Anjar, Livan

Anjar, Livan



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Tag: Anjar

Yaqin Sharq mamlakatlari orasida yagona Livan melanj turli xalqlar, madaniyatlar va diniy e'tiqodlar. Asrlar mobaynida u qadimgi misrliklar, finikiyaliklar, yunonlar, rimliklar, vizantiyaliklar, arablar, evropalik salibchilar, mamluklar va usmonlilar tomonidan belgilanadigan tarixga ega bo'lgan tsivilizatsiyalar chorrahasida yotardi. 60 asrlik insoniyat tarixiga ega bo'lgan Livan son -sanoqsiz arxeologik boyliklar va ajoyib san'at asarlari bilan dunyoni aldaydi.

Qiziqarli Livan (Liban duosi), hozir ko'rgazmada Rath muzeyi (San'at va d ’ Gistoir de Jenev muzeylari) Shveytsariyaning Jeneva shahrida Livan tarixida din va san'atning rolini o'rganadi. 350 ta arxeologik ob'ektlar va san'at asarlari tanlovi bilan Evropada hech qachon ko'rilmagan –Qiziqarli Livan Livandagi diniy va madaniy o'tmishning ijtimoiy va badiiy egiluvchanligini ocharchilik haykallari, qadimiy sarkofaglar, Vizantiya mozaikalari, salibchilar tangalari, mamluk kiyimlari, melkit piktogrammalari va qo'lyozmalaridan tashqari taqdim etish orqali ochib beradi. Ushbu qisqa intervyuda, Jeyms Bleyk Viner Qadimgi tarix ensiklopediyasi Doktor Marielle Martiniani-Reber, amaliy san'at bosh kuratori, Vizantiya va Vizantiyadan keyingi kollektsiyalar d ’Art et d ’Histoire de Genève muzeylarida Livan merosxo'rligining bu ajoyib namoyishi haqida gapiradi.


Ajoyib o'qish: Livandagi armanlar o'z madaniyatini, 1915 yildagi qahramonlik jangini xotirasida saqlaydilar

Hozirgi Turkiya hududidagi armanlar genotsididan so'ng, Livanning Anjar shahriga erta ko'chmanchilar.

(Anjar shahar hokimligi ruxsati bilan)

(Anjar shahar hokimligi ruxsati bilan)

Yosh arman qochqin 1915 yilda Suriyaning Halab shahri yaqinidagi dalalarda o'lik holda yotibdi.

Bog'bon 17 aprel kuni Livanning Anjar shahridagi Arman genotsidi memorialidagi o'simliklarga g'amxo'rlik qiladi. Butun dunyodagi etnik armanlar 24 aprel kuni arman genotsidining 100 yilligini nishonlaydilar.

(Jozef Eid / AFP / Getty Images)

Halabdagi zo'ravonliklardan qochgan 73 yoshli armaniyalik Jaklin Toutunjyan 17-aprel kuni Anjardagi uyida namoz o'qiydi.

(Jozef Eid / AFP / Getty Images)

Anjardagi qadimgi Ummayyad qishlog'ining qayta tiklangan xarobalari. Shaharning birinchi arman ko'chmanchilari bu joyni butunlay ko'milgan holda topdilar.

(Nabih Bulos / Los -Anjeles Tayms)

Payshanba kuni Armanistonning Vagharshapat shahrida ruhoniylar arman genotsidi qurbonlari uchun kanonizatsiya marosimini o'tkazadilar.

(Kirill Kudryavtsev / AFP / Getty Images)

Arman Apostol cherkovi a'zolari cherkovning ma'muriy shtabi bo'lib xizmat qiladigan Armanistonning Vagarshapat shahridagi "Muqaddas Etchmiyadzin onasi" ko'rgazmasida kanonizatsiya marosimida qatnashadilar.

(Brendan Xoffman / Getty Images)

Ayollar kanonizatsiya marosimidan oldin Vagarshapat sobori diniy marosimida qatnashadilar.

(Kirill Kudryavtsev / AFP / Getty Images)

Eronning Esfaxon shahridagi arman eronlik bolalar aprel oyida arman genotsidini xotirlash marosimida Turkiyaga qarshi shiorlar aytishdi.

(Behruz Mehri / AFP / Getty Images)

Chorshanba kuni bir ayol, armanlar Turkiyaning Diyarbakir shahri yaqinidagi Dudan deb nomlangan joyda, arman genotsidining ommaviy qabrini xotirlash marosimida yig'ilishayotganida, jarlikka qaraydi.

(Ilyos Akengin / AFP / Getty Images)

1915 yil Arman genotsidi muzey-instituti tomonidan chiqarilgan rasmda, birinchi jahon urushi paytida Kavkaz frontida, Mush vodiysidagi Armanistonning Shayxalan qishlog'ida qurbon bo'lganlarning bosh suyaklari ustida turgan askarlar tasvirlangan.

(Arman genotsidi muzeyi-instituti)

Arman genotsidi muzey-instituti tarqatgan rasmda, go'yoki, 1915 yil iyun oyida Konstantinopolda Usmonli kuchlari tomonidan osilgan armanlar tasvirlangan.

(Arman genotsidi muzeyi-instituti)

1909 yil 24 -iyun, Turkiyaning Antep shahridagi qochqinlar.

Ruhoniy Muso tog'ining arvohlari yashaydigan, chirigan xonaning eshigini ochadi, bu erda bir paytlar shahar aholisi ov miltiqlari bilan yig'ilib, imperiya qo'shinlari bilan to'qnash kelgan.

Shisha va yog'ochdan yasalgan ramka qizil xoch bilan bezatilgan oq bayroqni mustahkamlaydi, bu qarshilik va tirikchilik ramzi, armanshunoslikda nishonlanadi. Stol va javonlarga qimmatbaho artefaktlar qo'yilgan: kosa, zanglagan dehqonchilik asboblari, qadimgi miltiq va qora dafn qutilari, 100 yil oldin turklar bilan jangda o'ldirilgan 18 "shahid" ning qoldiqlari.

"Bu erda siz bizning ota -bobolarimiz borligini his qila olasiz", dedi 82 yoshli ota Ashod Karakashyan, Turkiyadan bu erga yoshligida kelgan va o'z vatani haqida to'g'ridan -to'g'ri xotiraga ega emas. Ammo u har kuni o'z merosi bilan yashaydi.

Butun dunyodagi etnik armanlar Usmonli turklari tomonidan qilingan genotsidning yuz yilligini nishonlashar ekan, Livanning Bekaa vodiysidagi bu shahar, bu qayg'uli bobning eng ta'sirli hikoyalaridan birini o'zida mujassam etgan: 1915 yildagi Usmonli ommaviy qirg'inlari va quvg'inlari avj olgan qarshilik. Turkiyaning janubidagi Xatay provinsiyasida joylashgan arman qishloqlari guruhi aholisi.

Tog'ning baland joyidan, ularning o'q -dorilari va oziq -ovqatlari har doim kam bo'lib, ular turklarni bir yarim oydan ko'proq ushlab turishdi.

