarmaganiga qo'shiladilar. U, ehtimol, Kommagen boyligini sotib olishda ayblagan Paetga taslim bo'ldi, lekin bu noma'lum. Keyin u shaharni tark etib, Gretsiyaning Kilikiya Kampestrisida va nihoyat Rimda yashadi. Paet bilan nima bo'lgani noma'lum, lekin Antioxni o'g'illari kabi Rimda hurmat bilan kutib olishgan va u erda vafot etgan bo'lishi kerak, garchi o'lim sanasi ma'lum emas. Vespasian o'sha yili Kommagen qirolligini tugatdi va bu hududni Kilikiya viloyatiga qo'shib oldi.

Bugungi kunda Commagene Qirolligi asosan Nemrut tog'idagi Nemrut Dagi yodgorligi (1881 yilda qayta kashf etilgan va 1987 yildan boshlab YuNESKOning Butunjahon merosi ro'yxati) va boshqa qurilish loyihalari, relyeflar va haykal orqali eslab qolinadi. Antiox I Teos va uning vorislari hukmronligi. Antiochia ad -Cragum va Aytap xarobalari, shuningdek, mahalliy aholi uchun sayyohlarning diqqatga sazovor joylari, shuningdek, suv bo'yidagi umumiy dam olish maskanlari bo'lib qolmoqda. Biroq, Nemrut Dagi - Kommagen va uning shohlarining markaziy yodgorligi bo'lib, har yili dunyoning turli burchaklaridan millionlab mehmonlarni jalb qiladi va Antiox I Teosning ismi abadiy qolishi haqidagi istagini bajaradi.


Kommagen

Strabon tomonidan janubiy -sharqiy Toros va Anatoliyadagi Furot daryosi orasidagi kichik, lekin unumdor mamlakat sifatida tasvirlangan, Kommagen deyarli har doim qudratli olamlarning tamponlari bo'lgan va faqat Parfiya va Rim o'rtasidagi singari siqilgan nikoh siyosati, ehtiyotkorlik bilan kelishuv va puxtalik ittifoqlari yordamida qisqaroq mustaqilligini saqlab qolishga muvaffaq bo'lgan va shu tariqa buyuk kuch bloklarining zaif tomonlaridan foydalangan. .

Rimliklar kelguniga qadar, uning tabiiy boyliklari yog'och va yaxshi o'tloqlar, Komagenani qurg'oqchil janubi-sharqiy mintaqadagi eng boy qirollikka aylantirdi. Uning poytaxti Samosata (Samsat), Samos I (miloddan avvalgi 3 -asr) nomi bilan Adiyaman yaqinida, Furot ustidan strategik o'tishni buyurgan va aynan shu narsa mahalliy hukmdor Ptolemeyga miloddan avvalgi 163 yilda kuchlar o'rtasidagi kurashda ustunlik qilishga imkon bergan. Aleksandrning vorislari o'zini asta -sekin mustaqil davlatga aylangan kichik hukmronlik podshohiga aylantirdilar.

Miloddan avvalgi 69 yilda Armanlarning vaqtincha bo'ysunishi Rim Lucullus tomonidan tugatilgan va Kommagenning eng yaxshi eslangan hukmdori Antiox I - Nemrut Dagning noyob joyi uchun mas'ul bo'lgan - Pompey Vespasiangacha davom etadigan mamlakatning mustaqil davlatchiligini ta'minlagan. eramizning 72 -yilida uni Suriyaning Rim viloyatiga qo'shib oldi.


