Ayollar qirollik dengiz xizmati

Ayollar qirollik dengiz xizmati


Ayollar Avstraliya qirollik dengiz xizmati

The Ayollar Avstraliya qirollik dengiz xizmati (WRANS) Avstraliya Qirollik flotining (RAN) ayollar bo'linmasi edi. 1941 yilda fuqarolik ayollar favqulodda signalizatsiya korpusining (WESC) o'n to'rt a'zosi Avstraliyaning qirollik flotining Kanberra simsiz/uzatuvchi stantsiyasida simsiz telegraf ishi uchun ishga qabul qilindi. RAN va Avstraliya hukumati dastlab bu g'oyani qo'llab -quvvatlashdan bosh tortishgan bo'lsa -da, Tinch okeani urushi natijasida dengizda ishlaydigan xodimlarga bo'lgan talab WRANSni 1942 yilda ayollarga yordamchi xizmat sifatida rasman tashkil qildi. korpus Ikkinchi Jahon urushi davomida 3 mingdan ortiq ayol WRANS xizmatida bo'lgan.

Tashkilot 1947 yilda tarqatib yuborilgan, ammo Sovuq Urush majburiyatlari tufayli ishchi kuchiga bo'lgan talabga javoban 1951 yilda qayta tashkil etilgan. 1959 yilda WRANS Avstraliya armiyasining doimiy qismi etib tayinlandi. WRANS 1985 yilgacha o'z faoliyatini davom ettirdi, o'shanda ayol kadrlar RANga birlashtirildi.


UK Wrens-Janette Crispning so'rovi, Dauntless bo'limi koordinatori 47-81

Men 1947-1981 yillar oralig'ida Buyuk Britaniyada HMS Dauntless (O'qish) da o'qigan har qanday Wrens bilan bog'lanishga umid qilaman (dastlabki yillarda u Burgfilddagi o'quv muassasasi sifatida ham tanilgan). Biz Dauntless Division Photos deb nomlangan loyihani yaratdik, u tugallangach, Division rasmlarining arxivini beradi. Ammo hozirda loyiha shu davrdan boshlab minglab Wrensni bog'laydi - eski do'stlikni tiklash, yangilarini yaratish, xotiralarni qayta tiklash, latifalar bilan bo'lishish [& hellip]


Birlik tarixi: Ayollar va qirollik dengiz xizmati

Ayollar Qirollik Dengiz xizmati (mashhur va rasman Wrens nomi bilan tanilgan) Qirollik dengiz flotining ayollar bo'linmasi edi.

A'zolar orasida oshpazlar, kotiblar, simsiz telegrafchilar, radar tuzuvchilar, qurol tahlilchilari, diapazon baholovchilari, elektrchilar va havo mexaniklari bor edi. U 1917 yilda Birinchi jahon urushi paytida tuzilgan va urush oxirigacha 5500 a'zo bo'lgan, ularning 500 nafari ofitser edi. Bundan tashqari, WRAFning 2000 ga yaqin a'zolari ilgari Qirollik Harbiy -dengiz havo xizmatini qo'llab -quvvatlovchi WRNS xizmatida bo'lgan va Qirollik havo kuchlarini yaratishga topshirilgan.

U 1919 yilda tarqatib yuborilgan va 1939 yilda Ikkinchi Jahon urushi boshida qayta tiklangan, ruxsat etilgan tadbirlar ro'yxati, shu jumladan uchuvchi transport samolyotlari. 1944 yildagi eng yuqori cho'qqisida 75000 kishi bor edi. Urush paytida 100 kishi halok bo'lgan.

U urushdan keyin ham o'z faoliyatini davom ettirdi va nihoyat 1993 yilda qirollik dengiz flotiga qo'shildi. Ayol dengizchilar hali ham dengiz jargonida "jens" yoki "jensi" deb nomlanadilar.

1993 yilgacha Qirollik dengiz flotining barcha ayollari WRNS a'zolari bo'lishdi, hamshiralar bundan mustasno, ular qirolicha Aleksandraning Qirollik dengizchilik hamshiralik xizmatiga qo'shilishdi (va hozir ham qo'shilishmoqda) va Qirollik dengiz flotiga to'g'ridan -to'g'ri tayinlangan tibbiy va stomatologik ofitserlar, va oltin RN belgisi bilan WRNS formasini kiygan.


Tarkibi

HM Qurolli Kuchlarining dengizda joylashgan bo'lagi sifatida RN har xil vazifalarni bajaradi. Hozirgi kunda, RN soyabon nuqtai nazaridan quyida batafsil tavsiflangan 6 ta asosiy rolini e'lon qildi. [14]

  • Mojaroning oldini olish - global va mintaqaviy darajada
  • Dengizda xavfsizlikni ta'minlash - dengizda xalqaro savdo barqarorligini ta'minlash
  • Xalqaro hamkorlik - Buyuk Britaniyaning ittifoqchilari (NATO kabi) bilan munosabatlarni mustahkamlashga yordam berish.
  • Jangga tayyor bo'lish - Buyuk Britaniyaning butun dunyodagi manfaatlarini himoya qilish
  • Iqtisodiyotni himoya qilish - Buyuk Britaniya va uning ittifoqchilarining dengizda iqtisodiy farovonligini kafolatlaydigan muhim savdo yo'llarini himoya qilish.
  • Gumanitar yordam ko'rsatish - global falokatlarga tez va samarali javob berish

Qirollik dengiz floti rasmiy ravishda 1546 yilda Genrix VIII [15] tomonidan tashkil etilgan bo'lsa -da, Angliya Qirolligi va undan oldingi davlatlar bundan bir necha asrlar oldin kam uyushgan dengiz kuchlariga ega edi. [16]

Oldingi flotlar tahrirlash

O'rta asrlarning ko'p qismida ma'lum bir kampaniyalar yoki harakatlar uchun flotlar yoki "qirol kemalari" tez -tez tuzilgan yoki yig'ilgan va ular keyinchalik tarqalib ketar edi. Bu odatda xizmatga qabul qilingan savdo kemalari edi. Ba'zi Evropa davlatlaridan farqli o'laroq, Angliya tinchlik davrida harbiy kemalarning kichik doimiy yadrosini saqlamagan. Angliyaning harbiy -dengiz tashkiloti tasodifiy edi va urush boshlanganda flotlarni safarbar qilish sekin kechdi. [17] 11 -asrda Aethelred II milliy yig'im bilan qurilgan ayniqsa katta flotga ega edi. [18] XI asrda Daniya hukmronligi davrida, hukumat soliqqa tortish bo'yicha doimiy flotni saqlab qoldi va bu tez -tez flotlarga shaxsan qo'mondonlik qilgan Edvard Konfessor davrida ham davom etdi. [19] Normanlarning istilosidan keyin ingliz dengiz kuchlari zaiflashdi va Angliya vikinglar tomonidan dengiz bosqini ostida qoldi. [20] 1069 yilda bu Jarl Osborn (qirol Svayn Estridssonning ukasi) va uning o'g'illari tomonidan Angliyaga bostirib kirish va vayron qilish imkonini berdi. [21]

Baron qo'zg'oloni paytida Frantsiya shahzodasi Lui shimoliy baronlarni qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun Angliyaga bostirib kirdi. Qirol Jon dengiz flotini tashkil qila olmagani uchun, bu frantsuzlar 1216 yil aprelda hech qanday qarama -qarshiliksiz Sandvichga qo'ndi. Jonning Vinchesterga uchishi va o'sha yilning oxirida uning o'limi Pembrok grafini regent sifatida tark etdi va u frantsuzlarga qarshi jang qilish uchun kemalarni marshal qila oldi. 1217 yildagi Sandvich jangida- dengizdagi birinchi ingliz janglaridan biri. [22] Yuz yillik urushning boshlanishi ingliz flotining zarurligini ta'kidladi. 1340 yilda Sluys jangida Angliya qiroli Edvard III frantsuz flotini vayron qilganida Angliyaga bostirib kirish haqidagi frantsuz rejalari muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi. Bunday bosqinlar faqat Genrix Vning Frantsiyaning shimoliy qismini egallashi bilan to'xtatildi [24] Uilyam Sher hukmronligi davrida Shotlandiya floti mavjud edi. [25] 13 -asr boshlarida mintaqada Viking dengiz kuchlari qayta tiklandi. Vikinglar orollarni nazorat qilish uchun Shotlandiya bilan to'qnash kelishdi [26], lekin Aleksandr III oxir -oqibat Shotlandiya nazoratini muvaffaqiyatli qo'lga kiritdi. [27] Shotland floti 14 -asr boshlarida ingliz kuchlarini qaytarishda muhim ahamiyatga ega edi. [28]

