Imperator Volusian tasvirlangan oltin pandantiya

Imperator Volusian tasvirlangan oltin pandantiya


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Grifon tasvirlangan Viking Gold Repoussé Bracteate marjon - 41 mm

Tavsif: Erta Viking keng repoussé Bracteate oltin-folga kulonli, tasvirli ramkadagi Grifon tasvirlangan.
Material: qattiq oltin
Vaziyat: Juda yaxshi / kiyish mumkin
Sana: VII - IX asrlar
O'lchovlari: 41 mm 5 gramm
Kelib chiqishi: Britaniyaning eski kolleksiyasidan, Birmingem kollektsionerining mulki 1970 -yillarda Germaniyada sotib olingan.

Grifonlarning tasviri bronza va kumushdan yasalgan taqinchoqlarda uchraydi, lekin oltin taqinchoqlar juda kam uchraydi va ularning hech biri Cf.da yozilmagan. Korshun, V.E. Yazcheskye Priveski Drevnei Rusi X-XIV Vekov, bu Viking kulonlari uchun eng katta ma'lumotlar bazasi.

Viking madaniyatida brakteyatlar, ehtimol, imperator tomonidan shaxsiy va siyosiy ittifoq tuzish uchun taqdim etilgan Rim portret medalyonlaridan olingan. Ammo bu erda imperator qiyofasi mifologik mavjudot tasviriga aylantirildi. O'zining mahoratli mahoratlari va Romano-Vizantiya dunyosiga ishoralari bilan Viking oltin braketi ayollarning qimmatbaho zargarlik buyumlari sifatida taqib olgan va ularni xazina sifatida saqlagan ayollarning yuqori didini va yuqori ijtimoiy mavqeini ko'rsatdi.

Muhim ma'lumotlar.
Sotuvchi barcha kerakli ruxsatnomalarni rasmiylashtirishga e'tibor beradi.
Agar bu bir necha kundan ortiq davom etsa, sotuvchi xaridorga bu haqda xabar beradi.


Nebu: Qadimgi Misrda oltin

Tutankhamun ko'rgazmasida qadimgi Misr oltin ma'budasi Serketning haykali. / Mountainpix surati, depozitlar, Creative Commons

Qadimgi matnlarda oltin, kumush, bronza va boshqa metallardan yasalgan haykallarning ko'pligi haqida xabar berilgan.

Misr oltinga boy erdir va qadimgi konchilar an'anaviy usullarni qo'llagan holda iqtisodiy maqsadga muvofiq manbalardan foydalangan. Sharq cho'lining manbalaridan tashqari, Misr Nubiya boyliklaridan foydalanish imkoniyatiga ega edi, bu uning qadimiy nomida aks etadi. nbw (Misr tilidagi oltin). Oltin ieroglifi - keng yoqa - yozishning boshlanishi bilan 1 -sulolada paydo bo'lgan, ammo saqlanib qolgan eng qadimgi oltin asarlar miloddan avvalgi 4 -ming yillikning oldingi kunlariga to'g'ri keladi. bu asosan munchoqlar va shaxsiy bezak uchun ishlatiladigan boshqa oddiy narsalar. Kundalik hayot uchun yoki ma'badda yoki dafn marosimida foydalanish uchun mo'ljallangan oltin taqinchoqlar Misrning uzoq tarixi davomida ishlab chiqarishda davom etgan.

Tell Basta xazinasidagi buyumlar orasidan topilgan bu konus puxta bezatilgan idishning ichki markaziga yopishtirilgan bo'lardi. (eramizdan avvalgi 11279–1213 yillar) / Fotosurat MMA, jamoat mulki

Misrliklar ishlatgan oltin odatda kumushni o'z ichiga oladi, ko'pincha uning miqdori ko'p bo'lib, Misr tarixining ko'p qismida oltin uning tozaligini oshirish uchun tozalanmagan. Metallning rangiga uning tarkibi ta'sir qiladi: bir vaqtlar Uchinchi O'rta davrga tegishli idishni bezatgan markaziy xo'jayinning och sariq ranglari va O'rta Qirollik uraus kulonining och kulrang sarg'ish ranglari orasidagi farq. kumushning kam yoki ko'p miqdorda tabiiy mavjudligi.

Uray shaklidagi kulon (miloddan avvalgi 2030-1650). Ureylar shohona himoya ramzi edi, chunki tarbiyalovchi kobraning tasviri sehrli tarzda Misr dushmanlariga qirolning peshonasidan olov otib yuborishi mumkin edi. / Fotosurat MMA, jamoat mulki

Aslida, kulon deyarli teng miqdorda oltin va kumushni o'z ichiga oladi va shuning uchun qadimgi Rim muallifi, tabiatshunos, faylasuf va tarixchi Pliniy oqsoqol tomonidan ta'riflanganidek, tarkibida 20 foizdan ortiq kumush bo'lgan oltinning tabiiy qotishmasi bo'lgan elektrumdir. Naturalis Historia.

Qirol Akhenaten va malika Nefertiti Shu va Tefnut (miloddan avvalgi 1353-1336) sifatida tasvirlangan barmoq uzuk. Bu uzuk Amarnada topilgan. Ierogliflarni ideogramma sifatida o'qish mumkin. Ikkita o'tirgan figuralar, ehtimol, Xudo Shu (tutgan patlari ko'rsatganidek havo) va Tefnut (namlik) sifatida Akhenaten (chapda) va Nefertiti (o'ngda). Ular er va osmonning otasi va onasi edi. / Fotosurat MMA, jamoat mulki

Amarna davriga tegishli Shu va Tefnut tasvirlangan uzuk misrlik zargar qizg'ish tusga ega bo'lish uchun tabiiy oltin-kumush qotishmasiga misning katta miqdorini qo'shib qo'ygan kamdan-kam holatni ko'rsatadi.

Bolalar bilaguzugi (miloddan avvalgi 2650 yil). / Fotosurat MMA, jamoat mulki

Oltin ashyolarning saqlanib qolishi tarixiy voqealar va qazish ishlari natijasida buzilgan, Misr qadim zamonlardan beri talon -taroj qilingan va qimmatbaho metallar ancha oldin erib ketgan. Umuman olganda, erta sulolalar va eski podsholik davridan qolgan tilla tangalar saqlanib qolgan, ular Metropolitan muzeyi kollektsiyasida 2 -sulolaning oxirgi hukmdori Xasekhemvi qabridan kichik bilaguzuk bilan tasvirlangan. zarb qilingan oltin varaq. Qirol qabridan hayvonlarning terisiga o'xshab o'ralgan va oltin simli "arqon" bilan bog'lab qo'yilgan, zarb qilingan oltin varaqlar bilan muhrlangan kichik tosh idishlar ham topilgan.

Ram va#8217s boshli tumor (miloddan avvalgi 712-664 yillar). Bu tumor, ehtimol, Kushit podshohlaridan biri taqadigan marjon uchun qilingan. Taqdimotlarda bu fir'avnlar bo'yniga qalin shnurga bog'lab qo'yilgan qo'chqor va uchlari yelkadan oldinga yiqilgani ko'rsatilgan. / Fotosurat MMA, jamoat mulki

Ko'p metallar taqsimlaydigan va oltin uchun eng aniq bo'lgan egiluvchanlik - bu ingichka choyshablarga urish qobiliyati va qadimgi Misrdan kelgan oltin buyumlarning aksariyati shu shaklda saqlanib qolgan: qo'chqor kabi quyma oltin buyumlar. -Kushitlar davriga tegishli bosh tumor, odatda kichik va nisbatan kam uchraydi.

Hapianxtifining model yoqasi (miloddan avvalgi 1981-1802 yillar). Misr elitasi har xil bayram va diniy marosimlarda keng bo'yinbog'larni taqib olgan. / Fotosurat MMA, jamoat mulki Inson boshi bilan yurak chandig'i (miloddan avvalgi 1550-1070 yillar). Yurak sharbati juda mashhur tumor edi. Mumiyaning ko'kragiga joylashtirilgan, ular odatda katta qoraqo'tir qo'ng'izining shaklini oladi (bu tiklanish ramzi edi). / Fotosurat MMA, jamoat mulki

Qadim zamonlarda bir mikrongacha bo'lgan yupqa oltin barg ishlab chiqarilgan va boshqa materiallarga, shu jumladan, sulolaga tegishli bo'lgan Hapianxtifining keng yoqa yog'ochiga oltin yuza berish uchun qalinroq folga yoki varaq mexanik yoki yopishtiruvchi bilan qo'llanilgan. 12, va Yangi Qirollikka tegishli bo'lgan bazaltli yurak chandig'ining bronza tog'i.

