Angliyaning Norman istilosining ta'siri

Angliyaning Norman istilosining ta'siri

Uilyam Fatih boshchiligidagi Normanlarning Angliya istilosi (r. Qattiq janglar, qal'alar qurilishi, erlarni qayta taqsimlash va erning kuyib ketgan taktikasi Normanlar bu erda qolishini ta'minladi. Bu bosqin Norman elitasini angliyaliklar o'rnini egalladi. Saksonlar va mamlakat erlarini egallab olishdi, cherkov qayta tuzildi, motte va beli qal'alari va Romanesk soborlari ko'rinishida yangi arxitektura paydo bo'ldi, feodalizm ancha keng tarqaldi va ingliz tili minglab yangi frantsuz so'zlarini o'zlashtirdi. boshqa ko'plab doimiy o'zgarishlar, bularning barchasi birlashib, Norman bosqini ingliz tarixida muhim voqea bo'ldi.

Fath: Xastings Elyga

Angliyani Normanlar tomonidan bosib olinishi milodiy 1066 yildagi Xastings jangi bilan boshlandi, shoh Garold Godvinson (aka Harold II, milodiy 1066 yil yanvar-oktyabr) o'ldirildi va Uilyam Fatih Angliya-Sakson isyonchilarini Ely Abbeyda mag'lub etishi bilan tugadi. 1071 yilda Sharqiy Angliya. Bu orada Uilyam Uels va Shotlandiya bilan chegaralarini doimiy ravishda himoya qilishi, Garoldning o'g'illari Irlandiyadan ikkita bosqinni qaytarishi va Yorkda uchta qo'zg'olonni bostirishi kerak edi.

Norman istilosining oqibatlari juda xilma -xil edi. Bundan tashqari, ba'zi ta'sirlar boshqalarga qaraganda ancha uzoq davom etadi. To'g'risi, Angliyadagi jamiyat o'z tarixida o'z yo'lini bosib olgan va Uilyam Fatih kelgunga qadar rivojlanayotgan edi, shuning uchun ham O'rta asrlarning ba'zida muhim siyosiy, ijtimoiy va iqtisodiy o'zgarishlarining qaysi biri aniq bo'lgani har doim ham aniq emas. ildizlari Norman bosqinidan kelib chiqqan va Anglo-Sakson rejimining davom etishi bilan rivojlangan bo'lishi mumkin. Shunday bo'lsa -da, quyidagi ro'yxat tarixchilarning ko'pchiligi Angliya normanlari tomonidan qo'lga kiritilgan eng muhim o'zgarishlarni qabul qilgan narsalarini umumlashtiradi:

  • Anglo-Sakson er egalari elitasi deyarli butunlay Normanlar bilan almashtirildi.
  • hukmronlik apparati ancha markazlashgan bo'lib, hokimiyat va boylik kamroq qo'llarda edi.
  • Anglo-Sakson episkoplarining aksariyati Normanlarga almashtirildi va ko'plab yeparxiyalarning shtab-kvartiralari shahar markazlariga ko'chirildi.
  • Norman mot va Beyli qasrlari Angliyada urushni qayta shakllantirdi, bu esa keng ko'lamli dala mashg'ulotlari zarurati va xavfini kamaytirdi.
  • feodalizm tizimi Uilyam harbiy xizmat evaziga erlarni (shaxsan yoki er egasi tomonidan to'lanadigan ritsarlar kuchini) berganda rivojlandi.
  • manorizm rivojlandi va yanada keng tarqaldi, bu erda ishchilar xo'jayin mulkida uning manfaati uchun ishladilar.
  • Uilyamning milodiy 1069-70 yillardagi harakatidan so'ng Angliya shimoli uzoq vaqt vayron bo'lgan.
  • Miloddan avvalgi 1086-7 yillarda Angliyadagi er va boyliklarning batafsil va tizimli katalogi-"Domesday Book" tuzilgan.
  • Angliya va Kontinental Evropa o'rtasidagi aloqa va ayniqsa savdo -sotiq sezilarli darajada oshdi.
  • Frantsiya va Angliya ikki davlati tarixan bir -biri bilan chambarchas bog'liq bo'lib, dastlab erga egalik, ya'ni Norman zodagonlari ikkala mamlakatda ham er egaligi kesishgan.
  • ingliz-sakson german tilining sintaksisi va so'z boyligiga frantsuz tili katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi.

Hukmron elita

Normanlarning Angliyani zabt etishi bir aholi boshqasining erlariga bostirib kirgani emas, balki hokimiyatni bir hukmron elitaning boshqasi bilan kurashishi edi. Norman dehqonlarining kanalni kesib o'tib, Angliyaga, so'ngra 1,5-2 million aholiga ega mamlakatga ko'chib o'tish uchun hech qanday muhim harakati bo'lmagan. Garchi, boshqa yo'nalishda, ko'plab ingliz-sakson jangchilari Xastingsdan keyin Skandinaviyaga qochib ketishgan, ba'zilari hatto Vizantiya imperatorlarining elita Varangiya gvardiyasida bo'lishgan.

O'n minglab normanlar oqimining yo'qligi ingliz-sakson aristokratiyasi uchun tasalli bermadi, albatta, Xastingsdan 20 yil o'tib Angliyada faqat ikkita kuchli anglo-sakson er egalari bo'lgan. Taxminan 200 Norman zodagonlari va 100 yepiskop va monastirlarga eramizdan avvalgi 1066 yilgacha 4000 anglo-sakson er egalari o'rtasida taqsimlangan mulklar berilgan. Norman zodagonlari o'z hokimiyatlarini suiiste'mol qilmasliklari uchun (va shuning uchun Uilyamning o'ziga tahdid qiladilar), Angliya-Saksonning eski eski boshqaruv vositalari, xususan, qirol nomidan Angliya joylashgan tumanlar yoki shiralarni boshqargan sheriflar saqlanib qolgan. an'anaviy ravishda bo'linadi. Sheriflar ham normanlar bilan almashtirildi, lekin ular o'z yurisdiktsiyasidagi Norman er egalariga muvozanatni ta'minladilar.

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Qirollik sudi va hukumati markazlashgan bo'lib qoldi - Evropadagi boshqa qirolliklarga qaraganda, nisbatan kam sonli Norman oilalari er va resurslarga ega bo'lgani uchun.

Cherkov xuddi shunday tarzda qayta qurildi, shu jumladan miloddan avvalgi 1070 yilda Kanterberi (Lanfrankgacha) va York (Tomasgacha) arxiyepiskoplari - miloddan avvalgi 1087 yilga kelib faqat ikkita ingliz -sakson episkopi qoldi. Yana bir muhim o'zgarish - ko'plab yeparxiyalarning shtab -kvartirasi - asosiy cherkov yoki sobor - shahar joylariga ko'chishi (Dorchesterdan Linkolngacha, Lichfilddan Chesterga va Sherborndan Solsberiga bir necha misol). Bu harakat Uilyamga Angliya bo'ylab cherkov ustidan katta ma'muriy va harbiy nazoratni berdi, lekin episkoplarni nisbatan yangi shahar aholisiga yaqinlashtirish orqali cherkovning o'ziga foyda keltirdi.

