Heinkel U 65

Heinkel U 65


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Heinkel U 65

Heinkel He 65-tezyurar yo'lovchi samolyotlarining qisqa muddatli dizayni bo'lib, u He 70 foydasiga qoldirildi. Samolyot ustida ishlash Lockheed Orion yo'lovchilar samolyotining paydo bo'lishidan kelib chiqqan bo'lib, u eng zamonaviy tezlikka ega. jangchilar. 1931 yilning yozida Swissair Orionga buyurtma berganida, boshqa Evropa aviakompaniyalari raqobatlashishga majbur bo'lishdi.

Germaniyada Lufthansa va Transport vazirligi tezligi soatiga 198 millimetr bo'lgan, Germaniyaning ko'p shaharlari o'rtasida ikki soat yoki undan kamroq vaqt ichida oltita yo'lovchini tashiy oladigan tezroq samolyot ishlab chiqarishga buyurtma berishga qaror qilishdi. Heinkel va Junkersdan dizaynlarni topshirish so'ralgan.

Ernst Xaynkel bunga javoban o'zining eng yaxshi dizaynerlaridan biri Zigfrid Gyunterni AQShga samolyotsozlik sanoatining holatini o'rganish uchun yubordi. Qaytib kelgach, Gyunter past qanotli monoplan uchun konstruktsiyani ishlab chiqardi. Bu samolyot soatiga 148 mil tezlikka ega bo'ladi, bu Lufthansa talablaridan ancha sekinroq (Junkers Ju 60 konstruktsiyasi xuddi shu muammoga duch kelgan).

Heinkel o'z dizaynini 1932 yil yanvar oyida topshirdi, lekin u ishtiyoqsiz qabul qilindi. He 65 ustida ishlash may oyigacha davom etdi. 15 -may kuni Ernst Xaynkel Swissair's Orionlaridan biri birinchi rejalashtirilgan parvozni amalga oshirganini bilib, Tsyurix, Myunxen va Vena o'rtasida soatiga 180 mil tezlikda uchdi. U He 65 -dagi barcha ishlarni to'xtatishga va Heinkel He 70 sifatida paydo bo'ladigan butunlay yangi dizaynga o'tishga qaror qildi. Blits (Chaqmoq).


Nega fir'avn daryoga masturbatsiya qildi?

Nil qadimgi misrliklarning dunyoqarashini shakllantirdi. Bu daryo o'z xalqiga oziq -ovqat, suv va transport manbasini berdi. Misrliklar ekinlar uchun namlik va ozuqa manbai sifatida unga qaram edilar, chunki bu hududda yomg'ir deyarli yo'q edi.

Yaxshi vaqtlarda Nil boylik va farovonlik olib kelgan, lekin qurg'oqchilikda ocharchilik va o'lim keltirgan.

Bu haqiqatni hisobga olib, qadimgi misrliklar daryo qurib qolmasligi uchun hamma narsani qilishgan. Nil daryosining "tug'ish festivali" ni vaqti -vaqti bilan o'tkazish ularning eng qiziqarli yondashuvlaridan biri edi.


Eng katta firibgarlik: pastor Creflo dollari o'zining 65 million dollarlik hashamatli samolyotini oladi

Ehtimol siz bir necha oy oldin Atlanta shtatidagi vazir haqida 65 million dollarlik shaxsiy samolyotga muhtoj ekanligingizni eshitgan bo'lishingiz mumkin, shunda u "Xushxabarni butun dunyo bo'ylab xavfsiz va tez tarqatishi" mumkin edi. Ammo pastor Creflo Dollar 200,000 izdoshlaridan har biriga hashamatli samolyot sotib olish uchun 300,00 dollar xayriya qilishni so'ragach, kampaniya g'oyib bo'ldi va uning veb -saytidan olib tashlandi.

Ammo hozirda "World Changers Church International" kengashi - Creflo Dollar vazirligi sifatida ham ishlaydi, samolyotni sotib olishga tayyorligini e'lon qildi.

"Biz Gulfstream G650 -ni sotib olishni rejalashtirmoqdamiz, chunki u eng yaxshisi va bu tashkilot faoliyat ko'rsatadigan mukammallik darajasini aks ettiradi."

Bu eng katta sharmandaliklardan biri bo'lishi kerak va shunchalik ko'p aldanish borki, hatto qaerdan boshlashni ham tushunish qiyin.

Pul bilan boshlaylik. Tasavvur qiling, 65 million dollar bilan nima qilish mumkin! Bu juda ko'p pul. Sizningcha, Iso er yuzidagi vakillarini hashamatli uylarda sayohat qilishni xohlarmidi? Yoki sizningcha, Iso 65 million dollar kambag'allarni boqish, uysizlarga yordam berish, ta'limni yaxshilash yoki insoniyatga qandaydir katta ta'sir ko'rsatishini ko'rishni xohlarmidi?

"World Changers Church International", "Uzoq masofali, tezyurar, qit'alararo reaktiv samolyot-bu vazirlik vazifasini bajarish uchun zarur bo'lgan vosita", dedi.

Albatta, bunday samolyot dunyo bo'ylab sayohat qilishni kim xohlamaydi? Men bilardim va siz ham shunday qilasiz. Va agar siz bu dunyoda kamdan -kam odamlardan biri bo'lsangiz, bunga harakat qiling! Ammo siz o'z hamkasblaringizni bezovta qila boshlaganingizda, ularning ko'pchiligi kundalik moliyaviy ahvoli bilan qiynaladi va o'zlari va oilalari uchun eng zarur narsalarni etkazib berish uchun arzimaydi-o'shanda biror narsa qilish kerak.

Tijoriy uchish haqida nima deyish mumkin? Iso piyoda va eshakda sayohat qildi. To'g'ri, o'sha paytda Gulfstream G650 -lar yo'q edi, lekin agar shunday bo'lsa edi, menimcha, siz Isoning bir vaqtning o'zida uchib ketganini ko'rmagan bo'lardingiz. Dollar dunyoning eng yirik aeroportiga ega bo'lgan Atlanta shahrida istiqomat qiladi, har kuni har bir yirik xalqaro manzilga reyslar amalga oshiriladi. Shubhasiz, uning suruvi butun dunyo bo'ylab o'z ishlarini shu tarzda bajarsa, iqtisodiy jihatdan samaraliroq bo'lardi.

Lekin, axir, Xudo unga samolyot sotib olishni buyurgan. Dollar shunday dedi: "Agar men Xudoga 65 million dollarlik samolyotga ishonishni xohlasam, siz meni to'xtata olmaysiz. Siz meni tush ko'rishni to'xtata olmaysiz. Men Iso kelguncha tush ko'raman".

Bilmadim, bundan ham yomoni: Creflo Dollar Xudo u bilan gaplashganiga va unga bu samolyotni sotib olishini aytganiga ishongani yoki odamlar shunchalik ishonuvchan va aldamchi bo'lib, aslida bu odamni qo'llab -quvvatlayotgani. Albatta, Dollar aytganidek, bu "farovonlik ilohiyoti" deb ataydigan narsaning bir qismi, boshqacha aytganda, cherkovga o'z pulingizni berishdir, chunki bu bilan sizning shaxsiy boyligingiz barakali bo'ladi va sezilarli darajada o'sadi.

