Tarixni orqaga qaytarish: Birinchi Polaris otishmasi, 1960 yil

Tarixni orqaga qaytarish: Birinchi Polaris otishmasi, 1960 yil

USS Jorj Vashington yadroviy suv osti kemasi 1960 yilda Polaris raketasini sinovdan o'tkazdi. Raketa nishonidan 1100 mil uzoqlikda uchirilgan.


Yadro quroli global siyosatni qanday shakllantirdi? Urushdan keyingi atom dunyosidagi 10 muhim lahza

Atom bombalari tarixda atigi ikki marta - Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida Yaponiyaning Xirosima va Nagasakida ishlatilgan. Bu hujumning natijalari shunchalik dahshatli ediki, yadro hujumi tahdidi o'shandan beri global siyosatni shakllantirdi, deydi muallif Jeremi Blek. U urushdan keyingi atom dunyosining 10 asosiy lahzasini o'rganadi.

Endi bu musobaqa yopildi

E'lon qilingan: 2020 yil 22 -iyun, 16:20

1948: Berlin inqirozi

1952 yil: Amerika vodorod bombasini sinovdan o'tkazdi

AQSh Tinch okeanidagi Elugelab orolini vayron qilib, birinchi vodorod bombasini sinovdan o'tkazganida, yadroviy ustunligini qayta tiklaganiga ishondi. Bomba yadroviy portlashda vodorod izotoplarini geliy atomlariga birlashtirish uchun etarlicha qizdirdi, bu o'zgarish atom bombasiga qaraganda ancha halokatli energiya chiqardi. AQShning ustunligi qisqa muddatli edi: Britaniya 1952 yilda uchinchi atom kuchiga aylandi, Sovet Ittifoqi 1953 yilda o'zining H bombini yaratdi.

Eshiting: Tarixchi Shoul Devid Tinch okeani urushidagi eng qonli to'qnashuvlardan birini qayta ko'rib chiqadi va AQShning Yaponiyaga qarshi atom qurolidan foydalanish qarorida hal qiluvchi rol o'ynaganini tushuntiradi.

1949: Sovet Ittifoqi bomba sotib oldi

G'arb yadroviy texnologiyasida muvaffaqiyatli josuslik qilish Sovet Ittifoqiga samarali yadro bombasini yaratishni yakunlashga imkon berdi. Birdaniga amerikaliklarga Sovetlarni majburlash vositasini taklif qilgan AQShning yadroviy monopoliyasi tugadi. Ikkinchi Jahon urushi natijasida Sovet Ittifoqi vayron bo'lganligi sababli, bu rivojlanish katta kuch talab qildi. Buning sababi shundaki, Stalin faqat yadroviy tenglik Sovet Ittifoqiga o'z manfaatlarini himoya qilishga va rag'batlantirishga ruxsat beradi deb ishongan. Biroq, siyosat iqtisodiyotga jiddiy zarar etkazdi, chunki bu tadqiqot va investitsiya tanlovlarining buzilishiga olib keldi. Bu, shuningdek, harbiy jihatdan shubhali edi, chunki sovetlar an'anaviy qobiliyatini rivojlantirishi mumkin bo'lgan resurslardan foydalangan.

Eshiting: Teylor Dauning, global Armageddonga guvoh bo'lgan Qodir Archer qo'rqinchini muhokama qiladi

1957: Sputnik I ning ishga tushirilishi

Sovet Ittifoqining orbitaga chiqqan birinchi sun'iy yo'ldoshini uchirishi qit'alararo raketalarning imkoniyatlarini ochib berdi, bu butun dunyoni ajoyib masofaga olib chiqdi va shu tariqa AQShni hujumga qarshi himoyasiz qildi. Strategik nuqtai nazardan, raketalar 1920 va 1930-yillarda tez-tez ilgari surilgan ta'limotni amalga oshirish bilan tahdid qilar ediki, havo kuchlari bir vaqtning o'zida urushda g'alaba qozonadigan vosita bo'lib, ular Amerikaning strategik havo qo'mondonligining sekinroq bombardimonchilarining yadroviy qobiliyatini eskirgan edi. . Bu yangi qobiliyat qimmat raketa texnologiyasiga sarmoya kiritishni muhim qilib ko'rsatdi, bu esa yadroga qarshi mudofaa va yadroviy tiyilish xususiyatini o'zgartirdi. AQShda prezident Eyzenxauer Geyt qo'mitasining maxfiy hisoboti orqali milliy xavfsizlikka tahdid kuchaygani haqida ogohlantirildi.

1960 yil: "Polaris" qit'alararo ballistik raketasining birinchi muvaffaqiyatli suv osti raketasi

Suv osti kemalari maqsadli shtatlar qirg'oqlari yaqinida joylashgan bo'lishi mumkin va ular juda harakatchan va ularni aniqlash qiyin edi. Natijada, Amerika suv osti kemasi USS tomonidan ballistik raketa uchirildi Jorj Vashington, Canaveral burnidan, Florida shtati, havo kuchlaridan uzoqda va dengiz flotiga qarab, kuch strukturasining o'zgarishini ifodaladi. Dengiz kuchlari, uning suv osti kemalari ehtiyotkorlik bilan boshqariladigan zarbalar berishi mumkin, bu esa yanada murakkab tiyilish va qasosni boshqarishga imkon beradi. Boshqa shtatlar ergashdi. 1960 yilda Frantsiya atom bombasiga ega bo'lgan to'rtinchi kuchga aylandi.

1987 yil: O'rta yadroviy kuchlar to'g'risidagi shartnoma

Bu Evropada yadroviy urush xavfini bartaraf etish uchun qilingan birinchi katta qadam edi. Sovuq urushning keskinligi 1980-yillarning boshlarida kuchaygan edi, chunki Sovet agressiyasidan qo'rqish NATOni Kruiz va Pershing o'rta masofali raketalarida olib boriladigan taktik yadro qurollarini joylashtirishga olib keldi. Shartnoma 500 dan 5000 kilometrgacha bo'lgan masofadagi raketalarni taqiqlab qo'ydi, shuningdek, joyida tekshirish orqali tekshirish tizimini o'rnatdi. Sovet rahbari Mixail Gorbachyov KGB hisobotlarida bayon etilgan qarama -qarshi dunyoqarashga qarshi chiqishga tayyor edi. U amerikalik qurol -yarog 'nazorati siyosati Sovet Ittifoqini zaiflashtirishning yashirin dasturidan kelib chiqmaganiga ishondi va bu uni G'arb bilan muzokaralarga undadi.

1962 yil: Kubadagi raketa inqirozi

Sovet Ittifoqi AQSh tomonidan tahdid qilinayotgan kommunistik davlat Kubaga raketalarni joylashtirganda, dunyo yadroviy urushga yaqinlashdi. Vashington bu raketalarni uchira oladigan bo'lsa, AQSh boshqa sovet yuklarini jo'natishining oldini olish uchun havo va dengiz karantini joriy etdi. Bu, shuningdek, Kubaga hujum deb hisoblangan va agar Sovet raketalari uchirilsa, to'liq javob qaytaruvchi yadroviy zarba berish bilan tahdid qilgan. Yadroviy urush ehtimoli AQShning Kubadagi Sovet bazalariga havo hujumi bilan boshlanadigan odatiy harbiy operatsiyalarni oldini olishga yordam bergan bo'lishi mumkin. Oxir -oqibat, Sovet Ittifoqi raketalarni olib tashlashga rozi bo'ldi, AQSh o'z ittifoqchisi Turkiyadan Yupiter raketalarini olib chiqdi va Kubaga bostirib kirmaslikka rozi bo'ldi. O'tgan yilgi Berlin inqirozi paytida, Prezident Kennedi, agar Sovet Ittifoqi bunday qilmasa ham, atom qurolidan foydalanishga tayyorligini yana bir bor tasdiqladi, chunki G'arbiy Berlin Sovet hujumiga ayniqsa zaif edi.

1970: AQSh Minuteman III raketalarini joylashtirdi

1968 yilda birinchi marta sinovdan o'tgan, bir nechta mustaqil maqsadli qayta kiruvchi transport vositalari (MIRV) bilan jihozlangan ushbu raketalar zarba berish qobiliyatini ancha oshirdi. Natijada, jangovar kallaklarning soni va shu tariqa yadro almashinuvining vayronkorligi sezilarli darajada oshdi. Bu yadroviy salohiyatni oshirish poygasining bir qismi bo'lib, amerikaliklar Titan II raketasini ishlab chiqish orqali quruqlikdagi qit'alararo raketalarning javob vaqtini qisqartirganini ko'rdi. Titanda saqlanadigan suyuq yoqilg'ilar bor edi, ular silosda uchirish imkoniyatini berdi va shu sababli yadroviy mojaro yuz berganda raketalarning reaktsiya vaqtini yaxshiladi.

1972 yil: ballistik raketalarga qarshi shartnoma

SALT I, AQSh va Sovet Ittifoqi o'rtasidagi shartnoma, yadroviy urush ehtimolini kamaytirishga katta urinish bo'ldi. Shartnoma raketa hujumiga qarshi mudofaa qalqonlarini qurishni ikkita qit'alararo ballistik raketalar atrofida, ikkinchisi poytaxt atrofida joylashgan ikkita ballistik raketa kompleksi bilan cheklab qo'ydi.