Juma kuni butun dunyodagi arman jamoalari, shu jumladan Anjar, xotira tadbirlarini o'tkazmoqda. Turkiyada esa, Prezident Rajab Toyyib Erdo'g'an, Papa Frensisning bir asr oldingi voqealarni "XX asrning birinchi genotsidi" deb hisoblash haqidagi bayonotini "bema'nilik" deb masxara qildi.

Turkiyada O'rta er dengizi sohilidan bir necha chaqirim uzoqlikdagi Muso Dag yoki Muso tog'i yaqinidagi oltita qishloqdan iborat bir paytlar gullab-yashnayotgan Arman anklavi haqida ozgina qoldiqlar qolgan. Ammo aynan mana shu erda, Livanda, xotira saqlanib qoladi va hurmat qilinadi, Muso Dog' himoyachilarining avlodlari o'z uylarini qurdilar.

Anjar-sokin, tartibli, tartibli ko'chalar jamiyati, ko'pchiligi palma va qarag'ay daraxtlari bilan qoplangan. 3000 ga yaqin aholi, deyarli barcha etnik armanlar va nasroniylar yashaydigan shaharda uchta cherkov va restoran va do'konlar bor. Tinchlik va tartib bilan mashhur bo'lmagan mintaqada tinch farovonlik hukm suradi.

Taxminan 3000 fut balandlikda, shahar Levantin yozgi jaziramasidan eng omon qolgan. Qishda qor yog'adi. Anjarning chegaralari bir necha chaqirim naridagi Suriya chegarasidagi tog'larga siljiydi va boshqa joylarda olma bog'lari va boshqa dehqonchilik erlariga aylanadi.

Zamonaviy urushning staccato soundtrack vaqti-vaqti bilan Suriyadan yangraydi. Ammo unchalik uzoq bo'lmagan minomyot va artilleriya o'qlarining portlashlarini ko'pchilik sezmaydi.

Oddiy farovonlik tuyg'usida, bugungi kunda shamolni ko'targan bannerlar ikki baravar ko'payishiga olib kelishi mumkin, ularning tili ochiq -oydin. "Aybdor", turk bayrog'i ostiga muhrlangan qizil harflardan stilize qilingan qon tomizilgan katta to'rtburchaklar bannerdan ingliz tilida xabar keladi. "1.500.000 armanni o'ldirgani uchun to'liq ayblov bilan." Boshqa plakatlarda: "Biz eslaymiz va talab qilamiz."

Birinchi jahon urushi davrida Livan va Suriya turklardan qochgan armanlar uchun asosiy manzil edi. Armanlar asosan musulmon arab xalqlarini qabul qilgani uchun minnatdor. Burj Hammudning Bayrut mahallasi kabi jamoalar, davriy mazhablararo ichki nizolarga qaramay, yaqindan saqlanib qolgan arman madaniyatining tayanchlari bo'lib qolmoqda.

"Hamma Bourj Hammudda arman tilida gaplashgani uchun, fuqarolar urushi avj olgan bo'lsa ham, u erda arman madaniyati to'liq saqlanib qolgan",-deydi Burj Hammuddan tug'ilgan, Garo Gazarian, Los-Anjelesdagi advokat va Kaliforniyadagi taniqli arman faoli.

Suriyada jazolash urushi u erdagi arman jamoalariga katta zarar etkazdi.

Ba'zi etnik armanlar endi Suriyada tarix takrorlanishini ko'rishadi. Bir paytlar Suriyaning iqtisodiy dvigateli bo'lgan Halab shahridan quvg'in qilingan arman sanoatchilari, Turkiya qo'llab-quvvatlagan suriyalik isyonchilar o'z zavodlarini yalang'och qilib, o'ljalarni Turkiyaning yaqinidagi qora bozorda sotishganini eslaydilar.

"Suriyadagi urush arman diasporasiga katta zarba bo'ldi", dedi Anjar meri Garabed Pambukyan. U, shuningdek, o'tgan yili Suriyadagi tarixiy Armaniston shahri bo'lgan Kasabni Turkiyada joylashgan isyonchilar tomonidan egallab olinganini, keyinchalik hukumat kuchlari tomonidan qaytarib olinganini misol qilib keltirdi.

"Turklar genotsidni davom ettirmoqdalar", dedi u.

1915 yilning yozida shafqatsiz Usmonli kampaniyasi haqidagi xabar Muso Dog'ning yolg'iz qolgan arman zonasiga tarqaldi, u erda 5 mingga yaqin odam yashardi.

Muso Dag aholisi turklarga bo'ysunishdan ko'ra, qarshilik ko'rsatishga qaror qilishdi. Iyuldan sentyabrgacha ular o'z pozitsiyalarida turdilar. Urushda 18 kishi halok bo'ldi.

Turklarga qarshi epik arman kurashi chex nemis yozuvchisi, Frants Kafkaning zamondoshi Frants Ferfel tomonidan 1930 -yillarda yozilgan "Musa Dog'ning qirq kuni" romanida qo'lga kiritilib, AQShda bestsellerga aylangan va fashistlar Germaniyasida taqiqlangan. Bu erda butun aholini ta'qib qilish davlat siyosatiga aylandi. Werfel butun dunyodagi arman jamoasining qahramoni bo'lib chiqdi.

Anjardagi Aziz Pavlus cherkovi yaqinidagi xonada saqlanayotgan bayroq ramziy rol o'ynagan, deydi Anjar tarixchilari. O'sha paytda Usmonli qirg'og'ini qamal qilib turgan frantsuz harbiy kemalari, Muso tog'ining cho'qqisidan ajralib turadigan o'ziga xos bayroqni payqab qolishgan.

Tog'da oziq -ovqat va o'q -dorilar tugab qolganda, frantsuz qutqaruv guruhi qo'ndi va tirik qolganlarni evakuatsiya qilishga yordam berdi. Ularni Misrning Port -Said shahriga olib ketishdi. Ko'p erkaklar ittifoqchilarning nemis-turk o'qiga qarshi urush harakatlariga qo'shilishdi.

Urush tugagach, Usmonli imperiyasi mag'lubiyatga uchradi, Musa Dog' aholisi o'z vatanlariga, keyin Frantsiya mandati ostida bo'lgan Suriyaning avtonom urushdan keyingi viloyatiga qaytdi. Ular qayta qurdilar va yangi hayotga joylashdilar. Ammo Turkiya Respublikasi bu hududni qaytarib olmoqchi bo'lganida global siyosat aralashdi.

1939 yilda frantsuzlar qo'shildi va Musa Dog' qishloqlari Turkiya tarkibiga kirdi. Ammo aholining uzoq xotiralari bor edi. Ko'pchilik turk hukmronligi ostida yashashdan bosh tortdi. Frantsiya yordami bilan ular vaqtincha Suriya sohilidagi hududga ko'chib o'tdilar, undan oldin Bekadagi botqoqli, chivinli Anjar degan joyga ko'chishdi.

