Anastas Mikoyan

Anastas Mikoyan


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Anastas Mikoyan 1895 yil 13 -noyabrda Armanistonning Sanain shahrida edi. U ilohiyotshunoslikni o'rgangan, lekin ruhoniylikdan voz kechib, 1915 yilda bolsheviklarga qo'shilgan va Kavkazda oktyabr inqilobida qatnashgan.

Fuqarolar urushi paytida u Britaniya armiyasi tomonidan Bokuda hibsga olingan, ammo qochib Moskvaga yo'l olgan va u erda Vladimir Lenin, Iosif Stalin va boshqa bolshevik rahbarlari bilan uchrashgan.

Vladimir Lenin vafotidan keyin Mikoyan Iosif Stalinning tarafdoriga aylandi va 1923 yilda Markaziy qo'mitaga, uch yildan so'ng esa tashqi va ichki savdo xalq komissari etib tayinlandi. U G'arbdagi yutuqlardan o'rganishga tayyor edi va konserva ishlab chiqarishni joriy qildi.

1935 yilda Mikoyan Siyosiy byuroga saylandi va Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida Davlat Mudofaa Qo'mitasida yuk tashishni tashkil qilish uchun alohida mas'uliyat bilan ishladi. Mikoyan Georgiy Malenkov davrida savdo vaziri bo'lib ishlagan. Ammo u Malenkovga qarshi Nikita Xrushchevni qo'llab -quvvatladi va 1955 yil fevral oyida Sovet Ittifoqi Bosh vazirining o'rinbosari lavozimi bilan taqdirlandi.

Xrushchev hokimiyatdan ketganidan so'ng, Mikoyan Oliy Kengash Prezidiumining raisi etib tayinlandi (1964-66). Anastas Mikoyan 1978 yil 21 oktyabrda Moskvada vafot etdi.


Anastas Mikoyan

Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan (rus tilida anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan) (1895 yil 25 noyabr - 1978 yil 21 oktyabr) - bolshevik va sovet davlat arbobi, Stalin va Xrushchev davrida.

Mikoyan Armanistonning Sanaxin qishlog'ida tug'ilgan (hozirgi Alaverdi tarkibiga kiradi) va seminariyada o'qigan. Yigirma yoshida u bolsheviklar partiyasiga qo'shildi va Kavkazdagi inqilobiy harakatning etakchisiga aylandi. 1918 yilda u Bokuda interventsion ingliz qo'shinlari tomonidan hibsga olingan. U ozod qilinganidan so'ng, partiya ishini davom ettirdi, saflarda ko'tarildi.

U Stalin vafotidan keyin hokimiyat uchun kurashda Stalinni qo'llab -quvvatladi va 1923 yilda Markaziy Qo'mitaga tayinlandi. U 1926 yilda tashqi va ichki savdo Xalq Komissari bo'ldi va G'arbdan konserva ishlab chiqarish kabi g'oyalarni import qildi. 1935 yilda u Siyosiy byuroga saylandi va Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida yuk tashishni tashkil qilish uchun mas'ul edi. 1942 yilda Davlat mudofaa qo'mitasi a'zosi, 1946 yilda Vazirlar Kengashi raisi o'rinbosari bo'ldi.

U Stalin vafotidan keyin hukumatda, Malenkov davrida savdo vaziri lavozimida qoldi. U Xrushchevni Stalinning o'rnini egallash uchun kurashda qo'llab -quvvatladi va uning xizmatlarini e'tirof etib, Sovet Ittifoqi Bosh vazirining o'rinbosari etib tayinlandi, ammo 1956 yilda Xrushchev uni Vengriya inqirozini hal qila olmaganlikda ayblaganidan keyin o'z ta'sirini yo'qotdi. AQSh, Yaponiya va Meksikaga bir qancha davlat tashriflarini amalga oshirdi. 1963 yilga kelib u Xrushchevning partiya uchun javobgarlikka aylanganiga va Leonid Breshnevni hokimiyat tepasiga keltirgan to'ntarishni uyushtirganiga amin bo'ldi. . U 1963 yilda AQSh Prezidenti Kennedi dafn marosimida qatnashgan, Sovet Ittifoqi vakili.

Uning ta'siri Breshnev davrida qayta tiklandi, 1964 yildan 1965 yilgacha Oliy Kengash Prezidiumi raisi bo'lib ishladi va keyin nafaqaga chiqdi. U o'z xotiralarini 1970 yilda yozgan.

U MiG harbiy samolyotlarini ishlab chiqaruvchilardan biri Artem Ivanovich Mikoyanning ukasi edi.

Copyleft (CL) 2005 yil Wikipedia.org


Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan

Tahririyatimiz siz yuborgan narsalarni ko'rib chiqadi va maqolani qayta ko'rib chiqish kerakligini aniqlaydi.

Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan, (25 -noyabrda tug'ilgan (13 -noyabr, eski uslubda), 1895, Sanain, Armaniston - 1978 yil 21 -oktabrda vafot etgan, Moskva), sobiq bolshevik va yuqori nufuzli sovet davlat arbobi, boshqaruv davrida tashqi va ichki savdoni nazorat qilgan. Iosif Stalin va Nikita S. Xrushchev.

Mikoyan ruhoniylikdan voz kechib, 1915 yilda bolsheviklar partiyasiga qo'shildi va Kavkazdagi inqilobiy harakat boshliqlaridan biriga aylandi. 1918 yilda u Rossiya fuqarolar urushiga aralashgan ingliz qo'shinlari tomonidan hibsga olingan. Ozodlikka chiqqanidan keyin u Kommunistik partiya tashkilotiga ishga kirdi.

