Parij shartnomasi - ta'rifi, sanasi va shartlari

Parij shartnomasi - ta'rifi, sanasi va shartlari


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1783 yildagi Parij shartnomasi Amerika inqilobiy urushini rasman tugatdi. Amerika davlat arboblari Benjamin Franklin, Jon Adams va Jon Jey Buyuk Britaniya qiroli Jorj III vakillari bilan tinchlik shartnomasi tuzishdi. Parij bitimida Britaniya toji Amerika mustaqilligini rasman tan oldi va o'z hududining ko'p qismini Missisipi daryosining sharqida Qo'shma Shtatlarga berib, yangi xalqning hajmini ikki barobarga oshirdi va g'arbga kengaytirishga yo'l ochdi.

Inqilobiy urush

1781 yilning kuzida Amerika va Britaniya qo'shinlari Virjiniya shtatining Yorktaun shahrida Amerika inqilobiy urushining oxirgi yirik jangini o'tkazdilar.

Jorj Vashington va frantsuz generali Comte de Rochambeau boshchiligidagi Amerika va Frantsiya qo'shma kuchlari Yorktaunni qamal qilish paytida ingliz generali Charlz Kornuallis va 9000 ga yaqin ingliz qo'shinlarini to'liq qurshab olib, qo'lga olishdi.

Yorktaunda inglizlarning mag'lubiyati haqidagi xabar Angliyaga etib kelganida, Britaniya parlamentida ham, jamoatchilikda ham Amerikadagi urushni qo'llab -quvvatlash susayib ketdi. Angliya inqilobiy urushni tugatish uchun amerikaliklar bilan tinchlik muzokaralarini boshlashga rozi bo'ldi.

Tinchlik muzokaralari

Yorktaundan keyin Continental Kongressi davlat arboblarining kichik guruhini Evropaga sayohat qilib, inglizlar bilan tinchlik shartnomasi tuzish uchun tayinladi: Jon Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Jon Jey, Tomas Jefferson va Genri Lorens.

Biroq, Jefferson AQShni muzokaralar uchun tark eta olmadi va Lorens ingliz harbiy kemasi tomonidan asirga olindi va urush tugagunga qadar London minorasida asirlikda edi, shuning uchun amerikalik muzokarachilar Franklin, Adams va Jey.

Franklin, Amerikaning Frantsiyadagi birinchi elchisi bo'lib, inqilob boshlanganidan beri Parijda bo'lgan va urush paytida frantsuz yordamini olishda muhim rol o'ynagan. Britaniya va Amerika diplomatlari o'rtasida tinchlik muzokaralari u erda 1782 yilning bahorida boshlangan va kuzgacha davom etgan.

Inglizlar qimmatbaho urushni tugatmoqchi bo'lishdi, lekin Angliya Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari mustaqilligini tan olmaganda, tinchlik muzokaralari to'xtab qoldi - bu nuqtada Amerika delegatsiyasi turishdan bosh tortdi. Yangi Amerika tarafdorlari parlamenti saylanganidan so'ng, Buyuk Britaniya tez orada Amerika mustaqilligi shartlarini berdi va qabul qildi.

Parij shartnomasi shartlari

1782 yilda Buyuk Britaniyaning yangi saylangan bosh vaziri Lord Shelbern Amerika mustaqilligini yangi davlat bilan koloniyalarni boshqarish va himoya qilish uchun ma'muriy va harbiy xarajatlarsiz daromadli savdo ittifoqini tuzish imkoniyati sifatida ko'rdi.

Natijada, Parij shartnomasi shartlari Qo'shma Shtatlar uchun juda qulay bo'lib, Buyuk Britaniya katta imtiyozlar berdi.

Parijdagi d'York mehmonxonasida Franklin, Adams va Jey tomonidan imzolangan shartnoma 1783 yil 3 sentyabrda yakunlandi va 1784 yil 14 yanvarda Kontinental Kongress tomonidan ratifikatsiya qilindi.

Parij bitimining asosiy shartlari:

  • Buyuk Britaniya nihoyat o'zining sobiq mustamlakalarini yangi mustaqil davlat sifatida rasman tan oldi: Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari.
  • AQSh chegarasini aniqladi, Buyuk Britaniya AQShga shimoli -g'arbiy hududni berdi.
  • Buyuk banklar va Britaniya-Kanada qirg'oqlaridan Amerika qayiqlari uchun boshqa suvlarga baliq ovlash huquqi.
  • Missisipi daryosini AQSh va Buyuk Britaniya fuqarolari navigatsiya qilish uchun ochdi.
  • Britaniya kreditorlari oldida Amerika qarzlari bilan bog'liq muammolar hal qilindi.
  • Urush paytida Buyuk Britaniyaga sodiq qolgan amerikalik fuqarolarga adolatli munosabatda bo'lish.

Shimoli -g'arbiy hudud

Balki AQSh mustaqilligi kabi muhim bo'lsa ham, Parij shartnomasi yangi xalq uchun saxiy chegaralarni o'rnatdi. Shartnoma doirasida inglizlar Shimoliy -G'arbiy hudud deb nomlanuvchi keng hududni AQShga berdilar.

Shimoliy-G'arbiy hudud-hozirgi Ogayo, Michigan, Indiana, Illinoys, Viskonsin va Minnesota shtatlarini o'z ichiga olgan-Qo'shma Shtatlarning er maydonini ikki barobarga oshirdi va kelgusi yilda g'arbga kengaytirish uchun zamin yaratdi. asr.

Parij tinchligi

Amerika inqilobi paytida amerikalik mustamlakachilardan tashqari, boshqa xalqlar, jumladan Frantsiya, Ispaniya va Gollandiya inglizlarga qarshi kurashdi. Parij shartnomasi bilan bir qatorda, Buyuk Britaniya 1783 yil sentyabr oyida har bir davlat bilan alohida tinchlik shartnomalarini imzoladi.

"Parij tinchligi" deb nomlangan shartnomalarda Buyuk Britaniya Floridaning so'nggi Parij bitimida qo'lga kiritgan qismlarini Ispaniyaga qaytdi. (Ispaniya 1763 yilda frantsuz va hind urushining avj nuqtasida Ispaniya Floridasini Britaniya imperiyasiga berdi).

Parij shartnomasi oqibatlari

Garchi 1783 yildagi Parij shartnomasi Amerika va Buyuk Britaniya o'rtasidagi mustaqillik urushini rasman tugatgan bo'lsa -da, shartnoma hal qilinmagan masalalar bo'yicha ikki davlat o'rtasida keskinlik o'sishda davom etdi.

Masalan, inglizlar sobiq Shimoli -G'arbiy hududidagi bir qancha qal'alaridan voz kechishdan bosh tortishdi, amerikaliklar esa o'z vaqtida urush paytida Britaniya tojiga sodiq qolgan fuqarolarning mulkini tortib olishni davom ettirdilar.

1795 yilda Jon Jey Buyuk Britaniya bilan bu muammolarni hal qilish uchun Evropaga qaytdi. Jey shartnomasi deb nomlanuvchi kelishuv ikki mamlakat o'rtasidagi qimmatbaho urushni kechiktirishga yordam berdi.

MANBALAR

Parij shartnomasi, 1783; AQSh tarixchi idorasi.

Parij shartnomasi; Kongress kutubxonasi.


Parij shartnomasi (1783)

The Parij shartnomasi, 1783 yil 3 sentyabrda Buyuk Britaniya qiroli Jorj III vakillari va Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari vakillari tomonidan Parijda imzolangan, Amerika inqilobiy urushini rasman tugatgan. Shartnoma Britaniya imperiyasi bilan Shimoliy Amerika va Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari o'rtasidagi chegaralarni "haddan ziyod saxiy" qilib belgilab berdi. [2] Tafsilotlarga baliq ovlash huquqi, mol -mulk va harbiy asirlarni tiklash kiradi.