Hor-Asha-Xet xudosi tasviri (miloddan avvalgi IV-II asrlar). Bu haykal Bes xudosi uchun ma'lum bo'lgan vizual shaklga ega, lekin bu shakl aslida boshqa ko'plab xudolarning tasviri uchun qabul qilingan, odatda Horus bilan bog'liq. Bu uyushma yangi tug'ilgan quyoshga nisbatan Bes tipidagi jinlarning himoyachi roli bilan bog'liq bo'lishi mumkin. / Fotosurat MMA, jamoat mulki

Keng bo'yinbog'da bargni zig'ir ustidan zig'ir ustiga gesso (yopishqoq saqichli gips) qatlamiga surtdi, bronza tog'i bilan toshbo'ron o'rtasida biroz qalinroq plyonka o'ralgan edi. Oltin inlaylar boshqa ommaviy axborot vositalarida, xususan, bronzadan yasalgan haykallarni yaxshilash uchun ishlatilgan.

Oltin yaltiroq shisha sirg'a (miloddan avvalgi I asr va miloddan avvalgi 1 -asr). Oltindan yasalgan yoki kumushrang shisha, eramizdan avvalgi I asr o'rtalaridan eramizning birinchi asrlari o'rtalariga qadar mashhur bo'lgan. Bu erda oltindan yasalgan boncuk halqadan marjon sifatida osilib turadi. / Fotosurat MMA, jamoat mulki

Ptolemey va Rim davrida Misrda yaltiroq shisha taqinchoqlar mashhur bo'lgan. Yaqin Sharqda, ehtimol Eronda, kumushni yaltiratish uchun sintez jarayoni ishlab chiqilgan. Eramizdan avvalgi birinchi ming yillik oxirida Misrda ishlatilgan bo'lishi mumkin. Rim davrida hali yaxshi o'rganilmagan, Sharqiy Osiyodan olib kelingan simob yaltirash O'rta er dengizi dunyosida ishlatiladigan kumush yoki krujkali substratlarni yaltirashning eng keng tarqalgan jarayoniga aylangan va u hozirgi zamonda ham shunday saqlanib qolgan.

Senvosret II nomi bilan Sithathoryunetning pektoral va marjonlari (mil. Av. 1887-1878 yillar). Bu pektoral qirol Senvosret II taxtining nomi atrofida tuzilgan. U malika Sithathoryunet zargarlik buyumlari orasida, Lahundagi Senvosret II piramidasi yonidagi er osti qabrining maxsus joyidan topilgan. Ieroglif belgilar dizaynni tashkil qiladi va uni hamma o'qish mumkin: “: Chiqayotgan quyosh xudosi, qirol Xakheperre [Senvosret II] uchun, quyosh bir million yuz ming yil davomida o'rab turgan hamma narsaga hayot va hukmronlik beradi. ]. ” / Fotosurat MMA, jamoat mulki

Yigirmanchi asrning boshlarida Dahshur, Lahun va Gavara shaharlarida olib borilgan qazishmalar natijasida 12 ta podshoh Senvosret II va Amenemhat III sulolasi saroylari bilan bog'liq bo'lgan elita ayollarga tegishli ko'plab zargarlik buyumlari topilgan. Sithathoryunetning pektorali kloisonney inlay texnikasi yordamida qilingan: ko'plab zarb qilingan oltin chiziqlar. klozonlar, frantsuzcha bo'linmalar so'zi, bir nechta zarb qilingan varaqlardan va bir nechta quyma elementlardan yig'ilgan oltin orqa plastinkada hujayralar hosil qiladi. Orqa plastinkaning teskari tomoni bir xil naqsh va qo'shimcha detallar bilan oqlangan tarzda chizilgan. Pektoral, albatta, o'zining ajoyib shakli va ijro etilishi uchun qadrlanadi, lekin uning vazifasi asosan marosim edi: Senvosret II nomi bilan yozilgan, u Sithathoryunetning abadiy farovonligini ta'minlashdagi rolini aks ettiradi.

Silindrsimon kulon (miloddan avvalgi 1887-1425 yillar) / MMA fotosurati, jamoat mulki

Oltin tovar sifatida asosan podshoh tomonidan boshqarilgan bo'lsa -da, qirollik maqomiga ega bo'lmagan misrliklar ham oltin taqinchoqlarga ega bo'lishgan: O'rta qirollik tsilindrli tulkilarida granulyatsiya mavjud bo'lib, ular detallarni qo'shish va kichik metall sharlar (granulalar) yordamida bo'rtma yaratish usulidir. bu erda zigzag shaklida joylashtirilgan. Granulalar odatda kolloid qattiq lehim usuli bilan biriktirilgan bo'lib, u ingichka maydalangan mis-mineral kukunini kimyoviy kamaytirishga asoslangan, bu esa qo'shni oltin yuzalarning erish nuqtasini mahalliy darajada pasaytiradi. Oltin va mis atomlarining granulalar yuzasi va zarb qilingan plastinka orasidagi tarqalishi jismoniy bog'lanishni hosil qiladi.

Oltin sharli munchoqlar marjonlari (miloddan avvalgi 1981-175 yillar). Wah ’s ning beshta marjonlari, ehtimol, uning hayoti davomida taqilgan, garchi ba'zilari uni dafn qilish uchun cheklangan bo'lishi mumkin. Wah ’s mumiyasi qisman o'ralganidan so'ng, bu oltin munchoq marjonini bo'yniga bog'lab qo'yishdi. / Fotosurat MMA, jamoat mulki

Qadim zamonlarda va hozirgi zamonda qimmatbaho metallarga qo'shilishning yana bir muhim usuli - bu lehim. Bu jarayonni amalga oshirish uchun qotishma - masalan, lehim - qo'shilish uchun mo'ljallangan metallardan past erish nuqtasiga ega bo'lishi uchun tuzilgan. Lehim bolg'acha bilan o'ralgan va paillon deb nomlanuvchi mayda kvadratchalar yoki chiziqlar bilan kesilgan. Strategik joylarga joylashtirilgandan so'ng, paillonlar isitiladi, ular eriydi va qo'shni oltin yuzalarning erish nuqtasini mahalliy darajada kamaytiradi, shu bilan lehim va birlashtiriladigan komponentlar orasidagi molekulalarning tarqalishini osonlashtiradi. Vah mumiyasida topilgan 12 ta oltin shardan yasalgan marjonda lehimlashning ibtidoiy shakli kuzatilgan, va elektrum uraus pandantiyasida yanada muvaffaqiyatli ishlarni kuzatish mumkin.

Nisbatan buzilmagan holatda topilgan yagona qadimiy Misr shohi Tutanxamon qabridan topilgan juda ko'p oltin deyarli tushunib bo'lmaydigan boylikni ko'rsatadi, ammo misrshunoslar go'yoki o'rta yoki keksalik davrida hukmronlik qilgan podshohlar hamrohlik qilgan deb gumon qilishadi. keyingi hayot yanada qimmatbaho tovarlar bilan. Yangi Qirollik qirollik oilalarining unchalik muhim bo'lmagan a'zolari ham qimmatbaho oltin xazinalari bilan o'ralgan.

Sandallar (miloddan avvalgi 1479-1425 yillar). Bu oltin sandallar 18 -sulolaning o'rtalarida Misr Tutmoz III malikasining dafn marosimiga tegishli edi. Xuddi shunday oltin sandallar xuddi shu sulola oxirida hukmronlik qilgan Tutmanhamon avlodlaridan biri Tutanxamon mumiyasida topilgan. / Fotosurat MMA, jamoat mulki Keng bo'yinli kavanoz va qopqoqning nomi Tutmose III (miloddan avvalgi 1479-1425 yillar). 18 -sulolaga tegishli Theban qabri rasmlarida, ba'zida xizmatkorlarga mehmonlarni mayda tosh idishlarda saqlanadigan xushbo'y yog'lar va malhamlar bilan moylash ko'rsatiladi. / Fotosurat MMA, jamoat mulki

Thutmose III ning voyaga etmagan xotini bo'lgan uchta chet ellik ayol, xuddi shunday zargarlik buyumlari va turli dafn marosimlari buyumlari bilan birga dafn qilindi. Masalan, har bir malikaning ichki tagida zarb qilingan, zarb qilingan oltin varaqdan yasalgan bir juft oltin sandal va toshdan yasalgan kosmetika idishlari va boshqa varaqlardan yasalgan.