Frantsiya hukumati va arman donorlari er va ko'chish pulini to'lashga yordam berishdi. Rasmiy shahar tarixiga ko'ra, 4500 ga yaqin odam ko'chirildi va noqulay sharoitda yangi hayot boshladilar. Yuzlab odamlar tif, bezgak va boshqa kasalliklarga erta chalingan.

Dastlab, ko'pgina ko'chmanchilar chodirlarda, Umaviylar islomiy xalifaligining VIII asr yozgi kurort shaharchasining xarobalari bo'lgan joylarga joylashdilar. Qadimgi shahar keyingi o'n yilliklarda qisman qazilgan bo'lib, hozirda kamdan-kam tashrif buyuriladigan YuNESKOning Jahon merosi ro'yxatiga kiritilgan.

"Odamlar bu joyni urush zonasi deb o'ylashadi", dedi yaqinda qilgan tashrifi davomida tashlab ketilgan ajoyib joyning melankolik gid.

Shahar oltita tumanga bo'lingan, ularning har biri Turkiyadagi tashlandiq qishloqlar nomi bilan atalgan. Ko'p to'siqlarga qaramay, Anjar gullab -yashnadi. Aholi o'ziga xos arman lahjasini saqlab qolishdi va yoshlarga ota -bobolarining surgunlari tarixini o'rgatishdi. Ko'pchilik Anjariyaliklar turli sohalarda - zargarlik buyumlari, pul almashish, kiyim -kechak do'konlari va boshqa ishlarda yaxshi ish olib borishdi va shaharga boylik olib kelishdi.

Tez orada Anjarning o'z diasporasi paydo bo'ldi, o'g'illari va qizlari Evropa, Amerika, Avstraliya va Afrikaga ko'chib ketishdi.

"Biz Anjarlik ekanligimizni va ota -onamiz va buvilarimiz boshidan kechirganlarimizni hech qachon unutmaganmiz", dedi Shogher Chorbajian, Anjar shahrida tug'ilgan va Glendeylda yashovchi dasturiy ta'minot ishlab chiqaruvchisi.

Bir paytlar G'arbiy Afrikada kassa savdosida ishlagan shahar meri Pambukyan, butun olamiy Anjar hamjamiyati bilan aloqada bo'lib, uzoqda joylashgan filiallarning nomlarini buzib aytadi.

"Bizda hamma joyda, dunyoda Anjarlik odamlar bor", dedi qizi Pasadenada yashovchi Pambukyan.

Shahar ma'muriyati devorlarini bezatib, shahar kashshoflarining fotosuratlari, shuningdek, mahalliy san'at namunalari, shu jumladan, Muso tog'ining qorli tepasidan ko'tarilgan qizil xochli oq bayroq tasvirlangan yog'li rasm.


Anjar xarobalari

Umaviylar davrida xalifa Valid Ibn Abd al-Malak (705-715) davrida asos solingan Anjar shahri Umaviylar tsivilizatsiyasining yorqin guvohidir. Anjar - ichki savdo markazining namunasi, ikkita muhim yo'lning chorrahasida: biri Beyrutdan Damashqqa, ikkinchisi Bekadan o'tib, Xomsdan Tiberiyadagacha. Bu qadimiy shaharning joyi faqat 1940 -yillarning oxirida arxeologlar tomonidan topilgan.

Anjar - Umaviylar urbanizmining ajoyib va ​​yaqin tarixiy namunasi, shuningdek, ichki savdo markazining yagona tarixiy namunasi sifatida o'ziga xosdir. Homs va Baalbekni Tiberiya bilan Livan tog'ini Damashqqa bog'laydigan yo'llardan uncha uzoq bo'lmagan Bekadagi xarobalar 1949 yilda arxeologik tadqiqotlar boshlanganda topilgan.

Uzoq vaqt davomida ishg'ol qilingan joyda joylashgan (yunon, rim va erta xristian binolarining qayta ishlangan elementlari tez-tez uning devorlarida), VIII asr boshlarida xalifa tomonidan asos solingan. Valid I (705-15). U o'z nomini arabcha "ayn al-jaar" (qoyadan suv) atamasidan oladi va yaqin tog'lardan oqib o'tadigan daryolarga ishora qiladi.

Bu hayratlanarli shahar qurilishi 744 yilda qisqa vaqt ichida mavjud bo'lgan. Valid o'g'li xalifa Ibrohimning partizanlari Anvar devorlari tashqarisida mag'lubiyatga uchrab, Maraviy ben Muhammad tomonidan oxirgi umaviy xalifasi bo'lgan. Shundan so'ng, qisman vayron bo'lgan Anjar tashlab ketildi. Ulardan keyingi Abu al -Fida singari, Uilyam Tir faqat xarobalarni ko'rdi, XII asrdagi ko'plab janglarning natijalari. Bu mamlakatdagi qirg'oq bo'yidagi yagona savdo shahri bo'lib, u faqat 20-30 yil davomida gullab-yashnagan. Uning eng yuqori cho'qqisida 600 dan ortiq do'konlar, Rim uslubidagi vannalar, ikkita saroy va masjid bor edi.

Qozuv ishlari natijasida 40 ta minora bilan o'ralgan devorlar bilan o'ralgan, mustahkam shahar topilgan, u erda 741 yildagi yozuv hali ham joyida ko'rinadi. To'rtburchakli mustahkam devor (385 m dan 350 m gacha) aniq yo'naltirilgan. Qalinligi 2 m bo'lgan devorlar loy va moloz yadrosidan qurilgan, tashqi tomoni katta bloklardan, ichki qismi esa kichikroq bloklardan iborat. Korpusning ichki tomoniga har tomondan uchta zinapoya o'rnatilgan. Ular devorlarning yuqori qismiga kirishga ruxsat berishdi, u erda soqchilar aylanib, shaharni himoya qilishdi.

Portikoslar bilan o'ralgan darvozalar ustunlik qiladi, shimoliy-janubning muhim o'qi (cardo maximus) va kichikroq sharq-g'arb o'qi (decumanus maximus) asosiy kanalizatsiya ustki qismiga joylashtirilgan va shaharni to'rtta teng kvadrantga bo'linadi. Jamoat va xususiy binolar qat'iy rejaga muvofiq qurilgan: janubi-sharqiy kvadrantdagi asosiy saroy va masjid ikkinchi darajali saroy va shimoli-sharqiy va shimoli-g'arbiy qismdagi vannalar, aholi zich joylashgan janubi-g'arbiy kvadrantni kesib o'tadi. ortogonal reja asosida qurilgan ko'chalar tarmog'i.

Ajoyib tarzda tuzilgan shahar fazoviy tashkiloti, Rim harbiy lagerlari va mustamlakachi shaharlarnikidan ko'ra, qirollik qarorgohini (Splitdagi Diokletian shahar saroyi eng yaxshi namuna bo'lib qoladi) eslatadi. Vayronalarda ikkita asosiy o'qning kesishishida, shuningdek, uch daraja saqlanib qolgan Omayyadlar saroyining devorlari va ustunlari joylashgan monumental tetrapilaning ajoyib qoldiqlari ustunlik qiladi. Bu tuzilmalar Rim davriga oid haykallarni o'z ichiga oladi, lekin ular qurilishdagi zamonaviy dekor elementlarining ajoyib egiluvchanligi bilan ajralib turadi.