1920 -yillarning boshlarida hokimiyat uchun kurashda Mikoyan Stalinni qo'llab -quvvatlagani uchun 1923 yilda partiya Markaziy Qo'mitasida lavozimga ega bo'ldi. U 1926 yilda tashqi va ichki savdo bo'yicha xalq komissari etib tayinlandi va keyinchalik bu sohaga tegishli lavozimlarni egalladi. 1935 yilda u siyosiy byuroning a'zosi etib saylandi, uning savdo masalalari bo'yicha mutaxassisi bo'lib xizmat qildi. Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida Sovet Ittifoqini boshqargan Davlat Mudofaa Qo'mitasiga tayinlangan (1942 yil fevral), Mikoyan qurolli kuchlarga yuklarni sotib olish va tashishni nazorat qilgan. 1946 yilda u bosh vazir o'rinbosari bo'ldi.ya'ni Vazirlar Kengashi raisining o'rinbosari), mamlakat savdosiga rahbarlik qilish.

Garchi Mikoyan Stalinning foydasidan mahrum bo'lish xavfi ostida bo'lgan bo'lsa-da, Stalin uni tozalashdan oldin vafot etdi (1953 yil mart) va Mikoyan savdo vaziri va Stalindan keyingi hukumat bosh vazirining o'rinbosari bo'lib, partiya Prezidiumidagi a'zoligini saqlab qoldi. (ilgari Siyosiy byuro). U keyinchalik hokimiyat tepasida Xrushchevni qo'llab -quvvatladi va oxir -oqibat Xrushchevning yaqin maslahatchisi va Sovet Ittifoqi Bosh vazirining birinchi o'rinbosari bo'ldi.

Xrushchev olib tashlanganidan so'ng, Mikoyan 1964 yildan 1965 yil dekabrgacha asosan Oliy Kengash Prezidiumi raisi lavozimini egalladi. Garchi u 1966 yil aprelda partiya Prezidiumidan chetlatilgan bo'lsa -da, u Markaziy Komitet a'zosi bo'lib qolaverdi. tantanali marosimlarda yuqori mansabdor shaxs sifatida taqdirlangan. 1978 yilda vafotidan so'ng, Mikoyanga Kreml devorida, eng hurmatli sovet rahbarlarining dam olish joyi berilmagan, u Moskvadagi Novodevichy qabristoniga, ikkinchi darajali jamoat arboblari qabrlari dafn etilgan. Xrushchev haqida.


Siyosiy byuro a'zosi [tahrir | manbani tahrirlash]

A. Badayev, Mikoyan va Sergey Kirov 1927 yilda Leningraddagi non zavodida

Mikoyan 1919 yilda birinchi marta uchrashgan Stalinni qo'llab -quvvatladi, 1924 yilda Lenin vafotidan keyin hokimiyat uchun kurashda, u 1923 yilda Bolsheviklar Markaziy qo'mitasining a'zosi bo'ldi. 1926 yildan Tashqi va ichki savdo xalq komissari sifatida. , u G'arbdan konserva ishlab chiqarish kabi g'oyalarni olib kirdi. ΐ ] 1935 yilda u Siyosiy byuroga saylandi va iqtisodiy hamkorlikni kuchaytirish maqsadida Qo'shma Shtatlarga xayrixohlik safarlarini amalga oshirgan birinchi Sovet rahbarlaridan biri bo'ldi. Mikoyan uch oy Qo'shma Shtatlarda bo'lib, u erda nafaqat oziq -ovqat sanoati haqida ko'proq ma'lumotga ega, balki Genri Ford bilan uchrashdi va gaplashdi, Nyu -Yorkdagi Macy's kompaniyasini ko'zdan kechirdi. Qaytib kelgach, Mikoyan Sovet Ittifoqiga amerikalik gamburger, muzqaymoq, makkajo'xori po'stlog'i, popkorn, pomidor sharbati, greyfurt va makkajo'xori singari ko'plab mashhur Amerika iste'mol mahsulotlarini Sovet Ittifoqiga taqdim etdi. Η ]

Mikoyan uy oshxonasiga qaytishni rag'batlantiradigan uy ovqat kitobini ishlab chiqarish loyihasini boshlab berdi. Natija, Mazali va sog'lom ovqatlanish kitobi ( Kniga o vkusnoy va zdorovoy pyshche , Kniga o vkusnoi va zdorovoy pishche), 1939 yilda nashr etilgan va 1952 yilgi nashr 2,5 million nusxada sotilgan. ⎖ ] Mikoyan SSSRda muzqaymoq ishlab chiqarishni boshlashga yordam berdi va ishdan bo'shatilgunga qadar muzqaymoq sifatini shaxsiy nazoratida ushlab turdi. Stalin bu haqda hazil qilib: "Siz, Anastas, kommunizm haqida emas, balki muzqaymoq haqida ko'proq qayg'urasiz", dedi. ⎗ ] Mikoyan, shuningdek, SSSRda go'sht ishlab chiqarishni rivojlantirishga o'z hissasini qo'shdi (ayniqsa, Mikoyan kotleti deb ataladi) va sovet davridagi kolbasa fabrikalaridan biriga uning nomi berildi. ⎘ ]