Odamlar bu bema'nilikni sotib olishlari ajablanarli emas. So'nggi 31 yil davomida aqliy zo'ravonlik bo'yicha treningni o'rganganimizdan so'ng, ruhiy holati past bo'lgan odamlarning tanqidiy fikrlashni to'xtatishga va o'zlarini yaxshi his qiladigan har qanday ishni bajarishga ko'proq moyil bo'lishlari aniq bir shaklga ega. Umid tuyg'usiga berilib ketish - qotil, shuning uchun pastor Dollar ularga 300,00 dollar berishni aytganda va abadiy hayot, osmondagi saroy va yaqinlaringiz bilan uchrashish haqidagi va'dasini eslatsa, bu juda yaxshi eshitiladi.

Xulosa: odamlar uyg'onish va ahmoqlikni to'xtatish vaqti keldi! Manulgarlikni to'xtatib, pulingizni ikkita Rolls Royce avtomashinasi va bir necha millionli uylarga ega bo'lgan och diniy rahbarga berishni to'xtating. Creflo dollari - bu soxta pul. Agar u haqiqatan ham yaxshilik va xudojo'y ishlar haqida qayg'urganida, ko'pchilikning hayotini o'zgartirish uchun 65 million dollar yig'gan bo'lardi. Buning o'rniga, u birinchi darajali tajribadan ko'ra yaxshiroq zavq oladi, chunki u butun dunyo bo'ylab uslubda uchib, o'zi yaratgan farsega kuladi.


Jets uchun rekvizitlar

Moviy farishtalar F8F-1 Bearcat-ni 1949 yil 14-avgustda Madison, Visis shtatida oxirgi marta paydo bo'lgunga qadar uchirishdi. Biroq, 1949 yil davomida jamoa asta-sekin Grumman F9F-2 Panther-ga o'tishga tayyorgarlik ko'rdi. davr jangchisi. Leytenant Cmdr. Jon J. "Jonni" Magda o'sha paytda jamoaga qo'shilgan va bir necha oydan keyin uning qo'mondoni bo'lgan. Magda beshta o'ldirilgan, Miduey jangida uchgan va zovurda va besh kun tirik qolgan. Magda 1949 yil 20 -avgustda Texasning Beaumont shahrida jamoaning birinchi Panther reaktiv chiqishlarini boshqargan.

Leytenant Cmdr. R.E. "Dusty" Rodos, 1949 yilda jamoaning uchinchi qo'mondoni, "Moviy farishtalar" rasmiy nishonini yaratdi. Bu hozirgi dizayn bilan deyarli bir xil. Bulutda, yuqori o'ng burchakda, samolyot dastlab pastga va o'ngga ketayotganini ko'rsatdi. Yillar davomida samolyot siluetlari jamoaning samolyotlari bilan o'zgardi.

Bu reaktiv dvigatellar rivojlanayotgan payt edi. Panteraning bir nechta versiyalari turli dvigatellar bilan navbatchilikka qo'yildi. Pratt & amp; Whitney J42-P-6/P-8 markazdan qochma oqim turbojeti-o'zgartirilgan Rolls-Royce Nene, 5,950 funt suv quyish bilan-F9F-2 bilan quvvatlanadi. Bir o'rindiqli, uch g'ildirakli velosipedli Pantherning qanotlari 37 fut, 5 dyuym va og'irligi 16450 funt to'liq yuklangan edi. Moviy farishtalar panteralari qurol-yarog 'va boshqa xususiyatlarga ega bo'lib, ularning og'irligini 14000 funtgacha kamaytirdi, lekin Magda va boshqalar dastlab reaktivlar pervanel boshqariladigan samolyotlar kabi manevrli bo'ladimi, degan savolni berishdi.

Leytenant Cmdr. R.E. "Dusty" Rodos, 1949 yilda jamoaning uchinchi qo'mondoni, "Moviy farishtalar" rasmiy nishonini yaratdi. Bu hozirgi dizayn bilan deyarli bir xil. Bulutda, yuqori o'ng burchakda, samolyot dastlab pastga va o'ngga ketayotganini ko'rsatdi. Yillar davomida samolyot siluetlari jamoaning samolyotlari bilan o'zgardi.

Grumman F9F-5 Panther reaktiv samolyotlari, 1953 yilda AQSh dengiz flotining Moviy farishtalar parvozini namoyish qildi.

Koreya urushi boshlanganidan so'ng, dengiz floti Moviy farishtalarni flot vazifasiga qaytarishga qaror qildi. Magda boshchiligidagi to'p bilan qurollangan F9F-2B panteralari bilan qayta jihozlangan jamoa USSga tayinlangan VF-191 qiruvchi eskadronining "Shayton mushukchalari" yadrosini tashkil qildi. Prinston (CV 37). Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari yoki Havo kuchlari tomonidan hech qachon takrorlanmagan harakatda, Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari parvoz namoyish guruhini jangga yubordi.

1951 yil 9 martda Magda Shimoliy Koreya va Xitoy qo'shinlariga zarba berdi. U past darajadagi raketa va qurol bilan hujum qilayotganida, uning Panterasiga o'q otilgan. Magdaning qanotchilari uning F9F-2B alangalanib ketganini ko'rishdi. Uchuvchi samolyotni dengizga olib chiqishga muvaffaq bo'ldi, lekin u suvga tushib ketdi va 33 yoshli Magda yo'qolgan. Harbiy-dengiz kuchlari o'limidan keyin unga Dengiz Xochini topshirdilar, bu jasorat uchun mamlakatning ikkinchi eng yuqori mukofoti.

Koreya urushi boshlanganidan so'ng, dengiz floti Moviy farishtalarni flot vazifasiga qaytarishga qaror qildi. Magda boshchiligidagi to'p bilan qurollangan F9F-2B panteralari bilan qayta jihozlangan jamoa USSga tayinlangan VF-191 qiruvchi eskadronining "Shayton mushukchalari" yadrosini tashkil qildi. Prinston (CV 37). Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari yoki Harbiy havo kuchlari tomonidan hech qachon takrorlanmagan harakatda, Harbiy -dengiz floti o'zining parvoz namoyish guruhini jangga yubordi.

1951 yil oktyabr oyida Dengiz operatsiyalari boshlig'i, admiral Uilyam M. Fechteler, "Moviy farishtalar" parvoz namoyish guruhi sifatida qayta tuzilishini buyurdi. Hozir qo'mondon bo'lgan Voris nafaqaga chiqish arafasida edi, lekin uni jamoani qayta tashkil qilish uchun olib kelishdi va 1951 yil 25 oktyabrda shunday qilishdi. Moviy farishtalar Texas shtatining Korpus-Kristi shahridagi bekatni egallab olishdi. 1952 yil iyun oyida ko'rgazma boshlanib, F9F-5 panterasi ucha boshladi. U Rolls-Royce Nene-ga asoslangan 7600 funtli Pratt & amp Whitney J48-P-4, -6 yoki -8 markazdan qochma oqim turbojeti bilan jihozlangan va jangovar og'irligi taxminan 17000 funtni tashkil qilgan.