Bu shartnoma va Buyuk Britaniya va Amerika ishini qo'llab -quvvatlagan davlatlar - Frantsiya, Ispaniya va Gollandiya Respublikasi o'rtasida tuzilgan alohida tinchlik shartnomalari birgalikda Parij tinchligi deb nomlanadi. [3] [4] Shartnomaning faqat 1 -moddasi, Qo'shma Shtatlar erkin, suveren va mustaqil davlat sifatida mavjudligini tan oladi, o'z kuchida qoladi. [5]


Fon

Uchrashuv 1992 yil Rio -de -Janeyroda (Braziliya) bo'lib o'tgan Er sammitiga to'g'ri keladigan jarayonning bir qismi bo'lib, mamlakatlar Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotining Iqlim o'zgarishi bo'yicha asosiy konventsiyasi deb nomlandi. Emissiyalarni kamaytirishni kuchaytirish zarurligini ko'rib, 1997 yilda mamlakatlar Kioto protokolini qabul qilishdi. Ushbu protokol rivojlangan mamlakatlarni chiqindilarni kamaytirish maqsadlariga qonuniy ravishda majbur qildi. Biroq, bu kelishuv samarasiz deb topildi, chunki dunyodagi karbonat angidrid chiqindilarini chiqaruvchi ikkita yirik davlat-Xitoy va AQSh ishtirok etmaslikni tanladilar. Rivojlanayotgan mamlakat Xitoy, Kioto protokoli bilan bog'liq emas edi va AQSh hukumatining ko'plab rasmiylari bu faktdan AQShning ishtirok etmasligini oqlash uchun foydalangan.

2012 yilda Qatar poytaxti Dohada bo'lib o'tgan Tomonlarning 18 -konferentsiyasida delegatlar Kioto protokolini 2020 yilgacha uzaytirishga kelishib oldilar. Ular 2011 yilda Janubiy Afrikaning Durban shahrida o'tkazilgan COP17 shartnomasini yana bir bor tasdiqladilar. , 2015 yilga qadar barcha mamlakatlardan, shu jumladan Kioto protokoliga rioya qilmaydigan uglerod emitentlaridan - karbonat angidrid va boshqa issiqxona gazlari chiqindilarini cheklashni va kamaytirishni talab qiladigan yangi, keng qamrovli, qonuniy majburiy iqlim shartnomasini tuzish.

Parijdagi yig'ilish arafasida BMT mamlakatlarga issiqxona gazlari chiqindilarini qanday kamaytirishni rejalashtirganliklari haqida batafsil rejalar topshirishni topshirdi. Ushbu rejalar texnik jihatdan milliy aniqlangan hissalar (INDCs) deb nomlandi. 2015 yil 10 dekabrga qadar 1855 ta mamlakat 2025 yoki 2030 yilgacha parnik gazlari chiqindilarini cheklash yoki kamaytirish bo'yicha chora -tadbirlarni taqdim etdi. AQSh 2014 yilda 2025 yilga borib emissiyasini 2005 yil darajasidan 26-28 foizga kamaytirish niyatida ekanligini e'lon qildi. Bu maqsadga erishish uchun. , Mamlakatning toza energiya rejasi elektr stantsiyalarining mavjud va rejalashtirilgan chiqindilariga cheklovlar qo'yishi kerak edi. Eng ko'p issiqxona gazlari chiqindilariga ega bo'lgan Xitoy, "2030 yilga kelib, karbonat angidrid chiqindilarining eng yuqori cho'qqisiga chiqish va erta cho'qqiga chiqish uchun barcha sa'y -harakatlarni" o'z maqsadini qo'ydi. Xitoy rasmiylari, shuningdek, yalpi ichki mahsulot birligiga (YaIM) karbonat angidrid chiqindilarini 2005 yildagi darajadan 60-65 foizga kamaytirishga harakat qilishdi.

Hindiston INDC issiqxona gazlari chiqindilarini kamaytirish bilan birga qashshoqlikni bartaraf etish muammolarini qayd etdi. Elektr energiyasidan mahrum bo'lgan dunyo aholisining 24 foizi (304 million) Hindistonda istiqomat qilishgan. Shunga qaramay, mamlakat 2005 yilga nisbatan "2030 yilga kelib yalpi ichki mahsulotining emissiya intensivligini 33 dan 35 foizgacha kamaytirishni" rejalashtirgan. Mamlakat, shuningdek, 2030 yilga kelib elektr energiyasining qariyb 40 foizini qazib olinadigan yoqilg'idan emas, balki qayta tiklanadigan energiya manbalaridan olishga harakat qildi. INDC ta'kidlashicha, amalga oshirish rejalari ichki resurslar hisobidan amalga oshmaydi: kamida 2,5 trillion dollar kerak bo'ladi 2030 yilgacha iqlim o'zgarishi bo'yicha harakatlarni amalga oshirish. Hindiston texnologiya transferi (ko'nikmalar va asbob-uskunalarning rivojlangan mamlakatlardan kam rivojlangan mamlakatlarga [LDCs] ga o'tishi) va xalqaro moliyalashtirish, shu jumladan "Green" yordami bilan erishadi. Iqlim jamg'armasi (past emissiya texnologiyalari va iqlim o'zgarishiga chidamli rivojlanishga investitsiyalar orqali, iqlim o'zgarishi ta'siridan himoyalanmagan aholiga yordam berish uchun mo'ljallangan dastur).


Parij shartnomasi

Eng muqaddas va bo'linmagan Uch Birlik nomi bilan.

Manba: Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari. Davlat departamenti, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarining shartnomalari va boshqa xalqaro shartnomalari, 1776–1949 (Charlz I. Bevans rahbarligida tuzilgan), jild. 12 (1974), 8–12 -betlar.

Xudoning inoyati bilan Buyuk Britaniya, Frantsiya va Irlandiya podshohi, imon himoyachisi, Brunsvik va Lunebourg gertsogi, archaning eng xotirjam va eng kuchli shahzodasi Uchinchi Jorjning qalbiga taslim bo'lish Ilohiy Provideni mamnun qildi. -Muqaddas Rim imperiyasi va boshqalar va Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarining xazinachisi va shahzodasi saylovchilari, avvalgi o'zaro tushunmovchiliklar va kelishmovchiliklarni unutib, ular o'zaro yozishuv va do'stlikni buzib, o'zaro manfaatli aloqani o'rnatdilar. Ikki mamlakat o'rtasidagi o'zaro manfaatlar va o'zaro qulaylik asosida, qoniqarli munosabatlar, bu ham tinchlik va hamjihatlikni qo'llab -quvvatlaydi va shu maqsadda Parijda imzolangan Vaqtinchalik Maqolalar bilan tinchlik va yarashuvga asos soladi. 1782 yil 30 -noyabr, har bir qismga vakolatli komissarlar tomonidan, qaysi maqolalar kiritilishi va T ni tashkil etishga kelishilgan. Buyuk Britaniya valiahdi va AQSh o'rtasida tuzilgan Tinchlik reati, lekin Buyuk Britaniya va Frantsiya o'rtasida tinchlik shartlari kelishilmaguncha va Britaniya qirolicha bunday shartnomani tuzishga tayyor bo'lmaguncha qanday shartnoma tuzilmasligi kerak edi. Shartnoma va Buyuk Britaniya bilan Frantsiya o'rtasida tuzilgan shartnoma, Buyuk Britaniya Oliy Majlisi va Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari, yuqorida aytilgan Muvaqqat Maqolalarni to'liq kuchga kirishi uchun, ularning tenoriga binoan, tuzilgan va tayinlangan. Buyuk Britaniya Oliy Majlisi, Buyuk Britaniya Parlamenti a'zosi Devid Xartli va AQSh tomonidan aytilganidek, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari komissari, marhum Jon Adams, Esqr. Versal sudi, Massachusets shtatidan Kongressga kech kelgan delegat va ushbu shtatning bosh adliya va AQShning vakolatli vaziri. eslatmalar Birlashgan Gollandiya shtatlari generali Benjamin Franklin, Esqr., Pensilvaniya shtatidan Kongressning kech vakili, ushbu shtat konvensiyasining prezidenti va Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarining Versal sudidagi vakolatli vaziri Jon Jey, Esqr., Kongressning kech prezidenti va Nyu -York shtati bosh adliya, va Madridning sudida AQShning vakolatli vaziri, bu aniq shartnomani tuzish va imzolash uchun vakolatli vakillar bo'lib, ular o'zaro tegishli xabarlar berganidan keyin. to'liq vakolatlar quyidagi maqolalarni kelishib oldi va tasdiqladi.

1 -modda

Buyuk Britaniya qirolichasi aytilgan Qo'shma Shtatlar, masalan, Nyu -Xempshir, Massachusets ko'rfazi, Rod -Aylend va Providence plantatsiyalari, Konnektikut, Nyu -York, Nyu -Jersi, Pensilvaniya, Delaver, Merilend, Virjiniya, Shimoliy Karolina, Janubiy Karolina va Jorjiya erkin suveren va mustaqil davlatlar, ular bilan, o'zi uchun, merosxo'rlari va vorislari bilan muomala qilganda, hukumatga bo'lgan barcha da'volardan, mulkchilik va hududiy huquqlaridan voz kechadi.