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    Armaniston Qirolligi

      Talab (lar):
        Emas: Muqaddas Rim imperiyasi yoki Papa davlatining asosiy madaniyati - bu arman mustamlakachi xalq emas Quyidagilardan biri to'g'ri bo'lishi kerak:
          Bu sobiq mustamlakachi xalq emas sobiq mustamlakachi xalq
            AI emas
            Mamlakat o'zgaradi Armaniston hukumati qirollik darajasidagi o'zgarishlarga doimiy da'vo qilmoqda Hudud (lar): Armaniston, Samtsxe, Erzurum, Kurdiston va Cukurovada "markazlashtirish kuchayadi". 20 yil
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              Kommagen

              Commagene (k ŏm əj ē ܍ ē), N Suriyaning qadimiy tumani, Furot daryosi bo'yida va Toros tizmasining S, hozirda Osiyo Osiyo Turkiyasida. Uning metropoli Samosata miloddan avvalgi 150 yil Komagene shohi Samos tomonidan asos solingan. Hosildor qishloq xo'jaligi tumani Ossuriya imperiyasi va keyinchalik Fors imperiyasi tarkibiga kirgan. Aleksandr Makedonskiydan keyingi davrda u asta -sekin Suriya salavkiy podsholari davrida mustaqillikka erishdi va uning gubernatori Ptolomey miloddan avvalgi 162 yilda qo'zg'olon ko'tarib, mutlaq mustaqillik e'lon qildi. Mustaqil Kommagen hukmron sulolasi Salavkiylar bilan bog'liq edi. Miloddan avvalgi 64 yilda Rim ittifoqchisi qirol Antiox I o'z hududini Pompey tomonidan kengaytirgan, lekin u parfiyaliklarga yordam berganida miloddan avvalgi 38 yilda Antoniy tomonidan taxtdan chetlatilgan. Antiox qabrining ajoyib xarobalari va ulkan haykallari Nemrut tog'ida joylashgan. Komagene Tiberius tomonidan qo'shilgan (milodiy 17), ammo yangi qirol Antiox IV Kaligula tomonidan o'rnatildi (milodiy 38), tez orada taxtdan chetlatildi, keyin Klavdiy tomonidan qayta tiklandi (milodiy 41). Nihoyat, Vespasian Kommageneni (mil. 72 yil) doimiy ravishda Suriyaning Rim viloyatiga qo'shib oldi. 542 yilda Fors Xosrov I tomonidan bosib olingan, lekin o'sha yili uning kampaniyasi Belisarius tomonidan tekshirilganda, u chekinib ketgan.

              Ushbu maqolaga iqtibos keltiring
              Quyidagi uslubni tanlang va bibliografiya matnini nusxa ko'chiring.


              Tarkibi

              Kommagen kichik edi shohlik , zamonaviy janubi-markazida joylashgan kurka , poytaxti bilan Samosata (zamonaviy Samsat , yaqinida Furot ). Bu birinchi marta eslatib o'tilgan Ossuriya kabi matnlar KummuhuOdatda Ossuriya ittifoqchisi bo'lgan, lekin oxir -oqibat viloyat sifatida qo'shilgan Miloddan avvalgi 708 yil ostida Sargon II . The Fors imperiyasi keyin Kommageneni bosib oldi Miloddan avvalgi 6 -asr va Buyuk Aleksandr hududini bosib oldi Miloddan avvalgi 4 -asr . Iskandariya imperiyasi parchalanganidan so'ng, Kommagen Yunon-Suriyadagi davlat va viloyat edi Salavkiylar imperiyasi .

              The Ellinistik chegaralangan Komagene qirolligi Kilikiya g'arbda va Kapadokiya shimolda, o'rnidan turdi Miloddan avvalgi 162 yil . Bu uning hokimi bo'lgan yil edi. Ptolomey , a Satrap parchalanish haqida Salavkiylar imperiyasi , o'zini mustaqil deb e'lon qildi. Ptolomey va#8217lar sulolasi bilan bog'liq bo'lgan Parfiya shohlar, lekin uning avlodi Mitridatlar I Kallinik (100 – Miloddan avvalgi 69 yil ) ellinistik madaniyatni qabul qilib, Suriya Yunon malikasiga uylandi Laodice VII Tea . Shunday qilib, uning sulolasi ikkalasi bilan aloqani da'vo qilishi mumkin edi Buyuk Aleksandr va fors shohlari. Bu nikoh, shuningdek, Kommagen va Salavkiylar imperiyasi o'rtasidagi tinchlik ittifoqining bir qismi bo'lishi mumkin. Shu paytdan boshlab Kommagen qirolligi fors tilidan ko'ra ko'proq yunon tili bo'ldi.