Amun haykali (miloddan avvalgi 945-712 yillar). Xudo Amun (“yashirin ”) birinchi marta O'rta Qirollikning boshida mashhur bo'lgan. Yangi Shohlikdan boshlab, Amun, shubhasiz, Misr panteonining eng muhim xudosi edi. Yaratuvchi xudo sifatida Amun ko'pincha Amun-Re nomi bilan tanilgan (odatda Misr xudolarning aralashmasida Amun asosiy quyosh xudosi Re bilan birlashtirilgan). / Fotosurat MMA, jamoat mulki

Qadimgi matnlarda Misr ibodatxonasida ishlatilgan oltin, kumush, bronza va boshqa metallardan yasalgan haykallarning ko'pligi haqida xabar berilgan, ammo ulardan faqat bitta oltin haykal saqlanib qolgan. Bu Amun figurasining tanasi, qo'llari minus, bitta bo'lakka qattiq quyilgan va alohida quyilgan qo'llar joyida lehimlangan. Uning regali ham alohida ishlab chiqarilgan: o'ng qo'lida skimitar, chapda an anx belgisi, ikkinchisi lehim yordamida birlashtirilgan ko'plab komponentlardan iborat. Texnik sabablarga ko'ra, Amunning tojining yo'qligi, uchta biriktiruvchi halqa va haykalning qo'llab -quvvatlanishi, har biri alohida -alohida va dastlab lehimlangan bo'lib, qadimiy ziyon yoki dafn ta'sirini anglatmaydi, lekin olib tashlangan. haykal Carnarvon to'plami uchun 1917 yilda sotib olinishidan oldin.

Bir bezatilgan terminali saqlangan tasma zanjiri (miloddan avvalgi 332-30 yillar). ‘Staplar ’ yonma-yon bog'langan ikki yoki undan ortiq pastadirli zanjirlardan iborat. Bu simlarni bir -biriga bog'lab turadigan o'n to'rtta zanjirdan iborat. / Fotosurat MMA, jamoat mulki

Sim texnologiyasi, ayniqsa zargarlik buyumlari uchun oltin ishlov berishning muhim qismidir. Misol uchun, simlar sirtni bezash uchun ishlatilgan, ko'pincha granulyatsiya ishlari bilan birgalikda ishlatilgan va ular bir xil kolloid qattiq lehim usuli yordamida qo'llanilgan. Zanjirlar yasash uchun simlarni burish, to'qish yoki to'qish mumkin edi, so'ngra alohida komponentlarni birlashtirish uchun konstruktiv tarzda ishlatish mumkin edi. Simlarning o'zi mahkam o'ralgan metall chiziqlar yoki novdalardan yasalgan yoki yumaloqlikka erishish uchun bolg'acha bilan kesilgan. Tasma zanjirining bo'laklarini tashkil etuvchi simli hovlilar oldingi usulda ishlab chiqarilgan.

Imperator tangalari bo'lgan medalyonli yoqa (mil. 225 yil). Bu yoqada imperator Lucius Verus (milodiy 161-169 yillar) va Aleksandr Severus (milodiy 222-235 yillar) va Yuliya Domna, imperator Septimius Severusning rafiqasi (mil. 193-211) va onasining tangalari bo'lgan medallar ko'rsatilgan. Geta (milodiy 211-212 yillar) va Karakalla (milodiy 211-217 yillar). / Fotosurat MMA, jamoat mulki

Makedoniya, Ptolemey va Rim davrlarida boshqa joylarda ishlab chiqarilgan zargarlik buyumlari Misrda muomalada bo'lgan va mahalliy ishlab chiqarish bu va boshqa begona ta'sirlarni aks ettiradi. Rim davrida Misrda zargarlik buyumlari dizaynida qo'llanilgan xorijiy amaliyotlardan biri bu oltin tangalarni kiritish edi-Misr iqtisodiyoti Aleksandr Makedonskiy zamonigacha tovarga asoslangan edi va tangalar ramkali yasalgan. Odatda Rim texnikasi sifatida tanilgan opus interassil.


Masih xochga mixlangan, Hispan-Filippin fil suyagi

Isoning fil suyagi haykali uchta qit'a o'rtasida sayohat qilib, XVI -XVII asrlarda global materiallar, narsalar va nasroniylik oqimini namoyish etdi.

Masih xochga mixlangan, 17-asr, fil suyagi (Museo Frans Mayer, Mexiko shahri), ma'ruzachilar: doktor Loren G. Kilroy-Evbank va doktor Stiven Tsuker

Filippin, Yangi Ispaniya va Ispaniya o'rtasidagi savdo

Filippin ham, Meksika ham bir paytlar Ispaniya toji tomonidan boshqariladigan Yangi Ispaniya viceroyalligi deb nomlangan qismning bir qismini tashkil qilgan. XVI asrdan boshlab Ispaniya gallonlari (katta, ko'p qavatli kemalar) Manila (Filippinda) va Akapulko (Meksikada) o'rtasida suzishni boshladi. Bu Tinch okeanidagi Manila Galleon savdosi global materiallar almashinuvi uchun muhim yo'lni yaratdi (masalan, Osiyodan ipak, ziravorlar, chinni va fil suyagi, Amerikadan kumush va oltin). Osiyodan keladigan ko'plab resurslar va tovarlar, shuningdek, Akapulkodan Meksikaning Ko'rfaz sohiligacha quruqlik bo'ylab sayohat qilib, Atlantika okeani orqali Ispaniyaga jo'natiladi.

Bu narsalar Filippinda (yoki hatto Xitoyda) yaratilishini bildirish uchun ko'pincha "Hispan-Filippin fil suyagi haykallari" deb nomlanadi, lekin ispan mijozlari uchun (xoh Ispaniya Amerikasida, xoh Iberiya yarim orolida) yaratilgan. Rassomlar ham asli Xitoydan bo'lgan bo'lishi mumkin.

Rassomlar bir qancha kichik hajmdagi ibodat buyumlarini o'yib ishlagan Masih xochga mixlangan i vory -dan - XVI -XVII asrlarda hashamatli material. Fil suyagidan yasalgan haykallarning ba'zilari oxir -oqibat Ispaniyaga mo'ljallangan bo'lsa -da, ko'plari Amerikada qoldi. Shunga o'xshash ob'ekt Masih xochga mixlangan shuningdek, XVI -XVII asrlarda katoliklikning global miqyosdagi imkoniyatlarini namoyish etadi.


Tarkibi

Tarixiy jihatdan, xitoy ajdaho Xitoy imperatori bilan bog'langan va imperator hokimiyatining ramzi sifatida ishlatilgan. Xan sulolasining asoschisi Lyu Bangning ta'kidlashicha, u onasi ajdarni orzu qilganidan keyin homilador bo'lgan. [2] Tan sulolasi davrida imperatorlar imperator ramzi sifatida ajdaho motifli liboslar kiyishgan va yuqori amaldorlarga ajdaho liboslari ham taqdim etilishi mumkin edi. [3] Yuan sulolasida ikki shoxli besh tirnoqli ajdaho faqat Osmon O'g'li yoki imperator tomonidan ishlatilgan, to'rt tirnoqli ajdar esa knyazlar va zodagonlar tomonidan ishlatilgan. [4] Xuddi shunday, Min va Qing sulolasi davrida besh tirnoqli ajdaho faqat Imperator uchun ishlatilgan. Qing sulolasidagi ajdaho birinchi Xitoy davlat bayrog'ida paydo bo'lgan. [5]

Ajdaho ba'zan G'arbda Xitoyning milliy gerbi sifatida ishlatiladi, lekin bunday foydalanish Xitoy Xalq Respublikasida yoki Xitoy Respublikasida kam uchraydi. Buning o'rniga u odatda madaniyatning ramzi sifatida ishlatiladi. Gonkongda ajdar Britaniya hukmronligi ostida gerbning tarkibiy qismi bo'lgan. Bu keyinchalik Gonkong hukumatining reklama belgisi bo'lgan dizaynning o'ziga xos xususiyatiga aylandi. [6]