1952 yil 7 -iyul kuni Korpus -Kristida namoyish paytida ikkita ko'k farishta panterasi past darajada to'qnashdi. Voris juda shikastlangan samolyotini qo'ndira oldi, lekin podpolkovnik Bud Vud chiqarib yubordi. U hech qachon o'z o'rindig'idan ajralmagan va zarba natijasida o'ldirilgan.

AQSh Harbiy -dengiz kuchlarining F7U Cutlass reaktiv samolyotlari Ko'k farishtalar. Moviy farishtalar 1953 yilgi mavsumda ikkita "Cutlasses" ni yonma -yon harakat qilishiga ko'ndirishdi, lekin uchuvchilar ham, texnik xodimlar ham "nochor kesim" ni jamoaga yaroqsiz deb topdilar. AQSh harbiy -dengiz kuchlarining fotosurati

Shuningdek, 1952 yildan boshlab, guruh Pantherda chiqishlarini davom ettirar ekan, TV-2 Shooting Star (T-33 murabbiyi) va yakkaxon F8F-2 Bearcat-dan foydalangan. Ikki yil o'tgach, jamoa qisqa vaqt ichida logistika ta'minoti uchun R5C Commando (C-46) dan foydalangan, biroq samolyotni yuklash qiyinligidan to'xtab qolgan. Ular uni R4D-8 Skytrain (Super DC-3) bilan almashtirdilar.


Doktor Pepper tarixi

Keurig Dr Pepper Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlaridagi alkogolsiz ichimliklar kontsentratlari va siroplarining eng qadimgi yirik ishlab chiqaruvchisi. Doktor Pepper - bu Amerikaning o'ziga xos ta'mi va 1885 yildan Texasning Markaziy Vako shahrida yaratilgan, ishlab chiqarilgan va sotilgan.

Vako: Hammasi qaerdan boshlandi

Doktor Pepper - bu "tug'ilgan Teksas", Morrison ’s Old Corner Dorixonasida. Bu Amerikadagi alkogolsiz ichimliklarning eng qadimiyidir. Uning ta'mi singari, doktor Pepperning kelib chiqishi g'ayrioddiy. Morrison ’s do'konida ishlaydigan yosh farmatsevt Charlz Alderton hozirgi mashhur ichimlik kashfiyotchisi deb ishoniladi. Alderton ko'p vaqtini Vako xalqi uchun dori -darmonlarni aralashtirish bilan o'tkazgan, lekin bo'sh vaqtlarida gazlangan ichimliklarni sodali suv bulog'ida xizmat qilishni yoqtirardi. U dorixonaning hidini, mevali siropning barcha xushbo'y hidi havoda aralashishini yoqdi. U xuddi shu hidga o'xshash ichimlik yaratishga qaror qildi. U jurnalni yuritdi va ko'plab tajribalardan so'ng nihoyat o'zi yoqtirgan mevali siroplarning aralashmasini urdi.

Doktor Pepperning ismi

Yangi ichimlikni sinab ko'rish uchun u uni do'kon egasi Morrisonga taklif qildi, u ham uni o'ziga yoqdi. Ikkalasi bir necha bor namunali sinovdan o'tkazgandan so'ng, Alderton o'zining yangi ichimlikini favvoralar mijozlariga taklif qilishga tayyor edi. Bu ularga ham yoqdi. Morrison sodali suv favvorasidagi boshqa mijozlar tez orada Aldertonning yangi ichimliklari haqida bilib, unga "“Waco" ni otishni so'rash orqali buyurtma berishni boshladilar.

Morrison ichimlikka “Dr deb nom bergan. Pepper ” (bu davr 1950 -yillarda qoldirilgan). Afsuski, ismning kelib chiqishi aniq emas. Muzey ichimlikning qanday qilib "Pepper" nomi bilan mashhur bo'lgani haqida o'ndan ortiq turli xil hikoyalarni to'plagan.

Doktor Pepper kompaniyasi bo'lish

Doktor Pepper shu qadar keng tarqalgan iste'molchilar manfaatiga sazovor bo'ldiki, Vakodagi boshqa sodali suv buloqlari operatorlari Morrisondan sirop sotib olib, unga xizmat qila boshladilar. Bu tez orada Alderton va Morrison uchun muammo tug'dirdi. Ular endi favvorada talabni qondirish uchun yetarli mahsulot ishlab chiqara olmasdilar.

Yangi ichimliklar kimyogari Robert S. Lazenbi ham yangi ichimlikni tatib ko'rdi va u ham taassurot qoldirdi. Ixtirochi Alderton, birinchi navbatda, dorixona ishi bilan qiziqar edi va ichimlik haqida hech qanday dizaynga ega emas edi. U Morrison va Lazenbiga uni yanada rivojlantirishni taklif qildi.

Morrison va Lazenbi doktor Pepperning o'sishidan hayratda qolishdi. 1891 yilda ular Artesian Mfg. & Amp Bottling Company yangi firmasini tuzdilar, keyinchalik u doktor Pepper kompaniyasiga aylandi. Lazenbi va uning kuyovi JB O ’Hara kompaniyani 1923 yilda Vakodan Dallasga ko'chirishdi.

1904 yilgi Jahon yarmarkasi

1904 yilda Lazenby va O ’Hara, doktor Pepperni 1904 yil Sent -Luisdagi World ’s ko'rgazmasida qatnashgan deyarli 20 million kishiga tanishtirdilar. Ekspozitsiya mahsulotning bir nechta yirik debyutini o'rnatdi. Gamburger va frankfurterlar ko'rgazmada birinchi bo'lib bulochkalarda, muzqaymoq konusida esa ko'p miqdorda tarqatilgan.

Doktor Pepper piktogramma va shiorlar

1910 yildan 1914 yilgacha doktor Pepper "ichimliklar qiroli" va "eski hujjat", "monoklli va bosh kiyimli, oddiy qishloq shifokori" shiori bilan aniqlandi, 1920 -yillarda Dr Pepper savdo belgisiga aylandi. va 1930 yillar. O'sha paytda, shakar energiya bilan ta'minlanganligini va oddiy odam soat 10:30 dan 14:30 gacha tushkunlikka tushishini isbotlovchi tadqiqotlar aniqlandi. va 16:30. Ushbu yangi ma'lumotlardan foydalangan holda reklama yaratish uchun tanlov o'tkazildi. Reklama kampaniyasi g'olibi mashhur reklama shiori bilan chiqdi: 󈫺, 2 va 4 da ovqatlanish uchun bir luqma iching. ” 1950-yillarda doktor Pepper ’s shiori "qalampir-tepa" edi. 60 -yillarga kelib, brendni boshqargan#8221, u rok -n -roll musiqasi bilan bog'liq bo'lganida va Dik Klarkning Amerikadagi Bandstand teleko'rsatuvida.