Yelkanlar davri tahriri

Genri VIII hukmronligi davrida o'z kotibiyatiga, dockyardlarga va maxsus harbiy kemalarning doimiy yadrosiga ega bo'lgan "dengiz floti qiroli" [15] paydo bo'ldi. [29] Yelizaveta I davrida Angliya Ispaniya bilan urushga qo'shildi, bunda xususiy kemalar qirolicha kemalari bilan birlashib, Ispaniya tijoratiga va mustamlakalariga qarshi yuqori daromadli reydlar o'tkazdi. [30] Keyin 1588 yilda Qirollik dengiz floti Ispaniya Armadasini qaytarish uchun ishlatilgan. 1603 yilda tojlar ittifoqi Angliya va Shotlandiya o'rtasida shaxsiy ittifoq tuzdi. Ikki asr davomida bir -biridan farq qiladigan suveren davlatlar bo'lib qolsa -da, ikki dengiz floti yagona kuch sifatida kurashdi. 17 -asr boshlarida Angliyaning nisbiy dengiz kuchi Karl I kema qurishning asosiy dasturini amalga oshirgunga qadar yomonlashdi. Uning flotni moliyalashtirish usullari ingliz fuqarolar urushining boshlanishiga va monarxiyaning bekor qilinishiga yordam berdi. [31]

Angliya Hamdo'stligi yangi Hamdo'stlik flotida qirollik va oliy cherkov bilan bog'liq bo'lgan ko'plab nomlar va belgilarni almashtirdi va uni dunyodagi eng qudratli davlatga aylantirdi. [32] [33] Filo Yamaykaning bosib olinishi va Ispaniya xazina flotiga muvaffaqiyatli hujumlar sodir bo'lgan Birinchi Angliya-Gollandiya urushida (1652–1654) va Angliya-Ispaniya urushida (1654-1660) tezda sinovdan o'tkazildi. 1660 yilgi restavratsiya Charlz II ni yana Qirollik dengiz floti deb o'zgartirdi va HMS prefiksidan foydalanishni boshladi. Dengiz floti avvalgidek tojga ega bo'lmagan milliy institut bo'lib qoldi. [34] 1688 yildagi ulug'vor inqilobdan so'ng, Angliya Buyuk Ittifoq urushiga qo'shildi, bu Frantsiyaning dengizda qisqa muddat ustunligini tugatdi va Buyuk Britaniya ustunligining boshlanishini ko'rsatdi. [35]

1707 yilda Shotlandiya flotini Qirollik dengiz flotiga birlashtirishga olib kelgan Ittifoq akti bilan Buyuk Britaniya Qirolligi tuzildi. XVIII va XIX asrlar davomida Qirollik dengiz floti dunyodagi eng katta dengiz kuchlari bo'lib, [36] moliyalashtirish, taktika, tayyorgarlik, tashkilotchilik, ijtimoiy birdamlik, gigiena, moddiy -texnik yordam va harbiy kemalarni loyihalashda ustunlikni saqlab qolgan. [37] Ispaniya vorisligi urushidan keyin (1702–1714) tinchlik o'rnatilishi Buyuk Britaniyaga Gibraltar va Menorkani berdi, dengiz flotini O'rta er dengizi bazalari bilan ta'minladi. Fransiyaning Britaniyaga bostirib kirishga bo'lgan yangi urinishi, 1759 yildagi favqulodda Kiberon ko'rfazidagi jangovar eskort flotining mag'lubiyati bilan barbod bo'ldi. [38] 1762 yilda Ispaniya bilan harbiy harakatlarning qayta boshlanishi inglizlarning Manila va Gavanani bosib olishiga olib keldi va u erda boshpanali ispan floti edi. [39] Ammo Britaniya mustaqilligiga qarshi urushda ko'rinib turibdiki, bu davrda boshqa xalqlar koalitsiyalari tomonidan Britaniya dengiz kuchlarining ustunligiga qarshi chiqish mumkin edi. Isyonkor mustamlakachilarni Angliyaga qarshi Frantsiya, Ispaniya va Gollandiya qo'llab -quvvatladi. Chesapeake jangida ingliz floti frantsuz blokadasini olib tashlay olmadi, natijada Kornuallis Yorktaunda taslim bo'ldi. [40] Frantsuz inqilobiy urushlari (1793–1801) va Napoleon urushlari (1803–1814 va 1815) Qirollik dengiz flotining samaradorligini eng yuqori cho'qqisiga ko'tarib, Buyuk Britaniyaning barcha dushmanlarining dengiz flotida hukmronlik qildi. Admiral Nelson davrida dengiz floti Trafalgardagi frantsuz-ispan qo'shma flotini mag'lub etdi (1805). [41]

1815-1914 yillar mobaynida Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari hech qanday jiddiy harakatlarni ko'rmadilar, chunki uning hukmronligiga qarshi chiqa oladigan kuchli raqib yo'q edi. Bu davrda dengiz urushi bug 'surish, metall kema qurilishi va portlovchi o'q -dorilar yordamida sodir bo'lgan keng ko'lamli o'zgarishlarga duch keldi. Harbiy -dengiz floti o'z harbiy flotini to'liq almashtirishiga qaramay, barcha potentsial raqiblar ustidan o'zining ustun ustunligini saqlab qolishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. Britaniyaning sanoat inqilobidagi etakchiligi tufayli mamlakat misli ko'rilmagan kemasozlik salohiyatiga va moliyaviy resurslarga ega edi, bu esa hech bir raqibning Britaniyaning kema sonidagi ustunligini inkor etish uchun bu inqilobiy o'zgarishlardan foydalanmasligini ta'minladi. [42] 1889 yilda Parlament "ikki kuch standarti" ni rasman qabul qilgan Dengiz mudofaasi to'g'risidagi qonunni qabul qildi, unga ko'ra Qirollik dengiz floti kamida ikkita yirik harbiy-dengiz kuchlarining umumiy kuchiga teng bo'lgan bir qancha jangovar kemalarni saqlab turishi shart edi. [43] 19 -asrning oxirida strukturaviy o'zgarishlar yuz berdi va eski kemalar zaxiraga tashlandi yoki yangi kemalarga mablag 'va ishchi kuchi berildi. HMS ning ishga tushirilishi Qo'rqqan 1906 yilda barcha mavjud jangovar kemalarni eskirgan. [44]

Jahon urushlari tahrir

Birinchi jahon urushi paytida Qirollik dengiz flotining kuchi asosan Buyuk flotdagi uyda, Shimoliy dengiz bo'ylab Germaniya ochiq dengiz flotiga qarama -qarshi bo'lgan. Ular o'rtasida bir nechta natijasiz to'qnashuvlar bo'lib o'tdi, asosan 1916 yildagi Jutland jangi. [45] Britaniyaning jangovar ustunligi yengilmas bo'lib chiqdi, bu esa Ochiq dengiz flotining Britaniya hukmronligiga qarshi chiqish urinishlaridan voz kechishiga olib keldi. [46] Urushlar oralig'ida Qirollik dengiz floti o'z kuchining katta qismini tortib oldi. Vashington va London harbiy -dengiz shartnomalari ba'zi kapital kemalarni bekor qilishni va yangi qurilishga cheklovlar qo'ydi. [47] 1932 yilda Invergordon qo'zg'oloni 25% ish haqini qisqartirish bo'yicha bo'lib o'tdi va u oxir -oqibat 10% gacha kamaytirildi. [48] ​​1930 yillarning o'rtalarida xalqaro keskinlik oshdi va 1938 yilga kelib Qirollik dengiz flotining qayta qurollanishi yaxshi yo'lga qo'yildi. Yangi qurilishga qo'shimcha ravishda, eski bir qancha jangovar kemalar, jangovar kreyserlar va og'ir kreyserlar rekonstruksiya qilindi, zenit qurollari qurildi. kuchaytirildi, shu bilan birga ASDIC, Huff-Duff va gidrofonlar kabi yangi texnologiyalar ishlab chiqildi. [49]