2003 yil: Pokiston va Hindiston qisqa masofali erdan erga raketalarini sinovdan o'tkazdi

Bu kuchlarning yadroviy kuchi Sovuq Urushdagi keskinlik pasayib, raketa kuchlarini rivojlantirar ekan, muammoga aylandi. Hindiston 1974 yil va Pokiston 1988 yildan atom qurollariga ega edi, lekin ular 1990 yillarning oxiri va 2000 -yillarning boshlarida Kashmir ustidan to'qnashuvlar ortidan milliy raqobat kuchaygani bois qurollarini ochiqroq namoyish etdilar. Ikkala davlat ham 1998 yilda yadroviy qurollarini ommaviy ravishda sinovdan o'tkazdi. O'sha yili Pokiston o'rta masofali yangi "Gauri" raketasini sinovdan o'tkazdi, 1999 yilda Hindiston yangi uzoq masofali "Agni 2" raketasini uchirdi: uning masofasi Tehronga va Xitoyning ko'p qismiga cho'zildi. Janubi-Sharqiy Osiyo. Ikkala mamlakatning 2003 yilda sinovdan o'tgan qisqa masofali, er usti raketalari yadroviy o'qlarni tashishga qodir edi.


1960 -yillarda Nyu -Jersi shtatining 14 ta fotosurati hayratlanarli

1960 -yillar Nyu -Jersi va#8217s tarixida notinch davr bo'lgan. 1962 yil 6 martda shtat shiddatli qor bo'roniga duch keldi va yuzlab aholi qirg'oqdan evakuatsiya qilindi. 1964 yil 2 -avgustda Nyu -Jersi Jersi -Siti shahrida birinchi poyga g'alayonini boshdan kechirdi. Keyingi haftalarda xuddi shunday tartibsizliklar Paterson va Elizabetda yuz berdi, o'nlab odamlar yaralandi va yuzlab hibsga olindi. 1967 yil 23 iyundan 25 iyungacha Prezident Jonson Nyu -Jersi shtatining Glassboro shahrida Sovet bosh vaziri Aleksey Kosigin bilan uchrashdi. Sovuq urush davrida, Glassboro sammiti konferentsiyasi AQSh va Sovet Ittifoqi o'rtasidagi munosabatlarni yaxshilashga yordam berdi, lekin aniq kelishuvlarga erishilmadi. Bir necha hafta o'tgach, Nyu -Jersi va Nyu -Yorkdagi eng yomon poyga tartibsizliklari Nyuarkda boshlandi.

Albatta, betartiblik ichida ijodkorlik, yangilik va ko'p quvonch bor edi. 1961 yilda Cherry Hillda Sharqiy sohilda birinchi yopiq savdo markazi ochildi. 1963 yilda snoubord bo'yicha kashshof Xaddonfildlik Tom Sims snoubordning dastlabki versiyasini yaratdi. 1965 yilda Mildred Barri Xyuz Nyu -Jersi Senatiga birinchi ayol saylandi. 1969 yilda Nyu -Jersi lotereyasi boshlandi va Nyu -Jersi shtatining fuqarosi Buzz Aldrin (Glen -Ridjdan) Neil Armstrong bilan birga oyga tushdi. Hayot katta voqealar bilan bog'liq emas, ba'zida bu kichik lahzalar haqida. Quyidagi kadrlar 1960 -yillarda Nyu -Jersidagi kundalik hayotni aks ettiradi.


USS Long Beach (CGN-9)

USS Long Beach (CLGN-160/CGN-160/CGN-9) Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Harbiy-dengiz kuchlarida boshqariladigan boshqariladigan raketa kreyseri va dunyodagi birinchi yadroviy yadroviy samolyot. [3] U Kaliforniya shtatining Long -Bich shahri nomidagi uchinchi dengiz floti kemasi edi.

  • 1995 yil 1 may
  • (1994 yil 2 -iyulda o'chirilgan)
  • 1 AN/SPS-10 er usti qidiruv radarlari [1] qidiruv radarlari [1] rulmanli va masofali radarlar [1] nishonlarni kuzatuvchi radarlar [1] 3D havo qidiruv radarlari 2D havo qidiruv radarlari
  • 2 AN/SPG-49 Talos yong'inga qarshi radari [1] [2]
  • 4 ta AN/SPG-55 Terrier yong'inga qarshi radari [1] [2]
  • AN/SQS-23 SONAR [1]
  • Terri-boshqariladigan ikkita ikkita raketa uchirish moslamasi (keyinchalik ularning o'rniga SM-1 standarti (ER) o'rnatilgan Mk-10 raketalari o'rnatildi.
  • 1 ta egizak Talos boshqariladigan raketasi (keyinchalik olib tashlangan)
  • 1 × 8 hujayrali ASROC ishga tushirgichi
  • 2 × 5 dyuymli (127 mm) qurol
  • 2 × Mk-15 Vulkan-Phalanx 20 mm CIWS
  • Mk 44 yoki Mk 46 ASW torpedalari uchun 2 marta uch marta 12,75 dyuymli ASW torpedo naychalari
  • 8 ta "Harpoon" raketasining uchirgichlari keyinchalik qo'shilgan
  • 2 ta zirhli quti uchirgichlari, jami sakkizta Tomahawk qanotli raketalari, Talos raketasini almashtirdi

U tashkilotning yagona a'zosi edi Long Beach-sinf va Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Harbiy-dengiz kuchlari uchun kreyser dizayni uchun qurilgan oxirgi kreyser, keyingi barcha kreyserlar kattalashtirilgan qiruvchi korpuslarda qurilgan (va dastlab qiruvchi qiruvchi sifatida tasniflangan) yoki Albani-mavjud kreyserlardan o'zgartirilgan sinf. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Long Beach 1957 yil 2-dekabrda qurilgan, 1959 yil 14-iyulda ishga tushirilgan va 1961 yil 9-sentabrda o'sha paytdagi kapitan Ejen Parks Uilkinson qo'mondonligi ostida ishga tushirilgan, u ilgari dunyodagi birinchi atom quvvatli kemasi USS suvosti kemasining birinchi qo'mondoni bo'lgan. Nautilus (SSN-571). U Vetnam urushi paytida Vetnamga joylashtirilgan va Tinch okeanining g'arbiy qismida, Hind okeani va Fors ko'rfazida ko'p marta xizmat qilgan. 1990 -yillarga kelib, Sovuq urush tugaganidan keyin mudofaa byudjetining qisqarishi sababli atom energiyasi samolyot tashuvchisidan kichikroq bo'lgan kemalarda foydalanish uchun juda qimmatga tushdi. Long Beach 1995 yil 1 mayda u uchinchi yadroviy yonilg'i quyish va takomillashtirishni qabul qilish o'rniga ishdan bo'shatildi. Yadro yoqilg'isi, yuqori konstruktsiya va kamon va orqa qismlari olib tashlanganidan so'ng, reaktor va mashinasozlik joylarini o'z ichiga olgan korpus segmenti Puget Sound -Dengiz kemasozlik zavodida saqlanib qoladi.


Tarkibi

Dastlabki yillar - Hendee va Hedstrom Edit

"Hind mototsikl kompaniyasi" 1897 yilda velosiped ishlab chiqarish uchun Jorj M. Xendi tomonidan Hendee Manufacturing Company sifatida tashkil etilgan. Ular dastlab "Kumush qirol" va "Kumush qirolicha" brendlari sifatida nishonlangan, ammo "amerikalik hind" nomi tezda "hind" deb qisqartirilgan, 1898 yildan boshlab Xendi tomonidan qabul qilingan, chunki bu mahsulotni eksport bozorida yaxshiroq tanib olishga imkon bergan. 1900 yilda Oskar Xedstrom qo'shildi. Xendi ham, Xedstrom ham sobiq velosiped poygachilari va ishlab chiqaruvchilari edi va Konnektikut shtatining Middltaun shahrida uchta prototipni qurganlaridan so'ng [3] ular Hendining uyi shaharchasida 1,75 ot kuchiga ega, bitta silindrli dvigatelli mototsikl ishlab chiqarish uchun birlashdilar. Springfilddan. Mototsikl muvaffaqiyatli bo'ldi va keyingi o'n yil ichida sotuvlar keskin oshdi. [4]

Birinchi hind prototipi 1901 yil 25 -mayda Konnektikut shtatining Middltaun shahridagi eski Worcester Cycle Manufacturing kompaniyasida Xedstrom tomonidan qurilgan va tugatilgan va birinchi ommaviy namoyish Massachusets shtatining Springfild shahridagi Cross Streetda shanba kuni soat 12:00 da bo'lib o'tgan. , 1901 yil 1 -iyun.

1901 yilda olmosli ramkali hind singlining prototipi va ikkita ishlab chiqarish birligi muvaffaqiyatli loyihalashtirildi, qurildi va sinovdan o'tkazildi. Birinchi hind mototsikllari zanjirli haydovchiga va zamonaviy uslubga ega bo'lib, 1902 yilda ommaga sotilgan. 1903 yilda hindlarning asoschisi va bosh muhandisi Oskar Xedstrom mototsikl tezligi soatiga 56 mil tezlikda o'rnatgan. [ iqtibos kerak ] 1904 yilda kompaniya Hindistonning savdo belgisiga aylanadigan qip -qizil rangni taqdim etdi. Hind mototsikllarining yillik ishlab chiqarilishi keyinchalik 500 dan oshib, 1913 yilda 32000 cho'qqiga ko'tarildi. Indian single dvigatellari 1906 yilgacha Hendee Mfg. Co litsenziyasi bilan Illinoys shtatidagi Aurora firmasi tomonidan qurilgan.