Qirollik sudi va hukumati, nisbatan kam sonli Norman oilalari tomonidan er va resurslarga ega bo'lishi evropadagi boshqa qirolliklarga qaraganda markazlashgan bo'lib qoldi. Uilyam erni sodiq tarafdorlariga tarqatgan bo'lsa -da, ular odatda o'z erlari bilan hech qanday siyosiy hokimiyatni olmagan. Jismoniy ma'noda, hukumat markazlashtirilmagan edi, chunki Uilyamning doimiy yashash joyi yo'q edi, u o'z shohligi bo'ylab harakat qilishni va muntazam ravishda Normandiyaga tashrif buyurishni afzal ko'rardi. G'aznachilik Vinchesterda qoldi va Uilyam o'z hukmronligi davrida og'ir soliqlarni joriy qilishi natijasida to'ldirildi.

Motte va Beyli qal'alari

Normanlar juda muvaffaqiyatli jangchilar edilar va otliqlar va kamonchilarga bergan ahamiyati keyinchalik ingliz qo'shinlariga ta'sir qiladi. Ehtimol, Angliya bo'ylab garnizonli qal'alar va qal'alar qurilishi bundan ham muhimroq edi. Qal'alar Angliyada fath qilinishidan oldin noma'lum edi, lekin keyinchalik ular geografik hududni boshqarish vositasi emas, balki faqat mudofaa vositasi sifatida ishlatilgan. Uilyam Xastingsdan so'ng darhol qal'a qurishga kirishdi, chunki u otliq qo'shinlarning himoyalangan garnizoni uning yangi qirolligini harbiy va ma'muriy nazorat qilishning eng samarali usuli bo'lishi mumkinligini yaxshi bilardi. Kornuolldan Northumbriyaga qadar Normanlar Xastingsdan keyin o'nlab yillar mobaynida 65 dan ortiq yirik va 500 ta kichikroq qasr quradilar.

Normanlar nafaqat qasrdan foydalanishning yangi kontseptsiyasini, balki Britaniya orollariga harbiy arxitekturani ham kiritdilar: motte va Beyli qal'asi. Motte baland tepalik bo'lib, uning ustiga mustahkam minora qurilgan va beli hovli bo'lib, tepasi yog'och devor bilan o'ralgan bo'lib, u tepalikning bir qismini egallagan. Butun struktura keyinchalik o'rab olingan ariq yoki xandaq bilan himoyalangan. Bu qal'alar qishloqda ham, shaharda ham qurilgan va ko'p hollarda miloddan avvalgi 12 -asrning boshlarida toshga aylantirilgan. Yaxshi saqlanib qolgan misol - bu Norfolkdagi ko'tarilgan qal'a, lekin hozirgacha saqlanib qolgan boshqa mashhur qal'alar, avvalambor Norman konstruktsiyalari bo'lgan London minorasi, Kentdagi Dover qal'asi va Yorkdagi Klifford minorasi. Norman Romanesk soborlari ham qurilgan (masalan, York, Durem, Kanterberi, Vinchester va Linkolnda), Kanning oq toshi ayniqsa London minorasi uchun ishlatilgan materiallarning eng mashhur tanlovi edi.

Domesday, feodalizm va dehqonlar

Fathdan keyin g'azablangan millatchilikning o'ziga xos tuyg'usi yo'q edi - bu kontseptsiya ancha zamonaviy qurilishdir va shuning uchun dehqonlar o'z mamlakatlari qandaydir yo'qolganini sezmagan bo'lardilar. Normanlarga nisbatan hech qanday nafrat yo'q edi, chunki inglizlar Uilyamning barcha ittifoqchilarini bir guruhga birlashtirdilar - Bretonlar va Anjevinlar shunchaki "frantsuz tilida so'zlashuvchilar" edi. O'rta asrlarda uzoq shahardan kelganlar boshqa mamlakatdan kelganlardek "begona" deb hisoblanar edi. Dehqonlar haqiqatan ham o'z mahalliy jamoalari va xo'jayinlariga sodiqlikni his qilishgan, garchi bu holat ingliz-sakson xo'jayini har qanday mehr bilan ushlab turilganida, uning o'rnini Norman zodagonlari egallagan bo'lsa, bu yomon tuyg'ularga olib kelishi mumkin edi. Normanlar, albatta, begonadek tuyulardi, bu tuyg'u faqat til to'siqlari bilan kuchayardi va qirol, hech bo'lmaganda, har qanday norozilikka qattiq jazo berish orqali sodiqlikni ta'minladi. Masalan, agar Norman o'ldirilgan deb topilgan bo'lsa, u holda eng yaqin qishloq yoqib yuborilgan - bu siyosat hech qanday mehr -muhabbatni yengishi dargumon.

Shu bilan birga, normanlar o'z vakolatlarini suiiste'mol qilmasligini ta'minlash uchun yangi qonunlar mavjud edi, masalan, isyon qilmaganlarni asossiz o'ldirish yoki shaxsiy manfaatlar uchun qotillik jinoyati qo'llanilishi va aybsizligini himoya qilish uchun jang orqali sud jarayoni boshlanishi. . Aslida, fuqarolar qirolga sodiqlik qasamyodini qabul qilishlari kerak edi, buning evaziga ularga haqorat qilinsa, ular huquqiy himoyaga ega bo'lishdi. Yangi qonunlarning ba'zilari, masalan, to'ng'ichlarning merosxo'rlik da'vosini qo'llab-quvvatlash kabi, uzoq umr ko'rishi mumkin edi, boshqalari esa, masalan, Uilyamning ba'zi hududlarda, xususan, Yangi O'rmonda ovchilik huquqidan voz kechishi kabi mashhur bo'lmagan. Brakonerlarga qattiq muomala qilishgan va agar ular qo'lga olinsa, ko'r yoki mayib bo'lishini kutishgan. Yangi qonunlar tufayli sodir bo'lgan yana bir muhim o'zgarish, Normandiyada bo'lgani kabi, miloddan avvalgi 1130 yilga kelib Angliyadan qullik bilan bog'liq edi.

Ehtimol, hamma narsada Normanga nisbatan nafrat hukmron bo'lgan hudud Angliyaning shimolida edi. Eramizdan avvalgi 1067 va 1068 yillarda Uilyam hukmronligiga qarshi qo'zg'olonlardan so'ng, shoh milodiy 1069-70 yillar qishini o'z shohligining g'arbdan sharqiy sohiligacha butun shimoliy qismini "haydab" o'tkazdi. Bu isyonchilarni ovlashga, dehqonlar o'rtasida qotillik va shikastlanishlarga, ekinlar, chorva mollari va dehqonchilik uskunalarini yoqishga olib keldi, bu esa ocharchilikni keltirib chiqardi. "Domesday Book" kitobi (pastga qarang) ko'rsatganidek, shimoliy erlarning ko'p qismi vayron bo'lgan va yaroqsiz deb topilgan. Mintaqani tiklash uchun bir asrdan ko'proq vaqt kerak bo'ladi.