1939 yilda Ikkinchi Jahon Urushi boshlanishida, Qirollik Dengiz kuchlari dunyodagi eng katta flot edi, unda 1400 dan ortiq kemalar bor edi [50] [51] Qirollik Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari Dinamo operatsiyasi paytida, Britaniya Dyunkerdan evakuatsiya qilishda muhim rol o'ynadi. Keyingi to'rt oy ichida Germaniyaning Buyuk Britaniyaga bostirib kirishiga to'sqinlik qildi. Tarantoda Admiral Kanningem tarixda birinchi samolyot-dengiz hujumini boshlagan flotni boshqargan. Qirollik floti urushning dastlabki ikki yilida katta yo'qotishlarga duch keldi. 3 mingdan ziyod odam qo'shinni almashtirganda halok bo'ldi Lancastria 1940 yil iyun oyida cho'kdi, bu Britaniya tarixidagi eng katta dengiz halokati. [52] Dengiz kuchlarining eng muhim kurashi Atlantika jangi bo'lib, Buyuk Britaniyaning muhim tijorat ta'minot liniyalarini qayiq hujumidan himoya qildi. Urush boshlangandan boshlab an'anaviy karvon tizimi o'rnatildi, ammo "bo'rilar" guruhi hujumlariga asoslangan nemis suv osti taktikasi oldingi urushga qaraganda ancha samarali bo'ldi va tahdid uch yildan ko'proq vaqt davomida jiddiy bo'lib qoldi. [53]

1945 yildan beri tahrir qiling

Ikkinchi jahon urushidan keyin Britaniya imperiyasining tanazzuli va Britaniyadagi iqtisodiy qiyinchiliklar Qirollik flotining hajmi va imkoniyatlarini qisqartirishga majbur qildi. Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Harbiy -dengiz floti global dengiz kuchlari rolini oldi. Hukumatlar, qisman qurol tizimlarining narxining oshishi tufayli, byudjet bosimining oshishiga duch kelishdi. [54] 1981 yilda Mudofaa vaziri Jon Nott Harbiy -dengiz flotini qisqartirish tarafdori va tashabbuskori edi. [55] Ammo Folklend urushi qirollik dengiz flotiga o'sha paytdagi resurslari va tuzilishi bilan qiyin bo'lgan ekspeditsion va qirg'oq qobiliyatini tiklash zarurligini isbotladi. 1980-yillarning boshlarida Qirollik dengiz floti suv osti kemalariga qarshi ko'k suvga qarshi kurashga qaratilgan kuch edi. Uning maqsadi - Shimoliy Atlantikada Sovet suv osti kemalarini qidirish va yo'q qilish, yadroviy suv osti kemalarini boshqarish. Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari birinchi yadroviy qurolni birinchisining kiritilishi bilan oldi Ruxsat-"Polaris" raketasi bilan qurollangan suv osti kemalari. [56]

Sovuq urushdan keyingi tahrir

Sovuq urush tugaganidan so'ng, Qirollik dengiz floti o'z strategik muhitiga qarab o'z flotining hajmini asta-sekin kamaytira boshladi. Qirolicha Yelizaveta kabi yangi va qobiliyatli kemalar doimiy ravishda xizmatga keltirilmoqda. sinf samolyot tashuvchisi, Astute sinfidagi suv osti kemasi va 45-turdagi esminets, boshqariladigan kemalar va suv osti kemalarining umumiy soni doimiy ravishda kamayishda davom etdi. Bu Qirollik Dengiz kuchlari haqida katta munozaralarni keltirib chiqardi, 2013 yildagi hisobotda, hozirgi RN allaqachon juda kichik bo'lganligi va Britaniya o'z hududlariga hujum qilinsa, uning ittifoqchilariga qaram bo'lishi kerakligini aniqlagan. [57] Yadro oldini olish bilan bog'liq moliyaviy xarajatlar dengiz floti uchun tobora muhim muammoga aylandi. [58]

Xodimlarni tahrirlash

HMS Rali Torpointda, Kornuoll, yangi ro'yxatga olingan reytinglar uchun asosiy o'quv vositasi. Britannia Royal Naval College - Devonning Dartmut shahrida joylashgan harbiy -dengiz kuchlari uchun ofitserlarni tayyorlashning dastlabki muassasasi. Xodimlar jangovar bo'linmalarga bo'linadi, ular tarkibiga Harbiy ofitserlar (ilgari dengizchi ofitserlari deb nomlangan) va Dengiz aviatorlari, [59], shuningdek, boshqa qirollik dengiz muhandislari, Qirollik harbiy -dengiz tibbiyot bo'limi va Logistika xodimlari (ilgari etkazib berish bo'yicha ofitserlar deb nomlangan) kiradi. Hozirgi ofitserlar va reytinglar turli xil kiyimlarga ega, ba'zilari kema bortida, boshqalari qirg'oqda yoki tantanali marosimlarda kiyish uchun mo'ljallangan. Ayollar 1917 yilda Qirollik dengiz flotiga qo'shila boshladilar, 1919 yilda Birinchi jahon urushi tugaganidan keyin tarqatib yuborilgan Ayollar Qirollik Dengiz xizmati (WRNS). U 1939 yilda qayta tiklandi va WRNS 1993 yilgacha tarqatildi. , ayollarni qirollik dengiz floti tuzilmalariga to'liq integratsiyalash to'g'risidagi qaror natijasida. Ayollar endi Qirollik dengiz flotining barcha bo'limlarida, shu jumladan qirol dengiz piyodalarida xizmat qiladilar. [60]

2019 yil avgust oyida Mudofaa vazirligi qirollik dengiz floti va qirollik dengiz piyodalari 29,090 to'liq o'qitilgan xodimlarga ega ekanligini ko'rsatadigan raqamlarni e'lon qildi, bu maqsad 30,600. [61]

2019 yil dekabr oyida Birinchi dengiz Lordi, admiral Toni Radakin Harbiy-dengiz kuchlari qo'mondonligida kontr-admirallar sonini beshga kamaytirish taklifini bildirdi. [62] Jangovar qurollar (qirollik general-komendantlari bundan mustasno) Commodore (1 yulduzli) darajasiga tushiriladi va yer usti flotilalari birlashtiriladi. O'qitish flot qo'mondoni boshchiligida bo'ladi. [63]

Yuzaki flotni tahrirlash

Amfibiya urushi tahrirlash

Amfibiya jangovar kemalari hozirgi xizmatda ikkita qo'nish platformasi (HMS) ni o'z ichiga oladi Albion va HMS Qo'rg'on). Ularning asosiy vazifasi amfibiya urushini o'tkazish bo'lsa -da, ular gumanitar yordam missiyalariga ham yuborilgan. [64]

Samolyot tashuvchilar tahrir

Qirollik dengiz flotida ikkitasi bor Qirolicha Yelizaveta-sinf samolyot tashuvchilari. Har bir tashuvchi 3 milliard funt sterling turadi va 65000 tonnani (64000 uzun tonna 72000 qisqa tonna) tashib yuboradi. [65] Birinchisi, HMS Qirolicha Yelizaveta, 2018 yilda parvoz sinovlari boshlandi. Har ikkisi ham F-35 Lightning II ning STOVL variantini ishlatish uchun mo'ljallangan. Qirolicha Yelizaveta 2017 yil iyun oyida dengiz sinovlari boshlandi, o'sha yili foydalanishga topshirildi va 2020 yilda xizmatga kirdi [66], ikkinchisi - HMS Uels shahzodasi, dengiz sinovlari 2019 yil 22 sentyabrda boshlangan, 2019 yil dekabr oyida foydalanishga topshirilgan va 2023 yilda xizmatga kirishi kerak. [67] [68] [69] [70] Samolyot tashuvchilar Buyuk Britaniyaning Carrier Strike Group markaziy qismini tashkil qiladi. eskortlar va yordamchi kemalar. [71]

Eskort parkini tahrirlash

Eskort floti boshqariladigan raketa esminetslari va fregatlardan iborat bo'lib, dengiz flotining an'anaviy otidir. [72] 2020 yil sentyabr holatiga [yangilanish] faol xizmatda oltita 45 turdagi 45 ta esminets va 13 turdagi 23 fregat mavjud. Ularning asosiy vazifalari katta kapitalli kemalarni eskort bilan ta'minlash, ularni havodan, er usti va er osti tahdidlaridan himoya qilishdir. Boshqa vazifalarga Qirollik dengiz flotining butun dunyo bo'ylab doimiy joylashuvini o'z ichiga oladi, ular ko'pincha narkotik moddalarga qarshi kurashish, qaroqchilikka qarshi missiyalar va gumanitar yordam berishdan iborat. [64]

45-toifa, asosan, zenit va raketalarga qarshi janglar uchun mo'ljallangan va Qirollik dengiz floti esminets missiyasini "flotni havo hujumidan himoya qilish" deb ta'riflaydi. [73] Ular murakkab SAMPSON va S1850M uzoq masofali radarlari va Aster 15 va 30 raketalarini o'z ichiga olgan PAAMS (Sea Viper deb ham ataladi) integratsiyalashgan zenit-raketa tizimi bilan jihozlangan. [74]