Vaqt o'zgarishi bilan shiorlar o'zgara boshladi. Doktor Pepper o'z e'tirozini butun mamlakat bo'ylab kengaytirish uchun o'zini "eng noto'g'ri tushunilgan alkogolsiz ichimlik" deb atadi, va keyin 1970 -yillarda butun dunyodagi eng original alkogolsiz ichimlik bo'ldi. ”, 1977 y. Doktor Pepperning reklamasi mashhur "Qalampir bo'l ”" kampaniyasi, so'ngra "Sen bo'l." Deb nomlandi. ” Hozirgi eng yangi shior "bu erda ko'proq narsa bor" va "8221" bu bilan muvofiqlashadi. doktor Pepperga o'ziga xos ta'm beradigan 23 ta meva ta'miga urg'u.


Nima uchun pensiya yoshi 65?

1880 -yillarning boshlarida Germaniya kansleri Otto fon Bismarkda muammo bor edi. Marksistik tartibsizliklar butun Evropaga tarqaldi va uning ba'zi vatandoshlari sotsialistik islohotlarga chaqirishdi. Yelkanlaridan shamolni olib tashlash va radikal siyosatni to'xtatish uchun Bismark birinchi darajali ijtimoiy sug'urta dasturini ishlab chiqdi, unda milliy hukumat ishlamayotgan keksa nemislarning pensiyalariga hissa qo'shadi.

Birinchi Germaniya imperatori Uilyam bilan birga, Bismark 1881 yilda bu g'oyani e'lon qildi va bu juftlik o'z ishini Reyxstagga yoki Germaniya parlamentiga berdi, "yoshi va nogironligi tufayli mehnatga layoqatsiz bo'lganlar g'amxo'rlik qilish uchun asosli da'voga ega. davlat. »*

Amerika Ijtimoiy Xavfsizlik Boshqarmasi tarixchilarining so'zlariga ko'ra, 65 -sonli sehrli raqamning odatiy izohi shundaki, bu reja tuzilgan paytda Bismarkning yoshi bo'lgan. Hikoya o'z kuchini yo'qotmaydi. Germaniya dastlab pensiya yoshi sifatida 70 ni tanladi va Bismark vafotidan ko'p o'tmay uni 65 ga tushirmadi. Muvofiqlik yoshini tanlash haqiqatan ham aqlli va, ehtimol, beparvo, tejamkorroq chora edi: u o'sha paytdagi nemislarning o'rtacha umr ko'rish darajasiga to'g'ri keldi.

Garchi uning rejasi marksistlarning yonida bo'lsa-da, Bismark (rasmda) hali ham keksalik pensiyalari uchun tanqidlarga uchradi va o'ta o'ngdagi siyosatchi sotsialistik deb tan olindi. Xuddi shu ayb Prezident Franklin Ruzveltga g'oyani o'nlab yillar o'tgach AQShga olib kirganida taqillatdi. 1935 yilda Amerika Ijtimoiy Xavfsizlik tizimini ishga tushirgan Iqtisodiy Xavfsizlik Qo'mitasi pensiya yoshi sifatida 65 yoshni tanladi, lekin SSAning aytishicha, federal hukumat shunchaki Germaniyaning ko'rsatmalariga amal qilmagan. Ularning tanlovi, nemislar kabi, pragmatik edi. Keksa yoshdagi pensiya tizimlarining deyarli yarmi, shuningdek, federal temir yo'l pensiya tizimi pensiya yoshi sifatida 65 yoshda, qolgan yarmi 70 yoshda edi. Bu federal rejani sinxronlashtirish uchun amaliy edi. Hukumatning aktuar tadqiqotlari shuni ko'rsatdiki, pensiyalarni 65 yoshdan boshlab, o'rtacha oylik ish haqidan olinadigan soliqlarni osonlikcha ushlab turish mumkin bo'lgan tizim yaratiladi.

Biroq, bu barqarorlik davom etmaydi. 1980 -yillarda SSA ishchi kuchi va nafaqadagi odamlar sonining o'zgarishi rejani isloh qilishni talab qilishini ko'rdi. O'shandan beri Kongress vaqti -vaqti bilan Ijtimoiy sug'urta solig'ini ushlab qolish va muvofiqlik yoshiga o'zgartirish kiritishga majbur bo'ldi. Hozirgi vaqtda to'liq nafaqa olish uchun pensiya yoshi inson tug'ilgan yiliga bog'liq. Nemislar kelgusi bir necha yil ichida rasmiy pensiya yoshini bosqichma -bosqich 67 ga ko'tarishni taklif qilib, o'zlarining tarixiy tizimiga o'zgartirishlar kiritishga majbur bo'lishdi.

* Bir necha yil o'tgach, Bismark va Uilyam ham nemis tilida "Imperial sug'urta" buyurtmasini qabul qilishdi Reichsversicherungsverordnung - ba'zi ishchilarni tibbiy sug'urta jamg'armalariga badal to'lashga majbur qilgan.


14 CFR § 65.95 - Tekshiruv ruxsatnomasi: Imtiyozlar va cheklovlar.

(1) 43 -qismga muvofiq kapital ta'mirdan yoki katta o'zgarishlardan so'ng, har qanday samolyot yoki unga tegishli qism yoki asbobni (ushbu bobning 121 -qismiga muvofiq uzluksiz ishlashga yaroqli dasturga muvofiq parvarish qilinadigan samolyotlar bundan mustasno) xizmatga qaytarilishini tekshiring va tasdiqlang. [Yangi] bu bob, agar ish ma'mur tomonidan tasdiqlangan texnik ma'lumotlarga muvofiq bajarilgan bo'lsa va

(2) Ushbu bobning 43.13 va 43.15 -bandlariga muvofiq yillik tekshiruv o'tkazing yoki progressiv tekshiruv o'tkazing yoki nazorat qiling.

(b) Tekshirish ruxsatnomasi imtiyozlaridan foydalangan holda, egasi uni samolyot egasi, samolyotni ta'mirlash, o'zgartirish yoki tasdiqlashni tasdiqlash uchun yuborgan mexanik (agar mavjud bo'lsa) tomonidan tekshirilishi uchun uni ushlab turishi kerak va uni iltimosiga binoan taqdim etadi. transport xavfsizligi milliy kengashining ma'muri yoki vakolatli vakili yoki har qanday federal, shtat yoki mahalliy huquqni muhofaza qilish xodimi.

(c) Agar tekshirish ruxsatnomasi egasi o'zining doimiy ishchi bazasini o'zgartirsa, u yangi baza joylashgan hudud uchun Parvoz standartlari bo'yicha mas'ul idorasini yoki Xalqaro dala idorasini xabardor qilmaguncha, u avtorizatsiya imtiyozlaridan foydalana olmaydi. yozma ravishda, o'zgarish haqida.


Heinkel 70 & quot; Rayo & quot; SCW da?