2 -modda

Kelgusida AQSh chegaralari masalasida yuzaga kelishi mumkin bo'lgan barcha nizolarning oldini olish mumkin, shuning uchun ularning chegaralari quyidagicha va shunday bo'ladi, deyiladi: Novaning shimoli -g'arbiy burchagidan. Shotlandiya, ya'ni Sent -Kroix daryosining manbasidan shimolga cho'zilgan, bu tog'lar bo'ylab, Sankt -Lourens daryosiga quyiladigan daryolarni bo'linadigan tog'lar bo'ylab hosil bo'lgan burchak. Atlantika okeani, Konnektikut daryosining shimoli-g'arbiy boshida, shu daryoning o'rtasi bo'ylab, shimoliy kenglikning qirq beshinchi darajasigacha, u erdan, bu kenglik bo'yicha g'arbga to'g'ri keladigan chiziq bilan, Iroquois yoki Cataraquy daryosiga etib borguncha Bu daryodan, bu ko'lning o'rtasi orqali Ontario ko'liga, bu ko'l va Eri ko'li orasidagi suv aloqasini to'xtatmaguncha, bu aloqa o'rtasidan Eri ko'liga, o'rtasidan bu ko'l va Xuron ko'li o'rtasidagi suv aloqasiga etib kelgunga qadar, u erdan Xuron ko'liga, bu ko'lning o'rtasidan o'sha ko'l va Superior ko'li orasidagi suv aloqasiga, undan yuqori ko'l orqali. Qirollik va Felepo orollarining shimolida Long -Leykgacha, u bilan Long -Leyk o'rtasida va u bilan O'rmon ko'li o'rtasidagi suv aloqasi orqali, aytilgan o'rmon ko'li orqali eng shimoli -g'arbiy nuqtasiga. va u erdan g'arbiy yo'nalishda Missisipi daryosigacha, bu chiziq Missisipi daryosining o'rtasi bo'ylab chiziladi va u shimoliy kenglikning o'ttiz birinchi darajasining eng shimoliy qismini kesib o'tadi. Janub, ekvatordan o'ttiz bir gradus kenglikda oxirgi aytilgan chiziqni aniqlashdan sharqqa to'g'ri keladigan chiziq bo'ylab, Apalachikola daryosining o'rtasigacha yoki shu erning o'rtasi bilan uning tutashgan joyigacha. Flint daryosi, u erdan to'g'ridan -to'g'ri Sent -Meri daryosining boshigacha va u erdan Sent -Meri daryosining o'rtasi bo'ylab, Atlantika okeanining sharqigacha, Sent -Kroix daryosining o'rtasi bo'ylab, og'zidan Bay ko'rfazidagi chiziq bo'ylab chiziladi. Manba manbai va to'g'ridan -to'g'ri shimoldan yuqorida aytilgan baland tog'larga qadar, Atlantika okeaniga tushadigan daryolarni Sent -Lourens daryosiga quyilgan daryolardan ajratib, Amerika qirg'oqlarining istalgan qismidagi yigirma ligadagi barcha orollarni o'z ichiga oladi. va bir tomondan, Yangi Shotlandiya va ikkinchi tomondan Sharqiy Floridaning yuqorida aytilgan chegaralari, tegishli ravishda, Fundy ko'rfaziga va At Yorqin okean, hozirgi orollar bundan mustasno, ilgari aytilgan Yangi Skotiya provinsiyasi chegarasida bo'lgan.

3 -modda

Qo'shma Shtatlar xalqi, Buyuk bankda va Nyufaundlendning boshqa qirg'og'ida, shuningdek, Sent -Lourens ko'rfazida va boshqa joylarda har xil turdagi baliqlarni olish huquqini saqlab qoladi. dengiz, bu erda har ikki mamlakat aholisi ilgari ham baliq ovlash uchun ishlatilgan. Shuningdek, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari aholisi Nyufaundlend qirg'og'ida ingliz baliqchilari ishlatadigan har qanday baliqni olish huquqiga ega bo'lishadi (lekin bu orolda quritib yoki davolamasliklari uchun) va qirg'oqlarda. Buyuk Britaniyaning Buyuk Britaniyasidagi Amerikadagi boshqa hukmronliklarning ko'rfazlari va daryolari va amerikalik baliqchilar Yangi Shotlandiya, Magdalen orollari va Labradorning har qanday noaniq ko'rfazlarida, bandargohlarida va soylarida baliqlarni quritish va davolash huquqiga ega bo'lishadi. agar bu hal qilinmagan bo'lsa, lekin shu yoki ularning birortasi hal etilgandan so'ng, bu baliqchilar, aholi bilan oldindan kelishilmagan holda, bu turar joyida baliqni quritishi yoki davolashi qonuniy emas, er egalari yoki er egalari.

4 -modda

Ikkala tomonning kreditorlari shartnoma tuzishdan oldin barcha vijdonli qarzlarning to'liq qiymatini qaytarish uchun hech qanday qonuniy to'siqsiz uchrashishiga kelishib olindi.

5 -modda

Buyuk Britaniya haqiqiy sub'ektlariga, shuningdek mulklari, huquqlari va mulklariga tegishli bo'lgan musodara qilingan barcha mulklar, huquqlar va mulklarni qaytarib berishni ta'minlash uchun Kongress uni tegishli shtatlarning qonun chiqaruvchi organlariga qat'iy tavsiya qiladi. oliy qirollik qo'llarida bo'lgan va AQShga qurol olmagan tumanlarda yashovchi shaxslar. Boshqa har qanday ta'rifga ega bo'lgan shaxslar, AQShning o'n uchtasidan birining istalgan qismiga yoki qismiga borish erkinligi va u erda o'z mulklari, huquqlari va mulklarini qaytarib olish uchun hech qanday urinishlarsiz, o'n ikki oy qolishlari mumkin. musodara qilingan bo'lishi mumkin va Kongress, shuningdek, ushbu qonunlar yoki harakatlarni nafaqat adolat va adolat bilan, balki bu ruhiyatga to'liq mos kelishini ta'minlash uchun bir qancha shtatlarga binolarga tegishli bo'lgan barcha aktlarni yoki qonunlarni qayta ko'rib chiqish va qayta ko'rib chiqishni qat'iy tavsiya qiladi. tinchlik ne'matlari qaytishi bilan hamma joyda hukm surishi kerak bo'lgan yarashuv. Va bu Kongress, shuningdek, bir qancha shtatlarga, oxirgi aytilgan shaxslarning mulklari, huquqlari va mulklari qaytarib berilishini qat'iy tavsiya qiladi, ular hozirda haqiqiy narxga ega bo'lgan har qanday shaxsga qaytariladi. berilgan) bu shaxslar musodara qilinganidan keyin ko'rsatilgan erlarni, huquqlarni yoki mulklarni sotib olish uchun to'lagan bo'lishi mumkin.

Qarz, nikoh yoki boshqa yo'llar bilan musodara qilingan erlardan manfaatdor bo'lgan barcha shaxslar o'zlarining adolatli huquqlarini ta'qib qilishda hech qanday qonuniy to'siqlarga duch kelmasliklari kelishib olindi.

6 -modda

Kelgusida hech qanday shaxsga yoki shaxsga qarshi olib borilmasligi, jinoiy ish qo'zg'atilmasligi va shu sababdan ular hozirgi urushda olgan qismi uchun va hech kim hech qanday zarar ko'rmasligi kerak. yoki uning shaxsiy erkinligi yoki mulkiga etkazilgan zarar va Amerikada shartnoma ratifikatsiya qilingan paytda bunday ayblovlar bilan qamoqda o'tirganlar zudlik bilan ozodlik jazosiga tortiladi va shu tarzda boshlangan ta'qiblar to'xtatiladi.