Aurora taxminan 1901 yildan 1907 yilgacha hindistonlik dvigatellarni ishlab chiqargan. Aurora hind dizayn dvigatellarini uchinchi shaxslarga sotishga va hindistonliklarga haq to'lashga ham ruxsat berilgan. [5] 1907 yildan keyin Aurora o'zining to'liq mototsikllarini ishlab chiqarishi mumkin edi, xuddi Tor kabi, hind esa o'z dvigatellarini ishlab chiqarishni boshladi. [5]

Raqobatdagi yutuqlar Tahrir

1905 yilda hindistonlik V-egizak zavodidagi birinchi poygachini qurdi va keyingi yillarda poyga va rekord o'rnatishda o'zini kuchli ko'rsatdi. 1907 yilda kompaniya V-egizakning birinchi ko'cha versiyasini va zavod poygachisiga o'xshash rodsterni taqdim etdi. Roadsterni poygachilardan aylanma tutashtirgichlar mavjudligi bilan ajratish mumkin. [6] [ tekshirish kerak ] Firmaning eng mashhur chavandozlaridan biri Ervin "Kannonbol" Beyker bo'lib, u uzoq masofalarga ko'plab rekordlarni o'rnatgan. 1914 yilda u hindularni butun Amerika bo'ylab, San -Diyegodan Nyu -Yorkgacha, 11 kun, 12 soat va o'n minutda bosib o'tdi. Keyingi yillarda Beykerning o'rnatgichi V-egizakli yon valfli Powerplus edi, u 1916 yilda ishga tushirilgan. Uning 61ci (1000 kubometr), 42 gradusli V-egizak dvigateli oldingi dizaynlarga qaraganda kuchliroq va jim bo'lib, yuqori tezlikni ta'minlagan. 60 mil/soat (96 km/soat). Powerplus ham rodster, ham poyga velosipedlari uchun asos sifatida juda muvaffaqiyatli bo'ldi. U 1924 yilgacha ozgina o'zgarish bilan ishlab chiqarishda qoldi.

Raqobatdagi muvaffaqiyat hindlarning tez o'sishida va texnik yangiliklarning rivojlanishida katta rol o'ynadi. Amerikalik firmaning birinchi eng yaxshi natijalaridan biri 1911 yilda Man TT orolida bo'lib, hind chavandozlari Oliver Siril Godfri, Franklin va Murxaus birinchi, ikkinchi va uchinchi o'rinni egallagan. Hind yulduzi Jeyk DeRozier Amerikada ham, Britaniyadagi Bruklendda ham tezlik bo'yicha bir nechta rekord o'rnatdi va axloqsizlik va taxta yo'llar bo'yicha 900 ta poygada g'olib chiqdi. [7] U Hindistondan Excelsiorga jo'nab ketdi va 1913 yilda 33 yoshida Charlz "Qo'rqmas" Balke bilan bortda yugurish paytida olgan jarohatlari tufayli vafot etdi, u keyinchalik hindistonning eng yaxshi chavandoziga aylandi. [7] DeRosierning dafn marosimi o'tayotganda, hind fabrikasida ish to'xtatildi. [7]

Oskar Xedstrom 1913 yilda direktorlar kengashi bilan kompaniyaning qimmatli qog'ozlarini ko'tarish bo'yicha shubhali amaliyotlar borasidagi kelishmovchiliklardan so'ng hindistonni tark etdi. [8] Jorj Xendi 1916 yilda iste'foga chiqdi. [9]

Engil vazn toifalari 1916–1919 Tahrir

Hindiston 1916 yilda 221 kubometrli ikki silindrli "Featherweight" modelini ishlab chiqardi. [10] [11] K modeli ochiq beshikli ramkaga ega bo'lib, dvigateli [12] va oldingi burilish vilkasi sifatida ishlatilgan. ilgari bitta tsilindrli mototsikllarda ishlatilgan, lekin asosan boshqa hind mototsikllarida bargli shpilka bilan almashtirilgan. [10]

Model K bir yil ishlab chiqarilgan va 1917 yilda O. modeli bilan almashtirilgan. Model O to'rt zarbli tekis egizak dvigateliga va yangi ramkaga ega edi, lekin old tomonidagi burilish vilkasini saqlab qoldi. Model O 1919 yilgacha ishlab chiqarilgan. [10]

Birinchi jahon urushi tahrir

AQSh Birinchi Jahon Urushiga kirganda, hind 1917 va 1918 yillarda Powerplus liniyasining ko'p qismini Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari hukumatiga sotdi va dilerlar tarmog'ini och qoldirdi. Mototsikllarning ichki bozorga bo'lgan zarbasi, dilerlarning yo'qolishiga olib keldi, hindistonlik hech qachon tiklanmagan. [13] Mototsikllar harbiy sohada ommalashgan bo'lsa-da, urushdan keyingi talabni ilgari sodiq hind dilerlarining ko'plari murojaat qilgan boshqa ishlab chiqaruvchilar qabul qilishdi. Hindiston 1920-yillarning biznes-bumida qatnashgan bo'lsa-da, AQSh bozoridagi birinchi raqamli o'rnini Xarli-Devidsonga boy berdi.

Urushlararo davr tahrir

1920-yillarning boshlarida skaut va bosh V-egizaklar Springfild firmasining eng muvaffaqiyatli modellari bo'ldi. Charlz Franklin tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan, o'rta og'irlikdagi skaut va kattaroq boshlig'i 42 darajali V-egizak dvigatel sxemasini bo'lishdi. Ikkala model ham kuch va ishonchliligi bilan mashhur bo'ldi.

1930 yilda Hindiston Du Pont Motors bilan birlashdi. [14] DuPont Motors asoschisi E. Paul DuPont duPont avtomobillarini ishlab chiqarishni to'xtatdi va kompaniya resurslarini hindlarga jamladi. [14] 1934 yilda DuPont -ning bo'yoq sanoati bilan bog'lanish natijasida 24 tadan kam bo'lmagan rang variantlari paydo bo'ldi. O'sha davrdagi modellarda gaz tankida hindlarning mashhur kapot logotipi bor edi. Hindistonning Springfilddagi ulkan fabrikasi Vigvam nomi bilan tanilgan va mahalliy amerikalik tasvirlar reklamada ko'p ishlatilgan.

1940 yilda hindistonlik raqibi Xarli-Devidson kabi mototsikllarni deyarli sotdi. Bu vaqt ichida hindlar samolyot dvigatellari, velosipedlar, qayiq motorlari va konditsionerlar kabi boshqa mahsulotlarni ham ishlab chiqargan.

Skautlarni tahrirlash

Hind skauti 1920 yildan 1949 yilgacha qurilgan. U hindlarning eng muhim modeli sifatida bosh bilan raqobatlashgan.

Skaut 1920 yilda paydo bo'lgan. Charlz B. Franklin tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan, skaut vites qutisini dvigatelga mahkamlagan va kamar yoki zanjir bilan emas, balki vites bilan boshqarilgan. [15] Dvigatel dastlab 377 kubni (610 kubometr) skaut 45 ga almashtirgan, hajmi 45 kubometr (740 kubometr), 1927 yilda Excelsior Super X bilan raqobatlasha olgan. [9] [16] Old 1928 yil boshida skautlarning tormozi standartga aylandi.

Keyinchalik 1928 yilda Skaut va Skaut 45 o'rnini Model 101 Skaut egalladi. Franklinning yana bir dizayni, 101 Scout -ning g'ildirak bazasi uzunroq va o'rindiq balandligi asl nusxadan past edi. 101 Skaut o'z ishi bilan mashhur edi. [16] [17] [18] [19]

101 Skaut 1932 yildagi Standart Skaut bilan almashtirildi. Standart Skaut o'z ramkasini Bosh va To'rtlik bilan baham ko'rdi, natijada Standart Skaut 101 ga qaraganda og'irroq va chaqqonroq edi. [18] [19]

1933 yilda skautlarning ikkinchi qatori ishga tushirildi. To'xtatilgan hind shahzodasi bitta silindrli mototsiklga asoslanib, Motoplane standart skautning 45 kubometrli dvigatelidan foydalangan, Pony skautining hajmi esa 30,5 kub. cc). 1934 yilda Motoplane o'rniga 45 kubometrli dvigatelning kuchiga bardosh bera oladigan og'irroq, ammo qattiqroq ramka bilan Sport Skauti almashtirildi, Pony Scout, keyinchalik Junior Skaut deb nomlandi, Shahzoda/Motoplane ramkasi bilan davom ettirildi. [20] 1934 yilda Sport Skautining joriy etilishi va 1937 yilda Standart Skautning to'xtatilishi o'rtasida uch xil ramkali uchta skaut modeli (Pony/Junior, Standard va Sport) mavjud edi. Sport skauti va kichik skautlar 1942 yil boshida fuqarolik ishlab chiqarish to'xtatilgunga qadar davom ettirildi.

Bosh muharrir

1922 yilda ishlab chiqarilgan hind boshlig'i Powerplus dvigateliga asoslangan 1000 kubometr (61 kub dyuym) dvigatelga ega edi, bir yil o'tgach, dvigatel 1200 kubometrga (73 kub dyuym) kattalashtirildi. Ko'p yillar davomida boshlig'iga ko'plab o'zgarishlar kiritildi, shu jumladan 1928 yilda oldingi tormoz tizimi.