16 turdagi 23 fregatlar Qirollik dengiz flotiga, oxirgi kemasi HMS bilan etkazib berildi Sent -Albans, 2002 yil iyun oyida foydalanishga topshirilgan. Biroq, 2004 yilda "O'zgarayotgan dunyoda xavfsizlikni ta'minlash" sharhida xarajatlarni qisqartirish mashqlari doirasida uchta fregat to'lanishi aytilgan va ular keyinchalik Chili dengiz flotiga sotilgan. [75] 2010 yilgi Strategik Mudofaa va Xavfsizlik Tadqiqoti, qolgan 13 turdagi 23 fregat oxir -oqibat 26 -toifali Frigat bilan almashtirilishini e'lon qildi. [76] 2015 yilgi Strategik Mudofaa va Xavfsizlik Tadqiqoti 26 turdagi 26 ta sotib olishni sakkiztaga kamaytirdi, bunda beshta 31e tipidagi fregatlar sotib olindi. [77]

Minalarga qarshi choralar kemalari (MCMV) tahrirlash

Qirollik flotida MCMVlarning ikkita klassi bor: ettita Sandoun-sinf mina ovchilari va oltita Xunt sinfiga qarshi minalashtiruvchi kemalar. Ov sinfidagi kemalar an'anaviy mina qidiruvchi va faol mina ovchining alohida rollarini bitta korpusda birlashtiradi. Agar kerak bo'lsa, Sandoun va Xant sinfidagi kemalar offshor patrul kemalari rolini olishi mumkin. [78]

Dengiz patrul kemalari (OPV) tahriri

Daryo sinfidagi 5 ta Batch 2 Daryo sinfidagi dengiz patrul kemalari 2018 yildan 2021 yilgacha xizmatga kirdi. Ularda Merlinga mos keladigan parvoz kemalari mavjud.

2019 yil dekabr oyida o'zgartirilgan "Datch 1" daryo sinfidagi kemasi, HMS Klayd, "Batch 2" HMS bilan, ishdan bo'shatildi To'rtinchi Folklend orollari patrul kemasi vazifasini o'z zimmasiga oldi. [79] [80]

Okean tadqiqot kemalari Edit

HMS Himoyachi Britaniya Antarktida tadqiqotini (BAS) qo'llab -quvvatlash bo'yicha millatning topshirig'ini bajaradigan maxsus Antarktida patrul kemasi. [81] HMS Skot Bu okean tadqiqot kemasi va 13500 tonnalik Dengiz flotining eng katta kemalaridan biridir. Qirollik dengiz flotining boshqa tadqiqot kemalari-bu ko'p funktsiyali ikkita kema Eko sinf, 2002 va 2003 yillarda xizmatga kirgan. 2018 yil holatiga ko'ra, yangi ishga tushirilgan HMS Magpie shuningdek, dengizda tadqiqot vazifalarini bajaradi. [82]

Qirollik flotining yordamchi tahriri

Dengiz flotining yirik flot bo'linmalari Qirollik flotining yordamchi tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlanadi, u o'zining operatsion kemasida uchta amfibiya transport portiga ega. Ular Bay-sinf qo'nish kemalari sifatida tanilgan, ulardan to'rttasi 2006–2007 yillarda ishga tushirilgan, lekin 2011 yilda Avstraliya Qirollik dengiz flotiga sotilgan. [83] 2006 yil noyabr oyida Birinchi dengiz lord-admirali ser Jonathon Band Qirollik flotining yordamchi kemalari "qirollik harbiy -dengiz kuchlarining jangovar qobiliyatini yuksalishi" sifatida. [84]

Suv osti kemalari xizmati tahrirlash

Suv osti kemalari xizmati - dengiz flotining dengiz osti kemasi. Ba'zan uni "deb atashadi"Ovozsiz xizmat", [85] chunki suv osti kemalari odatda aniqlanmagan holda ishlashi kerak. 1901 yilda tashkil etilgan xizmat 1982 yilda Folklend urushi paytida HMS paydo bo'lganida tarixga kirgan. G'olib birinchi yadroviy suv osti kemasi-ARA kemasini cho'ktirdi General Belgrano. Bugungi kunda Qirollik dengiz flotining barcha suv osti kemalari atom energiyasi bilan ishlaydi. [86]

Balistik raketa suv osti kemalari (SSBN)

Qirollik dengiz floti to'rttasini boshqaradi Avangard-Buyuk Britaniyaning "Dengizda uzluksiz to'xtatish" (CASD) operatsiyasini o'tkazish uchun 16000 tonnagacha yuk tashadigan va Trident II raketalari (yadroviy qurol bilan qurollangan) va og'ir vaznli Spearfish torpedalari bilan jihozlangan ballistik raketali suv osti kemalari. Buyuk Britaniya hukumati ushbu suv osti kemalarini to'rtta yangi kemaga almashtirish majburiyatini oldi Qo'rqqan-"2030 -yillarning boshlarida" yadroviy ballistik raketali suv osti kemalari flotini va yadroviy qurolni ishga tushirish qobiliyatini saqlab qolish uchun xizmatga kiradigan sinf suv osti kemalari. [87] [88]

Filo suv osti kemalari (SSN) tahrirlash

Hozirda ettita suv osti kemasi xizmat ko'rsatmoqda, uchtasi Trafalgar sinf va to'rt Aqlli sinf Yana uchta Aqlli-sinf floti suv osti kemalari oxir -oqibat qolganini almashtiradi Trafalgar-sinfli qayiqlar. [89]

The Trafalgar suv osti suvlari Tomahawk raketalari va nayzali baliq torpedalari bilan qurollanganida, taxminan 5300 tonna yuk tashiladi. The Aqlli 7400 tonnalik [90] sinf ancha katta va Tomahawk raketalari va nayzali baliq torpedalarini ko'proq tashiydi. HMS Jasur oxirgi edi Aqlli-foydalanishga topshiriladigan sinfli qayiq. [91]

Havo qo'li flotini tahrirlash

Fleet Air Arm (FAA) - dengiz samolyotlarining ishlashi uchun mas'ul bo'lgan Qirollik flotining bo'linmasi bo'lib, u 1912 yilga va Qirollik uchish korpusining shakllanishiga borib taqaladi. Fleet Air Arm hozirda AW-101 Merlin HC4 (3 ta qo'mondonlik brigadasini qo'llab-quvvatlaydi) boshqaradi, chunki qo'mondonlik vertolyoti AW-159 Wildcat HM2 AW101 Merlin HM2 ni suv osti kemalariga qarshi va F-35B Lightning II-ni majbur qiladi. tashuvchining zarbasi roli. [92]

Uchuvchilar, RAF Shawbury shahridagi 1 -sonli uchish o'quv maktabi (1 FTS) [93] ostida aylanadigan qanotli xizmat poezdi uchun mo'ljallangan. [94]

Qirol dengiz piyodalari tahriri

Qirollik dengiz piyodalari - qirolicha hukumatining chet eldagi harbiy va diplomatik maqsadlarini qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun qisqa vaqt ichida joylasha oladigan, qo'mondonlarning amfibiya, ixtisoslashtirilgan engil piyoda qo'shinlari. [95] Qirollik dengiz piyodalari juda harakatlanuvchi yengil piyoda brigadasi (3 ta qo'mondonlik brigadasi) va 7 ta qo'mondonlik bo'linmalariga [96], shu jumladan qirollik dengiz piyoda hujumchilar guruhi, 43 qo'mondonlik flotini himoya qilish guruhi va maxsus kuchlarga kompaniyaning majburiyatlarini o'z ichiga oladi. Qo'llab -quvvatlash guruhi. Korpus har qanday muhitda va iqlim sharoitida ishlaydi, lekin maxsus tajriba va tayyorgarlik amfibiya urushi, Arktika urushi, tog 'urushi, ekspeditsion urush va Buyuk Britaniyaning Tezkor reaktsiya kuchlariga sodiqlik uchun sarflanadi. Qirollik dengiz piyodalari, shuningdek, Buyuk Britaniya maxsus kuchlariga Qirollik dengiz flotining qo'shgan maxsus qayiq xizmati (SBS) xodimlarining asosiy manbai hisoblanadi. [97]

Korpus tarkibiga Qirollik dengiz flotining musiqiy qanoti - Royal Marines Band Service kiradi.