7 -modda

Buyuk Britaniya oliylari bilan ushbu davlatlar o'rtasida, birining fuqarolari va ikkinchisining fuqarolari o'rtasida mustahkam va abadiy tinchlik bo'ladi, shuning uchun bundan buyon dengizda ham, quruqlikda ham barcha jangovar harakatlar to'xtatiladi. Ikkala tarafdagi barcha mahbuslar ozodlikka chiqarilishi kerak, va uning Buyuk Britaniya qirolligi barcha qulaylik bilan, hech qanday halokatga olib kelmasdan yoki amerikaliklarning negrlarini yoki boshqa mol -mulkini olib ketmasdan, o'z qo'shinlarini, garnizonlarini va flotlarini olib chiqib ketadi. aytilgan Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari va har qanday post, joy va portdan, xuddi shu qal'ada, Amerika artilleriyasi, bu erda bo'lishi mumkin, shuningdek, har qanday arxivlarni, yozuvlarni, amallarni va hujjatlarni buyurtma qiladi. urush paytida uning zobitlari qo'liga tushgan bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan davlatlar yoki ularning fuqarolari zudlik bilan tiklanishi va tegishli davlatlar va shaxslarga topshirilishi kerak.

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Missisipi daryosining navigatsiyasi, manbaidan okeangacha, Buyuk Britaniya fuqarolari va AQSh fuqarolari uchun abadiy erkin va ochiq qoladi.

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Agar shunday bo'lsa, Buyuk Britaniyaga yoki Qo'shma Shtatlarga tegishli bo'lgan har qanday joy yoki hudud, bu vaqtinchalik maqolalar Amerikaga kelgunga qadar, bir -birining qo'llari bilan bosib olinishi kerak edi. qiyinchiliksiz va hech qanday kompensatsiya talab qilmasdan tiklanadi.

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Tomonlarning shartnoma imzolangan kundan boshlab hisob -kitob qilinadigan olti oy ichida yoki iloji boricha tezroq shartnoma tuzish to'g'risidagi tantanali ratifikatsiyalari kelishilgan tomonlar o'rtasida almashtiriladi. Buning guvohi sifatida biz quyida imzo qo'yganlar, ularning vakolatli vazirlari o'z nomidan va to'liq vakolatlarimizga binoan qo'llarimiz bilan hozirgi aniq shartnomani imzoladik va qo'llarimizning muhrlarini yopishtirdik.

Parijda, Rabbimiz yilining sentyabr oyining uchinchi kuni, bir ming etti yuz sakson uch.


Parij shartnomasi

1783 yildagi Parij shartnomasi Mustaqillik urushini tugatdi va o'n uchta koloniyaga siyosiy erkinlik berdi. Buyuk Britaniya va AQSh o'rtasida dastlabki shartnoma 1782 yilda imzolangan edi, ammo yakuniy bitim 1783 yil 3 sentyabrgacha imzolangan.

1782 yil aprelda Frantsiyaning Parij shahrida tinchlik muzokaralari boshlandi. AQSh delegatsiyasiga Benjamin Franklin, Jon Adams, Jon Jey va Genri Lorens, inglizlardan esa Richard Osvald va Genri Straxi kirdi. Muzokarachilar dastlabki shartnomani 1782 yil 30 -noyabrda tuzishdi, lekin Buyuk Britaniya chet el mustamlakalari to'g'risida Frantsiya va Ispaniya bilan shartnomalar tuzmaguncha bu bitim kuchga kirmadi.

Yakuniy kelishuvda inglizlar AQSh mustaqilligini tan oldilar. Shartnoma AQSh hududi uchun saxiy chegaralarni o'rnatdi, endi Atlantika okeanidan g'arbda Missisipi daryosigacha, shimolda Buyuk ko'llar va Kanadadan janubda 31 -parallelgacha cho'zilgan. AQSh baliqchilik floti Nyufaundlend qirg'og'idagi baliqchilik xo'jaliklariga mo'l miqdorda treska etkazib berilishi bilan kafolatlangan.

Missisipi daryosining navigatsiyasi AQSh va Buyuk Britaniya uchun ochiq bo'lishi kerak edi. Ikkala mamlakat kreditorlari ham qarzlarini undirishga to'sqinlik qilmas edilar va Kongress shtatlarga urush paytida Britaniya ishiga sodiq bo'lganlarga adolatli munosabatda bo'lish, ularning huquqlari va musodara qilingan mol -mulkini tiklashni tavsiya qilishi kerak edi.

Parij shartnomasi

Eng muqaddas va bo'linmagan Uch Birlik nomi bilan.

Manba: AQSh. Davlat departamenti, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarining Shartnomalari va boshqa xalqaro shartnomalari, 1776 va#x20131949 (Charlz I. Bevans rahbarligida tuzilgan), jild. 12 (1974), 8 -bet va#x201312.

Xudoning inoyati bilan Buyuk Britaniya, Frantsiya va Irlandiya qiroli, imon himoyachisi, Brunsvik va Lunebourg gertsogi, archaning eng xotirjam va eng kuchli shahzodasi Jorj Uchinchi yuragini tashlab yuborish Ilohiy Provideni mamnun qildi. -Muqaddas Rim imperiyasi va boshqalar va Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarining xazinachisi va shahzodasi saylovchilari, avvalgi o'zaro tushunmovchiliklar va kelishmovchiliklarni unutib, ular o'zaro yozishuv va do'stlikni buzib, o'zaro manfaatli aloqani o'rnatdilar. Ikki mamlakat o'rtasidagi o'zaro manfaatlar va o'zaro qulaylik asosida, qoniqarli munosabatlar, bu ham tinchlik va hamjihatlikni qo'llab -quvvatlaydi va shu maqsadda Parijda imzolangan Vaqtinchalik Maqolalar bilan tinchlik va yarashuv poydevorini qo'yadi. 1782 yil 30 -noyabr, har bir qismga vakolatli komissarlar tomonidan, qaysi maqolalar kiritilishi va T ni tashkil etishga kelishilgan. Buyuk Britaniya valiahdi va AQSh o'rtasida tinchlik hukm surishi shart edi, lekin Buyuk Britaniya va Frantsiya o'rtasida tinchlik shartlari kelishilmaguncha va Britaniya qirolicha bunday shartnomani tuzishga tayyor bo'lmaguncha qanday shartnoma tuzilmasligi kerak edi. Shartnoma va Buyuk Britaniya bilan Frantsiya o'rtasida tuzilgan shartnoma, Buyuk Britaniya Oliy Majlisi va Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari, yuqorida aytilgan Muvaqqat Maqolalarni to'liq kuchga kirishi uchun, ularning tenoriga binoan, tuzilgan va tayinlangan. Buyuk Britaniya Oliy Majlisi, Buyuk Britaniya Parlamenti a'zosi Devid Xartli va AQSh tomonidan aytilganidek, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari komissari, marhum Jon Adams, Esqr. Versal sudi, Massachusets shtatidan Kongressga kech kelgan delegat va ushbu shtatning bosh adliya va AQShning vakolatli vaziri. Eslatmalar Birlashgan Gollandiya shtatlari generali Benjamin Franklin, Esqr., Pensilvaniya shtatidan Kongressning kech vakili, ushbu shtat konvensiyasining prezidenti va Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarining Versal sudidagi vakolatli vaziri Jon Jey, Esqr., Kongressning kech prezidenti va Nyu -York shtati bosh adliya, va Madridning sudida AQShning vakolatli vaziri, bu aniq shartnomani tuzish va imzolash uchun vakolatli vakillar bo'lib, ular o'zaro kelishib olganlaridan so'ng to'liq vakolatlar quyidagi maqolalarni kelishib oldi va tasdiqladi.

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Buyuk Britaniya qirolichasi aytilgan Qo'shma Shtatlar, masalan, Nyu -Xempshir, Massachusets ko'rfazi, Rod -Aylend va Providence plantatsiyalari, Konnektikut, Nyu -York, Nyu -Jersi, Pensilvaniya, Delaver, Merilend, Virjiniya, Shimoliy Karolina, Janubiy Karolina va Jorjiya bo'lishini tan oladi. erkin suveren va mustaqil davlatlar, ular bilan, o'zi uchun, merosxo'rlari va vorislari bilan muomala qilganda, hukumatga bo'lgan barcha da'volardan, mulkchilik va hududiy huquqlaridan voz kechadi.