Umaviylarning boshqa madaniyatlarning me'moriy an'analariga bog'liqligini isbotlaydigan yana bir dalil, Rim hammomining uchta klassik qismini o'z ichiga olgan Umaviy vannalarida paydo bo'ladi: mehmonlar cho'milishdan oldin kiyimlarini almashtirib, keyin dam oladigan, va sovuq, iliqlik uchun uchta xona. va issiq suv. Kiyinish xonasining kattaligi shuni ko'rsatadiki, hammom nafaqat jismoniy farovonlik manbai, balki ijtimoiy muloqot markazidir.

600 ta do'koni bo'lgan va xavfsizlikka katta e'tibor beriladigan shahar, adolatli odamlarni talab qilsa kerak. Buni yodda tutgan holda, arxeologlar keng turar-joy maydonining qoldiqlarini qidirishdi va uni janubi-g'arbda tetrastildan tashqarida topishdi.


Livan va#039 ning YuNESKOning Jahon merosi ob'ektlaridan ba'zilari:

Anjar

Anjar 1984 yilda YuNESKOning Butunjahon merosi ro'yxatiga kiritilgan va hozirda mamlakat markazida, Suriya bilan chegarada Beqaa gubernatorligining bir qismi bo'lgan Zahle tumanida joylashgan. Anjar shahri Umaviylar xalifaligi hukmdori (661-750), xalifa Valid ibn Abdulmalik (688-715) tomonidan VIII asr boshlarida tashkil etilgan. Shahar ikkita yirik savdo yo'lining muhim ichki chorrahasida joylashgan edi, biri Bayrut va Damashq o'rtasida, ikkinchisi Bekadan Tiberiyadagacha. Shahar to'liq qurib bitkazilmagan, chunki 744 yilda xalifa Ibrohim ibn Valid (? -750) jangda mag'lubiyatga uchragan va taxtdan voz kechgan, natijada shahar qisman vayron bo'lgan va aholisi tashlab ketgan. Shahar 1940-yillarning oxirida arxeologlar tomonidan qayta kashf qilindi va ko'p o'tmay, bir necha ming arman qochqinlari ular hozirgacha yashab turgan xarobalar yoniga joylashtirildi. Bugungi kunda Anjar xarobalari muhim ahamiyatga ega, chunki ular Umaylar davrida shahar qanday rejalashtirilgani va qurilganligini ko'rsatadi va bu ularning tsivilizatsiyasi haqida ko'proq ma'lumot olishga yordam beradi. Shahar, shuningdek, mintaqaning islomiy san'at va qurilishga o'tishini ko'rsatadi.

Tir 1984 yilda YuNESKOning Butunjahon merosi ro'yxatiga kiritilgan va hozirda mamlakat janubidagi Janubiy Livan gubernatorligiga kiruvchi Tir shahri va tumanida joylashgan. Dunyoning eng qadimiy shaharlaridan biri bo'lgan Tir va uning tarixi miloddan avvalgi 8000 yillarga borib taqaladi, garchi shahar asos solingan sana miloddan avvalgi 2750 yil. Afsonaga ko'ra, shahar afsonaviy Evropaning tug'ilgan joyi va Karfagen Didoning birinchi malikasi va asoschisi. Tir Finikiyaliklar davrida (miloddan avvalgi 1500-539) buyuk shahar bo'lgan va ularga dengizlar ustidan hukmronlik qilishga va O'rta er dengizida koloniyalar topishga imkon bergan. Ahamoniylar imperiyasi (eramizdan avvalgi 550-330 yillar) miloddan avvalgi 539 yilda shaharni finikiyaliklardan bosib olib, 332 yilda Aleksandr Makedonskiy (356-323) shaharni ag'darib tashlaguncha boshqargan. Iskandar vafotidan keyin shaharni Antigonidlar sulolasi (306) boshqargan. -168), keyin Salavkiylar imperiyasi (miloddan avvalgi 312-63). Miloddan avvalgi 126 yilda shahar Salavkiylar imperiyasidan mustaqil bo'lib, miloddan avvalgi 64 yilda Rim viloyatiga aylandi. Salib yurishlari paytida shahar milodiy 1124 yilda bosib olindi va 1191 yilgacha Qirollik saltanatining eng muhim shaharlaridan biriga aylandi (1099-1291), savdo markazi va 1191 yilgacha qirollikning qarorgohi. 1291 yilda shahar mamluklar tomonidan bosib olindi. Sultonlik (1250-1517), uni Usmonli imperiyasi (1299-1923) shaharni egallaguncha boshqargan. Shaharning yirik shahar va savdo markazi sifatidagi tarixiy roli salib yurishlari 1291 yilda tugagan va hech qachon tiklanmagan. Hozirgi kunda shahar o'zining uzoq tarixiga ega bo'lib, insoniyatning turli bosqichlarida va turli tsivilizatsiyalar uchun muhim bo'lgan.

Ouadi Qadisha va Horsh Arz el-Rab

Ouadi Qadisha va Horsh Arz el-Rab (Muqaddas vodiy va Xudo sadr daraxtlari o'rmoni) 1998 yilda YuNESKOning Butunjahon merosi ro'yxatiga kiritilgan. Hozirgi kunda Becharre tumanidagi Qadisha vodiysida joylashgan. Shimoliy Livan gubernatorligi. Sayt uch xil qismdan iborat: Uadi Qadisha, Qadisha vodiysi va Xudo sadr daraxtlari o'rmoni. Ouadi Qadisha - bu er yuzidagi birinchi nasroniy monastirlarining joyi va o'sha paytdan beri bunyod etilganlar ko'p, chunki ular 4 -asrning oxiridan 14 -asrgacha qurilgan. Qadisha vodiysi al-Makmel tog'ining pastki qismida joylashgan va u orqali Qadisha muqaddas daryosi oqadi.


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Bu faylni qayta yozib bo'lmaydi.


O'xshash narsalar

Beyrut portlashidan videolar, 4 -avgust, 2020 -yil
E'tibor berilmagan 2750 nitrat amonyum portida portlashi noma'lum, lekin boshlang'ich tufayli sodir bo'ldi. Portlash 12Kilo Tonesga teng ekani taxmin qilinmoqda.


38 ta mamlakat va joylar livanliklar vizasiz tashrif buyurishi mumkin
Livanlar vizasiz tashrif buyuradigan 38 ta mamlakat va palces ro'yxatini quyida toping. Rejalashtirish paytida bunday ro'yxat haqida bilish juda yaxshi.


Livanda iyun oyida deyarli 200 dollarlik generator hisobi
Livandagi Safra uchun elektr energiyasi hisobi 10 AMP generatorli elektr energiyasi uchun hisob -kitob 280,000 LLni tashkil etadi.