Qirollik dengiz piyodalari bir qancha urushlarda harakat qilganlar, ular ko'pincha Britaniya armiyasi bilan birga yetti yillik urush, Napoleon urushlari, Qrim urushi, Birinchi jahon urushi va Ikkinchi jahon urushlarida qatnashgan. So'nggi paytlarda Korpus Folklend urushi, Ko'rfaz ko'rfazi, Bosniya urushi, Kosovo urushi, Syerra -Leone fuqarolar urushi, Iroq urushi va Afg'onistondagi urush kabi ekspeditsion jangovar rollarda joylashtirildi. Qirollik dengiz piyodalari ittifoqchi dengiz kuchlari bilan, xususan, Qo'shma Shtatlar Dengiz Korpusi [98] va Niderlandiya Dengiz Korpusi/Korpus Mariniyerlari bilan xalqaro aloqalarga ega. [99]

Qirollik floti hozirda Buyuk Britaniyaning uchta yirik dengiz porti bazasidan foydalanadi, ularning har biri xizmat ko'rsatishga tayyor bo'lgan o'z kemalari va qayiqlari flotiliyasi, shuningdek, ikkita dengiz havo stantsiyasi va Bahraynda qo'llab -quvvatlash bazasi:

Buyuk Britaniyadagi bazalar tahrirlash

    (HMS Dreyk) - Bu hozirda G'arbiy Evropadagi eng yirik operatsion dengiz bazasi. Devonport floti RNning ikkita amfibiya hujum kemasidan (HM Ships) iborat Albion va Qo'rg'on), va 23 turdagi frigatalar parkining yarmi. Devonport shuningdek, RN suv osti kemalari xizmatining bir qismini, shu jumladan ikkita xizmatni o'z ichiga oladi Trafalgar-sinf osti kemalari. [100]
    (HMS Nelson) - Bu bo'lajak qirolicha Yelizaveta toifasidagi superkariyerlarning vatani. Portsmut, shuningdek, 45 -toifali "Daring Class Destroyer" va 23 -toifali mo''tadil frigatlar va baliqchilikni himoya qilish otryadlarining uyidir. [101] (HMS Neptun) - Bu Markaziy Shotlandiyada, Klayd daryosi bo'yida joylashgan. Faslane Buyuk Britaniyaning yadroviy qurollarining uyi sifatida tanilgan, chunki u flotni saqlab turadi Avangard-ballistik ballistik raketa (SSBN) suv osti kemalari, shuningdek floti Aqlli-sinf floti (SSN) suv osti kemalari. 2020 yilga kelib, Faslane Qirollik dengiz flotining barcha suv osti kemalari va shu tariqa RN suv osti kemalari xizmatining uyiga aylanadi. Natijada, Faslaneda 43 ta qo'mondonlik (flotni himoya qilish guruhi) bazani qo'riqlash uchun, shuningdek, Coulportdagi qirollik harbiy -dengiz qurollari ombori joylashgan. Bundan tashqari, Faslane shahrida Archer sinf patrul kemalari parkini boshqaradigan Faslane Patrol Boat Squadron (FPBS) ham joylashgan. [102] [103]
    (HMS Seahawk)-Bu Mk2 Merlinsning uyi bo'lib, asosan suv osti kemalariga qarshi urush (ASW) va Havodan erta ogohlantirish (EAW) o'tkazish bilan shug'ullanadi. Culdrose ayni paytda Evropadagi eng katta vertolyot bazasi hisoblanadi [105]

Xorijdagi bazalar Tartibga solish

    (Bahrayn) - Kipion operatsiyasida joylashtirilgan kemalar uchun uy porti va Qirollik dengiz flotining Fors ko'rfazi, Qizil dengiz va Hind okeanidagi operatsiyalari markazi vazifasini bajaradi. [106] U erda joylashgan kemalarga 9 -minaga qarshi choralar eskadroni [107] RFA kiradi Kardigan ko'rfazi va HMS Montrose. [108] (Ummon) - strategik Yaqin Sharqda, lekin Fors ko'rfazi tashqarisida joylashgan logistika yordami. [109] (Singapur) - Singapur HMNB qoldig'i, Osiyo -Tinch okeani qirollik flotining kemalarini ta'mirlaydi va etkazib beradi. [110] - Gibraltarda joylashgan Qirollik dengiz flotining sobiq iskala zavodi. [111] [112]

Qirollik dengiz flotining hozirgi roli Britaniya maqsadlarini qo'llab -quvvatlash maqsadida harbiy ta'sir ko'rsatish, diplomatik faoliyat va boshqa tadbirlar orqali Buyuk Britaniya hukumatining tashqi va mudofaa siyosatini amalga oshirish orqali Britaniya ichki va tashqi manfaatlarini himoya qilishdan iborat. Qirollik floti, shuningdek, Britaniyaning NATOga qo'shgan hissasining asosiy elementi bo'lib, istalgan vaqtda NATO vazifalariga bir qancha aktivlarni ajratadi. [113] Bu maqsadlar bir qator asosiy imkoniyatlar orqali amalga oshiriladi: [114]

  • Siyosati orqali Buyuk Britaniyaning yadroviy jilovini ushlab turish Dengiz to'sqinligida doimiy
  • Dengiz floti havo qurollari bilan ikkita o'rta ko'lamli dengiz vazifa guruhini ta'minlash
  • Buyuk Britaniyaning qo'mondonlik kuchlarini etkazib berish
  • Birlashgan vertolyotlar qo'mondonligiga aktivlarning hissasi
  • Doimiy patrul majburiyatlarini bajarish
  • Birlashgan Qirollik va ittifoqchi majburiyatlarni mina hisoblagichlari bilan o'lchash qobiliyatini ta'minlash
  • Dunyo bo'ylab tarqatiladigan gidrografik va meteorologik xizmatlarni taqdim etish
  • Britaniya va Evropa Ittifoqining eksklyuziv iqtisodiy zonasini himoya qilish

Joriy tarqatishlarni tahrirlash

Qirollik dengiz floti hozirda dunyoning turli joylarida, shu jumladan Qirollik dengiz flotining ba'zi doimiy joylashuvlarida joylashtirilgan. Bularga bir nechta uy vazifalari, shuningdek, chet elda joylashtirish kiradi. Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari O'rta er dengizida NATOning minalar qarshi choralari va NATO 2 -dengiz guruhi, jumladan Shimoliy va Janubiy Atlantikada, RN kemalari patrullik qilmoqda. Har doim joylashtirishda Folklend orollari patrul kemasi bor, hozirda HMS To'rtinchi. [115]

Qirollik dengiz floti jangovar bo'lmagan evakuatsiya operatsiyalari, tabiiy ofatlar oqibatlarini bartaraf etish kabi bir qator mudofaa tadbirlari bo'yicha qisqa muddatli vazifalarga global miqyosda javob berishga tayyor bo'lgan Response Force Task Group (2010 yilgi Mudofaa va Xavfsizlik Xavfsizligi Sharhi mahsuloti) ni boshqaradi. , gumanitar yordam yoki amfibiya operatsiyalari. 2011 yilda topshiriq guruhining birinchi joylashuvi "COUGAR 11" nomi ostida bo'lib o'tdi, ular O'rta er dengizi orqali tranzit qilishdi, u erda ko'p millatli amfibiya mashg'ulotlarida ishtirok etishdi va Hind okeanida keyingi mashg'ulotlar uchun Suvaysh kanali orqali sharqqa ketishdi. [116] [117]

Fors ko'rfazida RN mintaqani barqarorlashtirish bo'yicha milliy va koalitsiya harakatlarini qo'llab -quvvatlash majburiyatlarini oladi. 1980 yilda boshlangan Armilla Patrol, dengiz flotining Fors ko'rfazi mintaqasidagi asosiy majburiyatidir. Qirollik dengiz floti koalitsiya operatsiyalarini qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun ko'rfazdagi birlashgan dengiz kuchlariga ham hissa qo'shadi. [118] Buyuk Britaniyaning Dengiz komponentlari qo'mondoni, Buyuk qirolining Fors ko'rfazi va uning atrofidagi suvlardagi barcha harbiy kemalari nazoratchisi, shuningdek, Birlashgan dengiz kuchlari qo'mondoni o'rinbosari. [119] Qirollik harbiy -dengiz kuchlari Iroqning yangi dengiz flotini o'qitish va mamlakatda harbiy harakatlar to'xtatilganidan keyin Iroqning neft terminallarini ta'minlash uchun javobgardir. Qirollik floti kapitani boshchiligidagi Iroq o'quv va maslahat missiyasi (Umm Qasr) oldingi vazifani bajargan, ikkinchisi uchun qirollik dengiz flotining qo'mondoni Iroq dengizchilik qo'mondoni vazifasini bajargan. [120] [121]