1930 yillarning oxirida Stalin Sovet Ittifoqida Kommunistik partiya a'zolari, shuningdek, dehqonlar va birlashmagan kishilarga qarshi uyushtirilgan Buyuk Tozalash kampaniyasini boshladi. Tarixchi Simon Sebag-Montefiore Mikoyanning tozalashdagi rolini baholab, "u munosib rahbarlardan birining obro'sidan zavqlanganini aytdi: u, albatta, qurbonlarga keyinroq yordam bergan va Liderning o'limidan keyin Stalin boshqaruvini bekor qilish uchun ko'p mehnat qilgan". Mikoyan yaqin do'stlarini qatl qilishdan qutqarishga harakat qildi. Biroq, 1936 yilda u "adolatli hukm" deb da'vo qilib, Grigoriy Zinovyov va Lev Kamenevni qatl etilishini qizg'in qo'llab -quvvatladi. 1937 yildagi boshqa etakchi amaldorlar singari, Mikoyan ham NKVD tomonidan berilgan o'lim ro'yxatlariga imzo chekdi. ⎙ ] Tozalash ishlari ko'pincha Stalinga yaqin amaldorlar tomonidan amalga oshirilib, ularga topshiriq asosan rejimga sodiqligini tekshirish usuli sifatida berilgan.

1937 yil sentyabr oyida Stalin Mikoyanni, Georgi Malenkov va Lavrentiy Beriya bilan birga Armaniston Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikasining (ASSR) poytaxti Yerevanga Armaniston Kommunistik partiyasi (CPA) ning tugatilishini nazorat qilish uchun 300 kishining ro'yxati bilan yubordi. asosan eski bolsheviklardan tashkil topgan. Mikoyan Armanistonga qilgan safari chog'ida qatl qilinishidan qutqarishga urindi, lekin muvaffaqiyatsiz bo'ldi. Bu odam Beriya tomonidan CPAga qilgan chiqishlaridan birida hibsga olingan. Mingdan ortiq odam hibsga olindi va Armaniston siyosiy byurosining to'qqiz a'zosidan yetti nafari lavozimidan chetlatildi. ⎚ ] Bir necha hollarda, u hamkasblari nomidan aralashgan, ta'qib qilinayotganlarga nisbatan yumshoqlik Stalin tomonidan ASSRdagi tozalash ishlarini nazorat qilish uchun tanlanganining sabablaridan biri bo'lishi mumkin. ⎙ ]


Bu hafta Armaniston tarixida

Anastas Mikoyan, ehtimol, Sovet davrining birinchi yarim asrida, Lenin davridan 1960 -yillarda Leonid Brejnev hukmronligining birinchi yillariga qadar yashagan va Kommunistik partiyaning eng yuqori lavozimlarida qolgan yagona siyosatchi edi. U, shuningdek, Armaniston tarixiga oid bahsli ism edi. (Uning ukasi Artem harbiy reaktivlarni ishlab chiqaradigan Mig aviatsiya dizayn byurosining asoschilaridan biri edi.)

Mikoyan 1895 yil 13 (25) noyabrda Sanaxin qishlog'ida, hozirgi Alaverdi shahri, Lori viloyatida (Armaniston Respublikasi) tug'ilgan. Mahalliy maktabni tugatgach, u Tiflisdagi Nersis maktabida va Etchmiadzindagi Gevorgiya seminariyasida o'qigan.

1915 yilda u Etchmiadzinda ishchilar sovetini tuzdi va rasman Rossiya sotsial -demokratik ishchi partiyasining bolsheviklar fraktsiyasiga qo'shildi. U Bokuda ikkita gazetani tahrir qilgan va 1918 yil iyun oyida Boku kommunasi qulaganidan keyin bolsheviklar yashirin tarmog'iga rahbarlik qilgan. U Bokudan qochgan 26 komissar orasida edi, qolganlari 1918 yil sentyabrda otib o'ldirilganida o'limdan qutulib qolgan. Vaziyat sir bo'lib qoldi.

1919 yilda Mikoyan Rossiya Kommunistik partiyasi Kavkaz qo'mitasining Boku boshqarmasi boshlig'i bo'ldi. Qisqa vaqt Moskvada bo'lganidan so'ng, u XI Qizil Armiya Harbiy-Inqilobiy Qo'mitasining vakili sifatida Bokuga qaytib keldi. 1919 yil dekabrda u Leninga hisobot yozdi, u erda arman muammosiga nuqta qo'yish va birlashgan arman davlatini tuzish g'oyasidan voz kechish zarurligini ta'kidladi. 1921 yilda u Ozarbayjon Harbiy-inqilobiy qo'mitasi boshlig'i Nariman Narimanovning Leninga yuborgan maktubiga imzo chekdi, unda Garabog' va Naxichevan Sovet Ozarbayjoni tasarrufida qolishi kerakligi aytilgan.

Keyin Mikoyan Moskvaga ko'chib o'tdi va u erda siyosiy faoliyatini davom ettirdi. U Stalin davrasida edi, u 1926 yilda Sovet Ittifoqining Xalq Savdo Komissari, 1931 yilda Oziq -ovqat sanoati Komissari bo'ldi. U Sovet oziq -ovqat sanoati uchun keng qamrovli dastur ishlab chiqdi va shu munosabat bilan AQShga tashrif buyurdi. Shtatlar 1936 yilda ikki oy davomida rafiqasi Ashxen (1962 yilda vafot etgan) bilan Amerika ishlab chiqarish usullarini o'rganishdi. U Sovet Ittifoqida muzqaymoq ishlab chiqarishni tashabbuskori bo'lib, uning faoliyati oxirigacha uning shaxsiy nazorati ostida bo'lgan.

Kavkaz uchligi: chapdan o'ngga, Mikoyan, Iosif Stalin va Sergo Orjonikidze.