Quyon oroli, Shimoliy Livan
Quyon oroli yoki Palm oroli yoki Jaziret orollari - Livandagi eng katta orol, uning uzunligi 4,2 km2, qirg'oqdan 5,5 km uzoqlikda joylashgan.


Vaqt o'tishi: Yaroun - Beyrut, keyin Jounieh 3 daqiqada
Yarundan Bayrutga 3 soatlik yo'l bilan Timelapse va Jouniehgacha 3 daqiqada bosib o'tiladi.
Yaroun - Livan janubidagi qishloq.

Keling, birgalikda Livan fotogalereyasini yaratamiz.
O'z rasmlaringizni baham ko'ring, shunda biz dunyoga go'zal Livan haqida ko'rsatamiz!


U erda nimani ko'rishingiz mumkin

Qishloqning o'ziga xosligidan tashqari, Anjarning eng katta sayyohlik diqqatga sazovor joyi - bu ta'sirli Umaviy xarobalari. Ular 1984 yilda YuNESKO tomonidan Butunjahon merosi ro'yxatiga kiritilgan. Qoldiqlari 114,700 kvadrat metrni, qalinligi ikki metr va balandligi etti metrdan ortiq bo'lgan mustahkam devorlar bilan o'ralgan. Rim shaharsozligi va arxitekturasiga asoslanib, to'rtburchaklar shahar dizayni 370 m dan 310 m gacha.

Shahar markazida ikkita katta bulvar – Cardo Maximum va Decumanus Maximus kesishib, uni to'rt qismga bo'linadi. Kolonadalar bilan qoplangan bu ikkita asosiy bulvar va 600 ga yaqin do'konlar katta, juda bezatilgan tetrapylon ostida uchrashadi. Shaharning g'arbiy qismidagi kichik ko'chalar shaharni kichikroq kvartallarga ajratadi.


Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida Anjar

Anjar va ndashLebanon va ndash qishlog'i 1939 yilda tashkil etilgan, 6000 Armanistonlik Musa Dag va ndashin o'sha paytdagi Suriyaning Aleksandretta provinsiyasi va o'z tarixiy vatanidan ommaviy ravishda chiqib ketishgan va frantsuzlar homiyligida. Ikkinchi Jahon urushi boshlanishidan oldingi yillarda, 1939 yil sentyabr oyida Adolf Gitler va Polshaga bostirib kirishi bilan ndashFrance, sobiq nemis ittifoqchisini yangi Axis tahdidiga qarshi sherik sifatida olish umidida, Suriyalik Aleksendrettalik Sanjakni Turkiyaga berdi. Natijada turklar hukmronligi ostida yashashga qarshi bo'lgan minglab arablar va ndashArmeniya va ndashArmaniya va boshqalar o'z uylarini tark etib, bir kun kelib qaytib kelishadi. Boshqa muhojirlardan farqli o'laroq, Musa -Dag aholisi jamoa bo'lib Anjar va NdashLebanonga ko'chib ketishdi, bu erda ular Frantsiya rasmiylari tomonidan g'amxo'rlik qilishdi. Frantsiya bilan bo'lgan yaqin munosabatlari va ular olgan yordamlari tufayli Musa Dog'ning oltita qishlog'ining Armaniston tarixi haqidagi hikoyasi Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida boshqa joyga ko'chirishning noyob hikoyasidir.

Aleksandrettaning arman aholisi bilan frantsuz aloqalari Mandat davridan ancha oldin bo'lgan. 1915-1923 yillardagi Arman genotsidi paytida Musa Dog' qishloqlaridan kelgan Armaniston Usmonli armiyasiga qarshi qarshilik harakati bilan deportatsiyaga qarshilik ko'rsatdi. Natijada 5000 ga yaqin Armaniston o'z uylarini tashlab Muso tog'idan boshpana topdilar. Qamal taxminan qirq kun davom etdi va oxirigacha ular oziq -ovqat va o'q -dorilar etishmasligidan qirg'in qilindi. Frantsuz kema va ndashning e'tiborini tortgandan so'ng, Armaniston aholisi qutqarilib, Port -Said va Misrdagi qochqinlar lageriga olib ketildi. Aholi Port -Saiddagi qochqinlar lagerlariga joylashgandan ko'p o'tmay, 600 Musa Dagtsi erkaklar Frantsiya Xorijiy Legioni ixtiyoriy ravishda Lgion d ’Orient va ndash asosan Usmonli Imperiyasining sobiq arman sub'ektlaridan iborat edi. Lgion d ’Orient 1918 yilda Usmonli kuchlariga qarshi Falastindagi Arara jangida g'alaba qozonishda muhim rol o'ynadi.

1919 yilda Suriya va Livanda frantsuz mandati o'rnatilgandan so'ng, Armaniston va Musandog'dagi uylariga qaytib kelishdi. 1919 yilda frantsuzlar hukmronligi ostida Aleksandretta Armanistoni G'arbiy Armaniston tarixining aksariyat qismi uchun istisno holatini boshdan kechirdilar. Genotsiddan qutulib, Aleksandrettaning Armanistoni va tarixiy vatani va an'anaviy jamoalariga qaytishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi. Bundan farqli o'laroq, Usmonli Turkiyaning boshqa bir million arman fuqarolari o'z uylaridan haydalishdi va G'arbiy Armaniston tarixida qashshoqlik, nashimmigratsiya, nashalizatsiya va diaspora bilan ajralib turadigan yangi sahifani boshlashdi. Bundan tashqari, genotsid qo'zg'oloni va jamoalarning aralashishi natijasida turli xil arman aholi punktlari va ndash (ya'ni, mintaqaviy dialektlar) o'rtasidagi madaniy farqlarning an'anaviy elementlari kamaya boshladi. Bundan farqli o'laroq, Muso Dog'ning Armanistoni va#8217 -lari o'z qishloqlariga qaytishga muvaffaq bo'ldilar va hozircha ndash immigratsiya va ko'chish xavfidan qutulib qolishdi.

Frantsiyaning Suriyadagi mandati davrida Turkiya hukumati Aleksandretta Sanjak provinsiyasi uchun da'vogarlik qilayotgan edi. 1920-1930 yillar davomida ndashTurkey Frantsiyaga mintaqada katta ta'sir ko'rsatishni va Aleksandretta etnik turklarining huquqlarini kafolatlash ndashini so'rab murojaat qildi va Suriya tarkibidagi viloyat avtonomiyasini ta'minladi. Vaqt o'tishi bilan & ndashTurkey ’s -ning jinlari ko'payib ketdi va Frantsiya murosaga keldi. Yuzlab arab va ndasharman va ndashAlavi va yunon Aleksandretta aholisi Turkiyaning bu yutuqlariga qarshi Antioxiyada Ba ’ath Partiyasi asoschisi va ndashZaki al-Arsuziy boshchiligida mintaqani egallashiga qarshi ommaviy norozilik namoyishi o'tkazdilar. Ularning Suriya bilan ittifoqni davom ettirish haqidagi chaqiriqlari Majburiy kuch tomonidan qabul qilinmadi. 1939 yilga kelib, ndashFrance -ning tashvishlari fashistlar Germaniyasining ko'tarilishi va Sharqiy O'rta er dengizidagi frantsuz pozitsiyasiga qaratildi. Turkiyani ittifoqchi sifatida saqlashga urinish & ndashFransa 23 -iyundagi kelishuvda Aleksandrettaning Turkiyaga berilishiga yakuniy rozilik berdi. Shartnoma majburiy hokimiyat vakolatli hudud chegaralarini o'zgartirishni taqiqlagan xalqaro qonunlarga zid edi. Biroq, & ndashFrance Aleksandretta aholisiga Suriya va Livan fuqaroligini olish va barcha "ko'chmas mulklarini yangi uylariga ko'chirish" variantini taqdim etdi.