Muallif: durb & raquo 07 oktyabr 2015, 12:55

Heinkel 70 dastlab tez yo'lovchi samolyoti edi, lekin u He 70 F (shuningdek, biroz boshqacha He 70 E) bo'lgani uchun harbiy maqsadlarga aylantirildi. Samolyot Legion Condor A/88 razvedka eskadroni (Aufklärungsgruppe) tomonidan qayta tiklash va portlatish missiyalarida ishlatilgan.

O'ylaymanki, kimdir Legion Condorning 70 -yilgi yo'qotishlari haqida ko'proq biladimi?
- 15.6.1937 A/88 Miravalles ustidan samolyotni yo'qotdi, uch kishilik ekipaj podpolkovnik Gottanka, Lt.Lindemann, Uo. Heerschag hamma KIA, bu 70 -chi sababmi?
- 10.7.1937 yil Cuatro Vientos He 70 ustidan respublikachi jangchi, leytenant fon Posser va Og. Reinxold KIA, respublikachilarning tegishli da'vosi?
- 20.8.1937 yil El Musel/Gixon ustidan 70 -chi dushman yoki dushman qiruvchi tomonidan otib tashlanganmi? ekipaj parashyut bilan tushdi

Respublikachilar (Sovet) da'volari 70 ga qarshi:
- U 13.12.1936 yilda Sergey Cherknyh (I-15) tomonidan urib tushirilgan 70, Legion Condor yo'qolganligi haqidagi yozuvlar tasdiqlanadimi (yoki u o'sha paytda ispan bo'linmasiga tegishli bo'lishi mumkin edi)?
- U 70 (Bf 109 deb yanglishgan!) 7.1.1937 yilda Sergey Cherknyh (I-16) tomonidan urib tushirilgan, Legion Condorning yo'qolganligi haqidagi yozuvlar tasdiqlanganmi (yoki u o'sha paytda ispan birligiga tegishli bo'lishi mumkin edi)?

Qolgan Xaynkelning 70-yillari 1937 yil noyabrda Ispaniyaning Aviakion Nasionaliga topshirildi va ular 7-G-14 guruhida xizmat qilishdi. Hech kim Ispaniya fuqarolar urushi paytida Aviación Nacional va Grupo 7-G-14 xizmatlarida He 70 xizmat ko'rsatish tarixi tafsilotlarini biladimi? Xeyinkelning 70 -yillari Aviakion Nasonal Legion kondorining qoldiqlari bo'lganmi yoki ular Germaniyadan olib kelingan misollarni olganmi?

Rafael A Permuy Lopez va boshqalarning Ispan tilidagi He 70/170 kitobchasi borga o'xshaydi. (Quiron Ediciones 2007), lekin men bu haqda hech qanday sharh ko'rmaganman - va men yuqoridagi savollarga javob beradimi deb o'ylayman.

Re: Heinkel 70 & quot; Rayo & quot; SCW da?

Muallif: Temir mashinasi & raquo 07 oktyabr 2015, 14:37

Barcha ispan He-70s Legion Cóndor'dan kelgan. Dastlab, Legion Cóndor 1937 yil o'rtalarida uchta He-70 (14-36, 14-45 va 14-56) ni ispanlarga berdi. Legión Cóndor-ning 70-yillari Ispaniya Aviakioniga berilganida, nafaqat 7-G-14 guruhi, balki 3E14 va 4E14 ikkita mustaqil "escuadrillalar" (mos ravishda Ejército del Centro va Ejército-ga biriktirilgan) tuzildi. del Sur). 7G14 Teruel va Aragon janglarida, Ebro jangida, Ekstremadurada va Kataloniyadagi hujumda qatnashdi va yaxshi natijalarga erishdi. SCW oxirida yana 11 kishi xizmatda edi va oxirgi xizmat 1956 yil 7 sentyabrgacha xizmatda qoldi.

Menda siz aytgan kitob bor, men sizning savollaringiz haqida ma'lumot topsam bo'ladimi -yo'qmi, uni tezroq ko'rib chiqaman.
Hurmat bilan.

Re: Heinkel 70 & quot; Rayo & quot; SCW da?

Muallif: Temir mashinasi & raquo 07 oktyabr 2015, 18:27

Re: Heinkel 70 & quot; Rayo & quot; SCW da?

Muallif: Temir mashinasi & raquo 08 oktyabr 2015, 07:45

Re: Heinkel 70 & quot; Rayo & quot; SCW da?

Muallif: durb & raquo 08 oktyabr 2015, 12:09

Muammo yo'q, men ispan tilini o'qiy olaman. Ma'lumot uchun rahmat. Men ko'rib turgan eng katta muammo shundaki, adabiy manbalar bir -biriga qarama -qarshi ma'lumot beradi va tafsilotlarga kelganda ular kelishmaydi.

Mualliflarning professionalligiga qaramay, ko'plab kitoblarda xatolar va noaniqliklar bordek tuyuladi - masalan, men Laurining "Legion Condor" kitobini LC tarixiga kirish deb bilardim, lekin vaqt o'tishi bilan men uning ko'p xatolarini topdim (va yomon tahrirlangan) ) tobora ko'proq bezovta qilmoqda.


Case taqdimotlar

1 -holat

Gipertenziya va artroz bilan og'rigan 84 yoshli kavkazlik ayol bir necha yillar davomida ko'rish gallyutsinatsiyalaridan aziyat chekdi. Kechasi u karavotining etagida turgan yoki o'z xonasida stulda o'tirgan odamlarni ko'rish uchun uyg'onardi. Bu odamlar u bilan gaplashmasdi, lekin qo'rqitardi. U nevrologik yoki ruhiy kasallik tarixiga ega emas edi va fizik tekshiruvda hech qanday muhim psixiatrik xulosalar bo'lmagan. Uning dori -darmonlari aspirin, kaltsiy kanalini blokatori, angiotensinga aylantiruvchi ferment inhibitori va qon bosimini nazorat qilish uchun kuniga ikki marta 50 mg metoprolol tartratdan iborat edi. U artrit alomatlarini nazorat qilish uchun atsetaminofenni qo'llagan. Kunduzi ham, kechasi ham u hech qanday gallyutsinatsiyaga ega emas edi. Nevrologik tekshiruvga uning miyasining magnit -rezonans tomografiyasi, elektroansefalografiya va neyrokognitiv testlar kiritildi. Laboratoriya tekshiruvlarining to'liq to'plami qalqonsimon bezning normal ishlashini, B12 vitamini va folat darajasini ko'rsatdi. U spirtli ichimliklar yoki giyohvand moddalarni iste'mol qilmagan. U barcha dori -darmonlarni qancha vaqt qabul qilganiga amin emas edi, lekin metoprololni kamida ikki yil ichganini bilardi. Beta -adrenergik blokerlardan tashqari, uning barcha antihipertenziv dori -darmonlari, davolovchi shifokor metoprolol ekanligini tushunmaguncha, to'xtatilgan. Uning vizual gallyutsinatsiyalari bir necha kun ichida to'xtatildi.