              Kommagene

              Samosata-bu har bir kishi uchun eng muhim narsa. [ kalla va#160behovlar ] Ma'lumotlarni uzatish uchun 1200 dan ortiq f.Kr. och-därefter som en nyassyrisk provins under 600-talet. [2] Kommagene va Ossuriya er -xotinlari, Iskandar va Aleksandrning do'konlari, shuningdek, bu erda juda katta qiyinchiliklarga duch keldilar. [ kalla va#160behovlar ] 200 dan ortiq talabalar uchun bir necha kun oldin, biz bir necha oydan buyon o'z xizmatlarimizni taqdim etamiz. Ro'yxatdan o'tilganlik sanasi 64 f.Kr. och växlade därefter mellan att vara romerskt och självständigt dan keyin 72 e.Kr. blev en del av provinsen Suriya. [2]

              Bu pulni iran tilida yozish mumkin emas. [ kalla va#160behovlar ] Samosata, huvudstaden, och Arsameia vid Nymfaios, Antiochos I flera yodgorligi. [2]


              Nemrut tog'idagi Kommagen qirolligining xarobalari

              Nemrud tog'i, shuningdek, Nemrud tog'i deb ham ataladi, bu Turkiyaning eng diqqatga sazovor joylaridan biridir. Taxminan 2000 metr balandlikdagi bu tog 'cho'qqisida miloddan avvalgi I asrda eng baland cho'qqisida bo'lgan qadimgi Komagen podshohligining xarobalari joylashgan. Tog' Kaxtadan 40 km shimolda, Adyaman yaqinida joylashgan. Nemrut tog'i - Toros tog 'tizmasining bir qismi, Firat (Furot) daryosi vodiysi va o'tloqli plato, Kahta yaqinidagi Karadut qishlog'i chegarasida.

              Bu ajoyib tuzilma piramidaga o'xshash konfiguratsiyani hosil qilish uchun katta toshli plitalardan yasalgan. Bu tepalikning sharqiy va g'arbiy teraslari ochiq ibodatxonalardir. Bu teraslarda ulkan sherlar, burgutlar, beshta ulug'vor xudo haykali, to'rtta erkak va bitta urg'ochi bor, ularning aksariyati hayratlanarli darajada yaxshi saqlanib qolgan.

              "Genlar jamiyati" degan ma'noni anglatuvchi Commagene miloddan avvalgi I asr boshlarida Mitridates Kallinikos I tomonidan mustaqil qirollik sifatida asos solingan, fuqarolar urushidan keyin Selevkiylar chizig'i tugatilgan. Qirollik Mitridat Kallinikosning o'g'li Antiox Epiphanes (miloddan avvalgi 62-32) davrida mashhurlikka erishdi.

              Miloddan avvalgi 62 yilda qirol Antiox I Teogen tog 'tepasida o'zining ulkan haykallari, ikkita sher, ikkita burgut va Gerkules-Vahagn, Zevs-Aramazd kabi yunon, arman va eron xudolari bilan o'ralgan qabr-ziyoratgohni qurdi. yoki Oromasdes (Eron xudosi Axura Mazda bilan bog'liq), Tyche va Apollon-Mitras. Bu haykallar bir paytlar o'tirgan, har bir xudoning ismlari yozilgan. Haykallarning boshlari qaysidir bosqichda tanasidan olib tashlangan va ular butun sayt bo'ylab tarqalgan.

              Boshlarning shikastlanish shakli shuni ko'rsatadiki, ular ikonoklazmaga ishonish tufayli ataylab shikastlangan. Haykallar asl holatiga qaytarilmagan. Saytda, shuningdek, katta frizni hosil qilgan deb taxmin qilinadigan basseynli tosh plitalar saqlanib qolgan. Bu plitalar yunon va forslarni o'z ichiga olgan Antioxning ajdodlarini aks ettiradi.