Domesday kitobi miloddan avvalgi 1086-7 yillarda Uilyamning buyrug'i bilan tuzilgan, ehtimol Angliya-Angliya zodagonlarining ko'plari zabt etilishidan va yangi mulklar va unvonlar berilishidan keyin Angliyada kimga tegishli ekanligini aniqlab olish uchun. shoh tomonidan sodiq izdoshlariga. Darhaqiqat, "Domesday Book" kitobida Uilyam Angliyada erga egalik qilish va hokimiyatni butunlay o'zgartirgani ko'rsatilgan. Bu har qanday O'rta asr qirolligida o'tkazilgan eng keng qamrovli so'rov va zamonaviy tarixchilarning statistik ma'lumotlarga to'la ma'lumoti, masalan, aholining 90 foizi qishloqda yashaganligi va odamlarning 75 foizi serflar (erkin bo'lmagan ishchilar) ekanligi aniqlandi.

Uilyamning yer siyosatining natijasi feodalizmning rivojlanishi (lekin kelib chiqishi emas) edi. Ya'ni, Angliyadagi barcha erlarni o'z shaxsiy mulki deb bilgan Uilyam, zodagonlarga (vassallarga) er uchastkalarini (vaysallarini) berdi, ular buning evaziga, masalan, urush paytida yoki garnizon qal'alarida harbiy xizmatni o'tashlari kerak edi. va qal'alar. Shaxsiy xizmat ko'rsatishning hojati yo'q, zodagon zotning kattaligiga qarab bir qancha ritsarlarni berishlari kerak edi. Zodagonlar o'z erlarida erkin dehqonlarni yoki serflarni (aka villeins) ishlashlari mumkin edi va u bu mehnatdan tushgan daromadni saqlab qoldi. Agar zodagon katta mulkka ega bo'lsa, u uni kichik zodagonlarga ijaraga berishi mumkin edi, u o'z navbatida dehqonlar uchun shu erlarda ishlagan va shu bilan erga bo'lgan aniq ierarxiyani yaratgan. Normanlar davrida monastirlar singari cherkov egalari ham xuddi shunday harbiy xizmat uchun ritsarlarni berishlari kerak edi.

Manorial tizim Normanlar davrida ingliz-sakson shakllaridan boshlab rivojlangan. Manorizm o'z nomini bitta oilani boqadigan eng kichik er uchastkasi "manor" dan olgan. Ma'muriy maqsadlarda mulklar shu birliklarga bo'lindi. Tabiiyki, qudratli xo'jayin bir joyda yoki har xil joylarda yuzlab manorlarga ega bo'lishi mumkin edi. Har bir xonadonda er ustida ishlaydigan bepul va/yoki erkin mehnat bor edi. Bu mehnatdan olingan daromad er egasiga o'tdi, ishchilar esa xo'jayini ularga qarz bergan kichik er uchastkasini ishlab, o'zlarini boqishdi. Uilyamning ko'chmas mulk o'ymakorligi va ularni qayta taqsimlash siyosatidan so'ng, manorizm Angliyada ancha keng tarqaldi.

Savdo va xalqaro munosabatlar

Frantsiya va Angliyaning tarixlari va hatto madaniyatlari fath qilinganidan keyin o'n yillar mobaynida ancha chambarchas bog'liq edi. Hatto Angliya qiroli sifatida Uilyam Normandiya gersogi bo'lib qoldi (va shuning uchun u Frantsiya qiroliga hurmat ko'rsatishi kerak edi). Qirollik uylari Uilyamning ikki o'g'li (Uilyam II Rufus, milodiy 1087-1100 yillar va Genrix I, milodiy 1100-1135 yillar) hukmronligi va ingliz taxtiga raqiblar o'rtasida boshlangan fuqarolar urushidan keyin yanada o'zaro bog'liq bo'lib qoldi. Milodiy 1135 yildan boshlab. Bu yaqin aloqaning yon ta'siri ingliz-sakson german tilining vaqt o'tishi bilan, frantsuz tili ta'sirida sintaksis va so'z boyligining sezilarli o'zgarishi edi. Bu o'zgarish hatto savodsiz dehqonlar orasida ham sodir bo'lganligi, hamma joyda frantsuz tilida keng tarqalgan eshitilishining dalilidir.

Xalqaro munosabatlarning o'ziga xos sohasi savdo -sotiq edi. Fathdan oldin Angliya Skandinaviya bilan savdo -sotiqni cheklab qo'ygan edi, lekin milodiy 11 -asrdan boshlab bu hudud tanazzulga yuz tutdi va Normanlar Evropada keng aloqada bo'lganligi sababli (Angliya ular bosib olgan yagona joy emas edi), keyin qit'a bilan katta savdo -sotiq olib bordi. oshdi. Savdogarlar, shuningdek, qit'adan, xususan, ularga qulay bojxona tartibi berilgan joylarga ko'chib ketishdi. Shunday qilib, London, Sautgempton va Nottingem kabi joylar ko'plab frantsuz savdogarlarini jalb qildi va bu harakat boshqa guruhlarni, masalan, Ruandan kelgan yahudiy savdogarlarini o'z ichiga oldi. Angliya kanali bo'ylab tovarlar keldi va o'tdi, masalan, ingliz junining katta qismi Flandriyaga eksport qilindi va vino Frantsiyadan olib kelindi (garchi bu mamlakat taklif qiladigan eng yaxshi sharob emas edi).

Xulosa

Normanlarning Angliyani zabt etishi, bosib olinganlar uchun ham, bosib oluvchilar uchun ham uzoq davom etadigan va muhim o'zgarishlarga olib keldi. Keyingi asrlarda Angliya va Frantsiya ikki mamlakatining taqdiri bir -biri bilan chambarchas bog'liq bo'lib qoladi, chunki Angliya Britaniya orollari ichida ancha kuchli va birlashgan qirollikka aylanadi va keyinchalik Evropa siyosati va urushining nufuzli ishtirokchisiga aylanadi. Hozirgi kunda ham, Angliya bo'ylab odamlar va joylar nomlari, milodiy 1066 yildan boshlab Normanlar o'zlari bilan olib kelgan doimiy ta'sirini eslatib turadi.


Chivalry O'rta asr ritsarlarini nazoratda ushlab turish uchun tashkil etilgan

XXI asrda ritsarlik so'zi erkaklar uchun ayollarga bo'lgan hurmatni uyg'otadi. Ammo O'rta asrlarda kod juda jiddiy sabablarga ko'ra yaratilgan.

Oddiy fuqarolar qurbonlari bo'lgan muntazam harbiy zo'ravonlik paytida, ritsarlik ritsarlik xulq -atvorining asosiy qoidalarini belgilashga urinish edi. Ba'zida bu qoidalar kambag'al va kambag'allarga saxiy munosabatda bo'lishni talab qilgan bo'lsa-da, ular asosan elita manfaatlarini himoya qilishga qaratilgan edi.

Rivojlanishning rivojlanishi ritsarlarning yuksalishi bilan birga o'tdi va 1066 yilda Angliya Normanlar tomonidan zabt etilgan paytdan boshlab, elita kelib chiqishi og'ir zirhli, jangchilar paydo bo'ldi. caballarius, otliq degan ma'noni anglatadi.

11 -asrning o'rtalarida ritsar unchalik sharafli shaxs emas edi.