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Kelgusida AQSh chegaralari masalasida yuzaga kelishi mumkin bo'lgan barcha nizolarning oldini olish mumkin, shuning uchun ularning chegaralari quyidagicha va shunday bo'ladi, deyiladi: Novaning shimoli -g'arbiy burchagidan. Shotlandiya - Sent -Kroix daryosining manbasidan shimolga to'g'ri keladigan chiziq, bu tog'lar bo'ylab, Sankt -Lourens daryosiga quyiladigan daryolarni bo'linadigan tog'lar bo'ylab hosil bo'lgan burchak. Atlantika okeani, Konnektikut daryosining shimoli-g'arbiy boshida, shu daryoning o'rtasi bo'ylab, shimoliy kenglikning qirq beshinchi darajasigacha, u erdan shu kenglik bo'yicha g'arbga to'g'ri keladigan chiziq orqali Iroquois yoki Cataraquy daryosining o'rtasigacha etib boradi. Bu daryodan, bu ko'lning o'rtasi orqali Ontario ko'liga, bu ko'l va Eri ko'li o'rtasidagi suv aloqasiga etib bo'lmaguncha, bu aloqa o'rtasidan Eri ko'liga, o'rtasidan bu ko'l va Xuron ko'li o'rtasidagi suv aloqasiga etib kelgunga qadar, u erdan Xuron ko'liga, bu ko'lning o'rtasidan o'sha ko'l va Superior ko'li orasidagi suv aloqasiga, undan yuqori ko'l orqali. Qirollik va Felepo orollarining shimolida Long -Leykgacha, u bilan Long -Leyk o'rtasida va u bilan O'rmon ko'li o'rtasidagi suv aloqasi orqali, aytilgan o'rmon ko'li orqali shu ko'l orqali uning eng shimoli -g'arbiy nuqtasiga. va u erdan g'arbiy yo'nalishda Missisipi daryosigacha, bu chiziq Missisipi daryosining o'rtasi bo'ylab chiziladi va u shimoliy kenglikning o'ttiz birinchi darajasining eng shimoliy qismini kesib o'tadi. Janubda, ekvatordan shimoliy o'ttiz bir gradus kenglikda oxirgi marta aytilgan chiziqni aniqlashdan sharqqa to'g'ri keladigan chiziq bo'ylab, Apalachikola daryosining o'rtasigacha yoki shu erning o'rtasi bilan uning tutashgan joyigacha. Flint daryosi, u erdan to'g'ridan -to'g'ri Sent -Meri daryosining boshiga, so'ngra Sankt -Meri daryosining o'rtasi bo'ylab, Atlantika okeanining sharqigacha, Sent -Kroix daryosining o'rtasi bo'ylab, og'zidan Bay ko'rfazida. Manba manbai va to'g'ridan -to'g'ri shimoldan Atlantika okeaniga tushadigan daryolarni Sent -Lourens daryosiga tushadigan daryolarni Amerika qirg'oqlarining istalgan qismidagi yigirma ligadagi barcha orollarni o'z ichiga olgan yuqorida aytilgan baland tog'larga qadar. va bir tomondan, Yangi Shotlandiya va ikkinchi tomondan Sharqiy Floridaning yuqorida aytilgan chegaralari, tegishli ravishda, Fundy ko'rfazi va At Yorqin okean, hozirgi orollardan tashqari, ilgari aytilgan Yangi Skotiya provinsiyasi chegarasida bo'lgan.

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Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari aholisi Grand Bankda va Nyufaundlendning boshqa qirg'og'ida, shuningdek, Sent -Lourens ko'rfazida va boshqa joylarda har xil turdagi baliqlarni olish huquqini saqlab qolishda davom etadilar. dengiz, bu erda har ikki mamlakat aholisi ilgari ham baliq ovlash uchun ishlatilgan. Shuningdek, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari aholisi Nyufaundlend qirg'og'ida ingliz baliqchilari ishlatadigan har qanday baliqni olish huquqiga ega bo'lishadi (lekin bu orolda quritib yoki davolamasliklari uchun) va qirg'oqlarda. Buyuk Britaniyaning Buyuk Britaniyasidagi Amerikadagi boshqa hukmronliklarning ko'rfazlari va daryolari va amerikalik baliqchilar Yangi Skotiya, Magdalen orollari va Labradorning har qanday notinch ko'rfazlari, portlari va daryolarida baliqlarni quritish va davolash huquqiga ega bo'lishadi. agar bu hal qilinmagan bo'lsa, lekin shu yoki ularning birortasi hal etilgandan so'ng, bu baliqchilar, aholi bilan oldindan kelishilmagan holda, baliqni bunday aholi punktida quritishi yoki davolashi qonuniy emas, er egalari yoki er egalari.

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It is agreed that creditors on either side shall meet with no lawful impediment to the recovery of the full value in sterling money of all bona fide debts heretofore contracted.

ARTICLE 5

It is agreed that Congress shall earnestly recommend it to the legislatures of the respective states to provide for the restitution of all estates, rights, and properties, which have been confiscated belonging to real British subjects and also of the estates, rights, and properties of persons resident in districts in the possession of his Majesty's arms and who have not borne arms against the said United States. And that persons of any other description shall have free liberty to go to any part or parts of any of the thirteen United States and therein to remain twelve months unmolested in their endeavors to obtain the restitution of such of their estates, rights, and properties as may have been confiscated and that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several states a reconsideration and revision of all acts or laws regarding the premises, so as to render the said laws or acts perfectly consistent not only with justice and equity but with that spirit of conciliation which on the return of the blessings of peace should universally prevail. And that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several states that the estates, rights, and properties, of such last mentioned persons shall be restored to them, they refunding to any persons who may be now in possession the bona fide price (where any has been given) which such persons may have paid on purchasing any of the said lands, rights, or properties since the confiscation.

And it is agreed that all persons who have any interest in confiscated lands, either by debts, marriage settlements, or otherwise, shall meet with no lawful impediment in the prosecution of their just rights.

ARTICLE 6

That there shall be no future confiscations made nor any prosecutions commenced against any person or persons for, or by reason of, the part which he or they may have taken in the present war, and that no person shall on that account suffer any future loss or damage, either in his person, liberty, or property and that those who may be in confinement on such charges at the time of the ratification of the treaty in America shall be immediately set at liberty, and the prosecutions so commenced be discontinued.

ARTICLE 7

There shall be a firm and perpetual peace between his Britannic Majesty and the said states, and between the subjects of the one and the citizens of the other, wherefore all hostilities both by sea and land shall from henceforth cease. All prisoners on both sides shall be set at liberty, and his Britannic Majesty shall with all convenient speed, and without causing any destruction, or carrying away any Negroes or other property of the American inhabitants, withdraw all his armies, garrisons, and fleets from the said United States, and from every post, place, and harbor within the same leaving in all fortifications, the American artillery that may be therein and shall also order and cause all archives, records, deeds, and papers belonging to any of the said states, or their citizens, which in the course of the war may have fallen into the hands of his officers, to be forthwith restored and delivered to the proper states and persons to whom they belong.

ARTICLE 8

The navigation of the river Mississippi, from its source to the ocean, shall forever remain free and open to the subjects of Great Britain and the citizens of the United States.

ARTICLE 9

In case it should so happen that any place or territory belonging to Great Britain or to the United States should have been conquered by the arms of either from the other before the arrival of the said Provisional Articles in America, it is agreed that the same shall be restored without difficulty and without requiring any compensation.

ARTICLE 10

The solemn ratifications of the present treaty expedited in good and due form shall be exchanged between the contracting parties in the space of six months or sooner, if possible, to be computed from the day of the signature of the present treaty. In witness whereof we the undersigned, their ministers plenipotentiary, have in their name and in virtue of our full powers, signed with our hands the present definitive treaty and caused the seals of our arms to be affixed thereto.

Done at Paris, this third day of September in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three.


Negotiations in Paris

Peace negotiations between representatives of the United States and Spain began in Paris on October 1, 1898. The American contingent demanded that Spain acknowledge and guarantee the independence of Cuba and transfer possession of the Philippines to the United States. In addition, the U.S. demanded that Spain pay Cuba’s estimated $400 million national debt.

After agreeing to Cuban independence, Spain reluctantly agreed to sell the Philippines to the U.S. for $20 million. Spain also agreed to pay back the $400 million Cuban debt by transferring possession of Puerto Rico and the Mariana island of Guam to the United States.

Spain demanded that it be allowed to retain possession of the Philippines capital city of Manila—which had been captured by U.S. forces hours after the August 12 cease-fire had been declared. The United States refused to consider the demand. Representatives of Spain and the U.S. signed the treaty on December 10, 1898, leaving it up to the two nation’s governments to ratify it.

While Spain signed the agreement days later, ratification was strongly opposed in the U.S. Senate by senators who viewed it as instituting an unconstitutional policy of American “imperialism” in the Philippines. After weeks of debate, the U.S. Senate ratified the treaty on February 6, 1899 by a single vote. The Treaty of Paris took effect on April 11, 1899, when the U.S. and Spain exchanged documents of ratification.