              Butun sayt bo'ylab topilgan xuddi shunday haykallar va ajdodlarni, shuningdek, balandligi 49 m va diametri 152 m (499 fut) bo'lgan tumanda ham topish mumkin. Ko'rinib turibdiki, haykallar yunoncha yuz xususiyatlariga ega, ammo fors kiyimlari va soch turmagi.

              G'arbiy terasta miloddan avvalgi 62 -yil 7 -iyulda yulduzlar va Yupiter, Merkuriy va Mars sayyoralarining joylashishini ko'rsatadigan sherli katta plitadan iborat. Bu yodgorlik qurilishi qachon boshlanganini ko'rsatishi mumkin. Sharqiy qismi yaxshi saqlanib qolgan, u bir necha qatlamli toshlardan iborat bo'lib, tog 'etagidan o'tadigan yo'l sharqiy va g'arbiy teraslarni bog'laydigan devorli o'tish joyining dalilidir. Yodgorlikning astronomik va diniy tabiati tufayli ushbu saytning mumkin bo'lgan maqsadlari diniy marosimlarni o'z ichiga olgan deb taxmin qilinadi.

              Nemrut tog'iga tashrif buyurish uchun eng yaxshi vaqt - 15 maydan 15 oktyabrgacha. Ekskursiya vositalarini Adiyaman yoki Kahta tumanidan ijaraga olish mumkin. Bu erdagi eng sevimli mashg'ulotlardan biri - quyosh chiqishini va quyosh botishini tomosha qilish, chunki tepalikdan ajoyib manzaralar.


              Kommagen - tarix

              ANTIOCHUS I KOMAGEN

              Tarixda juda ko'p & quot; Antiochus & quot; va hatto kamida bittasi & quot; Antiox I & quot; bor.

              Biroq, Elvis Presliga o'xshash hayratlanarli o'xshashlikka ega bo'lgan Kommagen Antioxining haykallari. Ayniqsa, quyidagi maqolada ko'rilgan ko'rinishda.

              U haqida biron bir aniq tarixni topish qiyin, lekin bir nechta quruq faktlar. Biroq, veb -qidiruvda men sarlavhali maqola topdim Magi - maxfiy birodarlik uchun qidiruv Adrian Gilbert tomonidan shu nomdagi kitobidan. Ushbu maqolada Kommagen I Antioxi quyidagicha eslatib o'tilgan:

              & quot; Men ishonamanki, bu odam, Kommagenalik Antiox I, o'z davridagi sarmunlar birodarligi bilan chambarchas bog'liq edi. Kichik podshohligida Yuqori Furotda uning sher (Leo) ramziyligiga qiziqishini ko'rsatadigan yodgorliklar mavjud. Uning Namrud tog'idagi dafn marosimi uning munajjimlik va germetik an'analar haqida ko'p narsani bilishini ko'rsatadi. Aslida, bu ikkita astronomik sanani beradi, menimcha, uning tug'ilgan kuni va uning boshlanishi, u "kotipifanlar" unvonini olgan. Uning shohligining boshqa joylarida, uzunligi 355, uzunligi 155 metr bo'lgan va hech qaerga bormaydigan sirli o'q bor. Arxeologlar bu haqda uzoq vaqtdan beri hayron bo'lishgan, lekin men shuni aniqladimki, bu ikki muhim sanani, shu jumladan "Kommagen podshohlarining" Qirollik tug'ilgan kuni "ni berish uchun mo'ljallangan edi. Bu quyosh Leo yulduzi Regulus bilan birlashganda edi, u o'sha davrda 29 -iyulda sodir bo'ladi. & quot

              Menga bu ayniqsa qiziq, chunki qo'lyozmaning asl nusxasi "Blue Star Love"

              Elvisning yuragidan sizning yuragingizga men huquq berishga majbur bo'ldim Moviy yulduzdan sehrgarlar.