Mikoyan 1935 yilda Kommunistik partiya Siyosiy Byurosining to'liq a'zosi etib saylandi (u bu lavozimni 1966 yilgacha saqlab qoldi) va 1937 yilda Xalq Komissarlari Kengashi raisining o'rinbosari bo'ldi. U Stalin siyosatini amalga oshirganlardan biri edi. Buyuk tozalash paytida yuzlab va minglab odamlarni o'limga mahkum etgan hujjatlarga imzo chekish.

1937 yil sentyabr oyida Stalin uni, asosan, bolsheviklardan tashkil topgan Armaniston Kommunistik partiyasini tugatish ishini nazorat qilish uchun, Georgiy Malenkov va Lavrentiy Beriya bilan birga, 300 kishining ro'yxati bilan Yerevanga yubordi. Mingdan ortiq odam hibsga olindi va Armaniston siyosiy byurosining to'qqiz a'zosidan yetti nafari lavozimidan chetlatildi. 1937 yil 22 sentyabrda 1936 yildan 1938 yilgacha NKVD (KGB oldingi) boshlig'i Nikolay Yejov Mikoyanning dastlabki 1500 emas, 2000 armanni qatl etish haqidagi arizasini Stalinga yubordi. 1937 yil 20 -dekabrda Moskvadagi Katta teatrda NKVD tashkil topganining 20 yilligini nishonlash paytida Mikoyan Yejovni tinimsiz mehnati uchun maqtadi: “S Stalinning ish uslubini o'rganing, - dedi u, - o'rtoq Yejovdan. U o'rtoq Stalinning o'zidan o'rgangan va o'rganishda davom etadi. Boshqa tomondan, u hech qanday yordamisiz qolgan do'stlarining oilalariga yordam berdi. U, shuningdek, Ikkinchi Jahon urushi qahramoni marshal Ovanes Bagramianni 1937 yilda repressiya va surgundan qutqardi.

Urush paytida Mikoyan katta rol o'ynadi. Savdo, armiya ta'minoti, yengil va oziq -ovqat sanoati ishlab chiqarish uning nazorati ostida edi. 1941 yilda u Davlat Mudofaa Qo'mitasining vakili bo'ldi, bu urush paytida oliy davlat hokimiyati organi bo'lgan va ajoyib ishi uchun 1943 yilda Sotsialistik Mehnat Qahramoni ordeni bilan taqdirlangan. Urushdan keyin u 1949 yilgacha tashqi savdo vaziri bo'lib ishlagan. Vazifasiga qaramay, uning o'smir bolalari Sergo va Vano soxta ayblovlar bilan surgun qilingan, lekin urush tugaganidan ko'p o'tmay qaytib kelgan. Qizil havo kuchlarining uchuvchisi bo'lgan o'g'li Vladimir urush paytida jangda halok bo'lgan.

1952 yil oktyabr oyida Kommunistik partiyaning 19 -qurultoyida, Stalinning maqtovlariga to'la nutqiga qaramay, Mikoyan qurultoy prezidiumiga saylanmadi. U partiya Markaziy Qo'mitasi a'zosi etib saylangan bo'lsa -da, partiya prezidiumiga kira olmadi. Plenumda Stalin SSSR Vazirlar Kengashi raisining birinchi o'rinbosari Mikoyan va Molotovga invektiv yomg'ir yog'dirdi va ularga ishonmasligini ochiqchasiga bildirdi. 1953 yil mart oyida Stalinning o'limi, ehtimol, Mikoyanning martaba va hayotini saqlab qoldi.

Ernesto "Che" Gevara, Sovet Ittifoqi Bosh vazirining birinchi o'rinbosari Anastas Mikoyan va Fidel Kastro Kubadagi muvaffaqiyatli inqilobdan keyin uchrashadilar.

"Time" jurnali yozganidek, "tirik qolganlar" Stalin vafotidan keyin hokimiyat uchun kurashda neytral pozitsiyani saqlab qolishdi. U Beriya ustidan o'zini Sovet Ittifoqining kuchli tarafdori qilib qo'ygan va uning de-stalinizatsiya siyosatini qo'llab-quvvatlaganidan keyin Nikita Xrushchevni qo'llab-quvvatlagan. Tashqi savdo vaziri lavozimiga qaytdi (1953-55), keyin SSSR Vazirlar Kengashi raisining birinchi o'rinbosari (1955-1964). Shunga qaramay, u hech qachon Stalin jinoyatlariga jamoatchilik baho bermagan. 1954 yilda u Armanistonga tashrif buyurdi va Yerevanda ma'ruza qildi, u erda armanlarni Raffi va Yegishe Charentsning taqiqlangan asarlarini qayta nashr etishga undadi.

Xrushchev davrida Qo'shma Shtatlarga bir necha bor tashrif buyurgan faxriy siyosatchi 1962 yildagi Kuba raketa inqirozini hal qilishda hal qiluvchi rol o'ynaydi. Ikki yildan so'ng u Oliy Kengash Prezidiumining raisi bo'ladi. SSSR Xrushchevni ag'darib tashlagan va uning o'rnini Leonid Brejnev egallagan to'ntarishdan bir oz oldin, lekin u 1965 yilda nafaqaga chiqishga majbur bo'ldi. Mikoyan Stalin safidan qutulib qolgan va siyosiy hayotdan bemalol nafaqaga chiqa olgan kam sonli bolsheviklardan biri edi. U 1978 yil 21 oktyabrda, 82 yoshida, tabiiy sabablardan vafot etdi va Moskvadagi Novodevichy qabristoniga dafn qilindi. O'tgan yilning aprelida Yerevanda Mikoyan haykalini o'rnatish tashabbusi qizg'in bahs -munozaralarga sabab bo'ldi, bu esa sovet merosi hal qilinmaganidan dalolat beradi.