Qirollik dengiz floti NATO tuzilmalarini qo'llab -quvvatlaydi va NATOning javob kuchlari tarkibida o'z kuchlarini saqlaydi. RN, shuningdek, besh davlatning Mudofaa Tartibi davlatlarini qo'llab-quvvatlash majburiyatini oladi va vaqti-vaqti bilan Uzoq Sharqqa joylashadi. [122] Bu joylashtirish odatda alohida ishlaydigan frigat va tadqiqot kemasidan iborat. Hind okeanida Evropa Ittifoqining qaroqchilikka qarshi operatsiyasi bo'lgan Atalanta operatsiyasiga doimiy ravishda Northwood shtab-kvartirasida qirollik dengiz floti yoki qirol dengiz piyodalari katta qo'mondoni rahbarlik qiladi va flot kemalarga o'z hissasini qo'shadi. [123]

2015 yildan boshlab Qirollik dengiz floti Buyuk Britaniyaning Carrier Strike Group (UKCSG) guruhini 2011 yilda HMS nafaqaga chiqqanligi sababli tarqatib yuborilganidan keyin qayta tuzdi. Ark Royal va Harrier GR9s. [124] [125] Qirolicha YelizavetaKlassli samolyot tashuvchilar, bu tashuvchining quvvatini proektsiyalashtirishni osonlashtirish maqsadida, har xil eskortlar va qo'llab-quvvatlovchi kemalar tomonidan qo'llab-quvvatlanadigan, bu shakllanishning markaziy qismini tashkil qiladi. [126] UKCSG birinchi marta 2020 yil oktyabr oyida 2021 yilda o'zining birinchi operativ joylashuvi uchun mashg'ulotlar doirasida dengizda yig'ilgan. [71]

Qirollik flotining titulli boshlig'i - lord oliy admiral, bu lavozim Edinburg gersogi tomonidan 2011 yildan 2021 yilda vafotigacha bo'lgan va shu vaqtgacha bo'sh qolgan. Bu lavozimni 1964 yildan 2011 yilgacha qirolicha Yelizaveta II egallagan [127] Suveren Britaniya Qurolli Kuchlarining bosh qo'mondoni. [128] The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom. The Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence, which directs the Navy Board, a sub-committee of the Admiralty Board comprising only naval officers and Ministry of Defence (MOD) civil servants. These are all based in MOD Main Building in London, where the First Sea Lord, also known as the Chief of the Naval Staff, is supported by the Naval Staff Department. [129]

Tashkilotni tahrirlash

The Fleet Commander has responsibility for the provision of ships, submarines and aircraft ready for any operations that the Government requires. Fleet Commander exercises his authority through the Navy Command Headquarters, based at HMS Excellent in Portsmouth. An operational headquarters, the Northwood Headquarters, at Northwood, London, is co-located with the Permanent Joint Headquarters of the United Kingdom's armed forces, and a NATO Regional Command, Allied Maritime Command. [130]

The Royal Navy was the first of the three armed forces to combine the personnel and training command, under the Principal Personnel Officer, with the operational and policy command, combining the Headquarters of the Commander-in-Chief, Fleet and Naval Home Command into a single organisation, Fleet Command, in 2005 and becoming Navy Command in 2008. Within the combined command, the Second Sea Lord continues to act as the Principal Personnel Officer. [131] Previously, Flag Officer Sea Training was part pf the list of top senior appointments in Navy Command, however, as part of the Navy Command Transformation Programme, the post has reduced from Rear-Admiral to Commodore, renamed as Commander Fleet Operational Sea Training. [132]

The Naval Command senior appointments are: [133] [134]

Reyting Name Lavozim
Professional Head of the Royal Navy
Admiral Tony Radakin First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff
Fleet Commander
Vitse -admiral Jerry Kyd Fleet Commander
Rear Admiral Simon Asquith Commander Operations
Rear Admiral Michael Utley Commander United Kingdom Strike Force
Rear Admiral Martin Connell Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Aviation & Carrier Strike) and Director Force Generation [135]
General -leytenant Robert Magowan Commander UK Amphibious Forces
Rear Admiral TBA Flag Officer Scotland and Northern Ireland & Rear Admiral Submarines
Second Sea Lord & Deputy Chief of Naval Staff
Vitse -admiral Nicholas Hine Second Sea Lord & Deputy Chief of Naval Staff
Rear Admiral Iain Lower Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Policy)
Rear Admiral Andrew Burns Assistant Chief of the Naval Staff (Capability) and Director Develop
Rear Admiral Philip Hally Director People and Training / Naval Secretary
The Venerable Martyn Gough Chaplain of the Fleet

Intelligence support to fleet operations is provided by intelligence sections at the various headquarters and from MOD Defence Intelligence, renamed from the Defence Intelligence Staff in early 2010. [136]

Joylarni tahrirlash

The Royal Navy currently operates from three bases in the United Kingdom where commissioned ships are based Portsmouth, Clyde and Devonport, Plymouth—Devonport is the largest operational naval base in the UK and Western Europe. [137] Each base hosts a flotilla command under a commodore, or, in the case of Clyde, a captain, responsible for the provision of operational capability using the ships and submarines within the flotilla. 3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines is similarly commanded by a brigadier and based in Plymouth. [138]

Historically, the Royal Navy maintained Royal Navy Dockyards around the world. [139] Dockyards of the Royal Navy are harbours where ships are overhauled and refitted. Only four are operating today at Devonport, Faslane, Rosyth and at Portsmouth. [140] A Naval Base Review was undertaken in 2006 and early 2007, the outcome being announced by Secretary of State for Defence, Des Browne, confirming that all would remain however some reductions in manpower were anticipated. [141]

The academy where initial training for future Royal Navy officers takes place is Britannia Royal Naval College, located on a hill overlooking Dartmouth, Devon. Basic training for future ratings takes place at HMS Rali at Torpoint, Cornwall, close to HMNB Devonport. [142]

Significant numbers of naval personnel are employed within the Ministry of Defence, Defence Equipment and Support and on exchange with the Army and Royal Air Force. Small numbers are also on exchange within other government departments and with allied fleets, such as the United States Navy. The navy also posts personnel in small units around the world to support ongoing operations and maintain standing commitments. Nineteen personnel are stationed in Gibraltar to support the small Gibraltar Squadron, the RN's only permanent overseas squadron. Some personnel are also based at East Cove Military Port and RAF Mount Pleasant in the Falkland Islands to support APT(S). Small numbers of personnel are based in Diego Garcia (Naval Party 1002), Miami (NP 1011 – AUTEC), Singapore (NP 1022), Dubai (NP 1023) and elsewhere. [143]

On 6 December 2014, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office announced it would expand the UK's naval facilities in Bahrain to support larger Royal Navy ships deployed to the Persian Gulf. Once complete, it will be the UK's first permanent military base located East of Suez since it withdrew from the region in 1971. The base will reportedly be large enough to accommodate Type 45 destroyers and Qirolicha Yelizaveta-class aircraft carriers. [144] [145] [146]

Of the Navy Edit

The navy was referred to as the "Navy Royal" at the time of its founding in 1546, and this title remained in use into the Stuart period. During the interregnum, the commonwealth under Oliver Cromwell replaced many historical names and titles, with the fleet then referred to as the "Commonwealth Navy". The navy was renamed once again after the restoration in 1660 to the present title. [147]

Today, the navy of the United Kingdom is commonly referred to as the "Royal Navy" both in the United Kingdom and other countries. Navies of other Commonwealth countries where the British monarch is also head of state include their national name, e.g. Royal Australian Navy. Some navies of other monarchies, such as the Koninklijke Marine (Royal Netherlands Navy) and Kungliga Flottan (Royal Swedish Navy), are also called "Royal Navy" in their own language. The Danish Navy uses the term "Royal" incorporated in its official name (Royal Danish Navy), but only "Flåden" (Navy) in everyday speech. [148] The French Navy, despite France being a republic since 1870, is often nicknamed "La Royale" (literally: The Royal). [149]

Of ships Edit

Royal Navy ships in commission are prefixed since 1789 with Her Majesty's Ship (His Majesty's Ship), abbreviated to "HMS" for example, HMS Beagle. Submarines are styled HM Submarine, also abbreviated "HMS". Names are allocated to ships and submarines by a naming committee within the MOD and given by class, with the names of ships within a class often being thematic (for example, the Type 23s are named after British dukes) or traditional (for example, the Yengilmas-class aircraft carriers all carry the names of famous historic ships). Names are frequently re-used, offering a new ship the rich heritage, battle honours and traditions of her predecessors. Often, a particular vessel class will be named after the first ship of that type to be built. As well as a name, each ship and submarine of the Royal Navy and the Royal Fleet Auxiliary is given a pennant number which in part denotes its role. For example, the destroyer HMS Jasorat (D32) displays the pennant number 'D32'. [150]