’ - bu yollangan yolg'onchi, ” deydi Jennifer Gudman Uollok, Texas A & AM universitetining o'rta asr tadqiqotlari professori, ritsarlik haqida ikkita kitob yozgan. ’Uning otlari bor edi. U qurol -yarog 'oldi. U og'ir tankga o'xshaydi. ”


Birinchi bob

Normanlar IX -X asrlarda Frantsiyaning shimoliy hududiga joylashib, Skandinaviyadan kelgan vikinglar avlodlari edi. Bu mintaqa shimoliy odamlarning o'lkasi, keyinroq Normandiyaga qisqartirilgan Northmannia deb nomlangan. Normanlar madaniy va tilshunoslik bo'yicha frantsuz bo'lishdi (Pyles, 1964: 153) tez orada frantsuz urf -odatlarini o'zlashtirdi, mahalliy ayollarga uylandi, nasroniylikni qabul qildi, o'z tilidan voz kechdi va frantsuz tilini oldi. Angliya 1066 yildagi zabt etilishidan ancha oldin Normandiya bilan yaqin aloqada bo'lgan. 1002 yilda Angliyaning 78-1016 yillardagi qiroli Unadredni boshqargan Normand ayolga uylangan va uning o'g'li Frantsiyada o'sgan Edvard Konfessor ismli edi. Ingliz tilidan ko'ra frantsuz. 24 yillik hukmronlik davrida Edvard ko'plab Normand do'stlarini Angliyaga olib keldi va ularga hukumatda muhim lavozimlarni berdi. Eduard Konfessor farzandsiz vafot etganida, marhum qirolning ikkinchi amakivachchasi bo'lgan Uilyam Fatih, ingliz taxtini meros qilib olish huquqiga ega bo'lmasa -da, Edvard va uning vorisi bo'lishga haqli deb hisoblardi. (Loyn, 1991: 65-67). Shunday qilib, taxtga o'tirishdan bosh tortganida, u Angliyaga hujum qildi va o'zining ajoyib qobiliyati bilan Xastings jangida va 1066 yil Rojdestvo kuni g'olib bo'ldi, Uilyam Angliya qiroli bo'ldi. (Baugh & amp Cable, 2002: 112). Uilyam Fatih hukmronligi Angliyaning ijtimoiy, siyosiy, diniy va tilshunoslik tuzilmalariga katta o'zgarishlar kiritdi.


Norman fathining parhezga ta'siri: Oksford, Buyuk Britaniyada o'tkazilgan arxeologik tadqiqotlar

Arxeologiya hali 11-asrda Angliya Norman fathining ta'sirini o'rganish uchun bioarxeologik yondashuvlar taqdim etgan imkoniyatlardan foydalana olmadi. Ushbu tadqiqot Buyuk Britaniyaning Oksford shahrida X -XIII asrlar oralig'ida ovqatlanish va ovqatlanish yo'llarining o'zgarishi va uzluksizligini aniqlash va tushuntirish uchun integratsiyalashgan multiproksi analitik yondashuvdan foydalanadi. Odam va hayvon suyaklarining keramika, uglerod (δ13C) va azot (N15N) izotoplarini organik qoldiqlari tahlilini, odam tishining dentinidan δ13C va δ15N ni qo'shimcha tahlilini va odam skeletlari qoldiqlarini paleopatologik tahlilini birlashtirish natijasida, Hujjatli manbalarda aytilganidan ko'ra, fathning kundalik turmush tarziga nisbatan kamroq va qisqa muddatli iqtisodiy amaliyotning turli sohalarida intensivlashtirish va bozorlashtirish. Shunga qaramay, izotop ma'lumotlari qisqa muddatli beqarorlik davrlarini, ayniqsa, oziq-ovqat xavfsizligi, odamlarga ta'sir qilganini ko'rsatadi. Elita toifalari tomonidan tasdiqlangan ba'zi oziq-ovqat mahsulotlariga bo'lgan afzalliklar va pishirish texnikasi past darajadagi shahar aholisi orasida ham kuzatilgan, bu Anglo-Norman modalarini ijtimoiy spektrda qabul qilish mumkinligini ko'rsatadi. Ushbu tadqiqot kelajakdagi arxeologik tadqiqotlar uchun Angliyaning Norman istilosining madaniy ta'sirini yanada aniqroq tushunish uchun potentsialni namoyish etadi, shu bilan birga boshqa yirik siyosiy voqealarning hujjatsiz, kundalik ta'sirini tushuntirish uchun ishlatilishi mumkin bo'lgan usulni namoyish etadi. elita.

Manfaatlar to'qnashuvi to'g'risidagi bayonot

Mualliflar hech qanday raqobatbardosh manfaatlar yo'qligini e'lon qilishdi.

Raqamlar

1 -rasm. O'rta asr Oksford rejasi ...

1 -rasm. O'rta asrlar Oksford rejasi, ushbu tadqiqotga kiritilgan joylarni ko'rsatadi.

2 -rasm.

Shakl 2. C ning δ 13 C qiymatlarini ko'rsatuvchi tarqoq chiziqlar 16:0 va C…

Shakl 3. Qisman yuqori haroratli gaz…

Shakl 3. Parchalanib ketgan hayvon qoldiqlarining qisman yuqori haroratli gaz xromatogrammalari.

Shakl 4. bone 13 C va δ 15 N izotopli hayvonlarning suyak kollagenidan olingan ma'lumotlar ...

5 -rasm. Hayvon va odam suyaklaridan 13 C va 15 N qiymatlari…

6 -rasm. Odam suyagi kollagenidan olingan 13 C va 15 N qiymatlari…

Shakl 7. Qo'shimcha dentin δ 15 N…

Shakl 7. Intremental dentin N 15 N va δ 13 C qiymatli shaxslar uchun profillari…

8 -rasm. Odam qoldiqlarining jinsi profili ...

8 -rasm. Osteologik baholashga inson qoldiqlarining jinsi profili kiritilgan.

O'rta darajadagi shaxslar bu ...

9 -rasm. Inson qoldiqlarining yoshi…

9 -rasm. Osteologik baholashga kiritilgan odam qoldiqlarining yoshi.

10 -rasm. To'rtta stomatologiyaning qo'pol tarqalishi ...

10 -rasm. To'rtta tish patologiyasi va to'rtta fiziologik stress belgilarining keng tarqalganligi ...


Normanlarning Angliyani bosib olishi / Normanlarning istilosi tarixi / Ingliz adabiyotiga Normanlarning istilosining ta'siri.

Normanlarning Angliyani bosib olishi 1066 yilda hayotida katta ahamiyatga ega bo'lgan voqea Angliya-Saksoniya odamlar va ularning adabiyoti. Normanlar Pagan Daniyaliklarning irqlari edi. Ularga yaqinlik bor edi Anglo-Sakson . Daniyaliklar Normandiya va Sakson deb nomlangan frantsuz provinsiyasining xo'jayinlari bo'lishganda, ular orolga joylashdilar. 1066 yilda Normand gertsogi Uilyam taniqli qirol Edvardning o'limi to'g'risida ingliz tojini da'vo qildi. U katta qo'shin bilan Angliyaga bostirib kirdi.