Anastas Mikoyan: qahramonmi yoki yovuzmi?

& LdquoYomon yomg'irli kunda Qizil maydon bo'ylab soyabonsiz [va] namlanmasdan yura oldi. U yomg'ir tomchilaridan qochishi mumkin edi. & Rdquo & mdashRossiyaning Anastas Mikoyan haqidagi kuzatuvi.

Ma'naviyat, siyosat, iqtisod, san'at va san'atkorlar, din va tarixga bo'lgan ijtimoiy qarashlar har qanday yaxshi yoki yomon sabablarga ko'ra modifikatsiya yoki modulyatsiyadan o'tadi yoki tubdan o'zgaradi. Kecha qabul qilingan haqiqat kecha bugun siyosiy jihatdan noto'g'ri bo'ladi va rsquos qahramoni bugunga aylanadi va kechagi va yomon odam noto'g'ri tushgan shahid sifatida qayta tug'iladi.

Ko'pchilik diaspora armanlari uchun Anastas Mikoyan Sovet Ittifoqi siyosiy ierarxiyasi tepasida uzoq vaqtdan beri mashhur bo'lganligi va Ikkinchi Jahon Urushidan keyingi yillardagi diaspora armanlarini qaytarish va shu tariqa Armanistonni avtonom respublikaga aylanishidan qutqarish uchun qilgan sa'y-harakatlari uchun qahramon.

Armaniston fuqarolari Mikoyan tomonidan kamroq sehrlangan.

Jirair Tutunjyan, Toronto, 2016 yil 16 -iyun

Yomon yomg'irli kunda Qizil maydon bo'ylab soyabonsiz [va] namlanmasdan yura olardi. U yomg'ir tomchilaridan qochishi mumkin edi. & Rdquo & mdashRossiyaning Anastas Mikoyan haqidagi kuzatuvi.

Ma'naviyat, siyosat, iqtisod, san'at va san'atkorlar, din va tarixga bo'lgan ijtimoiy qarashlar har qanday yaxshi yoki yomon sabablarga ko'ra modifikatsiya yoki modulyatsiyadan o'tadi yoki tubdan o'zgaradi. Kechagi qabul qilingan haqiqat bugun kecha siyosiy jihatdan noto'g'ri bo'ladi, qahramon bugunga aylanadi va kechagi va yomon odam noto'g'ri tushunilgan shahid sifatida qayta tug'iladi.

Ko'pchilik diaspora armanlari uchun Anastas Mikoyan Sovet Ittifoqi siyosiy ierarxiyasi tepasida uzoq vaqtdan beri mashhur bo'lganligi va Ikkinchi Jahon Urushidan keyingi yillardagi diaspora armanlarini qaytarish va shu tariqa Armanistonni avtonom respublikaga aylanishidan qutqarish uchun qilgan sa'y-harakatlari uchun qahramon.

Armaniston fuqarolari Mikoyan tomonidan kamroq sehrlangan.

Mikoyan bu xabarni ikki yil oldin Armanistonda, nabiralaridan biri, sobiq Sovet rahbarining rossiya haykali Yerevan parkida o'rnatilishi uchun kampaniya o'tkazganida e'lon qilgan. Shahar hokimiyati ma'qulladi, lekin jamoatchilik va ommaviy axborot vositalari muxolifati siyosatchilarni loyihani to'xtatishga majbur qildi. Mikoyan va rsquos tanqidchilari eski bolsheviklarning armanlarga qarshi jinoyatlarini misol qilib keltirdilar, boshqalar esa bunga e'tiroz bildirdilar, chunki bu rus neo-mustamlakachiligining yodgorligi edi.

Mikoyan jinoyati 1919 yilda Zankezur, Naxichevan va Artsaxni Ozarbayjonga berishni qo'llab -quvvatlagan paytdan boshlanadi. Kremlga yozgan maktubida u arman muammosini hal qilish [arman erlarini qaytarib olish] Kommunistik partiya manfaatlariga zid ekanligini aytgan. U arman vatanparvarlarini shovinizmda va imperialistlarning reaktsion ittifoqchilari bo'lishida aybladi. Mikoyan & ldquoGreat [er] Armaniston & rdquo kontseptsiyasini jinoyatchi deb yozgan va Sovet Armanistonining mustaqilligini qo'llab -quvvatlagan Sovet Rossiyasining 1917 yildagi farmonidan afsusda. Nihoyat, u shunday yozgan edi: "Turkiya Armanistoni va umuman" birlashgan va mustaqil Armaniston g'oyasini tuzatish " - bu bizning partiyamiz kurashishi kerak bo'lgan zararli, jinoiy va reaktsion kimera. & Rdquo

Ba'zilarning fikricha, Mikoyan o'sha paytda Armanistonni boshqargan Tashnag partiyasiga bo'lgan adovatidan ko'zi ojiz edi. Boshqalarning aytishicha, Mikoyan Kreml shamoli qaysi tomondan esayotganini (Turkiya bilan do'stlik) payqab, Kremlning his -tuyg'ularini takrorlagan. Mikoyanning kechirim so'ruvchilarining aytishicha, u juda qattiq qoralanishi kerak emas, chunki u 24 yoshida armanlarga qarshi qarashlarini himoya qilgan.