2 -holat

62 yoshli Kavkazlik erkakning pastki devor miokard infarkti bo'lgan, u tez yordam bo'limiga kelganidan ko'p o'tmay yurak to'xtashi bilan murakkablashgan. Taxminan bir -ikki daqiqalik qorincha fibrilatsiyasidan so'ng elektr defibrilatsiyasidan so'ng u muvaffaqiyatli reanimatsiya qilindi. Aks holda, u shifo topdi va kasalxonadan kuniga ikki marta og'iz orqali 100 mg aspirin, izosorbid, lisinopril va metoprolol tartrat bilan chiqarildi. U nevrologik yoki psixiatrik anomaliyalarga ega emas yoki bu borada fizik tekshiruvda muhim xulosalarga ega emas edi. U kamdan -kam hollarda spirtli ichimliklar ishlatgan, lekin giyohvand moddalarni noqonuniy ishlatish hollari bo'lmagan.

Chiqarilgandan taxminan 18 oy o'tgach, bizning bemorimiz o'z shifokori bilan maxfiy gaplashishni so'radi. U xotiniga aytmaslikni so'radi va keyin tunda o'liklarni ko'rganini aytdi. U uyg'onib, ko'rpa -to'shakning yonida o'tirgan yuzsiz figuralarni ko'rdi, u butunlay uyg'onganda, raqamlar yo'qoladi. Uning ishonishicha, u miyokard infarktining o'tkir davrida "o'lgan va hayotga qaytgan", endi u hayotdan keyingi odamlarni ko'rmoqda. U ba'zida hayvonlarni ham ko'rardi. Vizual gallyutsinatsiyalar u kasalxonadan chiqqandan so'ng darhol boshlanib, metoprololga yotqizilgan. Metoprololni to'xtatgandan so'ng, ko'rish buzilishi bir necha kun ichida hal qilinadi. Bizning bemorimiz, uning yurak xastaligiga preparatning foydali tomonlarini ko'rib chiqib, metoprololni qayta boshlashni so'radi. U endi vizual gallyutsinatsiyalar dori -darmon bilan bog'liqligini tushundi va keyinchalik ular paydo bo'lganida ular bundan qo'rqmaydilar.

3 -holat

Kuchli gipertoniya, hipotiroidizm va ruhiy tushkunlikdan aziyat chekkan 68 yoshli kavkazlik ayol, kuniga ikki marta metoprolol süksinatni og'iz orqali qabul qilganda, ikki yil davomida tunda vizual gallyutsinatsiyalar haqida xabar bergan. Bularga yotoqxonasida odamlar bilan kechasi uyg'onish va xonasida hayvonlarga aylangan narsalarni ko'rish kiradi. Uning boshqa dorilariga amlodipin, enalapril, eskitalopram, levotiroksin va aspirin kiradi. So'roq qilinganida, u gallyutsinatsiyalar gipertoniyasi uchun metoprolol qo'yilgan paytdan boshlanganiga ishongan. Uning fizik tekshiruvi va laboratoriya tekshiruvi aniq emas edi. U spirtli ichimliklar yoki giyohvand moddalarni noqonuniy iste'mol qilish tarixiga ega emas edi. U oldingi oilaviy shifokorga ko'rish buzilishlarini tasvirlab bergan, bu uning ruhiy tushkunligi, shu jumladan ruhiy tushkunlik bilan bog'liq deb o'ylagan. Uning nevrologik va psixiatrik tekshiruvlari, aksincha, yassi ta'sirdan tashqari, unchalik ahamiyatli emas edi. Keyinchalik u to'rt kun ichida tungi vizual gallyutsinatsiyalarni hal qilib, metoprololdan atenololga o'tkazgan yangi shifokorga tashrif buyurdi.


Natan Mayer Rotshild: Xalqaro moliyachi

Uchta o'g'il Nathan (1777-1836) Rotshildning to'rt o'g'lidan katta muvaffaqiyatga erishdi. Natan 1798 yilda to'qimachilik biznesini ochish uchun Angliyaning Manchester shahriga ko'chib o'tdi. Keyinchalik u o'zini bankir sifatida ko'rsatish uchun Londonga ko'chib o'tdi va 1810 yilda N M Rotshildni tuzdi.

N M Rotshchild & amp Sons bugungi kunda ham o'z ishini davom ettirmoqda. 2019 yilda bank 1,87 milliard funt sterling daromad va 76 milliard yevro aktivlarni boshqargan.

Boshqa Rotshild banklari singari, N M Rotshchild & amp Sons ham inqiroz davrida Britaniya hukumatiga kredit berdi. Napoleon urushlari paytida bank hukumatning ittifoqchilariga yuborgan subsidiyalarini boshqargan va moliyalashtirgan va Britaniya qo'shinlariga to'lash uchun qarz bergan, deyarli urush harakatlarini moliyalashtirgan.

1824 yilda Natan Rotshild va Musa Montefiore bugungi kunda RSA guruhi tarkibiga kiruvchi Alliance Assurance Company kompaniyasiga asos solgan. 1835 yilda Neytan oltin va kumushni tozalashda muhim bo'lgan kimyoviy element ustidan virtual dunyo monopoliyasiga ega bo'lib, Ispaniyadagi simob konlariga bo'lgan huquqlarni ta'minladi. 1852 yilda N M Rotshchild & amp Sons Angliya banki va Qirollik zarbxonasi uchun oltin va kumushni qayta ishlashni boshlaganda, bu ta'minot beqiyos bo'ldi.


Tarixning 10 ta eng yomon quroli


Baraban o'qi bilan 2 tonna trotil bilan bog'langan 10 metrli g'ildiraklardan tashkil topgan, Buyuk Panjandrum raketa qo'nish va teshiklardan nemis qirg'oq mudofaasi va mdashin nazariyasiga o'tadi. (Vilf Xardining kontseptual tasviri/& copyLook and Learn/Bridgeman san'at kutubxonasi)

‘Agar qurilma umuman boshqarilmasa, har bir kishi faqat bitta raketa o'qqa tutilmasa yoki boshqalarga qaraganda kam quvvat o'chirsa, falokatni bashorat qilishi mumkin edi ’

Bir paytlar yomon qurol degan narsa yo'q edi. Qurollar oddiy klublar, nayzalar, boltalar, kamon va o'qlar, aravalar, nayzalar, pike va mdashand edi va oxir -oqibat hamma narsa asta -sekin yaxshiroq bo'lgan narsalarga almashtirildi. Masalan, arqon kamonida inglizcha kamonning kuchi va diapazoni kam bo'lsa -da, bu kamon yaxshi qurol edi. Sanoat inqilobi kelsin, ammo qurol -yarog 'dizayni va muhandisligiga asoslangan texnologiya, ba'zida halokatli natijalarga olib keladi. Biz & rsquove bir nechta bunday harbiy xatolarni misol sifatida tanladik, agar foyda, foydalanish va samaradorlik o'rtasidagi nozik muvozanat buzilsa nima bo'lishi mumkin.

Nomzodlarimizni eng jiddiy jangovar kelishmovchiliklar uchun ko'rib chiqing, keyin o'zingizni erkin his eting o'zingiznikini taklif qiling va bizning onlayn forumimizda boshqa o'quvchilar bilan tanlaganingizning afzalliklari va kamchiliklari haqida bahslashing.