Xitoy ajdaho Evropa ajdaridan juda farq qiladi-Evropa madaniyatida ajdaho olovli nafas oluvchi, tajovuzkor ma'noga ega, xitoy ajdaho esa farovonlik va omadni, yomg'irni ifodalovchi ma'naviy va madaniy ramzdir. uyg'unlikni ta'minlaydigan xudo. Ma'lum bo'lishicha, Xitoy hukumati ajdaho Xitoydan tashqarida bo'lgan tajovuzkor ma'nolar tufayli ajdarni 2008 yilgi Yozgi Olimpiadaning rasmiy talismani sifatida ishlatmaslikka qaror qilgan va uning o'rniga ko'proq "do'stona" belgilarni tanlagan. [7] Ba'zida xitoyliklar etnik o'ziga xoslik belgisi sifatida "ajdaho avlodlari" (soddalashtirilgan xitoycha: Chinese an'anaviy xitoycha: 龍的傳人) atamasini 1970 -yillarda turli osiyolik millatlar paydo bo'lgan paytda boshlangan tendentsiya sifatida ishlatishadi. hayvon ramzlarini tasvir sifatida qidirish, masalan, bo'ri mo'g'ullar tomonidan ishlatilishi mumkin, chunki ular afsonaviy ajdodlari hisoblanadi. [2] [5] [8]

Davlat belgisi tahrirlash

Ajdaho ko'plab sulolalar uchun Xitoy imperatorining ramzi bo'lgan. Qing sulolasi davrida Azure Dragon Xitoyning birinchi davlat bayrog'ida tasvirlangan. U 1913 yildan 1928 yilgacha Xitoy Respublikasida ishlatilgan "O'n ikki belgi" davlat gerbida yana paydo bo'ldi.

Imperator jade muhri, Yuan sulolasi (1271–1368)

Veyxayvey Komissarining bayrog'i, markazida xitoy ajdaho, 1899–1903

Xitoy Respublikasi Davlat gerbi, 1913–1928

Xitoy ajdarlari 1997 yilgacha Gonkong mustamlakachilik qurollari tarafdorlaridan biri bo'lgan

Xitoy ajdarlari 1999 yilgacha Makao hukumatining mustamlakachilar qo'lida Portugaliya qo'lidan qalqon olib yurgan

Xitoy madaniyatining ta'siri tufayli ajdaho Vetnamda davlat ramzi sifatida qabul qilingan. Nguyin sulolasi davrida ajdaho imperatorlik me'yorlarida tasvirlangan. U, shuningdek, Vetnam shtati, keyinroq Janubiy Vetnam gerblarida tasvirlangan.

Imperatorlar Kxi Dịnh va Bảo Dại, 1922–1945 y.

Nguyin sulolasining imperator pennoni, 1802–1945

Nguyin sulolasining vertikal imperatorlik pennoni

Vetnam davlat gerbi, 1954–1955 yillar

Vetnam davlat boshlig'i sifatida Bảo Dại shaxsiy standarti, 1948–1955

Vetnam milliy armiyasi bayrog'ining har bir burchagida ajdaho bor

Xitoy ajdaho 1963-1975 yillar Janubiy Vetnam gerbining tarafdorlari bo'lgan

Kelib chiqish tahriri

Qadimgi xitoyliklar o'zini "ajdaho xudolari" deb atashgan, chunki xitoy ajdaho ajdodlar evolyutsiyasini ifodalovchi xayoliy sudraluvchi. qi energiya. [9] Xitoy madaniyatida ajdarlarning mavjudligi bir necha ming yillarga borib taqaladi, 1987 yilda Xenandagi Yangshao madaniyatidan miloddan avvalgi 5 -ming yillikka tegishli ajdaho haykali, [10] va burma shakldagi nishon nishonlari. eramizdan avvalgi 4700–2900 yillardagi Hongshan madaniyatidan qazilgan. [11] Eng qadimgi ajdaho artefaktlaridan ba'zilari Hongshan madaniyatidan cho'chqa ajdaho o'ymakorligi.

Ajdaho yoki ilon shakli qadimgi Xitoy madaniyatida muhim rol o'ynagan. Eng qadimgi xitoy yozuvidagi "ajdaho" belgisi xuddi Shan davridagi jade ajdar tulkilariga o'xshab o'ralgan shaklga ega. [12]

Qadimgi xitoyliklar topilmagan dinozavr suyaklarini ajdaho suyagi deb atashgan va ularni shunday hujjatlashgan. Masalan, miloddan avvalgi 300 yilda Chang Qu Sichuan shahrida "ajdaho suyaklari" topilganligini hujjatlashtiradi. [13] Zamonaviy xitoycha dinozavr atamasi 恐龍 恐龙 deb yozilgan konglóng ("dahshatli ajdaho") va Xitoy markazidagi qishloq aholisi an'anaviy dori -darmonlarda foydalanish uchun toshdan yasalgan "ajdaho suyaklari" ni uzoq vaqtdan beri topib kelishgan, bu amaliyot bugun ham davom etmoqda. [14]

Xitoyda topilgan turli dinozavrlarning binomial nomi, Meni uzoq, xitoy tilida (mèi va lóng) "uxlayotgan ajdaho" degan ma'noni anglatadi. Meining toshga aylangan qoldiqlari Xitoyda uxlab yotgan va o'ralgan holda topilgan, dinozavr tumshug'ini old oyoqlaridan birining ostiga qo'yib, dumini butun vujudi bilan o'rab olgan. [15]

Afsonaviy mavjudot tahrir

Xitoy ajdaho totem yoki tabiiy mavjudotlarning stilize qilingan tasviridan kelib chiqib, afsonaviy hayvonga aylandi. Xan sulolasi olimi Van Fu Xitoy afsonalarini yozgan uzoq ajdarlarning to'qqizta anatomik o'xshashligi bor edi.

Odamlar ajdarning shaklini otning boshi va ilonning dumi bilan bo'yashadi. Bundan tashqari, "uchta bo'g'in" va "to'qqizta o'xshashlik" (ajdaho) kabi iboralar mavjud: boshdan yelkaga, elkadan ko'kragiga, ko'kragidan dumigacha. Bu to'qqizta o'xshashlik bo'g'imlari, ular quyidagilardir: uning shoxlari bug'iga o'xshaydi, boshi tuyaning boshiga, ko'zlari jinga, bo'yniga ilonga, qorniga mollyonka o'xshaydi (shen, 蜃), uning tarozisi sazanniki, tirnoqlari burgutniki, tagligi yo'lbarsniki, qulog'i sigirniki. Uning boshida u keng taniqli (katta bo'lak) kabi narsaga ega, u [kimyo] (尺 木). Agar ajdaho bo'lmasa [kimyo], u osmonga ko'tarila olmaydi. [16]

Boshqa manbalarda to'qqizta hayvon o'xshashligining variantli ro'yxatlari keltirilgan. Sinolog Anri Dore haqiqiy ajdahoning quyidagi xususiyatlarini sanab o'tdi: "Kiyik shoxlari. Timsoh boshi. Jinning ko'zlari. Ilonning bo'yni. Toshbaqaning ichki organlari. Qirg'izning panjalari. Yo'lbarsning kaftlari. Sigirniki". Va u shoxlari orqali eshitadi va quloqlari eshitish qobiliyatidan mahrumdir ». [17] Uning ta'kidlashicha, "Boshqalar quyonning ko'zlari, qurbaqaning qorni va sazan tarozilari borligini aytishadi". Boshqa afsonaviy mavjudotlarning anatomiyasi, shu jumladan kimera va mantor ham xuddi shunday shafqatsiz hayvonlardan birlashtirilgan.

Xitoy ajdarlari jismonan ixcham hisoblangan. 117 tarozidan 81 tasi yang (ijobiy), 36 tasi yin (salbiy). Dastlab ajdaho xayrixoh, dono va adolatli edi, lekin buddistlar ba'zi ajdarlarga yomon ta'sir tushunchasini kiritdilar. Ular aytganidek, suv qanday vayron qilsa, ba'zi ajdarho ham suv toshqini, to'lqin va bo'ron orqali yo'q qilishi mumkin. Ular, eng dahshatli suv toshqini, ajdaho odamni xafa qilgani oqibatida sodir bo'lgan deb taxmin qilishdi.