1940 yilda barcha modellarga hind tovar belgisiga aylangan katta yubkali qanotlar o'rnatilgan edi va bosh yangi raqib Harleyning ochilmagan orqa uchidan ustun bo'lgan yangi ramkaga ega bo'ldi. [21] 1940 -yillar boshliqlari kelishgan va qulay mashinalar edi, ular standart shaklda soatiga 137 km tezlikda va sozlashda 100 mil/soat (160 km/soat) tezlikka qodir edi, lekin ularning og'irligi oshishi tezlashuvga to'sqinlik qildi.

1948 yil boshlig'ida 74 kubometrli dvigatel, qo'l siljishi va oyoq debriyaji bor edi. Rulda tutqichi gazni boshqarganda, ikkinchisi qo'lda uchqun oldinga siljishi edi.

1950 yilda V-egizak dvigateli 1300 kubometrga (79 kub dyuym) kattalashtirildi va teleskopik vilkalar qabul qilindi. Ammo hindlarning moliyaviy muammolari kam sonli velosiped ishlab chiqarilishini anglatardi. Boshliqning ishlab chiqarilishi 1953 yilda tugadi.

To'rt tahrir

1927 yilda hindistonlik Ace Motor korporatsiyasini sotib oldi va 4 silindrli Ace mototsiklini ishlab chiqarishni Springfildga ko'chirdi. U 1927 yilda Indian Ace nomi bilan sotilgan. [22] [23]

1928 yilda Indian Ace o'rnini hind 401 egalladi, bu Ace kompaniyasining sobiq bosh muhandisi Artur O. Lemon tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan. [24] Ace-ning etakchi bog'ich vilkalari va markaziy burilish bulog'i o'rnini hindlarning so'nggi bog'lovchi vilkalar va chorak elliptik bargli buloq egalladi. [23] [25]

1929 yilda hind 401 o'rniga hind 402 o'rnini bosdi, u 101 skaut ramkaga asoslangan kuchli egizak-tubli ramka va Acega qaraganda mustahkamroq 5 ta krank miliga ega edi. [24] [26]

Buyuk inqiroz davrida hashamatli mototsikllarga talab kam bo'lganiga qaramay, hindlar nafaqat to'rtlikni ishlab chiqarishni davom ettirdi, balki mototsiklni ishlab chiqishda davom etdi. "To'rtlik" ning kamroq mashhur versiyalaridan biri 1936-37 yillardagi modellarning "teskari" dvigateli edi. Oldin (va keyinroq) Fours-da yuqori kirish klapanlari va yon egzoz klapanlari bo'lgan egzoz tsilindrli boshlari bo'lsa, 1936-1937 yillarda Hindiston to'rttasida noyob EOI silindrli boshi bor edi, ularning pozitsiyalari teskari. Nazariy jihatdan, bu yoqilg'ining bug'lanishini yaxshilaydi va yangi dvigatel kuchliroq bo'ladi. Biroq, yangi tizim silindr boshini va chavandozning ichki qismini juda qizib ketdi. Bu tez -tez sozlashni talab qiladigan egzoz valfi bilan birga sotishning pasayishiga olib keldi. 1937 yilda er -xotin karbüratörlerin qo'shilishi qiziqishni uyg'otmadi. Dizayn 1938 yilda asl konfiguratsiyasiga qaytarildi. [24] [27] [28]

Boshliq singari, "To'rtlik" ga 1940 yilda katta, etekli qanotlari va pistonli orqa süspansiyon berildi. 1941 yilda oldingi modellarning 18 dyuymli g'ildiraklari balonli shinalari bo'lgan 16 dyuymli g'ildiraklar bilan almashtirildi. [24]

Hind to'rtligi 1942 yilda to'xtatildi. [24] [29] 1940 yilgi to'rt silindrli modelning tarixiy ahamiyatini tan olish 2006 yil avgustda Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Pochta xizmatining 39 tsentlik markali chiqarilishi bilan amalga oshirildi. Amerika mototsikllari. [30] 1941 yilgi model Amerika tarixi milliy muzeyida namoyish etiladigan Smitson mototsikllari to'plamining bir qismidir. [31] 1931 va 1935 yillardagi Hind to'rtliklarining yagona namunalari Eski Reynbek aerodromining er osti avtomobillar to'plamida. [32]

Ikkinchi jahon urushi tahriri

Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida boshliqlar, skautlar va kichik skautlar Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari armiyasi tomonidan har xil maqsadlarda oz miqdorda ishlatilgan va Britaniya va boshqa Hamdo'stlik harbiy xizmatlari tomonidan Lend Lizing dasturlari doirasida keng qo'llanilgan. Biroq, bu hind modellarining hech biri Harley-Davidson WLA-ni tashlay olmadi, chunki mototsikl asosan AQSh harbiylari tomonidan ishlatilgan.

Hindistonning dastlabki urushi harbiy dizayni 750 cc (46 kubometr) Scout 640 ga asoslangan edi (va ko'pincha Xarley-Devidson WLA bilan taqqoslangan), lekin juda qimmat yoki og'ir yoki ikkalasining kombinatsiyasi edi. Keyinchalik Hindistonning taklifi, 500 kubometrli 741B AQSh harbiylari bilan shartnoma tuzish uchun tanlanmagan. Bundan tashqari, hindistonliklar 344. 1200 cs (73 kubometr) boshiga asoslangan versiyasini tayyorladilar. 750 kubometrli dvigatelni yon tomonga o'rnatadigan va mil haydovchisidan foydalangan holda, taxminan 1000 ta eksperimental versiya, xuddi zamonaviy Moto Guzzi 841 da sinab ko'rildi.

Hindiston engil deb nomlangan velosipedning prototipini yasadi M1 engil mototsikl Ikkinchi jahon urushi havo -desant kuchlari uchun. Engil dizayni qo'shinlar bilan birga tushirilishi mumkin edi. Dizayn hech qachon prototipdan o'tmagan. [33]

841 Tahrirlash

Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida AQSh armiyasi cho'l janglari uchun mos bo'lgan eksperimental mototsikl dizaynini so'radi. [34] Bunga javoban Hindiston 841 -ni loyihalashtirdi va qurdi. Taxminan 1056 ta model qurildi.

Hindiston 841 rusumli BMW R71 mototsiklidan ilhomlangan (garchi u Germaniya armiyasi tomonidan ishlatilmasa ham, Ural va Chiang Jiang mototsikllari uchun asos bo'lgan Sovet M72 uchun asos bo'lgan), shuningdek, uning raqibi- Harley- Devidson XA. [35] Biroq, XAdan farqli o'laroq, 841 R71 nusxasi emas edi. Uning quvurli ramkasi, pistonli orqa süspansiyonu va mil haydovchisi BMW-ga o'xshagan bo'lsa-da, 841 BMW-dan bir necha jihatlari bilan farq qilar edi, bu uning 90 gradusli uzunlamasına krank mili V-egizak dvigateli va arqon vilkasi bilan farq qiladi. [34] [35]

Hindiston 841 va Harley-Davidson XA ikkalasi ham armiya tomonidan sinovdan o'tkazildi, ammo mototsikl ham kengroq harbiy maqsadda ishlatilmadi. Jip bu mototsikllar uchun mo'ljallangan rollar va topshiriqlarga ko'proq mos bo'lganligi aniqlandi. [34] [36]

Urushdan keyingi pasayish va halokat

1945 yilda Ralf B. Rojers boshchiligidagi guruh kompaniyaning nazorat paketini sotib oldi. [37] 1945 yil 1 -noyabrda duPont rasman hind operatsiyalarini Rojersga topshirdi. [14] Rojers nazorati ostida, hind ishlab chiqarishni 1946 va 47 yillar uchun faqat bitta model - bosh bilan qayta tikladi. 1947 yil, shuningdek, "urush kapoti" deb nomlanuvchi hind boshli qanotli chiroq joriy qilingan yil edi. [38] 1948 yilda ular ikkita chegirmali import modelini qo'shdilar, Chexiya qurgan CZ125b va Brockhouse Engineering Corgi Scooter. Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida parashyutchilar uchun ishlab chiqilgan, 100 sm li yangi Skuter, Papoosega qaytarildi. Shuningdek, hindlar cheklangan miqdordagi (appx. 50) 648 model skautlarni poyga uchun ishlab chiqargan.

1949 yilda ular boshlig'ini to'xtatdilar, chunki ular ikkita engil mototsiklni ishlab chiqarishni boshladilar, bitta silindrli 220 cc 149 arrow va 440 cc 249 skautli ikkita silindrli. Skautga har xil darajadagi bezak taklif qilingan. Yengil vaznli yuklarning dastlabki jo'natilishi ishonchsizligi bilan mashhur bo'lib, ko'pincha bozorga shoshilish bilan bog'liq edi. Keyinchalik yuklar o'sha paytdagi nashrlar tomonidan ishonchliligi bilan bog'liq muammolar kelgusi yilgacha hal qilinganligi haqida xabar berilgan.

1950 yildagi boshliq teleskopik vilkalar bilan qaytdi. Shuningdek, 500 silindrli ikki silindrli Warrior modeli taqdim etildi, u standart va yuqori quvurli sport TT bezaklarini oldi. Korporativ tomondan, Rojers Texas Instruments kompaniyasida ishga joylashish uchun hindistonlik bosh direktor lavozimini tark etadi. Rojersning o'rnini Brockhouse injiniringining prezidenti va xo'jayini Jon Brokxaus egalladi. Afsuski, yangi boshqaruv yangi omad keltirmadi va barcha modellarni ishlab chiqarish 1952 yilda tugatildi, ko'pchilik 1953 boshliqlari qolgan qismlardan qurilgan. Barcha mahsulot ishlab chiqarish 1953 yilda tugadi.