Exchange of Territories

During the war, Great Britain conquered the French colonies of Canada, Guadeloupe, Saint Lucia, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Tobago, the French trading posts in India, the slave-trading station at Gorée, the Sénégal River and its settlements, and the Spanish colonies of Manila in the Philippines and Havana in Cuba. France captured Minorca and British trading posts in Sumatra, while Spain captured the border fortress of Almeida in Portugal and Colonia del Sacramento in South America.

In the treaty, most of these territories were restored to their original owners, although Britain made considerable gains. France and Spain restored all their conquests to Britain and Portugal. Britain restored Manila and Havana to Spain, and Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Lucia, Gorée, and the Indian trading posts to France. In return, France ceded Canada, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Tobago to Britain. France also ceded the eastern half of French Louisiana to Britain (the area from the Mississippi River to the Appalachian Mountains). In addition, while France regained its trading posts in India, France recognized British clients as the rulers of key Indian native states and pledged not to send troops to Bengal. Britain agreed to demolish its fortifications in British Honduras (now Belize), but retained a logwood-cutting colony there. Although the Protestant British feared Roman Catholics, Great Britain did not want to antagonize France through expulsion or forced conversion. Also, it did not want French settlers to leave Canada to strengthen other French settlements in North America. Consequently, Great Britain decided to protect Roman Catholics living in Canada.

The Treaty of Paris is sometimes noted as the point at which France gave Louisiana to Spain. The transfer, however, occurred with the Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762) but was not publicly announced until 1764. The Treaty of Paris was to give Britain the east side of the Mississippi (including Baton Rouge, Louisiana, which was to be part of the British territory of West Florida) – except for the Île d’Orléans (historic name for the New Orleans area), which was granted to Spain, along with the territory to the west – the larger portion of Louisiana.The Mississippi River corridor in modern-day Louisiana was to be reunited following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and the Adams-Onís Treaty in 1819.

“A new map of North America,” produced following the Treaty of Paris (1763).

The Anglo-French hostilities ended in 1763 with Treaty of Paris, which involved a complex series of land exchanges, the most important being France’s cession to Spain of Louisiana, and to Great Britain the rest of New France except for the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon. Faced with the choice of retrieving either New France or its Caribbean island colonies of Guadeloupe and Martinique, France chose the latter to retain these lucrative sources of sugar, writing off New France as an unproductive, costly territory.


The Paris Peace Conference and the Treaty of Versailles

The Paris Peace Conference convened in January 1919 at Versailles just outside Paris . The conference was called to establish the terms of the peace after World War I. Though nearly thirty nations participated, the representatives of the United Kingdom, France, the United States, and Italy became known as the “Big Four.” The “Big Four” dominated the proceedings that led to the formulation of the Treaty of Versailles, a treaty that ended World War I.

The Treaty of Versailles articulated the compromises reached at the conference. It included the planned formation of the League of Nations, which would serve both as an international forum and an international collective security arrangement. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson was a strong advocate of the League as he believed it would prevent future wars.

Negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference were complicated. The United Kingdom, France, and Italy fought together as the Allied Powers during the First World War. The United States, entered the war in April 1917 as an Associated Power. While it fought alongside the Allies, the United States was not bound to honor pre-existing agreements among the Allied Powers. These agreements focused on postwar redistribution of territories. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson strongly opposed many of these arrangements, including Italian demands on the Adriatic. This often led to significant disagreements among the “Big Four.”

Treaty negotiations were also weakened by the absence of other important nations. Russia had fought as one of the Allies until December 1917, when its new Bolshevik Government withdrew from the war. The Bolshevik decision to repudiate Russia’s outstanding financial debts to the Allies and to publish the texts of secret agreements between the Allies concerning the postwar period angered the Allies. The Allied Powers refused to recognize the new Bolshevik Government and thus did not invite its representatives to the Peace Conference. The Allies also excluded the defeated Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria).


Paris Climate Agreement: Everything You Need to Know

“A world that is safer and more secure, more prosperous, and more free.” In December 2015, that was the world then-president Barack Obama envisioned we would leave today’s children when he announced that the United States, along with nearly 200 other countries, had committed to the Paris Climate Agreement, an ambitious global action plan to fight climate change.

But less than two years later, then-president Donald Trump put that future in jeopardy by announcing his plan to withdraw the United States from the accord—a step that became official on November 4, 2020—as part of a larger effort to dismantle decades of U.S. environmental policy. Fortunately, American voters also got their say in November 2020, ousting Trump and sending Joe Biden and Kamala Harris to the White House.

Following President Biden’s day one executive order, the United States officially rejoined the landmark Paris Agreement on February 19, 2021, positioning the country to once again be part of the global climate solution. Meanwhile, city, state, business, and civic leaders across the country and around the world have been ramping up efforts to drive the clean energy advances needed to meet the goals of the agreement and put the brakes on dangerous climate change.

Here’s a look at what the Paris Agreement does, how it works, and why it’s so critical to our future.

Protesters gather near the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France during the 2015 UN Climate Conference.

What Is the Paris Agreement?

The Paris Agreement is a landmark international accord that was adopted by nearly every nation in 2015 to address climate change and its negative impacts. The agreement aims to substantially reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in an effort to limit the global temperature increase in this century to 2 degrees Celsius above preindustrial levels, while pursuing the means to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees. The agreement includes commitments from all major emitting countries to cut their climate pollution and to strengthen those commitments over time. The pact provides a pathway for developed nations to assist developing nations in their climate mitigation and adaptation efforts, and it creates a framework for the transparent monitoring, reporting, and ratcheting up of countries’ individual and collective climate goals.

Presidencia de la Republica Mexicana via Flickr

History of the Paris Agreement

Hammered out over two weeks in Paris during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’s (UNFCCC) 21st Conference of the Parties (COP 21) and adopted on December 12, 2015, the Paris Agreement marked a historic turning point for global climate action, as world leaders came to a consensus on an accord comprised of commitments by 195 nations to combat climate change and adapt to its impacts.

President Obama was able to formally enter the United States into the agreement under international law through executive authority, since it imposed no new legal obligations on the country. The United States has a number of tools already on the books, under laws already passed by Congress, to cut carbon pollution. The country formally joined the agreement in September 2016 after submitting its proposal for participation. The Paris Agreement could not take effect until at least 55 nations representing at least 55 percent of global emissions had formally joined. This happened on October 5, 2016, and the agreement went into force 30 days later on November 4, 2016.

How Many Countries Are in the Paris Agreement?

Since 2015, 197 countries—nearly every nation on earth, with the last signatory being war-torn Syria—have endorsed the Paris Agreement. Of those, 190 have solidified their support with formal approval. The major emitting countries that have yet to formally join the agreement are Iran, Turkey, and Iraq.

Susan Walsh/Associated Press

The Paris Agreement and Trump

Following through on a campaign promise, Trump—a climate denier who has claimed climate change is a “hoax”—announced in June 2017 his intent to withdraw the United States from the Paris Agreement and officially pulled the nation out on November 4, 2020—the earliest possible date under the agreement and a day after the presidential election. Thankfully, even a formal withdrawal can be reversed since a future president can rejoin.

Despite Trump’s announcement in 2017, U.S. envoys continued to participate—as mandated—in U.N. climate negotiations to solidify details of the agreement. Meanwhile, thousands of leaders nationwide stepped in to fill the void created by the lack of federal climate leadership, reflecting the will of the vast majority of Americans who support the Paris Agreement. Among city and state officials, business leaders, universities, and private citizens, there has been a groundswell of participation in initiatives such as America’s Pledge, the United States Climate Alliance, We Are Still In, and the American Cities Climate Challenge. The complementary and sometimes overlapping movements aim to deepen and accelerate efforts to tackle climate change at the local, regional, and national levels.

The Paris Agreement and Biden

On his first day in office, President Biden sent a letter to the United Nations, formally signaling that the United States would rejoin the Paris Agreement. Thirty days later (as is required), on February 19, 2021, the nation was re-entered.

This new era of U.S. climate leadership represents our last, best chance to course-correct in the global race to tackle climate change. In fact, the Biden’s climate plan is the most comprehensive ever undertaken by a U.S. president—and he intends to rally international leaders to cut emissions even more aggressively than under the goals of the Paris Agreement. As Biden and Vice President Harris fight to pull the nation out of the grip of the COVID-19 pandemic, they can do so in ways that support climate justice and a clean energy economy.