Xitoy ajdarlarining ko'plab rasmlarida iyaklari ostida yoki panjalarida alangali marvarid tasvirlangan. Marvarid ruhiy energiya, donolik, farovonlik, kuch, o'lmaslik, momaqaldiroq yoki oy bilan bog'liq. Xitoy san'atida tez -tez yonayotgan marvarid ustidan quvayotgan yoki jang qilayotgan ajdaho tasvirlangan.

Vaqti-vaqti bilan xitoy ajdaholari old oyoq-qo'llaridan o'sayotgan qanotlari bilan tasvirlangan, lekin ularning qanotlari yo'q, chunki ularning uchish qobiliyati (va yomg'ir/suvni nazorat qilish va hokazo) sirli bo'lib, ularning jismoniy ta'siri natijasida ko'rinmaydi. atributlar.

Bu tavsif ajdahoning hozirgi kungacha badiiy tasviriga mos keladi. Ajdaho, shuningdek, g'ayritabiiy kuchlarning deyarli cheksiz doirasiga ega bo'ldi. Aytilishicha, u o'zini ipak qurti niqobiga aylantirishi yoki butun koinotimizdek kattalashishi mumkin. U bulutlar orasida ucha oladi yoki suvda yashirishi mumkin Guanzi). U bulutlarni yaratishi, suvga aylanishi, atrofini aralashtirish qobiliyati sifatida rangini o'zgartirishi, kamuflyaj yoki qorong'uda porlashning samarali shakli sifatida ( Shuowen Jiezi).

Boshqa ko'plab mamlakatlarda, ertaklarda ajdaho zodiakning boshqa 11 jonzotining barcha atributlari borligi haqida gapiriladi, bunga kalamushning mo'ylovlari, ho'kizning yuzi va shoxlari, yo'lbarsning tirnoqlari va tishlari, qorni kiradi. quyon, ilon tanasi, ot oyoqlari, echki echki, maymun aqlli, xo'roz tepasi, it quloqlari va cho'chqa tumshug'i.

Ayrim doiralarda ajdarni pastga qaragan holda tasvirlash omadsizlik deb hisoblanadi, chunki ajdaho osmonga ko'tarila olmaydigan qilib qo'yilishi hurmatsizlik sifatida qaraladi. Bundan tashqari, tatuirovkada ajdaho tasvirlari keng tarqalgan, chunki ular kuch va qudratning ramzi, ayniqsa ajdarlar o'z -o'zidan ma'noga ega bo'lgan jinoiy tashkilotlar. Shunday qilib, odam shafqatsiz va kuchli bo'lishi kerak, shuning uchun ajdaho uning omadini yo'qotmasligi uchun teriga ajdaho kiyish huquqini oladi. [ iqtibos kerak ]

San'atshunos Jon Boardmanning so'zlariga ko'ra, xitoy ajdaho va hind makara tasvirlari ta'sirlangan bo'lishi mumkin Kotos Yunon mifologiyasida, ehtimol ipak yo'li tasvirlari bilan aloqa qilganidan keyin Kotos Chunki Xitoy ajdaho sudralib yuruvchi bo'lib paydo bo'ldi va keyin bosh shakli o'zgarib ketdi. [18]

Ob -havo va suv hukmdori

Xitoy ajdarlari mashhur dinda suv va ob -havo bilan chambarchas bog'liq. Ular sharsharalar, daryolar yoki dengizlar kabi harakatlanuvchi suv havzalarining hukmdorlari ekanligiga ishonishadi. Ajdaho Xudo - yomg'ir tarqatuvchi, shuningdek, zumorfik tasvir yang avlodning erkak kuchi. [19] Suv va ob -havo hukmdori sifatida ajdaho antropomorfik shaklga ega bo'lib, ko'pincha gumanoid tasvirlangan, qirol libosida, lekin ajdar boshi shohning bosh kiyimida.

To'rtta dengizning har birini ifodalovchi to'rtta katta ajdaho podshohi bor: Sharqiy dengiz (Sharqiy Xitoy dengiziga to'g'ri keladi), Janubiy dengiz (Janubiy Xitoy dengiziga to'g'ri keladi), G'arbiy dengiz (ba'zan Qingxay ko'li va boshqalar) ) va Shimoliy dengiz (ba'zan Baykal ko'li sifatida ko'riladi).

Bu uyushma tufayli ular suv bilan bog'liq ob-havo hodisalariga "mas'ul" sifatida qaraladi. Hozirgi zamonda, ko'plab xitoy qishloqlarida (ayniqsa, daryo va dengiz yaqinida) mahalliy "ajdaho shohi" ga bag'ishlangan ibodatxonalar bor edi. Qurg'oqchilik yoki suv toshqini paytida, mahalliy zodagonlar va hukumat amaldorlari, ajdarni tinchlantirish uchun qurbonliklar keltirish va boshqa diniy marosimlarni olib borish, yo yomg'ir so'rab, yoki uni to'xtatish uchun jamoaga rahbarlik qilishlari odat edi.

Besh sulolalar va o'n qirollik davridagi Vuyue qiroli, dengizni "bo'ysundirgan" keng gidrotexnika sxemalari tufayli, ko'pincha "ajdaho qiroli" yoki "dengiz ajdaho qiroli" nomi bilan tanilgan.


Meksikani zabt etish va Mexiko shahrining ko'rinishi bilan biombo

Fransua Boucher Burjua nonushta (pastda) yuqori sinfdagi frantsuz oilasi o'z zamonaviy uyida joylashgan. Kichkina tokchada joylashgan xonaning burchagida, ehtimol Xitoydan olib kelingan, balki Germaniyaning Meissen shahrida xitoy chinni taqlid qilib yaratilgan Budda haykalchasi joylashgan. "Chinoiserie" (va keyinchalik "Yaponizm")- XVIII-XIX asrlarda Evropaning Sharqiy Osiyo tovarlariga bo'lgan qiziqishini tasvirlash uchun ishlatiladigan atamalar. Aslida, evropaliklar uzoq vaqt Sharqdan ziravorlar, ipak va chinni buyumlarni qidirishgan, lekin Usmonlilar bu va boshqa qimmatbaho buyumlar savdosini nazorat qilishgan.

Fransua Boucher, Oilaviy nonushta (batafsil), 1739, 81 x 65 sm (Luvr)

Osiyoga Usmonli boshqaruvini chetlab o'tadigan to'g'ridan-to'g'ri yo'lni izlab, ispan toji qo'llab-quvvatlaydigan genuylik navigator Kristofer Kolumb tasodifan "Yangi dunyo" deb nomlangan joyga tushib qoldi, garchi u G'arbiy Osiyoga boradigan yo'lni topganiga ishongan bo'lsa ham. Ispan navigatorlari tezda Osiyoda emasligini anglab, Amerikani mustamlaka qilishga kirishdilar. Tez orada yevropaliklar Tinch okeani bo'ylab yo'l olishdi va Osiyodagi birinchi ispan aholi punkti 1565 yilda San -Migelda (hozirgi Sebu (Filippin)) tashkil etildi. Yangi Ispaniya vorisligi oxir -oqibat Shimoliy Amerikaning ko'p qismini, shu jumladan Meksika va Markaziy Amerikani o'z ichiga oldi. shuningdek Filippin.

Osiyo + Amerika (Ispaniya orqali)

Manila Galleon savdo yo'llari

Harpsichordli yosh ayol, 1735-1750, tuval ustiga yog '(Denver san'at muzeyi)

Bu ikki xil Osiyo va Amerika hududlariga har ikki yilda Filippindagi Manila va Meksikadagi Akapulko shaharlaridan ketadigan Manila Galleon ispan kemalari qo'shildi. Akapulkodan Osiyo hashamatli buyumlari quruqlik orqali Veracruzga ko'chirildi, u erda Ispaniyaga jo'natilgan kemalarga joylashtirildi yoki qayiq yoki xachir bilan Lima, Gavana, Kartagen va Portobelo kabi port shaharlarga yo'l oldi.