The Royal Navy ranks, rates and insignia form part of the uniform of the Royal Navy. The Royal Navy uniform is the pattern on which many of the uniforms of the other national navies of the world are based (e.g. Ranks and insignia of NATO navies officers, Uniforms of the United States Navy, Uniforms of the Royal Canadian Navy, French Naval Uniforms). [151]

Royal Navy officer rank insignia
NATO Code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D)
Birlashgan Qirollik Epaulette Rank Insignia (View)
Rank Title: Admiral of the Fleet Admiral Vice admiral Rear admiral Commodore Kapitan Qo'mondon Lieutenant commander Lieutenant Sub-Lieutenant Midshipman Officer Cadet
Qisqartma: Adm. of the Fleet [nb 5] Adm VAdm RAdm Cdre Capt Cdr Lt Cdr Lt Sub Lt / SLt Mid OK
Royal Navy other rank insignia
NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-2
Birlashgan Qirollik Rank Insignia (View)
Rank Title: Warrant Officer 1 Warrant Officer 2 Bosh kichik ofitser Petty Officer Leading Rating Able Rating
Qisqartma: WO1 WO2 [nb 6] CPO PO LH AB

1 Rank in abeyance – routine appointments no longer made to this rank, though honorary awards of this rank are occasionally made to senior members of the Royal family and prominent former First Sea Lords.

Traditions Edit

The Royal Navy has several formal customs and traditions including the use of ensigns and ships badges. Royal Navy ships have several ensigns used when under way and when in port. Commissioned ships and submarines wear the White Ensign at the stern whilst alongside during daylight hours and at the main-mast whilst under way. When alongside, the Union Jack is flown from the jackstaff at the bow, and can only be flown under way either to signal a court-martial is in progress or to indicate the presence of an admiral of the fleet on-board (including the Lord High Admiral or the monarch). [152]

The Fleet Review is an irregular tradition of assembling the fleet before the monarch. The first review on record was held in 1400, and the most recent review as of 2009 [update] was held on 28 June 2005 to mark the bi-centenary of the Battle of Trafalgar 167 ships from many different nations attended with the Royal Navy supplying 67. [153]

"Jackspeak" Edit

There are several less formal traditions including service nicknames and Naval slang, known as "Jackspeak". [154] The nicknames include "The Andrew" (of uncertain origin, possibly after a zealous press ganger) [155] [156] and "The Senior Service". [157] [158] British sailors are referred to as "Jack" (or "Jenny"), or more widely as "Matelots". Royal Marines are fondly known as "Bootnecks" or often just as "Royals". A compendium of Naval slang was brought together by Commander A. Covey-Crump and his name has in itself become the subject of Naval slang Covey Crump. [157] A game traditionally played by the Navy is the four-player board game known as "Uckers". This is similar to Ludo and it is regarded as easy to learn, but difficult to play well. [159]

The Royal Navy sponsors or supports three youth organisations:

    – consisting of Royal Naval Volunteer Cadet Corps and Royal Marines Volunteer Cadet Corps, the VCC was the first youth organisation officially supported or sponsored by the Admiralty in 1901. [160] – in schools, specifically the Royal Navy Section and the Royal Marines Section. [161] – supporting teenagers who are interested in naval matters, consisting of the Sea Cadets and the Royal Marines Cadets. [162]

The above organisations are the responsibility of the CUY branch of Commander Core Training and Recruiting (COMCORE) who reports to Flag Officer Sea Training (FOST). [163]

The Royal Navy of the 18th century is depicted in many novels and several films dramatising the voyage and mutiny on the Bounty. [164] The Royal Navy's Napoleonic campaigns of the early 19th century are also a popular subject of historical novels. Some of the best-known are Patrick O'Brian's Aubrey-Maturin series [165] and C. S. Forester's Horatio Hornblower chronicles. [166]

The Navy can also be seen in numerous films. The fictional spy James Bond is a commander in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (RNVR). [167] The Royal Navy is featured in The Spy Who Loved Me, when a nuclear ballistic-missile submarine is stolen, [168] and in Tomorrow Never Dies when a media baron sinks a Royal Navy warship in an attempt to trigger a war between the UK and People's Republic of China. [169] Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World was based on Patrick O'Brian's Aubrey-Maturin series. [170] The Pirates of the Caribbean series of films also includes the Navy as the force pursuing the eponymous pirates. [171] Noël Coward directed and starred in his own film In Which We Serve, which tells the story of the crew of the fictional HMS Torrin Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida. It was intended as a propaganda film and was released in 1942. Coward starred as the ship's captain, with supporting roles from John Mills and Richard Attenborough. [172]

C. S. Forester's Hornblower novels have been adapted for television. [173] The Royal Navy was the subject of an acclaimed 1970s BBC television drama series, Warship, [174] and of a five-part documentary, Shipmates, that followed the workings of the Royal Navy day to day. [175]

Television documentaries about the Royal Navy include: Empire of the Seas: How the Navy Forged the Modern World, a four-part documentary depicting Britain's rise as a naval superpower, up until the First World War [176] Sailor, about life on the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal [177] and Submarine, about the submarine captains' training course, 'The Perisher'. [178] There have also been Channel 5 documentaries such as Royal Navy Submarine Mission, following a nuclear-powered fleet submarine. [179]

The popular BBC radio comedy series The Navy Lark featured a fictitious warship ("HMS Troutbridge") and ran from 1959 to 1977. [180]


Women’s Royal Naval Service

Enlisting Poster WRENSThe Women’s Royal Naval Service (WRNS) was the first branch in the Armed Forces and Royal Navy made up solely of women and is officially known as the Wrens. The Wrens was first formed during the First World War in 1917 and standard jobs included cook, clerk, weapons analyst and range assessor. By the end of the First World War the Wrens had 5,500 members, of which 500 were officers. 2,000 of its members were transferred to the Royal Air Force (RAF). The Wrens were disbanded in 1919 after the end of the First World War.

Director Dame Katharine Furse joined the Voluntary Aid Detachment (VAD) in 1909. During the First World War she was chosen to be the head of the first VAD to be sent to France. In 1917 Katharine became the Director of the then, newly formed, Women’s Royal Naval Service. Katharine was awarded three service medals and became a Dame.
The Wrens were then revived during the Second World War in 1939 and their list of allowable activities included flying transport planes. Their recruiting slogans was ‘Join the Wrens – free a man for the fleet.’ At its peak the Women’s Royal Naval Services had 75,000 members, unfortunately 100 of those died during the First World War.

By 1993 the Wrens had been integrated into the Royal Navy and were allowed to serve on board a navy vessel as a full member of the crew. In October 1990, HMS Brilliant was the first shop to allow a woman to officially serve on an operational warship. Those that were nurses joined the Queen Alexandra’s Royal Naval Nursing Service (QARNNS).

Many of their jobs were dangerous and included the loading of torpedoes onto submarines and helping to plot the battle progress in operation rooms. They were also drafted into Bletchley Park where they were employed in supporting roles helping the Enigma code breakers. During the Second World War 303 WRENS were killed.

The Wrens uniform consisted of a double-breasted jacket and skirt, with a shirt and tie. The Wrens wore the same rank insignia as their male equivalents, but their lettering was blue instead of gold. Their sleeve curls were also a diamond shape instead of the usual circle.
Today, women in the Royal Navy serve in many roles. Some as pilots, air crew personnel and commanding officers of ships. Commander Sue Moore was the first woman to command a squadron of minor war vessels. Women are allowed to serve in the Royal Marines but not as RM Commandos.


Remembering The History Of The Women’s Royal Indian Naval Service (WRINS)

The W.R.I.N.S or the Women’s Royal Indian Naval Service edi formally set up in January 1944 as the naval wing of the Women’s Auxiliary Corps (India) in response to the increasing demand for labour to fill up “shore jobs” during the Second World War. Nearly three decades after the formation of their counterpart, the Women’s Royal Naval Service or the WRENS, the WRINS became a symbol of a new India, subverting gender norms and laying the steppingstone for a new, independent India and an emancipated Indian woman.

Though neither the WRINS nor the WRENS were allowed to go to sea, they became instrumental in naval life and played a vital role in defeating the enemy. They took up clerical roles, decoded secret messages, were trained in gunnery tactics, maintained equipment, and more. Through confidence, a sense of duty, and pride of service, these women were able to make a lasting difference, directly confronting issues that affect us today—those of caste, class, and gender inequality.