Paris Agreement Summary

The 32-page document establishes a framework for global climate action, including the mitigation of and adaptation to climate change, the transparent reporting and strengthening of climate goals, and support for developing nations. Here’s what it aims to do:

The Sinclair Oil Refinery in Sinclair, Wyoming

Limit global temperature rise by reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

In an effort to “significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change,” the accord calls for limiting the global average temperature rise in this century to well below 2 degrees Celsius, while pursuing efforts to limit the temperature rise to 1.5 degrees. It also asks countries to work to achieve a leveling off of global greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible and to become greenhouse gas emissions neutral in the second half of this century. In 2018, the IPCC’s Special Report: Global Warming at 1.5 Degrees Celsius concluded the difference between 1.5 and 2 degrees Celsuis could mean substantially more poverty, extreme heat, sea level rise, habitat loss, and drought.

To achieve the Paris Agreement’s original objectives, 186 countries—responsible for more than 90 percent of global emissions—submitted carbon reduction targets, known as “intended nationally determined contributions” (INDCs), prior to the Paris conference. These targets outlined each country’s commitments for curbing emissions (including through the preservation of carbon sinks) through 2025 or 2030, including economy-wide carbon-cutting goals.

INDCs turn into NDCs—nationally determined contributions—once a country formally joins the agreement. There are no specific requirements about how or how much countries should cut emissions, but there have been political expectations about the type and stringency of targets by various countries based on the latest science. As a result, national plans vary greatly in scope and ambition, largely reflecting each country’s capabilities, its level of development, and its contribution to emissions over time. China, for example, committed to leveling off its carbon emissions no later than 2030. India set its sights on cutting emissions intensity by 33 to 35 percent below 2005 levels and generating 40 percent of its electricity from non–fossil fuel sources by 2030.

The United States—the world’s largest historical emitter and the second-biggest current emitter after China—had committed to cutting overall greenhouse gas emissions by 26 to 28 percent below 2005 levels by 2025. U.S. initiatives to achieve the target include the Clean Power Plan (a state-by-state program to cut carbon pollution from the power sector) and the tightening of automotive fuel economy standards to reduce transportation emissions—both policies the Trump administration fought hard to roll back and which the Biden/Harris administration has committed to strengthening.

Smog covers the city of Taiwan.

Provide a framework for transparency, accountability, and the achievement of more ambitious targets.

The Paris Agreement includes a series of mandatory measures for the monitoring, verification, and public reporting of progress toward a country’s emissions-reduction targets. The enhanced transparency rules apply common frameworks for all countries, with accommodations and support provided for nations that currently lack the capacity to strengthen their systems.

Among other requirements, countries must report their greenhouse gas inventories and progress relative to their targets, allowing outside experts to evaluate their success. Countries are also expected to revisit their pledges and put forward progressively stronger targets every five years, with the goal of further driving down emissions. Nations must participate in a “global stocktake” to measure collective efforts toward meeting the Paris Agreement’s long-term goals as well. Meanwhile, developed countries also have to estimate how much financial assistance they’ll allocate to developing nations to help them reduce emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change.

These transparency and accountability provisions are similar to those in the frameworks of other international agreements. While the system doesn’t include financial penalties, the requirements are aimed at making the progress of individual nations easy to track and fostering a sense of global peer pressure, discouraging any dragging of feet among countries that may consider doing so.

Mobilize support for climate change mitigation and adaptation in developing nations.

Recognizing that many developing countries and small island nations that have contributed the least to climate change could suffer the most from its consequences, the Paris Agreement includes a plan for developed countries—and others “in a position to do so”—to continue to provide financial resources to help developing countries mitigate and increase resilience to climate change. For instance, India’s pledge includes the need to eradicate poverty in parallel with decreasing emissions and increasing renewable energy, such as addressing energy poverty and access in remote villages that rely on diesel generators. With technological and financial help from wealthier countries, important equity-focused goals such as these can be within reach. The Paris Agreement builds on the financial commitments of the 2009 Copenhagen Accord, which aimed to scale up public and private climate finance for developing nations to $100 billion a year by 2020. The Copenhagen pact also created the Green Climate Fund to help mobilize transformational private finance using targeted public dollars. The Paris Agreement established the expectation that the world would set a higher annual goal by 2025 to build on the $100 billion target for 2020 and would put mechanisms in place to achieve that scaling up. Unfortunately, collective contributions continue to fall short, reaching approximately $79 billion in 2019.

While developed nations are not legally bound to contribute a specific amount to the mitigation and adaptation efforts of developing countries, they are encouraged to provide financial support and are required to report on the financing they supply or will mobilize.

Why Is the Paris Agreement Important?

Rarely is there consensus among nearly all nations on a single topic. But with the Paris Agreement, leaders from around the world collectively agreed that climate change is driven by human behavior, that it’s a threat to the environment and all of humanity, and that global action is needed to stop it. It also created a clear framework for all countries to make emissions reduction commitments and strengthen those actions over time. Here are some key reasons why the agreement is so important:

Human-generated emissions cause global warming.

Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are gases that collect in the atmosphere and prevent heat from radiating from earth’s surface into space, creating what’s known as the greenhouse effect. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the leading international scientific body studying the subject, the concentration of these heat-trapping gases has increased substantially since preindustrial times to levels not seen in at least 800,000 years. Carbon dioxide (the chief contributor to climate change) is up by 40 percent, nitrous oxide by 20 percent, and methane by a whopping 150 percent since 1750—mainly from the burning of dirty fossil fuels. The IPCC says it’s “extremely likely” that these emissions are mostly to blame for the rise in global temperatures since the 1950s. Meanwhile, deforestation and forest degradation have contributed significantly to global carbon emissions as well.

Global warming threatens climate systems.

Hotter temperatures—both on land and at sea—alter global weather patterns and change how and where precipitation falls. Those shifting patterns exacerbate dangerous and deadly drought, heat waves, floods, wildfires, and storms, including hurricanes. They also melt ice caps, glaciers, and layers of permafrost, which can lead to rising sea levels and coastal erosion. Warmer temperatures impact whole ecosystems as well, throwing migration patterns and life cycles out of whack. For example, an early spring can induce trees and plants to flower before bees and other pollinators have emerged. While global warming may equate to longer growing seasons and higher food production in some regions, areas already coping with water scarcity are expected to become drier, creating the potential for drought, failed crops, or wildfires.

Climate change endangers human health.

As climate change fuels temperature increases and extreme weather events, it jeopardizes our air, water, and food spreads disease and imperils our homes and safety. We are confronting a growing public health crisis.

    contributes directly to cardiovascular deaths and respiratory disease. In the Indian city of Ahmedabad, for example, more than 1,300 excess deaths were recorded during a heat wave in May 2010. High temperatures also reduce air quality by creating more smog, pollen, and other air-borne allergens—all of which can trigger asthma, which afflicts 235 million people around the world. Extreme heat can also exacerbate drought, leading to malnutrition and famine.
  • Changing weather patterns can impact sources of fresh water and food. While drought creates water scarcity, floods can contaminate drinking water supplies, increasing the risk of water-borne diseases and illnesses spread by disease-carrying insects, such as mosquitoes. Unpredictable weather patterns and water supplies can also wreak havoc on agriculture and food supplies, particularly in regions of the world that are less climate-resilient and where staple food crops are critical for survival.
  • Extreme weather and rising seas can destroy homes, public infrastructure, and entire ways of life—forcing people to move or migrate, displacing whole populations, and increasing the threat of civil unrest. Indeed, the World Economic Forum ranks extreme weather, natural disasters, and our collective failure to mitigate and adapt to climate change as among the greatest threats facing humanity in the coming decade. We’re already experiencing some of those dangers. In the United States, six recent natural disasters equated to tens of thousands of hospitalizations and ER and doctor visits, as well as more than 1,600 premature deaths. In 2017 alone, 16 extreme weather–related disasters cost the country a record-breaking $306 billion in damages.

The countries hardest hit by the impact of climate change will be low-lying nations uniquely vulnerable to sea level rise and developing countries that lack the resources to adapt to temperature and precipitation changes. But wealthy nations such as the United States are increasingly vulnerable as well. Indeed, many millions of Americans—particularly children, the elderly, and the impoverished—are already suffering climate change’s wrath. Many frontline communities are majority people of color. Around the world, those most impacted by climate change are those who contribute least to emissions.

Flooding overtakes a farm in Bangladesh.

Global warming can be mitigated only with global action.