Korporativ vorislar tahrir

Brockhouse Engineering (1953-1960) Tahrir

1953 yilda Rojers hind tilini tugatgandan so'ng, Brockhouse Engineering hind nomiga bo'lgan huquqni qo'lga kiritdi. Indian Sales Corp rebrending qilingan Papoose Scooter (1954 yilda ishlab chiqarishni to'xtatadi) va Evropa uslubidagi 125 cc engil vaznli Brave-ni qo'llab-quvvatlashni davom ettirdi. Boshqa barcha modellar inventarizatsiyani kamaytirgandan so'ng tashlab qo'yilgan. Brave sotib olishdan oldin ishlab chiqilgan va Brockhouse kompaniyasiga tegishli ingliz sho''ba korxonasi tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan. Hindlar bu tashqi modellarni 1951 yildan boshlab, Brokxaus hindistonning o'sha paytdagi prezidenti Rojers egalik qilgan paytdan boshlab import qilgan. To'g'ridan-to'g'ri Brockhaus soyabon sanoatiga foyda keltiradigan ushbu ikkita modeldan tashqari, ISC, shuningdek, import qilinadigan modellarni bitta ishlab chiqaruvchiga qadar mustahkamlab bo'lgunga qadar, har xil sanalardan Vinsent, AJS va Matchlessni o'z ichiga olgan turli xil import qilingan mahsulotlarni sotdi.

1955 yildan 1960 yilgacha ular ingliz qirollik Enfield mototsikllarini import qilib, AQShda biroz moslashtirdilar. iqtibos kerak ] va ularni hind brendi ostida sotdi. [37] Deyarli barcha Royal Enfield modellari AQShda mos keladigan hind modeliga ega edi. Bu modellar hind boshlig'i, Trailblazer, Apache (uchtasi 700 kubik egizaklar edi), Tomaxavk (500 sm egizak), Woodsman (500 sm bitta), Westerner (500 sm bitta), Hounds Arrow (250 sm kub bitta), Yong'in o'qi ( 250 kubometr yagona), Lans (150 sm 2-zarbali bitta) va 3 g'ildirakli Patrul avtomobili (350 kub sm). [39]

Associated Motor Cycles (1960-1963) Tartibga solish

1960 yilda hind nomini Buyuk Britaniyaning AMC kompaniyasi sotib oldi. Royal Enfild ularning raqobatchisi bo'lib, 700 cc boshligidan tashqari, Enfildagi barcha hind modellarini to'satdan to'xtatdilar. 1962 yilda moliyaviy muammolarga duch kelgan AMC hind brendining barcha marketingidan voz kechdi, chunki kompaniya faqat Norton va Matchless brendlariga e'tibor qaratdi.

Floyd Klimer (1963-1970) Tahrir

1960 -yillardan boshlab tadbirkor Floyd Klimer hind nomini ishlata boshladi. U italiyalik sobiq uchuvchi va muhandis Italjet Moto egasi Leopoldo Tartariniga Minarelli dvigatelli 50 kubometrli minibikllarni Hind Papoose nomi bilan ishlab chiqarishga topshirilgan import qilingan mototsikllarga biriktirdi. Bu muvaffaqiyatli bo'ldi, shuning uchun Klimer Tartariniga to'liq hajmli hind mototsikllarini yasashni buyurdi Italjet griffon dizayn, Royal Enfield Interceptor 750 cc parallel egizak dvigatellari bilan jihozlangan.

Keyingi rivojlanish bu edi Hindiston Velo 500, cheklangan ishlab chiqarish, har xil Norton va Royal Enfield traktor komponentlari va Italiya shassi qismlari bo'lgan Velocette bitta tsilindrli dvigatel yordamida. Italjet kompaniyasining yengil ramkasi, Marzocchi old vilkalari, Grimeca old g'ildirakli tormozli tormoz, Borrani alyuminiy jantlari va tez olinadigan tanki va o'rindiqlari bilan taqqoslaganda vazni 20 funtga tejaydi. an'anaviy Velocette Venomga. [40]

Loyiha Klimerning o'limi va Velocettning muvaffaqiyatsizligi tufayli to'satdan tugadi, 200 ta mashina AQShga jo'natildi va yana 50 tasi Italiyada qoldi, ularni London Velocette diler Jef Dodkin sotib oldi. Roadtesting paytida, Buyuk Britaniyaning har oylik jurnali Mototsikl sporti deb ta'riflagan "Britaniya muhandisligi va italyancha uslublar dastlab Amerika bozoriga mo'ljallangan", Dodkin o'z velosipedlarini standart Venom dvigatel spetsifikatsiyasi bilan yoki qimmatroq narxda - Thruxton versiyasi bilan ta'minlab berishi haqida xabar beradi. [40]

Alan Nyuman egalik huquqi (1970-1977) Tahrir

1970 yilda Klimer vafotidan keyin uning bevasi hind savdo belgisini Los -Anjeles advokati Alan Nyumanga sotdi, u ItalJet tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan va keyinchalik Taypeyda (Tayvan) joylashgan to'liq yig'ish zavodida ishlab chiqarishni davom ettirdi. Dvigatel hajmi 50 sm dan 175 sm gacha bo'lgan bir nechta modellar ishlab chiqarildi, ular asosan Italjet yoki Franko Morini tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan ikki zarbali italyan dvigatellari bilan jihozlangan.

1974 yilda Nyuman katta hajmli mashinalarni qayta tiklashni rejalashtirgan Hind 900, Ducati 860 cc dvigatelidan foydalanib, Italjetdan Leo Tartarini -ga prototip ishlab chiqarishni topshirdi. Loyiha muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi va prototip tirik qolgan. [41] [42]

Nyuman hindulari savdosi 1975 yilga kelib kamayib ketdi. Kompaniya 1977 yil yanvar oyida bankrot deb e'lon qilindi.

American Moped Associates va DMCA (1977-1984) Tahrir

Hind savdo belgisi 1977 yil oxirida bankrotlik sudidan 10 000 dollarga sotib olingan American Moped Associates, kim Tayvandagi ishlab chiqarish zavodini Honda kompaniyasi to'xtatilgan PC50-K1 litsenziyali patentlaridan foydalangan holda yangi moped yasash uchun ishlatar edi. Natijada shunday bo'ldi Hindiston AMI-50 boshlig'i. This moped was offered from 1978 until late 1983, as the trademark was purchased by Carmen DeLeone’s DMCA (Derbi) group in 1982, who discounted the remaining moped stock, and discontinued manufacture. Derbi-Manco would offer Badge engineered go-carts utilizing the ‘4-stroke Indian’ moniker, before the Indian name disappeared from all motorized vehicles in 1984. The right to the brand name then passed through a succession of owners and became a subject of competing claims in the late 1980s. [43]

Other attempts (1984-1999) Edit

By 1992, the Clymer claim to the trademark had been transferred to Indian Motocycle Manufacturing Co. Inc. of Berlin, a corporation headed by Philip S. Zanghi. [44]

In June 1994, in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Wayne Baughman, president of Indian Motorcycle Manufacturing Incorporated, presented, started, and rode a prototype Indian Century V-Twin Chief. Baughman had made previous statements about building new motorcycles under the Indian brand but this was his first appearance with a working motorcycle. [45]

Neither Zanghi nor Baughman began production of motorcycles. [46] In August 1997, Zanghi was convicted of securities fraud, tax evasion, and money laundering. [47]

In January 1998, Eller Industries was given permission to purchase the Indian copyright from the receivers of the previous owner. Eller Industries hired Roush Industries to design the engine for the motorcycle, and was negotiating with the Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians to build a motorcycle factory on their tribal land. [48] Three renderings, one each of a cruiser, a sport cruiser, and a sport bike, on frames specified by suspension designer James Parker, were shown to the motorcycling press in February 1998. [49]

Eller Industries arranged a public unveiling of the cruiser prototype for November 1998, but was prevented from showing the prototype by a restraining order from the receiver, who said that Eller had failed to meet the terms of its obligations. [50] The contract was withdrawn after the company missed its deadline to close the deal and could not agree with the receiver to an extension on the deadline. [51] Other conditions, including payment of administrative costs and presenting a working prototype, were also not met by Eller Industries. Based on this, a Federal bankruptcy court in Denver, Colorado, allowed the sale of the trademark to IMCOA Licensing America Inc. in December 1998. [52]

Indian Motorcycle Company of America (1999–2003) Edit

The Indian Motorcycle Company of America was formed from the merger of nine companies, including manufacturer California Motorcycle Company (CMC) and IMCOA Licensing America Inc., which was awarded the Indian trademark by the Federal District Court of Colorado in 1998. [53] The new company began manufacturing motorcycles in 1999 at the former CMC's facilities in Gilroy, California. The first "Gilroy Indian" model was a new design called the Chief. Scout and Spirit models were also manufactured from 2001. These bikes were initially made with off-the-shelf 88 cubic inch S&S engines, but later used the 100-cubic-inch (1,600 cc) Powerplus (bottlecap) engine design from 2002 to 2003. The Indian Motorcycle Corporation went into bankruptcy and ceased all production operations in Gilroy on September 19, 2003. [54]

Indian Motorcycle Company (2006-2011) Edit

On July 20, 2006, the newly formed Indian Motorcycle Company, owned largely by Stellican Limited, a London-based private equity firm, announced its new home in Kings Mountain, North Carolina, where it restarted the Indian motorcycle brand, [55] manufacturing Indian Chief motorcycles in limited numbers, with a focus on exclusivity rather than performance. Starting out where the defunct Gilroy IMC operation left off in 2003, the "Kings Mountain" models were continuation models based on the new series of motorcycles developed in 1999. The 2009 Indian Chief incorporated a redesigned 105-cubic-inch (1,720 cc) Powerplus V-twin powertrain with electronic closed-loop sequential-port fuel injection, [56] and a charging system providing increased capacity for the electronic fuel injection.