Lenin vafotidan keyin Mikoyan Stalin tarafida bo'ldi va keyingi 30 yil davomida diktatorning sodiq tarafdori bo'ldi. Uning Stalina sodiqligining yorqin belgisi Armanistonga (1937) Stalinning haqiqiy va xayoliy raqiblarini yo'q qilish missiyasi edi. U Kremlga yo'q qilinishi kerak bo'lgan armanlar ro'yxatini bergan bo'lsa -da, u kelganida Mikoyan Kremldan ro'yxatni 700 dan 1500 gacha kengaytirishni so'radi. Mikoyan himoyachilarining aytishicha, Mikoyanning boshqa chorasi yo'q edi: tozalash Stalinning sodiqlik sinovi edi. Boshqa Stalin sheriklariga ham xuddi shunday topshiriqlar berilgan. Ammo uning armanlarning keyingi qatl qilinishi haqidagi talabini qanday oqlash mumkin? Bir necha yil o'tgach, u minglab polshalik ofitserlarning o'lim jazosiga imzo chekdi. Bu ommaviy qotillik Katin qirg'ini deb nomlandi.

Ijobiy buxgalteriya daftarchasiga o'tsak, Mikoyan ijobiy yutuqlarga qaraganda hayotdan ko'ra kattaroq bo'lganini ko'rish mumkin. 40 yil davomida u tashqi va ichki savdo va etkazib berish bo'yicha sovetning eng yuqori martabali amaldori bo'lgan. Muvaffaqiyatini hisobga olsak, uning bu ishni egallashga ishtiyoqi yo'qligini bilish hayratlanarli emas (1926), chunki u savdo va ldquoburjua va rdquo bilan shug'ullangan.

& Lsquo30 -yillarda AQShni aylanib chiqqach, u muzqaymoq va shampandan tashqari Amerika ishlab chiqarish usullarini joriy qildi. Shuningdek, u oziq -ovqat sanoatiga yangi yondashuvlar bilan sanoat sektorini tashkil etdi. 30 -yillarda to'plangan tajriba Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida, Sovet xalqining katta qismini va armiyasini oziq -ovqat va boshqa zarur narsalar bilan ta'minlashi kerak bo'lgan paytda, unga yaxshi xizmat qildi. Oxir -oqibat u qurol etkazib berishda ishtirok etdi. Napoleon aytdi: & ldquoArxo 'qornida harakat qiladi. & Rdquo Mikoyan ulkan Qizil Armiya fashist jangchilarini qabul qilish uchun oziqlangan va qurollanganligiga ishonch hosil qilgan.

Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida Armaniston Sovet respublikalari orasida qurbonlar soni bo'yicha ikkinchi o'rinni egalladi. Natijada, Armaniston va rsquos aholisi keskin kamaydi. Yiqilish Stalinni Armaniston va rsquo maqomini "avtonom" va rdquo darajasiga tushirishga undadi, garchi aholi Sovet Ittifoqini qutqarish uchun armanlarning qurbonliklari tufayli kamaygan bo'lsa.

Mikoyan va taniqli sovet armanlari darhol Stalin va yomon dizaynlardan voz kechish uchun aholi sonini ko'paytirish rejasini tuzdilar. Shunday qilib, diasporaning repatriatsiyasi tug'ildi, natijada armanlar (100000) o'z vatanlariga ko'chib ketishdi. Amalda, vataniga qaytgan har bir arman, tuzumni tanqid qilgani uchun, hatto Sibirga surgun qilingan. Ammo ularning qurbonligi Mikoyan va rossiyaliklarning tashabbusi va Stalinni bu g'oyani ma'qullashga ko'ndirish qobiliyati tufayli Armanistonni respublika maqomini kafolatladi.

40 -yillarning oxirida Mikoyan uchun qiyin edi, chunki Stalin paranoyasi kuchaygan. Sovet Ittifoqi Marshall rejasini oladi, deb Mikoyan va rsquosning targ'iboti vaziyatni yanada yomonlashtirdi. 50 -yillarning boshlarida, boshqa sovet rahbarlari Stalin to'g'risida jim turishar edi va Mikoyan norozilik bildirishdan qo'rqmasdi.

Aqlsiz diktator vafotidan so'ng, Mikoyan Nikola Xrushchevning Molotov va Malenkovga qarshi bosh ittifoqchisi bo'lib, diktator siyosatini davom ettirmoqchi edi. Xrushchev fraktsiyasi g'alaba qozondi. 1954 yilda Armanistonga tashrif buyurganida, Mikoyan nutq so'zlab, taqiqlangan Raffi romanlari va Yegishe Charents she'rlarini nashr etishga undadi. 1956 yilda partiyaning 20-qurultoyida birinchi bo'lib Stalinizmga qarshi ma'ruza qildi. Xrushchev va boshqa shunga o'xshash nutqlar, Mikoyan va rsquosning jasur so'zlari ortidan ancha ommalashdi. Tez orada Mikoyan bosh vazir o'rinbosari (Sovet Ittifoqidagi ikkinchi eng yuqori lavozim), Oliy Kengash Prezidiumi raisi va reabilitatsiya komissiyasining rahbari bo'ldi. Oxirgi lavozimda u millatchilik va madaniyatga qo'yilgan cheklovlarni bekor qildi.

Tarix kitoblarining aksariyatida Vengriya inqilobi paytida (1956) Mikoyan og'ir deb tasvirlangan bo'lsa -da, endi u Sovet qo'shinlaridan foydalanishga qarshi ekanligi ma'lum bo'ldi. Inqilobning bostirilishi deyarli uning Prezidiumdan iste'fosiga olib keldi.

Uning nisbatan liberal qarashlari yana bir bor namoyon bo'ldi (1958), u Berlini mustaqil va qurolsizlashgan shaharga aylantirishga urinib ko'rdi.