The IPCC notes that climate change will be limited only by “substantial and sustained reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.” While one can debate the merits of using a single global temperature threshold to represent dangerous climate change, the general scientific view today—represented in the IPCC’s Special Report: Global Warming at 1.5 Degrees Celsius—is that any rise in global temperatures of more than 1.5 degrees Celsius would be an unacceptably high risk, potentially resulting in major extinctions, more severe droughts and hurricanes, a watery Arctic, and an increased toll on human health and well-being. Furthermore, as the IPCC has noted, while it remains uncertain precisely how much global warming will “trigger abrupt and irreversible changes” in the earth’s systems, the risk of crossing the threshold only increases as temperatures rise.

To avoid major changes to life as we know it, global action must be taken. At the Paris climate conference, all countries committed to a target of keeping the temperature change to well below 2 degrees and to make efforts to prevent a change greater than 1.5 degrees. Unfortunately, the emissions gap—the emissions level with existing commitments compared to a safer trajectory—is still dangerously large as of 2020. Every tenth of a degree matters, and we cannot prevent this unless we act immediately to cut emissions deeply.

The McFadden Ridge Wind Energy Project in Carbon County, Wyoming

What Are the Paris Agreement's Costs?

There’s a lot of misinformation out there about the Paris Agreement, including the idea that it will hurt the U.S. economy. That was among a number of unfounded claimsformer president Trump repeated, arguing that the accord would cost the U.S. economy $3 trillion by 2040 and $2.7 million jobs by 2025, making us less competitive against China and India. But as fact checkers noted, these statistics originated from a debunked March 2017 study that exaggerated the future costs of emissions reductions, underestimated advances in energy efficiency and clean energy technologies, and outright ignored the huge health and economic costs of climate change itself. Climate change is already costing public health. Research from NRDC scientists shows how inaction on climate change is responsible for many billions in health costs each year in just the United States—as communities around the world experience greater displacement, illness, famine, water shortages, civil strife, and death.

Research makes clear that the cost of climate inaction far outweighs the cost of reducing carbon pollution. One 2018 study suggests that if the United States failed to meet its Paris climate goals, it could cost the economy as much as $6 trillion in the coming decades. A worldwide failure to meet the NDCs currently laid out in the agreement could reduce global GDP more than 25 percent by century’s end. Meanwhile, another study estimates that meeting—or even exceeding—the Paris goals via infrastructure investments in both clean energy and energy efficiency could have major global rewards—to the tune of some $19 trillion.

In terms of employment, the clean energy sector employed more than 3 million Americans before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic—about 14 times the number of coal, gas, oil, and other fossil fuel industry workers—and has the potential to employ many more with further investments in energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric grid modernization to replace the aging coal-powered infrastructure. Meanwhile, coal jobs aren’t so much being transferred “out of America” as they are falling victim to market forces as renewable and natural gas prices decline. But supporting policies that promote an equitable transition—with community-led decision-making, a focus on equity, and retraining support—is an important means to helping communities leave the dirty energy economy behind them.

Finally, rather than giving China and India a pass to pollute, as Trump claimed, the pact represents the first time those two major developing economies have agreed to concrete and time-bound climate commitments. Both countries, which are already poised to lead the world in renewable energy, have made significant progress to meet their Paris goals.

M. Frustino/Associated Press

International Agreements on Climate Change

The Paris Agreement is the culmination of decades of international efforts to combat climate change. Here is a brief history.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

In 1992, President George H.W. Bush joined 107 other heads of state at the Rio Earth Summit in Brazil to adopt a series of environmental agreements, including the UNFCCC framework that remains in effect today. The international treaty aimed to prevent dangerous human interference with earth’s climate systems over the long term. The pact set no limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries and contained no enforcement mechanisms, but instead established a framework for international negotiations of future agreements, or protocols, to set binding emissions targets. Participating countries meet annually at a Conference of the Parties (COP) to assess their progress and continue talks on how to best tackle climate change.

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol, a landmark environmental treaty that was adopted in 1997 at the COP 3 in Japan, represents the first time nations agreed to legally mandated, country-specific emissions reduction targets. The protocol, which didn’t go into effect until 2005, set binding emissions reduction targets for developed countries only, on the premise that they were responsible for most of the earth’s high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. The United States initially signed the agreement but never ratified it President George W. Bush argued that the deal would hurt the U.S. economy since developing nations such as China and India were not included. Without the participation of those three countries, the treaty’s effectiveness proved limited, with its targets covering only a small fraction of total global emissions.

The Kyoto Protocol’s initial commitment period extended through 2012. That year, at the COP 18 in Doha, Qatar, delegates agreed to extend the accord until 2020 (without some developed nations, which had dropped out). They also reaffirmed their 2011 pledge from the COP 17 in Durban, South Africa, to create a new, comprehensive climate treaty by 2015 that would require all big emitters not included in the Kyoto Protocol—such as China, India, and the United States—to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The new treaty—what would become the Paris Agreement—was to fully replace the Kyoto Protocol by 2020. However, the Paris accord went into effect earlier than expected, in November 2016.

Kyoto Protocol versus the Paris Agreement

While the Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement both set out to address climate change, there are some key differences between them.

Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which established top-down legally binding emissions reduction targets (as well as penalties for noncompliance) for developed nations only, the Paris Agreement requires that all countries—rich, poor, developed, and developing—do their part and slash greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, greater flexibility and national ownership is built into the Paris Agreement: No language is included about the commitments countries should make nations can set their own emissions targets (NDCs) consistent with their level of development and technological advancement.

While the Paris Agreement doesn’t have harsh penalties for countries not meeting their targets, it does have a robust system of monitoring, reporting, and reassessing individual and collective country targets over time in order to move the world closer to the broader objectives of the deal. And the agreement sets forth a requirement for countries to announce their next round of targets every five years—unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which aimed for that objective but didn’t include a specific requirement to achieve it.

The aftermath of a wildfire near Santiam Pass in Oregon

Beyond Paris

While the Paris Agreement ultimately aims to cap global temperature rise at 1.5 degrees Celsius in this century, many studies evaluating the national pledges countries made in Paris show that the cumulative effect of those emissions reductions won’t be large enough to keep temperatures under that limit. Indeed, the targets that countries laid out are expected to limit future temperature rise to approximately 2.9 degrees Celsius. Meanwhile, despite temporary emissions drops related to changes in production and travel associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, current evaluations of how countries are performing in the context of their Paris climate goals indicate some nations are already falling short of their commitments.

However, it’s important to remember the Paris Agreement isn’t static. Instead, it’s designed to boost countries’ national efforts over time—meaning that current commitments represent the floor, not the ceiling, of climate change ambition. The heavy lifting—reining in emissions even further by 2030 and 2050—still needs to be done, and the accord provides the tools and pressure to make that happen.

As the Paris Agreement matures, nations including the United States must firmly commit to phasing out fossil fuel investment (locally and abroad) and investing in nature-based solutions. Often, the communities who contribute least to global emissions are the ones already showing wealthier nations the way, committing to rapid emissions reductions, renewable energy expansion, protecting their forests, and putting economies on low-carbon pathways. Nations must uplift these communities as well as those who are faced with the brunt of climate impacts. This includes formally protecting Indigenous knowledge and rights, which are critical to fighting the climate crisis. Indigenous peoples—comprising 5 percent of the global population—protect 80 percent of the planet’s biodiversity. Even without stronger recognition within the Paris Agreement, Indigenous and frontline communities are building a global movement and successfully fighting back against extractive, climate-damaging industries, including fossil-fuel pipelines, logging, dams, and mining.

Reflecting the collective belief of nearly every nation on earth that climate change is humanity’s race to win, the Paris Agreement exposes America’s climate skeptics as global outliers. In fact, the mobilization of support for climate action across the country and around the world provides hope that the Paris Agreement marked a turning point in the global race against climate change. We can all contribute to the cause by seeking opportunities to slash global warming contributions—at the individual, local, and national levels—but we understand better than ever that individual action is not enough. There is a lot of damage from the Trump administration that President Biden will need to undo—and quickly. But the effort will be well worth the reward of a safer, cleaner world for future generations.

The next Conference of the Parties is currently scheduled for November 2021 in Glasgow. The aims of COP 26 will be to assess the progress made under the Paris Agreement and to encourage countries to enhance their original NDCs into greater alignment with current climate science. While COP 26 was postponed due to COVID-19, the delay gives countries time to develop more ambitious targets and accelerate low-carbon actions to ensure a green and resilient recovery from COVID-19.

This story was originally published on December 12, 2018 and has been updated with new information and links.


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