Elita ispanlar va kreollar o'z uylarini bezatdilar va tanalarini Sharqiy Osiyo to'qimachilik va ishlab chiqarish buyumlarining ajoyib namunalari bilan bezatdilar. Harpsichordli yosh ayol (chapda). O'tirgan kishi Osiyo (yoki Osiyodan ilhomlangan) muxlisini ushlab turadi va tikilgan ipak libos kiyadi-o'sha paytda modaning balandligi. Soon local artists were inspired to create their own versions of Asian goods, or to inject East Asian styles and motifs into their work. The influence of Asian art is particularly evident in viceregal textiles, ceramics, and furniture. Some examples are the resplendent biombos, or folding screens, made in Mexico beginning in the seventeenth century.

Mexico City side, Biombo with the Conquest of Mexico and View of Mexico City, New Spain, late 17th century (Museo Franz Mayer, Mexico City)

A nima Biombo?

So'z biombo is a Hispanization of the Japanese byobu, which can be translated as “protection from wind.” Birinchi byobu arrived in Mexico City as early as 1614 and quickly became highly sought after luxury items. These screens, originally imported from China to Japan in the eighth century and made of separate folding panels hinged together, were used within homes to divide or enclose interior spaces. Japanese screens typically featured landscapes with people or animals, but biombo made in Mexico featured secular subjects set within a city or landscape. Popular subjects included Indigenous festivities, allegories of the four continents, and scenes from the conquest of Mexico.

Conquest side, Biombo showing the Conquest of Mexico and View of Mexico City, New Spain, late 17th century (Museo Franz Mayer, Mexico City)

Biombo as Map

The Biombo with the Conquest of Mexico and View of Mexico City in the Museo Franz Mayer in Mexico City (above) is exemplary of the genre. Created in the second half of the seventeenth century, the screen features a panoramic birds-eye map of Mexico City on one side and scenes from the Conquest of Mexico on the other. While both sides of the biombo show the same geographic space (Tenochtitlan/Mexico City), the city is rendered very differently on each side.

Mexico City streets (detail), Biombo with the Conquest of Mexico and View of Mexico City, New Spain, late 17th century (Museo Franz Mayer, Mexico City)

This birds-eye view of the city (above) gives a cartographic rendering of the city in three dimensions. Likely based on a seventeenth-century map of the city, this side of the biombo focuses on the physical aspects of Mexico City. The image is idealized—privileging the elite Spanish view of the city. Notably absent, for example, are the small Indigenous dwellings that could be found on the outskirts of the city.

Tlatelolco and the landscape beyond (detail), Biombo with the Conquest of Mexico and View of Mexico City, New Spain, late 17th century (Museo Franz Mayer, Mexico City)

Devoid of people, the sweeping city on a lake appears picturesque, with mountains rising in the distance and causeways that radiate out from its carefully organized grid of plaza, streets, and canals. The grid was established by the Mexica (Aztecs) who founded the city. The Spanish troops who arrived in 1519 were amazed conquistador Bernal Díaz del Castillo wrote: “Among us there were soldiers who had been in many parts of the world, in Constantinople and all of Italy and Rome. Never had they seen a square that compared so well, so orderly and wide, and so full of people, as that one.” 1 He marveled also at the “straight, level causeway,” and “high towers, pyramids, and other buildings, all of masonry, which rose from the water.” For the Spaniards, they had arrived in a city of dreams—one that mirrored the Renaissance ideals of city planning that had yet to be realized in Spanish medieval cities.

Cathedral (detail), Biombo with the Conquest of Mexico and View of Mexico City, New Spain, late 17th century (Museo Franz Mayer, Mexico City)

Following the Conquest, Tenochtitlan was renamed Mexico City, and was transformed to more closely resemble a European city. Painted in one point perspective (a convention of European painting), the biombo showcases seventeenth-century Mexico City as a sprawling metropolis of stucco buildings with red slate roofs. Particular attention is paid to its most prominent structures: churches, schools, hospitals, monasteries, and convents. The perspectival focus is on the traza, the center of the city that was reserved for the Spanish elites, but the Indigenous city of Tlatelolco, the “sister” city of Tenochtitlan, is rendered on the left hand side of the island (above).

Battle scene (detail), Biombo with the Conquest of Mexico and View of Mexico City, New Spain, late 17th century (Museo Franz Mayer, Mexico City)

Biombo as Narrative

Cartouche (detail), Biombo with the Conquest of Mexico and View of Mexico City, New Spain, late 17th century (Museo Franz Mayer, Mexico City)

Assassination of Moctezuma II (detail), Biombo with the Conquest of Mexico and View of Mexico City, New Spain, late 17th century (Museo Franz Mayer, Mexico City)

Biombo in Context

Imagine this folding screen in a large and sumptuously decorated home in Mexico City. Its recalling of Asian art forms was a reflection of the sophisticated tastes of its cosmopolitan owners. The Spanish or Creole elites would have used the biombo as a conversation piece, or perhaps invented games and riddles that related one episode of the Conquest to a particular part of the city. The biombo could serve as a mnemonic device for recalling collective and oral histories of the city. 2 While the Conquest view illustrated the discord of the pre-Hispanic period, the map view celebrated order under Spanish rule. Though never visible at the same time, the two scenes are interrelated, and the act of going back and forth between the physical city and its historic Conquest was one that fascinated both the eye and the mind. Through the act of looking, its owners could superimpose themselves within both the physical and historical city, becoming a part of the transition of the Mexica capital of Tenochtitlan to the Spanish capital of Mexico City.

1 Bernal Diaz del Castillo, The History of the Conquest of New Spain, Ed. John Cohen (New York: Penguin Books Limited, 1963), p. 235.

2 Barbara E. Mundy, “Moteuczoma Reborn: Biombo Paintings and Collective Memory in Colonial Mexico City,” Winterthur Portfolio, jild 45, no. 2/3 (Summer/Autumn 2011), p. 164.

Qo'shimcha manbalar:

Barbara E. Mundy, “Moteuczoma Reborn: Biombo Paintings and Collective Memory in Colonial Mexico City,” Winterthur Portfolio, jild 45, no. 2/3 (Summer/Autumn 2011), pp. 161-176.

Sofia Sanabrais, “From Byobu to Biombo: The Transformation of Japanese Folding Screen in Colonial Mexico,”San'at tarixi 38, 4 (September 2015), pp. 778-791.


Justinian Mosaic

T he emperor during late antiquity didn’t wear Roman magistrate dress anymore, but new imperial clothing that derived from the military one. In this mosaic Justinian wears a white knee-length tunic (divitision), decorated with golden bands (clavi) and a pair of purple leggings (tibialia). On his feet he wears a pair of purple sandals ornamented with precious stones, called campagi. Over the tunic, he wore a purple cloak (chlamys), which is pinned on by a brooch with pendants and is decorated on the right side with the tablion, an embroidered square of fabric (Ravegnani 136-138 D’Amato 12). Bu holda, tablion is decorated with birds encircled by a golden background roundels filled with figures and animals were very common in Byzantine textile designs (Figs. 1,2/ Muthesius 1997). The chlamys was a trapezoidal piece of fabric, which should be distinguished from the square or rectangular pallium, which became smaller in the ecclesiastical clothing (Martorelli). At last, Justinian wore a crown (stemma) fully decorated with precious stones and four pendilia (Ravegnani 138-139).

The tunic worn by Justinian was a simple T-shaped garment that reached to the knees, with sleeves and was tightened by the cingulum militiae. Tunics were usually made of wool, linen, silk, or occasionally cotton, and were woven in on piece, folded in half, and then sewn on the sides. Tunics often featured embroidered decorative appliqués around the neck opening, on the wrists, hems, cuffs, or on the lower part of the tunic (Fig. 3). As shown in the Justinian panel, pure white tunics were reserved for the emperor and were finished with gold embroidered decorations (D’Amato 8-16).

The belt was a military symbol and it was used to identify soldiers from civilians. At the turn of the 4th and 5th centuries, the leather belt was characterised by bronze and iron plates, which were ornamented or chiselled. During the 6th century these also featured pendants. In this case, Justinian wore a simple, ungilded belt, unlike the one described by the sources on imperial clothing (Ravegnani 137-138 D’Amato 17).