1-23 iyuldan & ndash1939 va ndash30,000 Armaniston ’s & ndashin 20,000 boshqa Aleksandrettanlar bilan bir qatorda o'z uylaridan Suriya va Livanga ommaviy ravishda chiqib ketishni boshladilar. Birinchi jahon urushi davrida Armaniston va Musa Dag armiyasi Frantsiya hukumati bilan bo'lgan noyob munosabatlari tufayli Frantsiya mandatidan Livandagi o'z jamoalari uchun er va uy -joy bilan ta'minlanishi to'g'risida maxsus qoidalar oldi. Biqaa vodiysidagi frantsuzlar turk turkidan sotib olgan erlar Musa Dag Armanistonini joylashtirish uchun ajratilishi kerak edi. Natijada & ndashthe Musa Dag jamoasi ikki migratsiyaga qaramay o'z o'rnini saqlab qoldi. Ushbu maqolada, bu migratsiya tajribalari va Anjar qishlog'ining vujudga kelgan voqealarni boshidan kechirganlar xotirasida bo'lgani kabi tushuncha yaratishga intiladi.

Sessiya ratifikatsiya qilinganidan keyin Musa -Dag armanlarining ko'pchilik aholisi Turkiya hukmronligi ostida yashashni emas, balki boshqa joyga ko'chishni afzal ko'rishdi. 1939 yildagi besh yoshdan 35 yoshgacha bo'lgan bu maqolada tirik qolgan to'qqiz kishi, na o'zlari, na oqsoqollari tomonidan o'z uylarini tark etish to'g'risida qaror qabul qilishgan. Suhbatdoshlar yana Turkiya hukmronligi ostida yashashni mumkin bo'lgan variant deb hisoblamadilar. Ular 1915 yildagi Muso Dog' qarshiliklari uchun qasos olish uchun turk repressiyalaridan qo'rqib, har qanday narxda ham ketishga majbur bo'ldilar. Biroq, sotsial -demokratik Hnchak partiyasiga mansub oilalar soni cheklanib qoldi. Suhbatdoshlar va ko'pchilik o'zlarini asosan Dashnaksutyun (Armaniston inqilobiy federatsiyasi) bilan bog'lashadi va xnchaklarning siyosiy raqobatdosh bo'lish qaroriga qo'shilishadi. Bir necha bor suhbatdoshlar Xnchaklarning bo'linib ketgan harakatlarini mintaqadagi etakchi siyosiy fraktsiya bo'lgan toshnaklarga qarshi chiqish deb tushuntirishgan.

Omon qolganlar, Frantsiya hukumati Livanda o'z xavfsizligi va joylashishini bilishi va oxir -oqibat Muso Dog'ga qaytishiga ishonishgani bilan ketganini eslaydilar. Frantsuzlar Aleksandrettadagi uylarini tashlab ketgan qolgan 24000 Armanistonliklar uchun bunday yordam ko'rsatmagan. Nega Armanistonga Muso Dog'dan boshqa tumanlardan frantsuzlar yordam bermaganligini so'rashganida, suhbatdoshlar xorijiy legionda 600 Musa Dagtsi erkaklarining ko'ngilli xizmati va ularning Arara va ndashPalestinadagi g'alabaga qo'shgan hissalarini asoslab berishgan. davolash. Suhbatdoshlar frantsuzlarning "qahramonona janglari" tufayli Musa Dog'zisga bo'lgan hurmatini ta'kidladilar. Bundan tashqari, suhbatdoshlar hamjamiyat uning ko'chishi vaqtinchalik va xalqaro mojaro hal qilinganidan keyin qaytib kelishiga ishonishganini ta'kidladilar.

1939 yil iyulda 6000 Musa Dag Armanistoni o'z mol-mulki bilan kamyonga o'tirishdi va Livan-Suriya chegarasidagi Ras al-Bassit va ndashnortga borishdi va ular lagerga joylashib, Tripoliga ko'chib o'tishni kutishdi. Garchi tirik qolganlarning Ras-al-Bassitda bo'lish muddati haqidagi hisobotlari bir oydan olti oygacha davom etsa-da, umumiy kelishuv taxminan qirq kunlik turishni ko'rsatadi. Bir nechta suhbatdoshlar lagerdagi vaziyatni tasodifiy va tartibsiz deb eslaydilar: o'sha paytda bir kishi va ndashage 13 va odamlarni chodirlarini yig'ish uchun topa oladigan har qanday materialdan va ndashrem eslaydi. Oziq -ovqat tanqisligi, suv etishmasligi va kuchli yomg'ir aholi sog'lig'ining yomonlashishiga olib keldi. Dizenteriya, ayniqsa, yosh bolalar orasida keng tarqalgan. Bunga javoban, Arman Umumiy Xayrixohlik Ittifoqi Latakiyada kasalxonani tashkil qildi va u lagerdan 200 dan ortiq bemorlarni qabul qildi. 6000 Musa Dagtsis va beshdan besh kishi Ras al-Bassitda bo'lganlarida halok bo'lishdi. During this time&ndashnews of the outbreak of World War II reached the Armenia’s&ndashresulting in a widespread fear that the French would not be able to continue their assistance.

An interviewee&ndashaged 16 in 1939&ndashtraveled to Bassit on foot&ndashindependent from the camions. According to him&ndashall those who wanted to bring their livestock to the new village walked with their animals to Ras al-Bassit along the Orontes River (‘Assi Nahr). There they joined the population and traveled by ship to Tripoli&ndashand from there they boarded trains to Rayyak. The final leg of the trip was made by camions to Anjar&ndashwhere they built a campsite in the Umayyad ruins. The population would remain in this vranagaghak&ndashor tent-city&ndashuntil the completion of the construction of their houses in 1941. Upon the arrival of the Armenia’s in September 1939&ndashthe Armenian General Benevolent Union provided each family with a four-square meter piece of canvas and three sticks for the assembly of a tent. One survivor likened their arrival to the French "dumping" the people out of the camions like "garbage." Another woman remembered arriving at night in complete darkness&ndashas a result of wartime orders forbidding use of lighting at night. The next morning&ndashshe awoke to find fields of grass taller than herself and was shocked by the complete lack of cultivated land.