              Antiox I va uning ma'bad xarobalari haqidagi qiziqarli havolalar:


              Bu Elvis Presliga hurmat sifatida yaratilgan veb -sayt. Elvis, Elvis Presli, Graceland va TCB - Elvis Presli korxonalarining ro'yxatdan o'tgan savdo belgilari. Men Elvis Presli Enterprises, Elvis Presli, uning musiqasi, videolari yoki ovoziga hech qanday da'vo qilmayman.

              Barcha flesh -taqdimotlar, ijodiy san'at va matn mualliflik huquqi bilan himoyalangan Maia Nartoomid (va ba'zi hollarda matn va hujjatlar bilan, Wanda June Hill va JoAnna McKenzie) - barcha huquqlar himoyalangan.


              "Orastidi" va "Commagene ellenistico-romana" o'yinlari. 17 -dars

              Margherita Facella bu kitobni yozishdan maqsad, uning siyosiy tarixini qayta tiklash uchun Commagene sulolasi bilan bog'liq tarixiy manbalarni baholash edi. Bu maqsadda u muvaffaqiyatga erishdi va u bizga Commagen siyosiy tarixi va Orontidlar sulolasining nasl -nasabiga oid barcha adabiy va epigrafik manbalarni mohirona baholaydigan sintezni taqdim etdi. U Xettni Axamaniylar tarixi bo'ylab tez o'rgansa -da, kitobning asosiy mavzusi miloddan avvalgi IV asrda miloddan avvalgi 72 -yillarga to'g'ri keladi: sulolaning shakllanishidan Rimgacha va qirollikning doimiy qo'shilishigacha. Rejalashtirilgan ikkinchi jildda Numagmatik tadqiqotlar va Commagene ijtimoiy va ma'muriy tuzilmalariga oid tarqoq dalillarni sintezi taqdim etiladi.

              Adabiy va epigrafik materiallarni sinchkovlik bilan tadqiq qilishdan tashqari, bu kitobni stipendiya sifatida oldinga siljish deb atash mumkin, bu uning arxeologik, numizmatik va vizual dalillardan mohirona foydalanishidir. Filella o'qigan tarixchi sifatida yozish paytida Facella o'quvchiga ushbu dalillarni baholash va o'z tadqiqotiga qo'shish jarayonida arxeologik tadqiqotlarning asosiy yo'nalishlari haqida umumiy ma'lumot beradi. Bu ayniqsa muhim, chunki Kommagenni o'rganish uzoq vaqtdan buyon o'tmishdagi klassik bilimlar punkti bo'lib kelgan, bu tarixiy an'analarga to'sqinlik qilib, matnli manbalarga tayanib, tarixiy an'analarning qoldiqlari bilan badiiy san'atni ko'rishga qodir. Commagene mahsulotlari megalomaniak qiziqishlari yoki vinkelman kanonidan vahshiyona ketishlar sifatida. So'nggi ellik yil ichida bu tuzatishga o'z hissasini qo'shgan ko'plab tarixiy va arxeologik hissa qo'shgan bo'lsa -da, Facella ’s kitobi bizni kerakli sintezni ta'minlaydigan va menimcha, boshqa fanlar bo'yicha ham qayta baholashni amalga oshiradi.

              Kitob sakkiz bobdan iborat bo'lib, qisqacha kirish, epilog va keng ko'rsatkichlarga ega. Birinchi bob (“La Commagene ritrovata ”) tarixshunoslik tadqiqotini taqdim etadi, u Kardinal Genri Norisning "Annus va Epochae Syromacedonum" nashrining 1689 yilgi nashridan, yaqinda Commagene kapitalining yo'qolishiga qadar, qirollik tarixining kashfiyotini kuzatadi. Simokatta va qirollikning muhim qismi, Furot va Janubi -Sharqiy Anadolu loyihasining (GAP) ko'tarilgan suvlari arxeologik rekordlari. Bu tarixshunoslik hisobi o'z-o'zidan turishi mumkin va aspiranturadagi tarixshunoslik darsida foydali dalil, talqin texnikasi va jamoalar mavzuni qanday shakllantirishi va shakllanishini ko'rsatadigan foydali ‘ ishi bo'lib xizmat qilishi mumkin. Facella bizni numizmatik tadqiqotlar orqali 19 -asrda Nemrud Dagi o'rnini 20 -asrda Doerner, Goell va Xopfner arxeologik kampaniyalariga olib boradi. However, given her book’s focus on political history, debates regarding the place of Commagene in Iranian religion, the development of Mithraism or the impact of stunning new archaeological discoveries such as that of rock-cut Mithraeums near the ancient city of Dolilche are outside the scope of the book and noted only in passing (A. Schütte-Maischatz, Doliche – eine kommagenische Stadt und ihre Götter. Mithras und Iupiter Dolichenus. Asia Minor Studien 52. Bonn: Habelt, 2004).