Polaris Acquisition (since 2011) Edit

In April 2011, Polaris Industries, the off-road and leisure vehicle maker and parent company of Victory Motorcycles, announced its intention to acquire Indian Motorcycle. Indian's production facilities were moved to Spirit Lake, Iowa, where production began on August 5, 2011. [57] In March 2013, Indian unveiled their new 111 cubic inches (1.82 l) "Thunder Stroke" engine, [58] and began to sell their newly designed motorcycles based on it in August 2013.

On August 3, 2013, Polaris announced three all-new Indian-branded motorcycles based on the traditional styling of the Indian marque, along with the Thunder Stroke 111 V-twin engine. The motor has a triple-cam design with a chain-driven center cam turning front and rear cams via gears, permitting parallel placement of the pushrods to give a similar appearance to older Indian designs. It is air cooled, with large traditional fins and an airbox in the cast aluminum frame. [59] All Indians using the Thunder Stroke 111 engine share this aluminum frame design, though the wheelbase and front end rake vary depending on model. The integrated transmission is also gear-driven.

Since 2013, Indian has expanded its line up to five models, currently offered in 23 trim levels. Of these, twelve have the Thunderstroke 111 engine. Five offerings use the smaller engine displacement, liquid-cooled Scout engines. The Scout has four trims in its line featuring the 69.14 cu in (1,133.0 cm 3 ) engine, while the Scout 60 has its eponymous 61 cu in (1,000 cm 3 ) variant. Indian offers 3 distinctions of their FTR 1200, a sportier cycle introduced in 2019. And as of 2020, the Challenger Bagger featuring the all-new Indian PowerPlus liquid-cooled 60-degree V-twin has been introduced, with three variations.

Chief Classic (2014–2018 ) Edit

The standard Chief Classic has the valanced fenders and the lighted "war bonnet" on the front fender. Cruise control, antilock braking system, keyless starting, and electronic fuel injection are standard on this and all other models. It has a six-speed transmission and manually-adjustable single-shock swingarm.

Chief Vintage (2014– ) Edit

The Indian Chief Vintage shares the chassis, drivetrain, and styling of the Chief Classic, and adds tan leather quick-release saddlebags, matching tan leather two-up seat, additional chrome trim, quick-release windshield, and a six-speed transmission.

Springfield (2016– ) Edit

The Springfield was introduced in March 2016 during Daytona Bike Week. It is named after the birthplace of Indian Motorcycles, Springfield, Massachusetts. The Springfield is a bit of a hybrid bike, sharing steering geometry and hardbags with the Chieftain and RoadMaster models but is equipped with a quick detach windshield like the Vintage. It also boasts an adjustable rear air shock like the other touring models.

Chieftain (2014– ) Edit

The Indian Chieftain touring motorcycle is the first Indian model with front fairing and hard saddlebags. It has a stereo with speakers in the fairing, Bluetooth media players, tire pressure sensors, air-adjustable rear shock, and motorized windshield adjustment. Initial reports from the press were favorable for styling, performance, and handling. [60] The Chieftain was named 2013 Motorcycle of the Year by RoadRunner Motorcycle Touring & Travel magazine. [61]

Scout (2015– ) Edit

The Indian Scout was introduced at the 2014 Sturgis Motorcycle Rally as a 2015 model. The 2015 Scout is a cruiser with a 1,133 cc (69.1 cu in) liquid-cooled, double overhead camshaft V-twin engine and a frame formed by multiple aluminum alloy castings bolted to each other and to the engine. [62] The Indian Scout was named 2015 Motorcycle of the year by Motorcycle.com. [63]

Scout Sixty (2016– ) Edit

The Indian Scout Sixty was introduced in November 2015 as a 2016 model. The Scout Sixty is a cruiser with a 999 cc (61.0 cu in) liquid-cooled, double overhead camshaft V-twin engine. The new Scout Sixty has many of the same features as the 2014 Scout, but with a smaller 999 cc engine. [64]

Roadmaster (2015– ) Edit

The Indian Roadmaster was introduced at the 2014 Sturgis Motorcycle Rally shortly before the Scout. The Roadmaster is a Chieftain with an added trunk, front fairing lowers, heated seats, heated grips, LED headlights, passenger floorboards, and a rear crash bar. The Roadmaster had been developed before the Chieftain. [65] Cycle World recorded 72.4 hp (54.0 kW) @ 4,440 rpm and 102.7 lb⋅ft (139.2 N⋅m) @ 2,480 rpm at the rear tire. They also recorded a tested 1/4 mile time of 13.91 seconds at 94.44 mph (151.99 km/h) and a 0 to 60 mph (0 to 97 km/h) acceleration at 5.2 seconds, a 60 to 0 mph (97 to 0 km/h) braking distance of 125 ft (38 m), and fuel economy of 35.9 mpg‑US (6.55 L/100 km 43.1 mpg‑imp). [66]

Chief Dark Horse (2016– ) Edit

The 2016 Indian Dark Horse was introduced on Valentine's Day 2015. [67] It is based on a Chief Classic painted in flat black, with the driving lights, oil cooler, analog fuel gauge, passenger pillion seat and passenger pegs removed. [67]

Chieftain Dark Horse (2016– ) Edit

The 2016 Indian Chieftain Dark Horse was introduced in May 2016. [68] It has a full fairing and hard saddlebags, but lacks other accessories in the Chieftain line. It has a claimed 119.2 lb⋅ft (161.6 N⋅m) @ 3000 rpm and a dry weight of 803 lb (364 kg). [69]

Chieftain Limited (2017- ) Edit

The 2017 Indian Chieftain Limited adds more of a bagger style to the Chieftain. The front fender was opened up to show off 19" custom wheels, and a limited coloring scheme. This model also boasts the full ride command touch screen display that the Roadmaster also uses. It has the upper fairing with power windscreen and optional passenger seat.

RoadMaster Classic (2017-2018) Edit

The 2017 Indian Roadmaster Classic was introduced in February 2017, and discontinued before the end of 2018. It has the traditional styling tan leather bags and trunk along with heated seats, heated grips, LED headlights, passenger floorboards, and rear crash bars. It does not have the hard front lowers found on the original Roadmaster.

Springfield Dark Horse (2018- ) Edit

For 2018 Indian offers the Springfield in Dark Horse flavor. Open front fender with 19" cast front wheel.

Scout Bobber (2018- ) Edit

The Scout Bobber is a factory-modified version of the Scout that features style components taken from the “bobber” community of motorcycles, hence the name. These modifications include chopped front and rear mud guards, bar end mirrors, low seat, low handlebars, and a side-mounted license plate holder.

FTR1200 (2019- ) Edit

The FTR1200 takes its inspiration from the flat track racing heritage of Indian. It is considered a “street tracker”, a street-legal motorcycle with flat track bike styling.

Challenger (2020- ) Edit

The Challenger is the first bagger crafted by Indian Motorcycle. It embeds the new Indian PowerPlus liquid-cooled 60-degree V-twin engine that produces 122 horsepower and 128 foot-pounds of torque. The front suspension uses an inverted 43mm fork, which provides 5.1 inches of travel and rear suspension is provided by a hydraulically adjustable rear shock.

Challenger Dark Horse (2020- ) Edit

The Indian Challenger with the Dark Horse flavor is powered by the PowerPlus liquid-cooled 60-degree V-twin engine that produces 122 horsepower and 128 foot-pounds of torque. The front suspension uses an inverted 43mm fork, which provides 5.1 inches of travel and rear suspension is provided by a hydraulically adjustable rear shock.

Between 1962 and 1967, Burt Munro from New Zealand used a modified 1920s Indian Scout to set a number of land speed records, as dramatised in the 2005 film The World's Fastest Indian. [70] [71] In 2014 Indian had a similar custom streamliner built, the Spirit of Munro, to promote their new 111 cubic-inch engine and challenge speed records. [72] [73]

Both Hendee and Hedstrom had built bicycles before they met, and Hendee had marketed his under the Silver King and Silver Queen names. They continued to manufacture bicycles after their motorcycles became successful and even made bicycles designed to resemble their motorcycles. [74]


6. Editorial Note

At the 353d meeting of the National Security Council on January 30, 1958, William M. Holaday , Director of Guided Missiles in the Department of Defense, gave the Council its third annual briefing on ballistic missile programs:

“At the conclusion of the presentation, Mr. Cutler noted that Mr. Holaday had displayed charts showing the following figures: 393 IRBM s, 173 Polaris missiles, and 272 ICBM s. Mr. Cutler asked whether these figures were larger than the figures previously reported because of the inclusion in the larger figure of training and test missiles. Mr. Holaday answered in the affirmative.

"Janob. Cutler said the purpose of his question was to point out that the operational capability figures approved by the President last week were smaller than the figures displayed by Mr. Holaday because the operational capability figures did not include training and test vehicles.