Eastern-derived leggings (tibialia) were used from the 5th century onwards and, like the belt, became a distinctive sign of military status. These leggings then became a basic piece of military uniform, in association with the tunic (D’Amato 18). Tibialia were usually worn with campagi, a kind of shoes made of wool or felt, which covered only the toes and heel and were fastened with laces or a buckle (D’Amato 20-22).

Fig. 1 - Creator unknown (Egyptian). Round insert of a tunic, 5th-7th century AD. Linen and wool 5.5 cm diameter. Berlin: Berlin State Museum, 4600. Source: SMB Digital

Fig. 2 - Artist unknown. St. Servatius (Maastricht) fabric with Dioscurides, 8th-9th century AD. Manba: Vikipediya

Fig. 3 - Creator unknown (Egyptian). Tunic, 3rd-6th century AD. Linen, wool. Berlin: Berlin State Museum, 9918. Source: SMB Digital

The guardsmen wear a richly decorated, colorful tunic called a paragauda due to the embroidered ornaments, with white tibialia and black campagi. They also wear a rigid circular necklace called a torque (D’Amato 45).

The two officials to the right of Justinian, identified as Anastasius and Belisarius, wear a tunic with a symbol on the right shoulder, which could be a sign of their rank (D’Amato 37 Ravegnani 140). They also wore a white chlamys pinned by a crossbow brooch and decorated with a purple tablion. At last, leggings and black campagi complete the look (D’Amato 37).

Justinian gave Maximian, the bald man who stands to his left, the title of archbishop and this elevation might be confirmed by his garment and the pallium, a strip of cloth ornamented by crosses draped around his head (Heyward 302). The pallium must also be link with the ambitions of the bishops of Ravenna against Rome (Delyannis 210-211 Hayward 302 Serfass). Under his pallium Maximian wears a tunic and a golden paenula, which probably derives from chlamys because it seems open on the right (Hayward 303).

The deacons wear a tunic like Maximian’s with wide sleeves and decorated with black clavi (stripes). This type of tunic could be the tunica alba, which was the garment intended for deacons between the 5th and the 9th centuries (Hayward 302 Britannica ensiklopediyasi).


Tarkibi

During the reign of Ananga Bhima Deva, the king of Utkal, Lord Jagannath was declared as 'Utkal Samrat' or "Lord of the Nation" in the 13th century, [7] and by then the Jagannath Temple at Puri had been built by him in 1198. [8] According to temple history, Suna Bhesha was introduced during the era of King Kapilendradeva in 1460 A.D. [6] When the king Kapilendradeva (r.1434-1466 AD) returned home triumphant after winning wars over the rulers of the Deccan (Southern India) he brought a huge bounty which was carried in 16 cart loads (on 16 elephants is also mentioned. [6] ). The trophies which he collected consisted of diamonds and gold. The day he arrived in Puri he donated all the booty to the Lord Jagannath. He instructed the temple priests to get ornaments crafted out of the gold and diamond he had donated to adorn the deities on the occasion of the Ratha Yatra festival. Since then the deities, Jagannatha, Balabharda and Subhadra are decorated with this jewelry after the Bahuda Yatra. [9]

During the 10th bright day of the month of Aswin (October) on Bijayadasami or Dassahara day, Lord Jagannath is fully bedecked as an emperor with all gold jewelry. [4] On the 12th Shukla paksha day of the month of Ashada, after returning from the Ratha Yatra to the main Jagannath Temple, also known as Srimandir, the three deities are adorned with gold ornaments. Again on the full moon day of the Kartika (November) the deities are decorated with gold ornaments. On the full moon day of Pausha (December) and Phalguna (March) also the deities are worshiped when gold ornamentation is done. [4]

A day after the Suna Bhesha event Lord Jagannath and other deities are formally offered a concoction of a sweet juice, known in local usage as Adharapana, which is a mixture made of milk, cream, cottage cheese, plantain pulp, grated coconut, nabata (brown sugar spiced with camphor), nutmeg and black pepper and so forth. The juice is offered as a token to the lips of the deities deified in their individual chariots to break their fast or ekadasi. Following this ritual the terracotta vessel with its contents is broken which is done to appease guardian deities (demi-gods) of the three chariots and the gods deified therein. Devotees assembled at the venue jostle to collect a small quantity of this juice as prasada (gracious gift of god). [1]

The gold ornaments are stored at the temple’s treasury known as Bhitara Bhandaraghara. According to the "Records of Rights", the bhandara (store) has 150 gold articles comprising three necklaces of 120 tolas (each tola is equivalent to 11.33980925 grams) weight each, limbs (hands and feet) of Jagannatha and Balabhadra made in gold of 818 tolas and 710 tolas weight. Also recorded are decorative crowns of the deities Jagannatha, Balabhadra and Subhadra in the order of 610 tolas, 434 tolas and 274 tolas in weight. The estimated value of these ornaments is said to run into several million crores. The security of all the jewelry rests with the Temple Police force, which is controlled by the Temple Managing Committee. [1] When the jewelry is brought out for decorating the deities in the chariots, armed policemen accompany it along with a minimum of 25 storekeepers. [6] Except the priests and the servitors no one else is allowed to remain on the chariots for security reasons. Devotees get a Darśana or a vision of the Suna Bhesha of the deities from a certain distance. [10]

According to the temple sources, in the past, the total weight of the gold ornaments used to adorn the deities weighed more than 208 kg initially made in 138 designs. However, now only 20-30 designs are used. [6]

The designs of the gold ornaments that are used to decorate the deities are known as: hasta (hand) payar (feet) mukuta (tiara or large crown) mayur chandrika, a peacock feather design which was used as head decoration by Lord Krishna chulapati (a forehead costume which highlights facial beauty) kundal (hanging ear-rings) rahurekha, a half square shaped decorative adorned across the face of the deity malas or necklaces of various types such as padam (lotus), sevati (small sun flower), agasti in the shape of moon flower in a kadamba flower shape, kante (large gold beads), mayoor in the form of peacock feathers, and champa, a yellow flower Sri chita representing the third eye of the deities chakra or wheel gada or mace padma a lotus flower and shankh or conch. [4] [7]

The chita or "Sri Chita" decorative ornament, which denotes the third eye of gods, is represented separately for each of the deities Lord Jagannath’s forehead is affixed with a diamond and Goddess Subhadra’s forehead is decorated with an emerald (panna). These forehead ornamentations are removed when the deities are brought out during the Deb Snana Purnima. They are then redecorated when the deities return to the sanctum, in the Chitra month on amavasya day (new moon day). [4]

A very large painting depicting Lord Jagannath in Suna Bhesha which is of 10.5x6.5 ft size was put on display in Puri during the Bahuda Yatra. [11]


A Brief History of Elegant Hands in Jewelry

For the last several years the hamsa has had a stronghold on the hand trend in jewelry. Before the hamsa renaissance, however, different types of hand jewels were popular—ones that had no use as amulets, but were just purely elegant. When I took a tour of the Hancock’s boutique in London and saw a pair of glam vintage Paul Flato hand earclips, I got very interested in the history of the expressive style.

Jewelry in the shape of hands first became fashionable during the 1830s and 1840s, when they appeared as gloved hands on clasps of gold necklaces. Unlike the ancient hamsa charms worn as defense against the evil eye, these jewels did not depict the palm and didn’t symbolize anything specific. Instead, they were modeled after elegantly posed hands, decorated with bejeweled cuffs, and topped with gemstone rings. They were often attached to long gold chains, adding a playful touch to a basic jewel.

During the Victorian era, hand jewels were carved from delicate materials like ivory and coral, decorated with cuffs and accented with gold and gemstones. These hands, could carry as much symbolic significance as the hamsa. They often held allegorical objects such as wreaths, which would have indicated memorialization, or snakes which stood for eternality.

Katharine Hepburn in ‘Holiday’ wearing a W Sign Language Initial Clip by Paul Flato Photo still from ‘Hollywood Jewels’

During the 20 th century, Cartier and American jeweler Paul Flato were among those who grabbed on to the hand concept inspired by Surrealist hand motifs among other cultural cues. Cartier created a series of brooches around the late 1930s with either coral or onyx hands clutching a gold or oynx rose. Diamond and gold bracelets decorated the wrist. The exact meaning of the motif is slightly mysterious. Author Nadine Coleno in her book Amazing Cartier (2009) cites everything from the rose in the castle in the novel Beauty and the Beast to the flower in the hand of Mogul emperors alluding to their legendary gardens.