1962 yilda Kuba raketa inqirozini tarqatish bo'yicha muvaffaqiyatli urinish Mikoyan va rsquosning yutug'i edi. Sovet Ittifoqi va AQSh Ikkinchi Jahon urushi ostonasida turganga o'xshaganida, Xrushchev Mikoyanni Kubaga tinch yo'l bilan muzokara olib borish uchun yubordi. inqiroz. Mikoyan tinch yo'l bilan hal qilingan muzokaralarda muvaffaqiyat qozondi va shu tariqa Ikkinchi jahon urushining oldini oldi. Rahmatli Xrushchev uni "Sharqdan kelgan aqlli tulki" deb atadi.

Oxirigacha sodiq, Mikoyan va rsquosning karerasi xiralashgan va tartibsiz Xrushchevni qo'llab -quvvatlagani uchun zarar ko'rdi. Oltmishinchi yillarning o'rtalarida Brejnev va Kosigin Xrushchevni chetga surishganida, Mikoyan do'stini qo'llab-quvvatlashda davom etdi. Mikoyan va rsquosning pozitsiyasidan norozi bo'lgan yangi sovet rahbarlari Mikoyanni nafaqaga chiqishga majbur qilishdi. U 1978 yilda vafot etgan.

Sovet yoki rus siyosiy arboblari haqida hech qanday ijobiy so'z aytmaslikka harakat qiladigan g'arb tarixchilari Mikoyanga g'ayrioddiy xayrixoh. Britaniyalik tarixchi va Sovet Ittifoqi va Rossiyadagi ekspert Simon-Sabag Montefior shunday deb yozgan edi: & ldquoMikoyan munosib rahbarlardan birining obro'siga ega edi va u, albatta, qurbonlarga yordam berdi va rahbar va rsquos o'limidan keyin Stalin boshqaruvini bekor qilish uchun ko'p mehnat qildi. & Rdquo Montefiore qo'shib qo'ydi. Mikoyan yaqin do'stlarini qatl qilishdan qutqarishga uringan edi, lekin u o'zining kamchiliklaridan xoli emas edi. Bir paytlar Mikoyan eski hamkasbi Napoleon Andreassyan nomidan shafoat qilgan, ikkinchisi frantsuz josusligida ayblangan.

Mikoyan uchun eng katta nuqta bor G'arb tarixchisi - Sheila Fitspatrik. & LdquoStalin & rsquos Team & rdquo (2015) da u shunday deb yozgan edi: & ldquoSovet siyosati va hellipining buyuk omon qolgani jamoada odamlarni o'ldirish va quvib chiqarishga qarshilik ko'rsatishi bilan ajralib turardi va u bunga umuman qarshi emas edi, lekin amalda undan qochishga harakat qildi. O'zining kuchli oilaviy sadoqati bilan qurbonlar va rsquo oilalariga qarash qoidalarini bir necha bor buzgan. & rdquo

Fitspatrikning aytishicha, sovet elitasining yaqin doiralaridan Mikoyan eng faol, hatto jabrdiydalarga yordam berishda beparvo bo'lgan. Do'stlaridan biri xotini bilan birga Sibirga surgun qilinganida, Mikoyan do'sti va rsquos oilasini asrab olishni taklif qildi, uning tarkibida Yelena Bonner, yadroviy olim Andrey Saxarovning bo'lajak rafiqasi bor edi.

Sovet rahbarlarining ko'pchiligidan farqli o'laroq, Mikoyan muloyim va maftunkor odam edi, u byurokratik omon qolish qobiliyatiga ega edi. U xushmuomala, hiyla-nayrang, mehnatkash va ingliz va nemis tillarida o'z-o'zini o'rgatgan. U Karl Marks & rsquos & ldquoDas Kapital & rdquo ni nemis tilidan rus tiliga tarjima qilgan. Aqlli va xushmuomala, u oilaviy odam edi. U va uning rafiqasi (Ashxen) Kreml elitasi orasida namunali er -xotin hisoblangan. Mikoyan hamkasblariga qaraganda dogmatik bo'lmagan va besh o'g'lining ma'rifatli otasi bo'lgan. Stalin va qizining qizi Svetlana ko'pincha maslahat uchun unga murojaat qilgan.

Tarix va Mikoyanning hukmlari qanday bo'ladi?

Arman ishlarida u munozarali edi. Sovet siyosatida u millionlab odamlarni zulm qilgan rejimning asosiy a'zosi edi. Biroq, u fashistlar istilosiga qarshilik ko'rsatishda ham muhim rol o'ynagan. Xalqaro siyosatda insoniyat unga Kuba raketa inqirozini bartaraf etgani uchun katta minnatdorchilik qarzdor.

Armanlar Mikoyan va rsquosga qancha yaxshilik va yomonlik berishlari - bu individual qaror. Mikoyanni maqtagan yoki qoralagan jumlalarda muqarrar ravishda & ldquobut va hellip & rdquo bo'lishi kerak. Sovet Ittifoqi parchalanganidan chorak asr o'tgan bo'lsa -da, uning yashirin rahbarligi haqida hali ko'p narsa ma'lum emas. Kremlinologiya maxfiylik va hiyla -nayrangga bo'lgan ehtiroslari patologik bo'lgan erkaklar haqidagi delfik gipotezalarga to'la tumanli korxona edi.

May oyining oxirida Yerevan markazida zamonaviy Mikoyan va bir xil bahsli Karekin Njde haykal o'rnatildi. Marosimda prezident Serj Sarkisyan, uning kabineti va cherkov rahbarlari ishtirok etishdi. 20 -asrning eng mashhur va mashxur armani Mikoyan ham shunday sharafga loyiqmi? Bu Armaniston fuqarolariga tegishli.