1 Buyuk PANJANDRUM
Nevil Shute, muallif Sohilda, Elis kabi shahar va boshqa mashhur romanlar, shuningdek, aviatsiya muhandisi edi, u afsuski Ikkinchi Jahon Urushining eng ahmoq qurollaridan biri - Buyuk Panjandrum dizayniga mas'ul edi. Har xil qurollarni ishlab chiqish Britaniya Admiralty va rsquos direksiyasi homiyligida ishlab chiqilgan bo'lib, u 10 futli yog'och g'ildiraklardan iborat bo'lib, ularning o'qi 2 tonnalik TNT tamburidan iborat. Panjandrum Normandiya qirg'og'i yaqinidagi qo'nish kemasining rampasidan ishga tushirilishi kerak edi, undan (nazariyasiga ko'ra) u soatiga 60 mil tezlikda plyajga ko'tarilib, Atlantika devorining mudofaasini urib, tank o'lchamidagi teshikni pufladi. istehkomlar, yuqorida tasvirlanganidek. Propelling it were 70 solid-fuel rockets around the rim of each wheel, spinning the entire affair like a crazed Catherine wheel firework.

Since the device was totally unguided, anyone could predict disaster if just one rocket failed to fire or simply put out less power than the others. And what might be the effect of a perversely sloping beach or of an errant rock in Panjandrum&rsquos path? Film survives of a test that provides the answer: On-screen a veering, tipping, tilting runaway wheel scatters generals, admirals and stray dogs as it shoots sparks, sheds rockets and careens across an English beach, finally coming to rest on its side, where it explodes and disintegrates.

2 HEINKEL He 177 GREIF
Adolf Hitler himself unflatteringly compared the He 177 long-range heavy bomber to the Panther tank, which at the time was facing its own mechanical problems. &ldquoThis garbage plane is, of course, the biggest piece of junk that was probably ever produced,&rdquo he said of the 177. &ldquoIt&rsquos the flying Panther, and the Panther is the crawling Heinkel.&rdquo Though the Panther developed into an excellent tank, the Heinkel&rsquos problems plagued it for four years before it was finally declared barely fit for production, and by then there was no need for a long-range, four-engine Luftvaffe bomber. Nazi Germany&rsquos sole heavy bomber was its aircraft industry&rsquos most dismal failure. Factories rolled out more than 1,100 He 177s, and the entire fleet was a waste of time and material.

Much of the blame goes to Ernst Udet, the World War I German ace who championed dive-bombing. The Junkers Ju 87 Stuka was Udet&rsquos favorite plane for that task, and he wanted the He 177 to dive-bomb, too. Unfortunately, pulling out from a 60-degree dive in an airplane with 3-ton engines on each wing requires enormous structural demands. Little surprise, then, that many He 177s fell apart in flight. The ones that did stay in one piece often caught fire. Their tightly cowled power plants&mdashside-by-side V-12s driving a single prop through a common gearbox&mdashleaked oil and fuel and ran as hot as blast furnaces. As a weight-saving measure they didn&rsquot even have firewalls to protect the wing spar from the resulting 2,950-hp blowtorch.

3 (a tie) SOVIET ANTI-TANK DOGS AND U.S. BAT BOMBS
The idea to strap explosives to a dog&rsquos back and teach it to crawl beneath a German tank was not just inhumane&mdashit wasn&rsquot very bright. During World War II the Soviets developed such &ldquodog mines,&rdquo which exploded when a detonating rod hit the tank&rsquos belly. Problem was the Soviets used their own T-34s to train the dogs, teaching them to seek treats beneath the tanks. T-34s had diesel engines that stank of kerosene. German tanks, however, were gasoline-fueled and smelled quite different. Amid the noise and confusion of battle, the dogs often sniffed out the familiar-smelling Soviet tanks, with predictable results. The dogs also refused to run beneath moving tanks and were often frightened off by German gunfire, only to flee back to their own trenches and foxholes, where the mines obediently detonated.

Another bizarre animal-based weapon that seemed like a good idea at the time was the &ldquobat bomb&rdquo the United States developed for use against Japan. Each bomb&mdasha perforated sheet metal canister&mdashheld 1,000 bats, each carrying a tiny time-delayed napalm incendiary device. Slowed by a parachute, the canister would open as it neared the ground and, presumably, the bats would swarm away, finding nesting places in the eaves of paper-and-wood Japanese houses. The bats were never used against the Japanese, but during testing they did burn to the ground a large part of New Mexico&rsquos Carlsbad Army Airfield.

4 MARK 14 TORPEDO
It&rsquos hard to imagine anyone deliberately designing a submarine torpedo as bad as the Mark 14, but the Naval Torpedo Station in Newport, R.I., managed to pull it off. This U.S. fleetwide standard torpedo ran 10 to 12 feet below what it had been set for, thanks to a misaligned depth sensor. It also failed to explode when it passed beneath a ship&rsquos keel, as its complex Mark 6 magnetic-influence exploder had been tested in New England waters that were magnetically very different from the South Pacific. Even when the Mark 14 did manage to hit a ship, the result was often just a loud clang, as the contact-exploder would break when the 3,280-pound torpedo hit a steel hull at 46 knots.

Worst of all, NTS Newport refused to admit any flaws with its product, and the fixes that did finally correct the Mark 14&rsquos performance were effected in the field by submariners tired of returning from patrols with expended torpedoes and nothing to show for it. The Mark 14&rsquos overall record from the beginning of the Pacific War through August 1943 was seven misses, duds, premature explosions or circular runs (at least one sub was sunk by its own torpedo) for every 10 fired. What came to be known as the &ldquoGreat Torpedo Scandal&rdquo was the result of an incompetent Navy design and development facility run by bureaucrats who refused to listen to the submariners actually using their product.

5 DOUBLE-BARRELED CANNON
This concept dates from 1642 and Florentine gun maker Antonio Petrini. He cast the first cannon intended to fire simultaneously from side-by-side barrels two balls linked by a chain, intended to scythe down enemy soldiers like standing wheat when it reached them. The operative word, however, was &ldquosimultaneously.&rdquo For the rig to work, the powder behind each round shot had to ignite at the same instant, which, of course, rarely happened.

In 1862 Georgia dentist and mechanic John Gilleland raised money from a coterie of Confederate citizens to build the ultimate chain-shot gun. Cast in one piece, the gun featured side-by-side bores, each a little over 3 inches in diameter and splayed slightly outward so the shots would diverge and stretch the chain taut. During tests the Gilleland cannon effectively mowed down trees, tore up a cornfield, knocked down a chimney and killed an unfortunate cow. None of the above were anywhere near the gun&rsquos intended target.

A treatise that describes Antonio Petrini&rsquos cannon survives in the Royal Armories of the Tower of London, while Gilleland&rsquos gun sits on the lawn of the Athens, Ga., city hall.