              Chapters two and three (“Contesto geographica e definizione territoriale”) and (“Dai re neo-ittiti agli Achemenidi”) survey the geographical context and historical background of the region both consider the main textual attestations of the extent of the kingdom, which she puts into dialogue with the relevant archaeological and epigraphic evidence. In chapters three and four (“Il satrapo Orontes”) Facella puts the epigraphic evidence from the hierothesion’s ‘ancestor steles’ into dialogue with the literary sources to reconstruct the place of Commagene in the Achaemenid satrapal system and to evaluae the claimed Orontid and Achaemenid ancestry.

              The next four chapters form the core of the book: chapters five (“Gli Orontidi nell’Et di Alessandro e dei Seleucidi”), six (“Il regno di Commagene”), seven (“Antioco Theos”), and (“I successori di Antioco fra Roma e l’oriente”). In these chapters Facella traces the emergence of Commagene as a separate kingdom from the Seleucid empire and Arsacid Armenia, to the careful balancing act Antiochus I maintained between Rome and the Arsacids to its eventual incorporation into the Roman empire. Although she cautions the reader she that she does not intend to engage the artistic and religious developments surrounding Antiochus I’s hierothesia, Facella provides an overview of Antiochus I’s cult innovations and building projects (pp. 250-97) that gives the reader a survey of the scholarly debates that have arisen surrounding the phenomenon.

              Although it was outside the scope of her project to tackle the problem of the religion of Commagene, her overview reflects scholarship’s general tilt towards archaeological and religious interpretations that stem from a Mediterranean perspective, due in part to the fact that, since 1979, there are simply many fewer researchers trained and working in ancient Iran. For example, section 6.7 Le ‘due radici’ (pp. 291-94), discounts the Iranian elements of Antiochus I’s religion by anachronistically checking it against ‘orthodox’ Zoroastrian doctrine (which only emerges with the Sasanians), and over-relying on Boyce’s History of Zoroastrianism to represent an essentialized and timeless ‘Zoroastrianism’ (taking for granted such idealist stereotypes as Zoroastrianism being an aniconic religion or abhorring a mixture of funerary and cultic contexts). From the point of view of Iranian studies, Antiochus I’ hierothesia were the product of the Middle Iranian religious and artistic world, rather than Achaemenid religion or late antique Zoroastrianism, and therein lies their true context, syncretic or not. Rather than a critique of the present work, this indicates that there is much to be done in this regard and historians of art and religion working in pre-Islamic Iran will have to step up to provide the necessary corrective.

              In sum, due to its indices and bibliography alone, this book will be a welcome resource for students of the Hellenistic kingdoms, Rome and Pre-Islamic Iran. Facella’s writing style is clear and engaging (as much as a non-native speaker can judge). While its heavy annotation and length might initially scare off cash-strapped American publishing houses, a translation into English would be a boon to students interested in this cultural sphere as well as those of us who teach such classes. Since many North American publishers have severely cut back on illustrative material, one hesitates to critique Giardini, nevertheless the size and quality of the illustrations could be better. For a scholarly audience, the figures discharge their basic duties, functioning as sort of black and white ciphers which the scholar can fill in with recourse to his or her own photo archive or better illustrated publications (such as J. Wagner (ed.), Gottknige am Euphrat. Neue Ausgrabungen und Forschungen in Kommagene, Mainz 2000). For an introductory audience, they do not provide enough useful detail nor do justice to the sheer grandeur of the sites.