Paul Flato first introduced his hand-shaped jewelry designs in the 1930s and he quickly became renowned for them. He created sign language initial clips in every single letter of the alphabet. Clients purchased custom pairs to represent their initials (or whoever else’s initials they wanted to wear). Katherine Hepburn sported a W sign language initial clip brooch from Flato in the 1938 screwball comedy Bayram . The letter was the first initial of her mother’s maiden name in the film. Anita Loos, author of the novel and screenplay for Janoblar blondalarni afzal ko'rishadi, had A and L Sign Language Clips by Flato in her jewelry collection.

The A and L sign gestures, illustrated in a 1938 Paul Flato advertisement were created for Anita Loos

Inspired by astrology, Flato designed a ‘Hand of God’ brooch which depicted a gold palm surrounded by stars pavéd with diamonds. It is the hand design he made that is closest in relation to the ancient hamsa symbol, though it still possesses the elegant, longer fingers. Actress Joan Bennett loved her Flato ‘Hand of God’ brooch so much, she wore it as a pendant on a necklace in several publicity photos (see one at top on the left).

Another one of Flato’s play on the hand jewels did not represent specific letters of sign language and were not symbolic in any way, but they still said plenty through the way in which they were posed. The elegant pair of hand ear clips like the ones I spotted at Hancock’s (seen in the photo at top on right), for example, is topped with long fingernails, cuffs trimmed with diamonds, and large single-cut diamond ‘rings.’ The hands of each clip are spread in a graceful gesture, and they look like the type of manicured fingers that would naturally grasp a bejeweled cigarette holder in one hand while reaching for a champagne coupe with the other.

Today, elegant hands can be found in a few creative collections. Wilfredo Rosado designed carved ebony wood hand earrings decorated with jeweled bracelets that look like the bold descendants of Flato’s jewels.

Wilfredo Rosado Hand to Hand earrings of ebony, gold, diamonds and colored stones Photo courtesy

The designer, however, was inspired by a motif rich in history and symbolism. Majestic blackamoors were the muse behind Rosado’s Urban Prince collection. In researching the jewels Wilfredo noticed that very few blackamoors are depicted with arms or hands, so he chose to create pieces depicting only those body parts.

Wilfredo doesn’t attach particular symbolism to hand jewelry, as was done during the Victorian era, but he is fascinated by people’s hands. He explained, “I think hands can convey so much. I always make it a point to observe people’s hands. It’s become sort of an obsession. I remember taking notice of Andy Warhol’s hands when I worked with him. I loved to watch him draw. His hands were very strong in appearance but soft in how he executed his work. Hands can be very communicative, sometimes they are elegant and delicate, other times hard and strong. Hands are such an important part of our body language and I find it interesting to have them ‘freeze-framed’ in a piece of jewelry, where a message can be left to interpretation.”

While the hamsa, Flato’s sign languge clips and ‘Hand of God’ clearly come with sources of inspiration the elegance of most hands in jewelry over time seem to be inspired by the same type of elegance Wilfredo describes, the beauty of a gesture. Pure glamour.


Gold Pendant Depicting Emperor Volusian - History

SWNS Two metal detectorists who found $3.8 million worth of historical treasure are facing jail time for their indiscretion.

Two British metal detectorists who came across a 1,000-year-old treasure haul and failed to report their discovery to local authorities are facing jail time because of it.

Ga binoan Guardian, it all started when George Powell and Layton Davies were hunting for treasure in the fields of Herefordshire. After probing the remote area, they came across an unimaginable haul: a treasure hoard dating back to 1,000 years ago.

Among the treasure they found was gold jewelry, including a chunky ring, a serpentine arm bracelet, and a small crystal ball pendant. They also found 300 silver coins and ingots made out of pure silver. Even before they could verify the haul’s worth, it was clear Powell and Davies had hit the jackpot.

But such findings are governed by a stringent procedure under British law. Metal detectorists who uncover treasure are legally required to report their findings to the local coroner within 14 days of the discovery. After that, a Finds Liaison Officer writes up a report about how and where the treasure was found, and the detectorist is issued a receipt.

Once an official report of the treasure has been filed, the coroner will hold an inquest over the treasure, where the detectorist along with the land owner and site occupier can ask questions regarding the haul. Finally, the Treasure Valuation Committee gets involved, too, to give an official estimation of the treasure’s worth.

The detectorist is entitled to a share of the findings only if their discovery is lawful, and even then it could take up to a year for the reward to be processed and paid. Maybe that’s why Powell and Davies decided to keep the valuable haul to themselves instead of reporting their discovery.

British Museum/PA One of the 300 old coins that Powell and Davies unearthed.

After visiting multiple experts around town to get their own estimate of the treasure’s value, the treasure hunters found that the crystal ball pendant was the oldest item of the haul, dating back to the 5th or 6th century. The ring and arm bracelet were a bit younger, coming from the 9th century. But the most valuable items in their loot were actually the coins.

Among the coins were extremely rare “two emperor” coins depicting two Anglo-Saxon rulers: King Alfred of Wessex and Ceolwulf II of Mercia. The two emperor coins were unofficially valued at more than $128,000 per coin by one expert who was contacted by the detectorists. In total, the Herefordshire haul was worth an estimated $3.8 million.

The old coins are historically significant because they give us insight into the situation in Wessex and Mercia, and how they were ruled when England was evolving into a single united kingdom.

Evidence of both kings on the two emperor coins suggests they had formed a pact. But it seems the alliance didn’t last long since the coins are so rare, suggesting King Alfred — the more prominent of the two figures — reneged on the deal.

There’s also the location of the treasure to consider. The fact that they were found near Leominster suggests that part of the Viking army, who were believed to have used Ceolwulf II as a political puppet, was in the area after their defeat in Wiltshire in 878.

Combined with another Anglo-Saxon treasure haul found in the same area by different metal detectorists, these finds are more than just relics.

“The two hoards together are fundamentally changing our view of history,” said Gareth Williams, an Anglo-Saxon and Vikings specialist at the British Museum. “These coins are encouraging us to go back to the written sources and re-examine them.”

British Museum/PA The crystal ball pendant, the oldest item in the treasure haul, dates back to the 5th or 6th century.

Soon after Powell’s and Davies’ discovery, word spread of their priceless haul. The treasure hunters received their first visit from local authorities about a month after their discovery, when Herefordshire Finds Liaison Officer Peter Reavill contacted Powell and Davies, and gently asked if they had anything to tell him.

Powell initially denied it but eventually gave up the gold jewelry and an ingot. However, the two denied finding anything else. When Paul Wells, the first expert Powell and Davies had visited to value their loot, showed inquiring police the five coins from the hoard that had been stitched into his magnifying glass case, the jig was finally up.

“I knew it would come to this,” Wells said as he was handcuffed. The two treasure hunters were both found guilty of theft and — along with Wells and another dealer who failed to report the haul to authorities — conspiracy to convert or conceal criminal property.

Powell was jailed for 10 years, and Davies was jailed for eight-and-a-half years. Meanwhile, a coin seller named Simon Wicks was jailed for five years and Wells is due to receive his sentence in December.

“These men would be rich by now if they had done things by the book,” said Williams. “They have chosen not to and in doing so have destroyed an important part of our history. It’s difficult to feel any sympathy for them at all they have been greedy and selfish and the nation is the loser.”

Police are still looking for the rest of the treasure.

Next, read about 557 rare coins from the Black Death era that were dug up by amateur metal detectorists and check out the $2.4 million-worth of gold bars found inside a tank that was purchased on eBay.


Videoni tomosha qiling: ЗОЛОТЫЕ КУЛОНЫ, GOLD PENDANTS.


Izohlar:

  1. Moogulabar

    Menimcha, siz to'g'ri emassiz. Ishonaman. Men pozitsiyani himoya qila olaman. Menga PMga yozing, biz muloqot qilamiz.

  2. Etalpalli

    Nima degan iborasi ... Super, porloq g'oya

  3. Mezinos

    beqiyos mavzu, men uchun)))) juda qiziq

  4. Bhraghad

    Bu to'g'ri! Ajoyib g'oya, men roziman.

  5. Skipper

    Yes, the answer is almost the same as with me.



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