Though neither the WRINS nor the WRENS were allowed to go to sea, they became instrumental in naval life and played a vital role in defeating the enemy. They took up clerical roles, decoded secret messages, were trained in gunnery tactics, maintained equipment, and more. Through confidence, a sense of duty, and pride of service, these women were able to make a lasting difference, directly confronting issues that affect us today—those of caste, class, and gender inequality.

How Women Came to Serve

Around 1917, during the First World War, The Women’s Royal Naval Service(WRNS/Wrens) was created in response to the desperate need for volunteers to fill up “shore jobs” such as motor drivers, cooks, clerks, etc., so that more men would be able to join the war efforts at sea. Previously involved in only medical tasks, these women became an inalienable part of the British war efforts.

Subsequently, during the Second World War, when the threat of the Japanese invasion of India began looming large, the British formed the Women’s Auxiliary Corps (India) or the W.A.C. in 1942 for women to contribute to the war cause. It was only in 1944 that the Women’s Royal Indian Naval Service (W.R.I.N.S.) was formed as the naval wing of the W.A.C.

The W.A.C. and the WRINS were the first and only time women served in the Indian Armed Forces in non-medical roles until 1992.

Wrins arranging models of ships, escorts and attackers in conformity with a tactical problem set
Source: The National Museum of the Royal Navy & The Better India Conducting maintenance work on a 40mm Bofors gun
Source: The National Museum of the Royal Navy

Ishga qabul qilish

Around 1944, newly promoted Chief Officer, Margaret Cooper, began conducting an intensive campaign in British India to recruit women to the WRINS. Her campaign was largely successful with middle and upper-class Indian women who were excited by the prospect of serving in the Army and aiding war efforts.

Due to the lack of research and testimonies on the WRINS, there have been many misconceptions regarding the composition of the wing. Many incorrectly believe that the WRINS were either British or ‘Anglo-Indian’ however, starting with 41 officers and 204 WRINS in January 1944, the strength of the WRINS at the end of 1945 was 242 officers and 746 WRINS. Of the women employed by the WRINS in 1945, nearly two-thirds were Indian nationals. The recruits, who were mostly college graduates and school teachers, lived in military-style hostels run by women officers and trained for a multitude of “shore jobs.”

The WRINS took part in discussions, debates, and general knowledge tests which proved invaluable in developing the skills and broadening the future outlook of Indian women. They were assigned specialist tasks such as top-secret decoding, training in gunnery tactics, and much more. Writing in 1945, Chief Officer Margaret Cooper claimed that, ‘…for the Indian girls, it was the experience of a lifetime and broadened their outlook considerably.’ The lack of Indian testimonies in British records, however, make it difficult to verify Cooper’s claims. Regardless, it is interesting to note that though the WRINS and WRENS came from drastically different backgrounds and upbringings, their differences in opinion were forgotten in lieu of helping the Navy in its time of need.

Composition of W.R.I.N.S Officers
From From “Wrins and How They Served” Pg. 12 via Valentina Vitali (2019)

Symbols of New India

Around 1945, Second Officer Kalyani Sen was issued an invitation by Britain’s Admiralty to visit the United Kingdom for a comparative study of training and administration in the WRNS. She was the first Indian service woman to visit the United Kingdom. Sen and her colleagues were aware of the controversial nature of the job but they chose to contribute to the effort out of a sense of duty regardless of the prejudices. In an interview with the Daily Herald, Sen said, “In India, there is still a big prejudice against women working with men. But the women are so keen to get into the Services that they are breaking it down.” During her visit, a picture of Sen in a white shirt and naval jacket with a gold braid over her sari was published in many major Indian publications. The picture began to be hailed as a symbol of “new India”—one where women unapologetically existed in the workplace alongside their male counterparts.

A Wrin interacting with her Wren Counterparts
Manba: The National Museum of the Royal Navy & The Better India

In the essay Women and nation revisited,Partha Chatterjee addresses the concept of the ‘new woman’ that arose as a consequence of the colonial enterprise and the nationalist project. The nationalist project aimed to create a ‘modern woman’ that was an object of aspiration for women themselves. While nationalism did assert the existence and qiymat of tradition, it made space for a reformed understanding of cultural practices that conformed to the spaces of the modern world. Much like the sari and shirt attire of the WRINS, the ‘new Indian woman’ began to embody a link to both ‘modern ideology while maintaining the desire to preserve a culture. The spiritual freedom and self-emancipation of women became closely linked with the nationalist project. Women like the WRINS, who challenged prejudices, came to embody a revolutionary liberty that redefined the archetype of the post-colonial Indian woman. After leaving the WRINS, they were regarded as being a part of a progressive post-war India and promised a place of privilege.

While women from higher castes were able to fit into these redefined spaces due to their relative privilege, women from lower castes did not play a defining role. The ‘new Indian woman’ was expected to be educated, she was to acquire refined tastes, and eventually represent India in the global field but women from lower castes did not have the same opportunities to be educated and acquire ‘refined tastes’.

While women from higher castes were able to fit into these redefined spaces due to their relative privilege, women from lower castes did not play a defining role. The ‘new Indian woman’ was expected to be educated, she was to acquire refined tastes, and eventually represent India in the global field but women from lower castes did not have the same opportunities to be educated and acquire ‘refined tastes’.

Then vs. Now

In 1992, the Indian Army began inducting women officers in non-medical roles. In December 2018, the IAF had 13.09% women, the Navy had 6%, and the Army had 3.80%. On 17 February 2020, the Supreme Court of India said that women officers in Indian Army can get command positions at par with their male counterparts. While this is a step in the right direction in terms of inclusivity and egalitarianism in the field, as feminists it is important to recognise that the military and army have often been tools used by the government to further their own agenda, inciting war and looking past the loss of lives in the quest for power. Although such recruitment should be lauded, a war-like mentality and a hostile code of conduct should be adequately critiqued.

While the Indian Navy is moving toward a more inclusive landscape with women reaching positions such as Lieutenant-General and Vice admirals, there is a lot of work to be done to be truly inclusive. Unlike the army, which enables women to occupy command positions, the Navy is still against allowing women as sailors on warships. Women are recognised as capable soldiers and officers, but unlike the men, their capabilities are considered limited.

Though the WRINS existed for only three years, the organisation provided a plethora of opportunities for middle-class, upper caste Indian women to be exposed to a global environment and experience a diversity of opportunities. In some regard, these women were pioneers of an Indian feminist sensibility that changed the dynamic of the Indian workforce. Their defiance of prejudices allowed young women to be emancipated from cultural norms that were holding them back. The WRINS created a global recognition and realisation of the capabilities of the Indian woman. In their unapologetic existence, they led a subtle revolution.

Manbalar

Featured Image Source: The Better India
Source: Feminism in India


Women's Royal Naval Service

The Women's Royal Naval Service (WRNS) was first founded in 1917 during World War One. It was disbanded at the end of the war but reformed in 1939 when war seemed imminent. There were only a limited number of places available for women so places were usually given to people with a famiiy contact. The Director of the WRNS was Vera Laughton Mathews. Those who volunteered in the WRNS were nicknamed ‘Wrens’.

In December 1941 the government passed the National Service Act which allowed the conscription of women into war work or the armed forces. Women could choose to join the WRNS or its naval or air force equivalents, the ATS and the WAAF.

At the start of the war, work in the WRNS was limited to clerical, driving and domestic work. Recruitment posters for the WRNS clearly stated that the role of the WRNS was ‘to free a man for the fleet”.

Boarding Officers With the Naval Control Service-the work of the Women's Royal Naval Service, UK, 1944

Many Wrens carried out ‘domestic’ jobs such as cooking, stewarding, and cleaning, but over time their responsibilities expanded. In fact, some naval air stations had all-female anti-aircraft gun teams and others worked as motorcycle dispatch riders.

By 1941 the shortage of manpower increased the variety of work carried out by the Wrens. They were now able to work in harbours on small vessels, although they were still prohibited from going into open water. Although the majority of Wrens served in Britain, some were posted overseas in Singapore.

At its peak in 1944, the Women’s Royal Navy Service had 74,000 serving members. 100,000 women joined in total and 303 were killed in total.

Some Wrens also worked at Bletchley Park where they worked with the Enigma code-breakers. Wrens with language skills were also drafted to stations around the coast to intercept and translate enemy signals.

Like in the WAAFs, women in the WRNS were initially met with derisory comments from men who were sceptical of their role. However, once their importance became clear such hostility eased.


Women's Royal Naval Service

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