Ingliz qiroli Xarold mamlakat janubiga yurish qildi. U taxminan olti chaqirim naridagi tepalikni egalladi Mehmonxonalar, Normanlar uni qaerdan topdilar. Deb nomlanuvchi jang bo'lib o'tdi Hestings jangi . Saksonlar armiyasi yo'q qilindi. Norman kamonchilari dushmanlarini, shu jumladan qirolning o'zi Harold Godvinsonni o'ldirishdi. Uilyam Londonga erkin yura boshladi va o'zini Angliya qiroli deb e'lon qildi. Mana inglizlar maydonda mag'lubiyatga uchradi Mehmonxonalar.

Uilyam g'olib butun Angliyani bo'ysundirdi. Uilyam ikkinchi, Ikkinchi O'g'li Uilyam Rufus otasiga o'xshardi, u o'jar hukmdor, adolatsiz va ochko'z edi. U xalqdan nafratlangan edi. Undan keyin Genrix 1 g'olibning uchinchi o'g'li. U, shuningdek, akasi Normandiya gersogi Robertni umr bo'yi qamoqda saqlagan shafqatsiz shoh edi. U inglizlarga qadimgi qirol Vesseks malikasi bo'lgan Shotlandiya Matilda bilan turmush qurishni yaxshi ko'rardi. Bu nikoh ikki irqni birlashtirdi.

Normanlarning istilosi hukmdorni almashtirishdan ko'ra ko'proq Angliyaga olib keldi. Ular o'z qonunlari va boshqaruvi bilan birga adabiy g'oyalarni olib kelishdi. Lotin tili rasmiy hujjat tili edi. Odobli jamiyat lotin tilida yozgan, lekin frantsuz tilida gapirgan. Aristokratlar hammasi edi Norman. Natijada, Maldon jangidan keyin ingliz tili va adabiyoti orqaga qaytdi. Ingliz she'riyati, ayniqsa, bir asrga yaqin hech narsa bermadi. Biroq, vatanparvarlik kuchayishi bilan ingliz-sakson, Ingliz tili rasmiy va milliy tilda ishlatila boshladi. Natijada Angliyada frantsuz lug'ati va grammatik qoidalari aralashgan yangi til paydo bo'ldi.

Natijada, aristokratning yangi adabiyoti Angliya - Norman diqqat markaziga kirdi. Frantsuz adabiyotining ikkita muhim ideallari yangi ingliz adabiyotiga ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Bular Romantika va Allegori. O'rta ingliz she'riyati frantsuz, romantika va allegoriya tarjimasi bilan boshlangan. Romantikaning to'rtta tsikli mavjud. Ular __ a) Frantsuz masalasi. b) Rim masalasi. v) Britaniya masalasi va d) Sakson kelib chiqishi romantikalari. Odatda, sevgi va urush bu romanslarning mavzulari edi. Allegori sevgi va din bilan shug'ullangan. Masalan, Guillaume de Lorries tomonidan yozilgan ‘Roman Delarosa - bu allegorik yozuv. Jamiyatning ahmoqligi va yomonliklari bilan shug'ullanadigan jadvallar ham bor edi.


Agar Angliyaning Norman istilosi muvaffaqiyatsiz bo'lsa yoki hech qachon boshlanmasa

Normanlar aslida o'sha erda qolishdi, demografik va obro' -e'tibor jihatidan ancha ta'sirli lingvistik guruh orqali aloqa o'rnatdilar, buni hatto uzoqdan solishtirib bo'lmaydi.
Normandiyada yashagan normanlar ham ingliz-daniyaliklarning adolatli tarkibiga ega edilar.

Yo'q, bu sodir bo'lgan hamma narsaning g'alati hisobi va buni hech qanday tarzda aytish qiyin.

Professor

Yaltiroq

Strawmanning nima? Siz ba'zi fikrlarni aytdingiz va men ularga javob berdim, men Norvegiya eski ingliz tilidagi grammatik o'zgarishlarni (soddalashtirish) aniqlagan degan fikrni tanqid qilardim, ehtimol bu siz aytgan nuqta emasmi? Somonchi qayerda ekanligini aniq bilmayman.

FALightFighter

Yaltiroq

Kulgili

Qaroqchilik

Kulgili

O'rta asr IOTLda Frantsiya Angliyaga bir necha bor bostirib kirdi. Bu erda vaziyat boshqacha bo'lar edi, lekin ular TTLga bostirib kirish uchun qandaydir bahona bo'lishi mumkin edi.

Golland, ispan, portugal - har qanday dengiz kuchlari bostirib kirish xavfi bo'lishi mumkin.

Professor

Qaroqchilik

Kulgili

Kulgili

To'g'ri, inglizlar Frantsiya qiroli Normandiya va Bretaniya nazoratini o'z qo'liga olmoqchi bo'lgan boshqa Norman xavfini bartaraf etish va Janubiy Sohil bo'yida muammo tug'dirish deb o'ylashlari mumkin. Garchi Flandriya qit'a bilan ingliz savdosining ahamiyatini hisobga olgan holda boshqa masala bo'lishi mumkin.

Menimcha, agar Norman ambitsiyalaridan ozod bo'lsam, inglizlar Irlandiyaga ham, Skandinaviyaga ham aralashishi mumkin.

Qaroqchilik

Janprimus

Faqat qiziqish etarli emas. Tabiiyki, yaqinlik va bu davrda ishonarli da'vo, lekin birinchi navbatda bunday da'voni amalga oshirish uchun barcha vositalar. Shimoliy Frantsiyada, agar Normandiya bunday qilmasa, Flandriya grafligi o'z imkoniyatidan foydalanishi mumkin. Bu ham frantsuz ta'sirini, balki Gollandiya ta'sirini ham olib keladi, chunki eng boy flamand shaharlari romantik lahjada emas, flamand lahjalarida gaplashar edi.

@Zen9: Angliya IOTL Irlandiyaga aralashdi. IMHO, G'arbiy Evropaning ba'zi savdo sheriklarining inglizlarning bu ishlarga aralashishiga qaramligini hisobga olib, OTLga qaraganda ancha pastroq.


Tarkibi

Bu Romanesk uslublari Normandiyada paydo bo'lgan va Evropaning shimoli -g'arbiy qismida, xususan Angliyada keng tarqalgan bo'lib, bu katta rivojlanishga hissa qo'shgan va eng ko'p misollar saqlanib qolgan. Taxminan bir vaqtning o'zida, Sitsiliyada hukmronlik qilgan Norman sulolasi, Vizantiya va Saracen ta'sirini o'z ichiga olgan, Norman arxitekturasi (yoki muqobil ravishda Sitsiliya Romanesk) deb nomlangan o'ziga xos o'zgarishlarni keltirib chiqardi.