              Such minor critiques aside, this book should be in the collection or acquisition lists of every research library and could be worth the personal investment for those of us who work in closely allied fields with this auspicious beginning I look forward to Facella’s planned second volume.


              History of Mead

              Mead – “fermented honey drink” – derives from the Old English meodu or medu, and Proto-Germanic, *meduz. The name has connections to Old Norse mjöðr, Middle Dutch mede, and Old High German metu, among others.

              The earliest recorded evidence dates from 7000BC, where archaeologists discovered pottery vessels from the Neolithic village of Jiahu in Henan province, China that contained the chemical signatures of honey, rice and compounds normally associated with the process of fermentation.

              Mead became present in Europe between 2800 to 1800BC during the European Bronze Age. Throughout this period, the Bell Beaker culture or short Beaker culture was producing the “All Over Ornamented (AOO)” and the “Maritime Type” beaker pottery. The beakers are suggested to have been produced primarily for alcohol consumption, with some examples of these pottery forms containing chemical signatures for mead production.

              During the Golden Age of Ancient Greece, mead “hydromeli” proceeded wine and was a stable beverage of Grecian culture. Hydromeli was even the preferred tipple of Aristotle, in which he discussed mead in his Meteorologica.

              The German classical scholar, W. H. Roscher suggested that mead was even the nectar or ambrosia of the Gods. He compared ambrosia to honey, with their power of conferring immortality due to the supposed healing and cleansing powers of honey, which is in fact anti-septic, and because fermented honey (mead) preceded wine as an entheogen in the Aegean world on some Minoan seals, goddesses were represented with bee faces (compare Merope and Melissa).

              This is supported in the archaic versions of the stories of the gods. The Orphists preserve a tale about the cruel guile of Zeus who surprised his father Kronos when he was drunk on the honey of wild bees and castrated him.

              Mead “aquamulsum” or just “mulsum” was also common during the Imperial Roman era and came in various forms. Mulsum was a freshly made mixture of wine and honey (called a pyment today) or simply honey left in water to ferment and conditum was a mixture of wine, honey and spices made in advance and matured (arguably more a faux-mead).

              The Hispanic-Roman naturalist Columella gave a recipe for mead in De re rustica, around 60 BCE.

              “Take rainwater kept for several years, and mix a sextarius of this water with a [Roman] pound of honey. For a weaker mead, mix a sextarius of water with nine ounces of honey. The whole is exposed to the sun for 40 days, and then left on a shelf near the fire. If you have no rainwater, then boil spring water.”

              Alcoholic drinks made from honey would become very popular within the Early Middle Ages and Medieval Europe. This was especially so among the Native Brythonic cultures, Anglo-Saxons, Germans, and Scandinavians. However, wines remained the preferred beverage in warmer climates in what is now Italy, Spain and France.

              Anglo-Saxon literature such as Mabinogion, Beowulf and the Brythonic writings of the Welsh poet Taliesin (who wrote the Kanu y med or “Song of Mead ) describe mead as the drink of Kings and Thanes. In the Old English epic poem Beowulf set in Scandinavia, Beowulf comes to the aid of Hrothgar, the king of the Danes, whose mead hall in Heorot has been under attack by a monster known as Grendel.

              In Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales – The Miller’s Tale, mead is described as the draught of townfolk and used to court a fair lady. Chaucer also makes mention of spiking his claret with honey.

              “He sent her sweetened wine and well-spiced ale
              And waffles piping hot out of the fire,
              And, she being town-bred, mead for her desire
              For some are won by means of money spent
              And some by tricks and some by long descent.”

              In later years, tax and regulation drove commercial mead out of popularity with beer and wine becoming the predominant alcoholic drinks. Some monasteries in England and Wales kept up the traditions of mead-making as a by-product of beekeeping but with the dissolution of the monasteries in the 16th century mead all but disappeared.