As a result of the physically exhausting process of relocation&ndashexposure to new diseases and the wartime lack of supplies&ndashthe survivors describe the resettlement era as one of great hardship. In addition to having arrived almost naked at this swampy and disease-ridden area&ndashthey sacrificed a fourth of their numbers to malaria. The interviewees consistently stressed the devastation to the community caused by malaria which festered in the countless swamps of their new environment. They recall with detail the hapless winter of 1939&ndashwhen the only available protection from the snow were their canvas tents. In response&ndashthe French established a hospital and a clinic with a permanent physician in the village. The heavy death toll during this time is so prevalent in the collective memory of Anjar that the interviewees used the same descriptions independently of each other. Phrases such as "The death knell would be heard all day," and "There were days when we had as many as seven burials" have become part of the oral history of Anjar.

In September of 1939&ndashtwo months after the departure from Musa Dagh&ndashconstruction of the homes began at the expense of the French. The village was designed by an Armenian architect by the name of Hagop Keshishian&ndashmaking it the only village in the area built according to a preliminary design. Keshishian’s design was in the shape of an eagle from an aerial view in homage to the Musa Dagh resistance of World War I. The French hired all Musa Daghtsi men over the age of fifteen to construct the homes. According to one interviewee&ndashthe construction workers were paid fifteen ghurush a day. He added that despite the fact that women could not be hired to participate in the construction&ndashfamilies received fifteen ghurush for each female member over the age of fifteen&ndashdaily. In his opinion&ndashthis was a substantial sum to receive for building one’s own home and was evidence of the generosity of the French. Because the health of the general population had been "disturbed" since Ras al-Bassit&ndashthe completion of the houses was delayed. As a result&ndashArab workers were hired from neighboring villages and towns as distant as Homs and Hama in Syria&ndashto supplement Anjar’s labor force. Interviewees remember participating by clearing rocks from the site to facilitate the project. The interviewees insisted that all those with the physical ability to work helped in the construction and that it was considered shameful for an able-bodied person not to work given the desperate conditions. The first homes in Anjar were completed in the summer of 1940 and priority was given to families with sick members and young children. Initially&ndasheach family was to receive a house with three rooms and one outhouse. Wartime conditions prevented the French from fulfilling this pledge. Instead&ndasheach family received a single-room house (4 x 4.5 square meters) and one outhouse on a 400 square meter plot of land. It was not until 1941 that all 1065 homes were completed.

During the winter of 1939&ndashthose especially vulnerable to disease&ndashsuch as the elderly and young children&ndashwere given housing in nearby Arab-inhabited villages. Interviewees remember this as evidence of the kindness granted to them by their neighbors&ndashsignaling comfortable inter-ethnic relations. Several survivors&ndashwho were children in 1939&ndashremember attending school in tents. Due to the lack of paper&ndashbags of the cement mixture used in the construction projects were appropriated for schoolwork. Many remember being insufficiently clothed and suffering from the cold. One woman recalled&ndash"We were barefoot in the summer and there were even some who were barefoot in the winter." The cold winter of 1939 propelled the Armenia’s to cut all the trees on the surrounding hills "from the root" to use as firewood.

Despite the lack of food due to underdeveloped farming and wartime shortages&ndashno interviewees remembered experiencing starvation. Interviewees recall a lack of vegetation in Anjar and emphasize the barren landscape which was to be their primary source of sustenance. This stands in sharp contrast to their romanticized memories of Musa Dagh&ndashwhich are characterized by an abundance of fruit trees and fertile orchards. When describing the hunger she felt during the war&ndashone woman remembered an episode when Senegalese soldiers of the Foreign Legion distributed bread to the children of the village and said that she still remembers the taste of that bread to this day. Another woman’stated that French officials sold basic food items (i.e. flour&ndashsugar) at subsidized prices and rationed quantities to each family.

During the early part of the war&ndashthe population resorted to alternative crops for cooking. In addition to widespread poverty&ndasha shortage in supplies also prevented the purchase and consumption of necessary items. One interviewee explained that in the absence of flour&ndashbread was made using chickpeas as a base. The product was of an unusual texture and its consumption caused acute thirst. The interviewee added that his experiences eating chickpea bread during the war have rendered him unable to consume the legume heretofore. Barley&ndashmillet and potato were also made use of excessively during the war and fell out of usage afterward.

The Holy Armenian See of Cilicia in Antelias funded the construction of churches and schools in Anjar with donations from the Armenian community in Beirut. By 1943&ndashthere were three schools in Anjar: the Armenian National Secondary School&ndashthe Armenian Catholic School&ndashand the Armenian Protestant School. On June 16&ndash1943&ndashthe Anjar branch of the Armenian Relief Cross&ndasha women’s auxiliary charity organization&ndashwas founded. Its programs included providing needy children with meals at school. Thus&ndashcontact between the established Lebanese Armenian community and that of Anjar existed in the form of charitable outreach. When asked about the treatment they received from Lebanese Armenia’s upon their arrival&ndashinterviewees affirmed they faced no discrimination and did not consider themselves to be "needy refugees."

When the construction project came to an end&ndashthe men of the village had difficulty finding work. Some residents cultivated fields allotted to them by the French authorities&ndashwho divided the land into units of four or seven dunams (1000 square meters)&ndashdepending on their access to free-flowing water. However&ndashmost Armenia’s avoided developing their own land because they believed that they would return to Musa Dagh after the war&ndashjust as they had following the First World War. For this reason&ndashAnjar remained uncultivated and barren until the mid-1940s&ndashwhen the population finally understood that it would not be able to return. During the war&ndashthe villagers were not willing to come to terms with not returning to Musa Dagh and resisted making lasting contributions to Anjar&ndashrefusing "to plant a single tree." Instead of working their own fields&ndashmen&ndashwomen&ndashand children worked in the farms of neighboring villages as wage laborers. According to eye witness accounts&ndashthis was the first time the women of this community had done farm work. Previously&ndashthey had enjoyed the luxury of working solely indoors. Once conditions improved after the war&ndashwomen returned to the domestic sphere.

The Vichy military base in Rayak provided the local population with much needed work opportunities&ndashwhich were in short supply after the completion of the construction project in Anjar. All male interviewees who met the age requirement of eighteen during the war found work in the French military&ndashas did the brothers of several female interviewees. During the Vichy regime&ndashRayak served as an air force base for missions against the British in Palestine. An interviewee&ndashwho worked as a laborer for the Vichy military for three months before their defeat&ndashremembered being taken with a dozen other workers to wheat fields outside Rayak&ndashin the Biqaa Valley&ndashand instructed to remove all rocks and stones from the area. At first&ndashhe did not know the reason for his orders&ndashbut he soon learned that the fields were to be used as runways for bomber planes on missions to Palestine. His unit was instructed to count the number of planes which returned from each mission and he remembered watching them return from different directions. According to him&ndashthe Vichy operated with the strictest discipline. Outside all military buildings was a box of wet sand which officers were expected to step in so that their superiors could verify that all the nails in the soles of their boots were in place from looking at their footprints. After the arrival of General de Gaulle&ndashthe interviewee was hired to work as a cook in the military hospital of Rayak and in the homes of high officials. The veteran interviewees seem to have had no particular allegiance to the Vichy over the Free French. They tend to associate the arrival of de Gaulle with a decrease in unemployment and improved living conditions. According to an interviewee&ndashde Gaulle expanded Rayak into a more substantial airport and hired many men from Anjar to work as technicians and pilots. Another interviewee specifically referred to de Gaulle as being more "Armenophile" than the previous regime.