Norman atamasi XVIII asr antikvarlari tomonidan paydo bo'lgan bo'lishi mumkin, lekin uni uslublar ketma-ketligida ishlatish 1817 yilda Tomas Rikmanga tegishli. Ingliz me'morchiligining uslublarini islohotlar istilosidan kamsitishga urinish. Bu ishda u "Norman, erta ingliz, bezatilgan va perpendikulyar" yorliqlaridan foydalangan. Yana inklyuziv atama romantik 1715 yilga kelib ingliz tilida romantika tillarida ishlatilgan [1] va 1819 yildan boshlab XI -XII asr me'morchiligida qo'llanilgan. [2]

Garchi Edvard Konfessor asl Vestminster Abbeyini Romanesk uslubida qurgan bo'lsa -da (hozir hammasi keyinchalik qayta qurilgan), uning qurilishi Norman fathidan oldin sodir bo'lgan: u hali ham Angliyadagi eng qadimgi yirik Romanesk binosi hisoblanadi. Buyuk Britaniyada qolgan boshqa hech qanday Romanesk me'morchiligi Norman fathidan oldin aniq ko'rsatilmagan. Tarixchilarning fikricha, binolarda saqlanib qolgan "norman" elementlarining aksariyati-deyarli barcha cherkovlar-aslida anglo-sakson elementlari bo'lishi mumkin.

Norman archasi - Norman me'morchiligining asosiy nuqtasi. Katta yo'llar qo'rquvni uyg'otish uchun mo'ljallangan bo'lib, ular odatda sobor kabi katta diniy binolarga kirish sifatida qaraladi. Norman arklari yarim doira shaklida. Dastlabki misollar tekis, to'rtburchaklar qirrali bo'lib, keyinchalik ular zig-zag va rulonli qoliplar bilan boyitilgan. Arklar katta ustunlarda, odatda tekis va silindrsimon, ba'zan spiral bilan bezatilgan, to'rtburchaklar kesimli tirgaklar topilgan. Asosiy eshiklar ketma-ket ketma-ket dumaloq arklar bilan bezatilgan, ular ko'pincha qoliplar bilan bezatilgan, odatda chevron yoki zig-zag uslubida, ba'zan kamar boshining orqa tomonida timpanum bor, unda Bibliya manzarasini ifodalovchi haykal bo'lishi mumkin. Norman derazalari asosan kichik va tor, odatda bitta dumaloq boshli, lekin ba'zida, ayniqsa, qo'ng'iroq minorasida, mil bilan ikkita chiroqqa bo'linadi. [3]

911 yilda franklar ot ustida jang qilayotgan va frank xo'jayinlari qal'alar qurayotgan paytda viking bosqinchilari Sena daryosining og'ziga kelishdi. Keyingi asrda vikinglarga o'tib ketgan hudud aholisi, endi normanlar deb ataladi, bu urf -odatlarni, xristianlik va langue d'oïl. Norman baronlari somon tepalarida yog'ochdan yasalgan qasrlarni qurdilar, bu franklarning Romanesk uslubidagi motte-beli qal'alari va buyuk tosh cherkovlarning rivojlanishini boshladi. 950 yilga kelib, ular tosh qo'riqxonalar qurishgan. Normanlar Evropaning eng ko'p sayohat qilgan xalqlaridan biri bo'lib, ularni san'at va arxitekturaga qo'shilgan turli xil madaniy ta'sirlarga duchor qilgan. Ular ilk nasroniy bazilika rejasini ishlab chiqishgan. Dastlab, uzun yo'lakli va apisli, ular 1067 yilda Kanadagi Sent-Etyen cherkovi singari minoralarga qo'shila boshladilar. Bu 20 yildan so'ng ingliz soborlarining kattaroq modelini shakllantiradi.

Angliyada Norman zodagonlari va episkoplari 1066 yildagi Norman fathidan oldin o'z ta'siriga ega edilar va Norman ta'siri kech anglo-sakson me'morchiligiga ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Konfessor Edvard Normandiyada tarbiyalangan va 1042 yilda masonlarni Angliyadagi birinchi Romanesk binosi Vestminster Abbeyida ishlashga olib kelgan. 1051 yilda u uelsliklarga qarshi himoya sifatida "motte" qal'alarini qurgan Norman ritsarlarini olib keldi. Bosqindan so'ng, Normanlar tezda cherkovlar, abbeylar va Norman toshlari kabi murakkab istehkomlar bilan bir qatorda motte-beli qal'alarini qurdilar.

Binolar haykalning kichik tasmalaridan foydalangan holda oddiy geometriyada katta nisbatlarni ko'rsatadi. Poytaxtlar va dumaloq eshiklar, shuningdek, kamar ostidagi timpanumning to'plangan joylariga e'tibor bering. "Norman archasi" dumaloq bo'lib, ko'pincha pardozlar o'yilgan yoki o'yilgan. tez-tez "zig-zag qoliplari" deb nomlangan chevron naqshlari Normanlarning tez-tez imzosi bo'lgan. [4] Xoch shaklidagi cherkovlarda tez -tez chuqur kancellar va to'rtburchaklar o'tish minorasi bo'lgan, bu ingliz cherkov arxitekturasining o'ziga xos xususiyati bo'lib kelgan. Yuzlab cherkov cherkovlari qurildi va 1083 yildan buyon ingliz soborlari asos solindi.

Yong'indan keyin 1174 yilda Kanterberi sobori shikastlangan, Norman masonlari yangi gotika arxitekturasini taqdim etishgan. Taxminan 1191 yil Uells sobori va Linkoln sobori ingliz gotik uslubini olib keldi va Norman tobora kamtarona viloyat qurilish uslubiga aylandi.

Cherkov arxitekturasi Tartibga solish

    1074 yil: cherkov minorasi boshpana joyiga aylandi (v. 1078), London minorasi (1093 yildan) birinchi bo'lib sivrilgan kamarli (1079 yildan) (1083–1109) (1118 yildan), qovurg'ali gumbazli tizimni ishlatgan.
  • Aziz Nikolay cherkovi, Pirford, Surrey (v. 1140), Iffli, Oksfordshir (1170) Nately Scures, Xempshir (1175), Norman bir hujayrali apsid cherkovining namunasi. (1096–1145) (XI asr), Kolchester, Rutland - Norman kansli
    . (1909) Norman Architecture in Cornwall: a handbook to old ecclesiastical architecture. With over 160 plates. London: Ward & Co.

Military architecture Edit

Domestic architecture Edit

Scotland also came under early Norman influence with Norman nobles at the court of King Macbeth around 1050. His successor Máel Coluim III overthrew him with English and Norman assistance, and his queen, Margaret, encouraged the church. The Benedictine order founded a monastery at Dunfermline. Her sixth and youngest son, who became King David, built St. Margaret's Chapel at the start of the 12th century.