              Finally, when West Indian sugar began to be imported in quantity (from the 17th century), there was less incentive to keep bees to sweeten foods and the essential honey to ferment mead became scarcer across Europe leading to its decline.


              The Magnetic History of Ice

              The history of our planet has been written, among other things, in the periodic reversal of its magnetic poles. Scientists at the Weizmann Institute of Science propose a new means of reading this historic record: in ice.

              Their findings, which were recently reported in Yer va sayyora fanidan xatlar, could lead to a refined probing ice cores and, in the future, might be applied to understanding the magnetic history of other bodies in our solar system, including Mars and Jupiter’s moon Europa.

              The idea for investigating a possible connection between ice and Earth’s magnetic history arose far from the source of the planet’s ice – on the sunny isle of Corsica, where Prof. Oded Aharonson of the Institute’s Earth and Planetary Sciences Department, was attending a conference on magnetism. More specifically, the researchers there were discussing the field known as paleo-magnetism, which is mostly studied through flakes magnetic minerals that have been trapped either in rocks or cores drilled through ocean sediments.

              Such particles get aligned with the Earth’s magnetic field at the time they are trapped in place, and even millions of years later, researchers can test their magnetic north-south alignment and understand the position of the Earth’s magnetic poles at that distant time.

              The latter is what gave Aharonson the idea: If small amounts of magnetic materials could be sensed in ocean sediments, maybe they could also be found trapped in ice and measured. Some of the ice frozen in the glaciers in places like Greenland or Alaska is many millennia old and is layered like tree rings. Ice cores drilled through these are investigated for signs of such things as planetary warming or ice ages. Why not reversals in the magnetic field as well?

              The first question that Aharonson and his student Yuval Grossman who led the project had to ask was whether it was possible that the process in which ice forms in regions near the poles could contain a detectable record of magnetic pole reversals. These randomly-spaced reversals have occurred throughout our planet’s history, fueled by the chaotic motion of the liquid iron dynamo deep in the planet’s core. In banded rock formations and layered sediments, researchers measure the magnetic moment – the magnetic north-south orientations – of the magnetic materials in these to reveal the magnetic moment of the Earth’s magnetic field at that time. The scientists thought such magnetic particles could be found in the dust that gets trapped, along with water ice, in glaciers and ice sheets.

              The research team built an experimental setup to simulate ice formation such as that in polar glaciers, where dust particles in the atmosphere may even provide the nuclei around which snowflakes form. The researchers created artificial snowfall by finely grinding ice made from purified water, adding a bit of magnetic dust, and letting it fall though a very cold column that was exposed to a magnetic field, the latter having an orientation controlled by the scientists. By maintaining very cold temperatures – around 30 degrees Celsius below zero, they found they could generate miniature “ice cores” in which the snow and dust froze solidly into hard ice.

              “If the dust is not affected by an external magnetic field, it will settle in random directions which will cancel each other out,” says Aharonson. “But if a portion of it gets oriented in a particular direction right before the particles freeze in place, the net magnetic moment will be detectible.”

              To measure the magnetism of the “ice cores” they had created in the lab, the Weizmann scientists took them to Hebrew University in Jerusalem, to the lab of Prof. Ron Shaar, where a sensitive magnetometer installed there is able to measure the very slightest of magnetic moments. The team found a small, but definitely detectible magnetic moment that matched the magnetic fields applied to their ice samples.

              “The Earth’s paleo-magnetic history has been studied from the rocky record reading it in ice cores could reveal additional dimensions, or help assign accurate dates to the other findings in those cores,” says Aharonson. “And we know that the surfaces of Mars and large icy moons like Europa have been exposed to magnetic fields. It would be exciting to look for magnetic field reversals in ice sampled from other bodies in our solar system.”

              “We’ve proved it is possible,” he adds. Aharonson has even proposed a research project for a future space mission involving ice core sampling on Mars, and he hopes that this demonstration of the feasibility of measuring such a core will advance the appeal of this proposal.


              Videoni tomosha qiling: The Kingdom of Commagene