6 M16 RIFLE
The modern-day M16A4 is probably the deadliest and most accurate assault rifle ever produced, a point arguable perhaps only by AK-47/AKM acolytes. But during the Vietnam War soldiers and Marines faced injury and even death due to flaws in the early model M16s. Defenders of the M16 insist, &ldquoThe problem wasn&rsquot the rifle, it was the ammunition.&rdquo But that&rsquos a little like saying, &ldquoIt was a great airplane, but the engine failed every 10th flight.&rdquo

The rifle did have faults. The M16 was designed to use ammo loaded with extruded powder, a propellant with cylindrical grains. As an economical move the Army Ordnance Corps decreed a change to ball powder, which had spherical grains and included a calcium carbonate additive to keep it from deteriorating. This allowed the Army to recycle propellant from obsolete rifle ammo and artillery rounds for M16 ammo, and since Ordnance didn&rsquot retest the rifle after switching powders, troops in the field became the unfortunate beta testers.

The M16 had been overzealously promoted as a &ldquoself-cleaning rifle,&rdquo and troops were issued insufficient cleaning supplies. Unfortunately, the ball powder additive and other detritus fouled the gun&rsquos chamber. The most grievous result was &ldquofailure to extract,&rdquo in which a spent cartridge case jammed inside the chamber after firing. The only way to remove it without a cleaning rod was to disassemble the weapon. Troops were found dead after firefights, their M16s lying beside them in pieces.

The early M16 also lacked a chrome-lined chamber, so it corroded in humid conditions, and its light rounds were all too easily deflected by foliage. By the late 1960s it had become so unpopular with troops that its reputation has yet to recover, despite numerous improvements to the weapon and to its ammunition.

7 BLUE PEACOCK NUCLEAR MINE
Any device with a nuclear warhead is arguably a candidate for worst weapon, given its inherent risks and often indiscriminate killing power. Nonetheless, we nominate Britain&rsquos Blue Peacock as history&rsquos most benighted nuclear device.

The Blue Peacock project called for the construction of ten 7.2-ton, minivan-size steel casings, each holding a plutonium weapon with a yield of 10 kilotons. The British army would bury the devices at strategic points in Germany through which Soviet tanks might rumble. If forced to retreat, the British would fall back to a distance from which each Blue Peacock could be triggered manually. Otherwise the mines were preloaded with a timer that would blow them in eight days no matter what.

In theory the blasts would not only evaporate the Soviet invaders but also leave a zone of radioactive desolation unfit for occupation. The British intended to tell the Germans the mines were nuclear power plants for use by frontline NATO troops. At least one Blue Peacock was built before the Ministry of Defence decided the weapon was a bad idea.

The buried bombs would have required an independent heat source to keep the circuitry from malfunctioning in winter temps, and the planners&rsquo best idea was to seal a bunch of chickens and ample chickenfeed into the casings. Each hen would give off 1,000 BTU a day of body heat. A key component of that cockamamie proposal was old-fashioned feedstore chicken wire, to keep the clucks from pecking at the wiring.

8 MAGINOT LINE
Many French insist the Maginot Line worked perfectly during the opening days of World War II, blocking traditional invasion routes into France and forcing the Germans to avoid it. Problem was the Wehrmacht did just that, bypassing it through the Ardennes forest, and Luftvaffe aircrews went over it wherever they wished.

The French developed the Maginot Line in part because in 1918 they had fended off the Germans with fixed defenses&mdashnamely trenches. The Maginot was a far more sophisticated complex of fortifications, obstacles and weapons, and though it was the last gasp of a timeworn concept that dated back to the days of coast artillery, forts under siege and hilltop castles, it was by no means just a fancy World War I super trench. Nor was it just a &ldquoline.&rdquo In places, the fortifications were 16 miles deep, with zone after zone of specialized gunnery, all linked by tunnels and subterranean rail lines.

But the Maginot was solely defensive. Had the Wehrmacht cooperated with the assumption the Ardennes was impassable, the best the line might have accomplished would have been to hold off the Germans long enough for the French to mobilize their smaller army and concentrate forces.

Ultimately, the French built a wall while the Germans built panzers and Stukalar, and it cost France an enormous amount of energy plus 3 billion francs that could have been better spent on armored divisions and a more effective air force.

9 NOVGOROD
Yoqdi Vasa, the infamous Swedish warship that in 1628 keeled over and sank little over a mile into its maiden voyage, the Russian ironclad monitor Novgorod had a fatal flaw that only became fully apparent once it had been launched and entered combat on the Black Sea in the 1877&ndash78 Russo-Turkish War.

Novgorod has been called the ugliest warship ever built. As round and clumsy as a floating soup dish, the 2,500-ton vessel had six steam engines that drove six screws. The Russians claimed Novgorod was immune to ramming, as its key components lay well inboard of the ship&rsquos 9-inch armored beltline no matter where a rammer hit. Amidships, mounted on swiveling platforms, were two 26-ton, 11-inch muzzle-loaded cannon&mdashbig naval guns for the time. Kabi Novgorod&rsquos circular hull drafted just 12 feet, far less than it would have had the vessel been designed with a conventional hull, the plan was for the monitor to cruise just offshore and bombard land targets.

Unfortunately, when either gun was fired, the ship rotated uncontrollably in the direction of the gun&rsquos recoil. Even when gunners fired simultaneously, the hull pirouetted in response to whichever barrel had even a slightly more powerful charge, and even a partial turn required time-consuming repositioning to fire the next salvo. The shallow draft ship had no stabilizing keel to keep it in line, though it was retrofitted with a parallel array of a dozen mini-keels that didn&rsquot help. The only remedy that did work was to anchor the ship in a fixed firing position. Oxir -oqibat, Novgorod was relegated to duty not as a shoreline monitor but as a floating fort, moored in a fixed location with its big guns pointing seaward.

10 PANZER VIII MAUS
Who thought a tank that could barely move and presented a target the size of a school bus was a good idea? Adolf Hitler, that&rsquos who. All tanks are compromises between firepower, armor and mobility, and the Führer wanted one that put the gun first and agility last. The tank carried so much armor that enemy rounds would simply bounce off. And its 150mm main gun would presumably make up for the fact that it typically operated at about 8 mph. The result was the 207-ton Maus (&ldquoMouse&rdquo), a white elephant among the 25-ton T-34 and Panzer pygmies.

Ferdinand Porsche designed it, and it&rsquos hard to imagine that the future engineer of lightweight performance sports cars had his heart in the job. Porsche did engineer a drive system that rendered the Maus a virtual off-the-rails diesel locomotive: a 44.5-liter, 1,200-hp inverted V12 aircraft engine drove a huge generator that provided electricity to the two motors that cranked the 3.6-foot-wide tracks. Since the Maus was too heavy for bridge crossings, it was designed to either ford streams or snorkel across rivers. The latter would have been a cumbersome operation, as the engine had to be shut down, allowing the Maus to connect to a second Maus by power cable, providing electricity from the riverbank to run its motors.

Some have suggested the Maus was never intended for combat&mdashthat it was simply a propaganda tool intended to bolster folks on the home front and terrify enemy troops who imagined facing one. None ever had to, however. By war&rsquos end the Germans had built just two prototype Mäuse, one of which never got its turret and gun.