“Secretary McElroy noted that production of missiles had begun in advance of acquiring the research and development knowledge which, ideally, should be available in advance of production. He believed the decision to start production was correct, but wished to point out that this decision would probably entail increased expense because of design changes in the course of production. He was being pressed to move even faster, especially on Polaris, which was an attractive deterrent weapons system. The first firing of a complete Polaris would not take place until October 1959, but three Polaris submarines with missiles had already been ordered. One Senator had suggested that 100 submarines should be ordered. As we go farther down the research and development road we may have to take further gambles, but the present gamble is as big as the [Page 31] Department of Defense can recommend now. If test firings were successful, Secretary McElroy hoped to recommend expansions of the missiles program.

“Doktor Killian inquired about the prospects for liquid Titan propellants other than refrigerated liquids. Mr. Holaday said present progress was slow because the technicians were leaning toward solid propellants. Some liquids looked promising, but research on these liquids would have to be pushed if progress was to be made.” (Memorandum of discussion by Boggs , January 31 Eisenhower Library, Whitman File, NSC Records)

Notes dated January 30 for Holaday ’s presentation and Cutler ’s introductory remarks, attached to the memorandum, are in the Supplement.

After the discussion, the NSC noted the briefing in NSC Action No. 1850, approved by the President on January 31. (Department of State, S/S – NSC (Miscellaneous) Files: Lot 66 D 95, Records of Action by the National Security Council)


Further Reading

“ All – Terrain Vehicle Makers Accused of Not Enforcing Safety Agreement, ” Wall Street Journal, April 16, 1992, p. B5.

Bassett, Jerry, Polaris Partners, St. Paul, Minnesota: Recreational Publications, Inc., 1994.

Beal, Dave, “ Can Roseau County Keep It Up? ” St. Paul Pioneer Press, March 4, 1991.

_____, “ For Snowmobile Makers, Storm of Century Timely, ” St. Paul Pioneer Press, November 11, 1991.

Dapper, Michael, “ Snow Pioneers, ” Snowmobile, November 1994, pp. 74 – 93.

Foster, Jim, “ Polaris Now a Public Corporation, ” Minneapolis Star Tribune, December 23, 1994, p. 3D.

Harris, John, “ Noisemakers, ” Forbes, October 29, 1990, pp. 104 – 06.

Hendricks, Dick, “ Snowmobiling: The Next Generation, ” Snowmobile, January 1995, p. 13.

McCartney, Jim, “ Polaris Will Dive into Water Scooter Market Next Year, ” St. Paul Pioneer Press, August 2, 1991.

Opre, Tom, “ Snowmobiles at 25, ” Outdoor Life, January 1984, pp. 18 – 20.

“ Polaris Snowmobile Celebrates Birthday, ” St. Paul Pioneer Press, July 17, 1989.

Poole, Wiley, “ Built in the U.S.A., ” Trailer Boats, September 1992, pp. 60 – 61.

Ramstad, C. J., Legend: Arctic Cat ’ s First Quarter Century, Deep – haven, Minnesota: PPM Books, 1987.

Rubenstein, David, “ Wheels of Fortune, ” Corporate Report Minnesota, March 1986, pp. 58 – 62.

“ The Ruckus over Snowmobiles, ” Changing Times, January 1980, p. 16.

Skorupa, Joe, “ Ski – Doo: 50 Years on Snow, ” Mashhur mexanika, January 1992, pp. 94 – 95.

“ Splendor in the Snow, ” Corporate Report Minnesota, April 1977, pp. 10 – 12.

“ Those Wild Snowmobilers — Expensive Fun in More Ways Than One, ” Corporate Report Minnesota, February 28, 1970, pp. 8 – 10.

“ Those Wild Snowmobilers — Where Do They Go from Here? ” Corporate Report Minnesota, March 14, 1970, pp. 8 – 10.

Ushbu maqolaga iqtibos keltiring
Quyidagi uslubni tanlang va bibliografiya matnini nusxa ko'chiring.

"Polaris Industries Inc. ." International Directory of Company Histories. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Jun. 2021 < https://www.encyclopedia.com > .

"Polaris Industries Inc. ." International Directory of Company Histories. . Retrieved June 17, 2021 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/books/politics-and-business-magazines/polaris-industries-inc-1

Iqtibos uslublari

Encyclopedia.com sizga zamonaviy tillar assotsiatsiyasi (MLA), uslublar bo'yicha Chikago qo'llanmasi va Amerika psixologik assotsiatsiyasining (APA) umumiy uslublari bo'yicha mos yozuvlar va maqolalarni keltirish imkoniyatini beradi.

"Ushbu maqolaga iqtibos keltiring" vositasida, ushbu uslub bo'yicha formatlanganida, mavjud bo'lgan barcha ma'lumotlar qanday ko'rinishini ko'rish uchun uslubni tanlang. Keyin matnni bibliografiyangizga yoki asarlar ro'yxatiga ko'chiring va joylashtiring.


Intelligence

The Cobra Judy radar was a ship-based radar program based on the US Naval Ship Observation Island [T-AGM-23]. COBRA JUDY operated from Pearl Harbor and was designed to detect, track and collect intelligence data on US. Russian, and other strategic ballistic missile tests over the Pacific Ocean.

USNS Observation Island was quietly struck from the rolls of U.S. Navy vessels and inactivated on March 31, 2014, ending the 30-year joint Army/Air Force Cobra Judy program.

Originally launched on Aug. 15, 1953 as the Empire State Mariner, a Mariner class high speed cargo ship, the ship entered the National Defense Reserve Fleet in 1954 after a few voyages. The Empire State transferred to the Navy on Sept. 10, 1956 and became the first ship equipped with a fully integrated Fleet Ballistic Missile System. It was officially commissioned two years later on Dec. 5, 1958 as the USS Observation Island.

On Aug. 27, 1959, the USS Observation Island made history as it launched the first sea-launched A-1 Polaris missile. After conducting six launches, the Observation Island provided support to the submarine-launched Polaris test program, providing optical and electronic data collection. Later, President John F. Kennedy watched a Polaris launch demonstration from the decks of the Observation Island on Nov. 14, 1963.

The AN/SPQ-11 shipborne phased array radar is designed to detect and track ICBM's launched by Russia in their west-to-east missile range. The Cobra Judy operates in the the 2900-3100 MHz band. The octagonal S-band array, composed of 12 288 antenna elements, forms a large octagonal structure approximately 7 m in diameter. and is integrated into a mechanically rotated steel turret. The entire system weighs about 250 tonnes, stands over forty feet high.

In 1985, Raytheon installed an 9-GHz X-band radar, using a parabolic dish antenna to complement the S-band phased array system. The five story X-band dish antenna is installed aft of the ship's funnel and forward of the phased array. The X-band upgrade [which may be associated with the COBRA SHOE program name] was intended to improve the system's ability to collect intelligence data on the terminal phase of ballistic missile tests, since operation in X-band offers a better degree of resolution and target separation.

The S-Band and X-Band radars are used to verify treaty compliance and provide support to missile development tests by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization. The radars are also being used for research and development work in areas not accessible to ground-based sensors.

The ship is operated by Military Sealift Command for the U.S. Air Force Technical Applications Center at Patrick Air Force Base, Florida. Electronic Systems Center provides sustainment while an AIA detachment at Patrick AFB, Fla. oversees daily operation.

USNS Observation Island is a converted merchant ship, modified first as a fleet ballistic missile test launch platform, then as a missile tracking platform. USNS Observation Island operates worldwide, monitoring foreign missile tests for the Air Force Intelligence command. The Military Sealift Command operates ships manned by civilian crews and under the command of a civilian master. These ships, indicated by the blue and gold bands on their stack, are "United States Naval Ships" vice "United States Ships" as is the case of commissioned ships.

AQSh Observation Island began her career as the SS Empire State Mariner. Her keel was laid on 15 September, 1952, at New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey. Following a short career as a Merchant Vessel she was placed in the Maritime Reserve Fleet. ON 10 September, 1956, the vessel was transferred to the Navy for use as the sea going facility for test and evaluation of the Fleet Ballistic Missile Weapons System.

The ship was commissioned as USS Observation Island (EAG-154) on December 1958. During conversion, extensive changes were made to the superstructure and holds to accommodate the installation of the first compete Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) Weapons System. From commissioning, until 27 August 1959, the efforts of the officers and men were directed towards the first at sea launch of Polaris Missile. The first launching of a Polaris test missile at sea was successfully conducted from the deck of the USS Observation Island about seven missiles off Cape Canaveral in September 1959.

Following this milestone and the subsequent firing of other Polaris Missiles, the ship began supporting Polairs launchings from the FBM submarines USS George Washington (SSBN 598) being the first. On 15 December 1960, Observation Island was awarded the Navy Unit Commendation for its performance during the first Polaris launches at sea. On 1 March, 1961 the ship successfully launched the new A2 Polaris Missile and on 23 October supported the first successful launch of the new A2 Polaris from an FBM Submarine, the USS Ethan Allen (SSBN 608).

During November and December 1961, Observation Island played the new role of survey ship on the Atlantic Missile Range. In January the ship returned to Norfolk Naval Shipyard for further modification in preparation for firing the new A3 Polaris and upon return to Port Canaveral in March 1962, rsumed her role as FBM submarine support ship which continued throught the summer. September and October of 1962 found Observation Island firing A2 Polaris Missiles on the Atlantic Missile Range. In late October, the ship departed for Hawaii via the Panama Canal for similar launches on the Pacific Missile Range. Meanwhile the role of submarine support was taken over by Destroyers mounting communications and telemetry equipment in portable vans. Up intil this time, every Polaris submarine had been supported by the Observation Island.