Interviewees who were children during the war remember air attacks by the British Royal Air Force as terrifying experiences. Residents were forbidden to use lights at night. Although the village was never harmed or attacked&ndashthe residents of Anjar were witnesses to bombings in neighboring Rayak. Older interviewees were not as traumatized by these bombings. An interviewee&ndashborn in 1934&ndashrecounted an anecdote which took place a few days after a night of heavy shelling by the RAF. While traveling in the fields surrounding Anjar with his friends&ndashhe came upon a dozen bodies of Senegalese soldiers who had been killed by air raids and whose bodies had been left in the open.

With the defeat of the Vichy Regime and the arrival of the Free French and British in the summer of 1941&ndashlife in Anjar took a turn for the better. Not only did bombardment from the British cease&ndashbut food and work opportunities were more readily available. In addition&ndashsteps were taken to bring an end to the malaria crisis. As part of the Spears Mobile Clinics program&ndashdoctors visited Anjar and administered free malaria vaccinations. Interviewees remember the entire community lining up to receive a white pill. Doctors and nurses kept close watch on the patients to make sure they did not covertly avoid swallowing the bitter pill. The interviewees also remember public works projects created by the British which hired the locals to drain the malaria pools in the area using DDT. During this part of the war&ndashthe community returned to a more orderly way of life and began to become more self sufficient. Food and work opportunities were more readily available and the community had begun to adjust to its new surroundings. Interviewees had few distinct memories from this part of the war and life seems to have settled into a less impressive routine.

French actions with respect to the Sanjak of Alexandretta in 1939 were in violation of its duties as a Mandatory Power. Its failure to take into consideration the wishes and "welfare of the native inhabitants" can be seen as "a step backward in the development of colonial administration." Having protected the Musa Dagh Armenia’s against persecution at the hands of the Turks&ndashFrance ceded the homeland of its dependents to an authority it knew they were opposed to. By relinquishing its dominion over Alexandretta for its political interests&ndashFrance was essentially forcing the Armenia’s out of their homes. However&ndashthe survivors of these events harbor no resentment towards France or the French Mandate. Instead&ndashthey are grateful for the assistance granted to them by the French and feel that they earned this benevolence by way of their participation in the Foreign Legion in World War I. Although they may recognize the injustices committed against them in 1939&ndashthey are understanding toward the French position in light of the international context of the time. They are not concerned with their rights as citizens of the Mandate and have a limited perception of France’s duties and responsibilities towards them.

Thus&ndashlife for the Anjar community during the Second World War is remembered in terms of extreme hardship. In addition to general wartime difficulties&ndashthe loss of property&ndashexposure to new diseases&ndashand relocation to an undeveloped region resulted in depravation and heavy loss of human life. However&ndashthe Anjartsis seem to have enjoyed good ties with the French authorities&ndashtheir Arab neighbors&ndashand the established urban Armenian community in Lebanon. The fall of the Vichy French brought an end to bombardmen’s in neighboring Rayak&ndashbetter access to supplies and work&ndashas well as public works projects for the improvement of the country. At the end of the war&ndashthe community came to realize that it would never again return to Musa Dagh and accepted Anjar as its final home. Today&ndashthey are proud of the prosperity of their village and hold its distinctive history in high esteem.

Research based on: Tovmas Habeshian&ndash’Ainjare Yereg,’ Chanasser No. 15-16 (1-15 August&ndash1970) Yessayi Havatian&ndashMousa Ler&ndashAinjar Richard Hovannisian&ndash’The Allies and Armenia&ndash1915-1918,’ Journal of Contemporary History&ndashVol. 3 No. 1 Majid Khadduri&ndash’The Alexandretta Dispute,’ The American Journal of International Law&ndashVol. 39&ndashNo.3 Vagharsh B. Oflazian&ndash’Hrashke Aanjari Metch,’ Azdag&ndashAugust 10&ndash1963 Shahantookhd&ndash’Aanjare Aiysor,’ Ayk&ndashAugust 25&ndash1967Sisag Hagop Varjabedian&ndashHayere Libanani Mech: C Hador.


1. Baalbek

Baalbek is a hugely impressive Roman site in Lebanon which is home to the largest Roman temple ever built, as well as a range of other magnificent ancient structures.

Visitors to Baalbek can see the impressive ruins of these incredible structures including standing in the shadow of six of the original 54 columns of the Temple of Jupiter – the largest temple ever built by the Empire. Baalbek is also the place to see the extremely well-preserved Temple of Bacchus, the stairs of the Temple of Mercury and a ceremonial entryway known as the propylaea.

There is also evidence of Baalbek’s time beyond the Romans. For example, the ruins of the Roman Temple of Venus show how it was incorporated into a Byzantine church. This and other sites tell of the time of the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius, who destroyed many of the Roman holy sites in favour of churches and basilicas. Visitors can also see the remnants of a large 8th century mosque from the Arab conquest.

2. Byblos

Byblos in Lebanon is one of the world’s oldest continuously inhabited cities, as attested by the incredibly diverse ages of its ruins. Taxminan miloddan avvalgi V ming yillikda yashagan deb taxmin qilingan Byblos neolit ​​davridagi baliqchilar qishlog'idan boshlangan.

Bugungi kunda Byblos bu tsivilizatsiyalarning barcha belgilariga ega. Tosh davri, xalkolit va erta bronza davridagi turar joy Finikiya qiroli nekropoli va teatr, yo'l va nimfey kabi Rim obidalari bilan yonma -yon joylashgan. Shuningdek, XII asr salibchilar qal'asi ham bor, bu Byblos 1104 yilda zabt etilganini eslatadi.

3. Anjar

Anjar was a city of the Umayyad Islamic dynasty, founded in the early 8th century by Caliph Walid I. Over the course of this century, Anjar’s setting at the centre of two trading routes allowed it to flourish into a commercial hub. Yet, in 744AD, this prosperity came to an end when Walid’s son, Caliph Ibrahim, suffered a defeat.

Following this, Anjar was damaged and subsequently abandoned. Yet, it is this short history which makes Anjar such an important site. For, every aspect of what remains of this once great trading city – it’s carefully planned layout, the large arches and colonnades of the palaces which once stood there, the ruins of its 600 shops and its great fortifications – can all be dated precisely to the Umayyad period as this city rose and declined under its rule. In fact, Anjar was never actually completed.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Lebanon, a second home for Armenians