Ecclesiastical architecture Edit

    , Dunfermline (founded about 1070 by St Margaret) grid referenceNT089872 (from about 1070) grid referenceNO516166 , Edinburgh Castle (early 12th century) grid referenceNT252735 parish church (from about 1130) grid referenceNT144775 , Kirkwall (from about 1137) grid referenceHY449112 , Jedburgh (founded about 1138 by David I) grid referenceNT650204 , Leuchars (12th century) grid referenceNO455215 Parish Church, Edinburgh (late 12th century)

The Normans first landed in Ireland in 1169. Within five years earthwork castles were springing up, and in a further five, work was beginning on some of the earliest of the great stone castles. For example, Hugh de Lacy built a Motte-and-bailey castle on the site of the present day Trim Castle, County Meath, which was attacked and burned in 1173 by the Irish king Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair. De Lacy, however, then constructed a stone castle in its place, which enclosed over three acres within its walls, and this could not be burned down by the Irish. The years between 1177 and 1310 saw the construction of some of the greatest of the Norman castles in Ireland. The Normans settled mostly in an area in the east of Ireland, later known as the Pale, and among other buildings they constructed were Swords Castle in Fingal (North County Dublin), Dublin Castle and Carrickfergus Castle in County Antrim. [8]

Mezzogiorno Edit

The Normans began constructing castles, their trademark architectural piece, in Italy from an early date. William Iron Arm built one at an unidentified location (Stridula) in Calabria in 1045. After the death of Robert Guiscard in 1085, the Mezzogiorno (peninsular southern Italy) experienced a series of civil wars and fell under the control of increasingly weaker princes. Revolts characterised the region until well into the twelfth century and minor lords sought to resist ducal or royal power from within their own castles. In the Molise, the Normans embarked on their most extensive castle-building programme and introduced the opus gallicum technique to Italy. Their clever use of the local stone artisans, together with the vast riches amassed from their enslaved population, made such tremendous feats possible, some as majestic as those of the ancient Roman structures they tried to emulate.

Besides the encastellation of the countryside, the Normans erected several religious buildings which still survive. They edified the shrine at Monte Sant'Angelo and built a mausoleum to the Hauteville family at Venosa. They also built many new Latin monasteries, including the famous foundation of Sant'Eufemia Lamezia. [9] Other examples of great importance are the portal of the Shrine of Mary Queen of Anglona and the ambulatory and radiating chapels of the Aversa Cathedral.


Saipedia

The Norman Conquest was an epic making event in the British History. The rulers of Normandy had originally been Scandinavian Vikings. They occupied parts of Northern France (Normandy)and in the early 10th century AD, they were recognized by the French Crown. By the middle of 11thcentury AD, they lost their Scandinavian speech, instead spoke French and were essentially French in culture.

During the reign of English king Edward the Confessor, Harold the Earl of Wessex happened to visit Normandy. William, the Duke of Normandy had a hope to become the king of England after the death of childless Edward and Harold offered to help him in this matter. But the Witan (Body of elders) in obedience to the dying words of the Edward elected Harold as the King. The infuriated William landed in England with a mighty army in 1066 AD. Harold could not get the whole hearted support of the all nobles. So in the historic Battle of Hastings fought in 1066 AD, Harold, last of the Saxon kings, was defeated and William the conqueror became the new king of England. Since William also continued to be the duke of Normandy, there was a steady flow of people between England and Normandy.

Results of Norman Conquest

The Norman Conquest was a turning point in the history of England. The immediate result of the Norman Conquest was that the government passed from the hands of the English to those of the Normans and Norman barons and knights. The Anglo Saxon nobility was completely destroyed and most of the English men became villains. England lost her royal dynasty and she also lost her freedom. King William had to curb the power of those elements which threatened the security of his rule. Each rebellion was followed by confiscation of English lands and these lands were rewarded to his Norman followers. All rebellions were suppressed and the feudal system was encouraged. The Norman feudal system completely altered the face of England.

The first great change made by the Norman Conquest was that England came in to close contact with what was happening in Europe. The English began to display great interest in intellectual, political and religious movement in Europe. Kings and people began to play an important part in France, in the policies of Europe and even in the crusades. The trade of England goes very much affected. Merchants from England began to travel all over Europe and were able to set up their trade relations in the countries with which they came in to contact. Jews came and settled in England. An immediate result of the conquest had been a great immigration of Normans into England. They all gradually mixed with English people. Norman conquest supplied England an illustrious line of able rulers. They used new feudalism to attain national unity. Most of the institution which are the pride of English men today like representative assembly (magnum Concelium), universities, juries and the common law was acquired during these periods of foreign rule and influence. "Dooms day book" and "Oath of Salisbury" are the other results.

The Church of England came into close contact with the church of Rome. They reformed the English church and made it the real leader of the people in morals, learning and in charity. Ecclesiastical courts were separated from the secular courts. Church encouraged education, art and architecture. School started in all monasteries where Latin was taught. Large numbers of cathedrals were built in Norman’s time. Thus church began to play a vital role in the lives of the people. The Norman Conquest also profoundly affected learning in England. The Latin language began to be studied with great interest. Latin and French became the official language of the government. Under French influence, English language was completely changed. The two languages gradually merged into what is known as "Middle English". Trevelyan points out that one outcome of the Norman conquest was the making of the English language. On the whole, it can be said that the Norman conquest was very important event in the history of England. It revolutionized everything in the country. Although English men suffered for sometimes as a result of the Norman conquest, their initial loss were more than made up later.

William The Conqueror

William 1st real claim to the English thrown rested on his victory in the Battle of Hastings in 1066 AD against Harold. However the defeat of Harold alone did not result in the submission of all the English men. As a matter of fact, there were many revolts in south-west, Mercia and Northumbria and one by one they were all ruthlessly suppressed. Each revolt was followed by fresh confiscation of land possessed by the English nobility. The land thus captured was used for rewarding Williams own Norman followers. At the same time he had to make himself master of both English and Normandy. To the English, William was a foreign ruler. So in order to secure his position, William decided to confiscate the land of rebels by suppressing the uprisings with an iron hand, by developing the feudal system and by using the English against his own rebellious barons.

Norman Brand of Feudalism

In feudalism land played an important role. It was the basis of the relationship between the land lord and the vassal. Theoretically, in feudalism, the king was the owner of the whole land. But it was actually controlled by the feudal lords. The lords everywhere lived a happy luxurious life. Their lands were cultivated by the serfs. They could not sell or mortgage the land but go on tilling that throughout the life. Not only this, the land lords could levy taxes on them and punish them of their offences. Under feudalism a feudal lord had two courts one for the nobles and the other for the vassals & other tenants. From these courts a new type of legal system evolved. All the feudal lords were supposed to be loyal to the king but as the time passed they posed a great threat to his authority. The knights enjoyed a significant position in the feudalism.

Medieval England Timeline:

William crushes uprisings of Anglo-Saxon earls and peasants with a brutal hand in Mercia and Northumberland, uses (literal) scorched earth policy, decimating population and laying waste the countryside. Anglo-Saxon earls and freemen deprived of property many enslaved. William distributes property and titles to Normans (and some English) who supported him. Many of the English hereditary titles of nobility date from this period.

English becomes the language of the lower classes (peasants and slaves). Norman French becomes the language of the court and propertied classes. The legal system is redrawn along Norman lines and conducted in French. Churches, monasteries gradually filled with French-speaking functionaries, who use French for record-keeping. After a while, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is no longer kept up. Authors write literature in French, not English. For all practical purposes English is no longer a written language.

Bilingualism gradually becomes more common, especially among those who deal with both upper and lower classes. Growth of London as a commercial center draws many from the countryside who can fill this socially intermediate role.

The English kings lose the duchy of Normandy to French kings. England is now the only home of the Norman English.

First book in English appears since the conquest.