Observation Island departed Pearl Harbor in early December and arrived in Port Canaveral before Christmas. From late April until early June 1963, Obsrvation Island was expanding her role in oceanagraphic survey in ocean areas of the Atlantic Missile Range. Upon return from survey operations, on 17 June 1963, Observation Island made the first successful at sea launch of the new A3 Polaris Missile. Immediately after firing a second successful A3 Polaris on 21 June, Observation Island proceeded to Norfolk Naval Shipyard for further modifications. The ship returned to Port Canaveral in late August 1963, and supported FBM submarine launches including the first submerged launch of an A3 Polaris missile by the USS Andrew Jackson (SSBN 619) in October. On November 16, 1963, Observation Island was host ship to the late President Kennedy when he came aboard to observe a Polaris A2 launch at sea form the submerged submarine, USS Andrew Jackson. During the winter of 1963 the ship continued to support Polaris launchings from submarines as well as making several launchings from her own decks.

In March 1964, the ship departed Port Canaveral for launch and support operations in the Pacific Missile Range. In early June the ship returned to her home port, after a brief port visit in Acupulco, Mexico. The months from June to October 1964 again found the Observation Island in her familiar role as FBM submarine launching support ship, operating from Port Canaveral. On 14 October 1964 the ship departed her home port for operations in support of the Pacific Missile Range. Liberty ports during this deployment included Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and Hong Kong. The deployment ended with the arrival of the ship in Port Canaveral on 9 April 1965. The ship returned to the Norfolk Naval Shipyard in the summer of 1965 for a shipyard availability period of approximately two months. Following this overhaul period she returned to daily support operations out of Port Canaveral for FBM submarines and survey work in the Atlantic Missile Range.

The vessel was converted at Norfolk Naval Shipyard, and in reserve from September 1972. On Aug. 18, 1977, Observation Island was reacquired by the U.S. Navy from the Maritime Administration and transferred to Military Sealift Command and reclassified as T-AGM 23.

On 14 May 1999, Raytheon Support Services, Burlington, Mass., was awarded an $11,824,227 firm-fixed-price contract to provide for operation and maintenance from May 14, 1999, through May 13, 2000, of the Cobra Judy and Cobra Gemini radar systems deployed on the USNS Observation Island and the USNS Invincible, respectively. There were four firms solicited and three proposals received. Expected contract completion date is May 13, 2000. Solicitation issue date was Oct. 20, 1998. Negotiation completion date was May 13, 1999. The 668th Logistics Squadron, Kelly AFB, Texas, was the contracting activity.

The fully equipped USNS Observation Island/Cobra Judy had a twofold mission: monitoring compliance with strategic arms treaties worldwide and supporting military weapons test programs. The two primary customers were the Air Force Foreign Technology Division and the U.S. Army Strategic Defense Command, a predecessor to the U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Forces Strategic Command.

Cobra Judy provided the necessary high resolution metric and signature data on midcourse and reentry phases of ballistic missiles flights with particular attention given to the size, shape, mass and precise motion of the target. This information would help recreate target trajectories and define vehicle signatures enhancing future discrimination algorithms.

As the missile defense program progressed, Cobra Judy provided support to many of the missile programs, collecting flight data on both strategic and theater missiles and interceptors throughout the test program. In addition, Cobra Judy participated in Operation Burnt Frost, the destruction of the defective American satellite in 2008.

Over the years, however with few replacement parts available, it became increasingly difficult to support and maintain the Cobra Judy radars. Nevertheless, the USNS Observation Island continued to operate and completed its final mission in December 2013. It was replaced by the new COBRA KING radar system housed aboard the USNS Howard O. Lorenzen.

For more than 31 years, the Observation Island/Cobra Judy averaged more than 260 days a year at sea and completed 558 nationally sponsored missions. As Ed Hotz, a Cobra Judy program manager, observed this spring. "The information collected was critical in the development of shoot-down algorithms for both tactical and strategic missile defense systems supporting international treaty verification [and] providing national decision makers, from the president on down, with precise actionable data on world events."



General Characteristics, USNS Observation Island

Builder: New York Shipbuilding
Conversion: Maryland Shipbuilding and Drydock Company
Power Plant: Two boilers, geared turbines, single shaft, 19,250 shaft horsepower
Length: 564 feet (172 meters)
Beam: 76 feet (23 meters)
Displacement: 17,015 tons (15,468 metric tons)
Speed: 20 kts (23 mph, 37 kph)
Ship:
USNS Observation Island (T-AGM 23)
Crew: 143 civilians


For its first entry into the retail market, Polaris chose vertically integrated manufacturer, distributor, retailer, and installer of off-road Jeep and truck accessories Transamerican Auto Parts. The $665 million deal holds the promise of transforming Polaris because it operates a network of 75 retail stores and six distribution centers, and is the biggest manufacturer and installer of aftermarket parts in its respective sectors, one that owns well-known brands such as Pro Comp, Rubicon Express, and Trail Master.

Over the years, Polaris has purchased a number of utility vehicle manufacturers, including Goupil in 2011, Global Electric Motorcars (GEM) and Aixam-Mega in 2013, and Taylor-Dunn in 2016. The global adjacent markets segment under which they're grouped now accounts for 8% of total revenues.


Strategy [ edit | manbani tahrirlash]

First Stage [ edit | manbani tahrirlash]

If the player is on the Anguished One's route, the Anguished One must be dispatched, and must survive throughout the entire battle. As the Anguished One cannot overthrow Polaris by himself (or even damage her, for that matter), a game over is also issued if all other human leaders are defeated.

The fight with Polaris comes in 3 stages. During the first stage, Polaris is effectively immune to everything save Almighty (which she resists), being capable of reflecting Physical attacks and nullifying every elemental attack, in addition to possessing several powerful skills and infinite range. Instead, the player has to weaken her by defeating the Guardian Stars scattered across the battlefield, gradually reducing her defenses, before being able to attack Polaris.

Polaris carries a unique skill called "Heaven's Wrath", which deals almighty damage for each Guardian that exists on the field. Therefore, the player must destroy all Guardians in order to minimize the damage. Unfortunately, after several turns, a defeated Guardian will be resurrected. However, Polaris will not recover her skills or resistances that were lost after the defeat of a Guardian.

Second Stage [ edit | manbani tahrirlash]

For the next stage, Polaris gathers all her Guardians to form her full body. What happens depends on the route the player has chosen.

If the player is on the Anguished One's route, the Anguished One is sealed and prevented from taking any actions outside of skirmishes. The player has to attack and defeat Polaris to move on to the next stage, while fending off several strong demon teams that can harm the Anguished One.

If the player is on Yamato's route, the player has to defeat a number of strong demon teams to proceed.

If the player is on Ronaldo's route, fewer demons need to be defeated to proceed. However, Polaris also introduces 2 civilians which can be killed by the demons in one shot, and the players must prevent their deaths. The demons will prioritize on moving towards and killing the civilians.

If the player is on Daichi's route and chose to restore the world, Shadow forms of the Demon Tamers are summoned, mocking the player's choice, and they must be defeated to proceed. If the player has chosen to kill Polaris on that route instead, Polaris decides that their will to fight stems from the protagonist and summons several demon teams to attack the protagonist. Polaris must be attacked and defeated to proceed, but from this point on in the battle, if the protagonist is dead a game over is issued.

Final Stage [ edit | manbani tahrirlash]

For the final stage, Polaris takes on a more bulky form, composed of 3 parts, labelled Polaris A, B, and Ab. Polaris A, the main body, is capable of firing Supernova, a large laser which inflicts Almighty damage to all teams standing in its line of sight. Said line of sight includes the bridge leading up to her. Fortunately, there are 2 conditions to take note regarding Polaris' Supernova:

  1. Polaris always telegraphs the attack by using Star Compression the turn before.
  2. Polaris always rests for a turn after firing Supernova.

When Polaris A uses Star Compression, it is highly recommended to evacuate the two columns leading up to her, unless the team that isn't doing so has resistance to Almighty damage (Yamato, Lucifer, or anyone with Anti-Almighty equipped) or a lot of HP and Vitality to withstand Supernova.

Polaris B, her right shoulder, possesses powerful Phys attacks along with infinite range, and Polaris Ab, her left shoulder, constantly summons another demon team (via Magnetite Conversion) into the battlefield each time it gets a turn. Only Polaris A needs to be defeated to end the battle, but Polaris B and Ab will increase the difficulty in defeating Polaris A by increasing her offensive and defensive strength respectively. Polaris is also capable of reviving Polaris B and Ab if they are defeated.

If the player is on the Anguished One's route or has chosen to kill Polaris on Daichi's route, Polaris B and Ab have their Racial Skills altered to give all Polaris bodies access to Double Extra va a Beast Eye ability, making both of them a greater threat to whoever gets attacked by any part of Polaris. Barring Supernova and Megidolaon, the largest source of damage coming from Polaris and her companion stars is mostly Physical damage, so prepare teams with Physical resistance (preferably Reflect, since Polaris A has Pierce). As Polaris A has no resistances other than an immunity to Curse, you are free to use whatever attacks you see fit to defeat her.


Videoni tomosha qiling: ТАРИХНИ УЗГАРТИРГАН 5-ВОКЕА. TARIXNI OZGARTIRGAN 5-VOQEA