The demands of the barons were recorded in the document known as the Articles of the Barons. Following further discussions with the barons and clerics led by Archbishop Langton, King John granted the Charter of Liberties, subsequently known as Magna Carta,

First royal proclamation issued in English since the conquest.

The Provisions of Oxford were constitutional reforms developed in 1258 and resolved a dispute between the English barons and King Henry III of England.

Increasing feeling on the part of even noblemen that they are English, not French. Nobility begin to educate their children in English. French is taught to children as a foreign language rather than used as a medium of instruction.

Start of the Hundred Years' War between England and France.

English becomes official language of the law courts. More and more authors are writing in English.

Chaucer writes the Canterbury tales in Middle English. the language shows French influence in thousands of French borrowings. The London dialect, for the first time, begins to be recognized as the "Standard", or variety of English taken as the norm, for all England. Other dialects are relegated to a less prestigious position, even those that earlier served as standards (e.g. the Wessex dialect of southwest England).

William Caxton brings a printing press to England from Germany. Publishes the first printed book in England. Beginning of the long process of standardization of spelling.


Norman Conquest

The death of Edward the Confessor, King of England, initiated a brief period of conflict between the various claimants to his throne that irrevocably changed the country of England. Immediately following the death of Edward, Earl Harold Godwinson was elected and crowned king by the English nobility. He became known as King Harold II.


Edward 'the Confessor' King of England [ 1 ]
William's Claim to the Throne

Biroq, Duke William of Normandy, later called William the Conqueror, had a powerful claim to the throne, due to the fact that King Edward had developed strong Norman sympathies during his long exile in Normandy and had selected William as his heir. Bundan tashqari, King Harald Hardrada of Norway also had a strong claim to the throne, based on a treaty that had been made between Magnus, the son of Harald's brother, St. Olafva Harthacnut, the son of King Cnut, who was the ruler of England, Denmark, and Norway that had originally sent Edward into exile. Consequently, Harold II immediately faced attackers on two fronts after his accession to the throne. The Norwegians threatened from the north, while the Normans loomed in the south.

The Norwegians were first to attack England, aided by Harold's own brother Tostig, Earl of Northumberland. Harald Hardrada's forces landed on the Humber River, scored a quick victory over the Mercians, and then began a march towards the city of York. Harold's forces intercepted the Norwegians at Stamford Bridge and defeated them on September 25, 1066. Both Tostig and Harald Hardrada were slain in the battle.

The Normans launched their attack and when they landed, they found the English were completely unprepared. Harold quickly hauled his forces back to the south to confront the threat, but when his soldiers arrived they were exhausted by the difficulty of making a forced march so soon after their great battle. William's spearmen and cavalrymen easily scattered and slaughtered Harold's weary axeman at the Battle of Hastings. Harald himself was slain and according to tradition, fell when an arrow pierced his eye (see Bayeaux Tapestry). William subsequently gathered enough support among the English nobility to be crowned King of England in a ceremony that took place at Westminster Abbey in London on Christmas Day, 1066.

However, there was still some resistance to William's rule. Sporadic ambushes were made by the native Anglo-Saxons, who slew groups of Normans in deserted and isolated places. William also had to contend with more organized uprisings in Kent and Exeter. In 1170, Northumbrian rebels captured the city of York with the help of Danish allies. William was forced to embark on a ruthless 'scorched earth' policy and put a large number of villages and farmlands to the torch until the rebellion was extinguished. The threat of a Danish invasion in 1195, forced him to repeat his actions. This, together with the heavy taxation that accompanied his rule, earned William the reputation of an oppressor and the title of William the Conqueror.


William I of England, also known as William the Conqueror [ 3 ]
Impact of the Conquest

The Norman Conquest of England had profound results for the country of England. They took over some existing efficient Anglo-Saxon institutions without changing them, such as the taxation and coinage systems and the organization of the local government into counties and hundreds. However, the Normans also initiated many important changes. The Normans imported the Feudal System and a strong bureaucratic form of government. They built the first castles in England, reformed monasteries, and constructed towns on the Norman model. More notably, they brought great linguistic changes. Latin was imported as the official language of government and legal matters and French became the language of the nobility. These new tongues largely supplanted the indigenous Old English language and greatly changed the way in which English people, places, and things came to be named.

"At court, and in the castles of great nobles, where the pomp and state was emulated, Norman-French was the only language employed in courts of law, the pleadings and judgments were delivered in the same tongue. In short, French was the language of honour, of chivalry and even of justice, while the far more manly and expressive Anglo-Saxon was abandoned to the use of rustics and hinds, who knew no other." [ 4 ]

This invasion did not mark the first time that England had come under the rule of a foreign power. England was invaded numerous times by Scandinavians in the past and had already been ruled by the aforementioned King Cnut, among others. The Normans were themselves of this same Scandinavian stock. Nevertheless, this invasion sparked an unprecedented era in English history and resulted in significant political, social, and linguistic change.

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  1. ^ "File:Edward the Confessor.png." Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. 27 Jan 2019, 19:54 UTC. https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edward_the_Confessor.png&oldid=336702234
  2. ^ "File:Harald Hardrada window in Kirkwall Cathedral geograph 2068881.jpg." Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. 17 Feb 2020, 10:06 UTC. https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Harald_Hardrada_window_in_Kirkwall_Cathedral_geograph_2068881.jpg&oldid=395412719
  3. ^ "File:William the conqueror.jpg." Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. 28 Mar 2017, 19:56 UTC. https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:William_the_conqueror.jpg&oldid=238890701
  4. ^ Scott, Sir Walter, Ivanho Norwalk, Conn.: Easton Press, 1977, pp 6, 7
  5. ^ Swyrich, Archive materials

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Still, we should not paint Harold in completely innocent colours. Harold was already thinking like a king by 1064. He was undoubtedly considering his own position vis à vis the throne of England, and like any politician of his age, he would undoubtedly have sworn to anything in order to get himself out of the dangerous position in which he found himself.

. Kings made and broke. vows all the time.

Kings made and broke solemn vows all the time, and it was only when someone else had something to gain from it that they were called to account. Harold needed to get back to England and muster the support he would require to make his bid. In order to do that, he would have sworn away his own brother. In a passage laden with hindsight, the chronicler Eadmer has Edward admonishing Harold on his return: 'Did I not tell you that I knew William, and your going might bring untold calamity upon this kingdom?'

The proof of this all came in 1065, when the people of Northumbria rebelled against the harsh rule of their new earl, Harold's brother Tostig. Tostig appealed to Harold and the King for help, but that help was not forthcoming. Edward held no love for Tostig, and Harold had seen a way that he could use his brother's misfortune to win the backing of the other great power in the land, the family of Leofric. Leofric's grandson, Edwin, was now the Earl of Mercia and almost as strong as Harold himself but his brother, Morcar, was yet to have an earldom.

Harold made a deal: he would support Morcar into Northumbria against his own brother Tostig and also against the rightful heir, Waltheof, if the family of Leofric eschewed its old enmity with the Godwines and supported Harold in his bid for the throne. This act of filial treachery was to have significant consequences. Tostig fled into exile, vowing revenge against his brother, and the scene was set for the tragic events of 1066.