Mikoyanning ajablantiradigan 1959 yil Richard Niksonga Turkiyadagi arman huquqlari haqidagi izohlari

Yaqinda men Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Milliy Arxividan 1959 yil 25 iyulda Sovet Ittifoqi Vazirlar Kengashi Raisining birinchi o'rinbosari Anastas Mikoyan va AQSh vitse -prezidenti Richard Nikson o'rtasidagi qiziqarli suhbatni tasvirlaydigan hujjatni uchratdim. Moskva. Ular ikkalasi oldin, Mikoyanning AQShga tarixiy tashrifi paytida uchrashishgan.

Vashingtondagi Mikoyan-Nikson uchrashuvidan lavha (Surat: AP)

Sovuq urush avjiga chiqqan ikki raqib rahbarning munozarasi xushmuomala, ammo jonlantirilgan edi. Nikson "Qo'shma Shtatlarda o'z fikrlarini ifoda etishda chidamliligi va chaqqonligi bilan qoyil qolgan ko'plab do'stlarini qoldirgan" Mikoyanni maqtadi. Nikson, shuningdek, "Mikoyanning AQShga tashrifi nafaqat rasmiy, balki shaxsiy nuqtai nazardan ham ikki mamlakatning nuqtai nazarini buzdi" dedi. Arxiv hujjatida Mikoyan "vitse -prezidentning iltifotlarini xuddi shunday qaytargani va vitse -prezident hech kimni qarzdor qoldirmaydigan buyuk munozarachi" ekani qayd etilgan.

Mikoyan yaqinda Kongressning asir bo'lgan xalqlar - kommunistik boshqaruvga bo'ysungan davlatlar, shu jumladan Armaniston to'g'risidagi rezolyutsiyasining maqsadga muvofiq emasligidan shikoyat qilganida, suhbat tezda siyosiy tus oldi. Mikoyanning fikricha, bu qaror Niksonning Sovet Ittifoqiga tashrifini buzishga qaratilgan. Nikson AQSh Kongressi mustaqil organ ekanligini, hatto prezident ham uning qarorlarini nazorat qila olmasligini bahona qildi.

Vitse -prezident Nikson tushuntirishni davom ettirdi: “Bizning populyatsiyamizda janob Mikoyan noto'g'ri deb hisoblasa ham, ishonmasa ham, sobiq vatanlaridagi hukumatlar o'zgarishi kerak deb o'ylaydiganlar bor. Bizning Kongressimiz ko'pincha polshalik, venger va boshqa millat vakillarining fikrlarini aks ettiruvchi rezolyutsiyalarni qabul qiladi. Rezolyutsiya, xususan, Prezidentning e'lon qilinishi, bu faqat amerikaliklarning fikrini ifoda etish edi. va Amerika hukumati va ular "buzg'unchi harakatlar" bilan shug'ullanishga harakat qilmaydilar ".

Ajablanarlisi shundaki, sovet amaldorlarining eng yuqori mansabdorlaridan biri bo'lgan Mikoyan arman merosini tarbiyalagan. "[U vitse -prezident Niksonga aytdi] u arman edi va u Armaniston hukumatida unchalik faol bo'lmasa -da, bu respublikaning 30 ga yaqin Oliy Kengash deputatlarini biladi va ularning hammasi Amerika hukumatiga kim hukumat bergan? ular uchun harakat qilish vakolati va nima uchun Amerika hukumati haqiqatan ham mazlum xalqlarni ozod qilish uchun hech narsa qilmayapti, masalan, Turkiyadagi ozchilik armanlar.

Mikoyanning bayonoti hayratlanarli edi, chunki u vitse -prezident Nikson bilan arman sifatida emas, balki Sovet rahbari sifatida gaplashgan. Bundan tashqari, Mikoyan arman millatchisi sifatida tanilmagan. In fact, he had been blamed for the deaths of many Armenians during the infamous purges under Communist rule. Mikoyan also had not supported the reunion of Karabagh (Artsakh) with Soviet Armenia. These are some of the reasons Armenians were unhappy with the recent decision of the Yerevan City Council to erect Mikoyan’s monument in Yerevan.

A further indication of Mikoyan’s anti-nationalist views is his statement of Dec. 1919, during the short existence of the first independent Republic of Armenia (1918-1920): “Armenian chauvinists relying on the allies of imperialism push forward a criminal idea—the creation of a ‘Great Armenia’ on the borders of Historic Armenia. The absence of Armenians and the presence of an absolute Muslim population there does not concern them…. Our [Communist] party cannot support the idea of either a ‘Great’ or ‘Small’ Turkish Armenia.” The reality is that the Soviet Union did not defend the rights of the Armenians in Turkey.

However, Mikoyan rightly pointed out that the U.S. is against “the liberation of oppressed peoples” when “the peoples in question are oppressed by its friends and allies,” such as Turkey, and many others.

Mikoyan also questioned whether the Soviet leaders should pay attention to the positive gestures of the White House or the more hostile reactions of the State Department. Mikoyan “wondered whether the Soviet Union should believe the pronouncements by the President or the Vice President or whether it should regard this statement by the State Department as a direct expression of American policy.” Mikoyan explained that “the President had instructed the Department of State to work out measures for the development of foreign trade [with the Soviet Union]. In view of the actions taken by the State Department it appears that the President wants one thing and the Department of State another.”

Mikoyan’s meeting concluded on a conciliatory note with Vice President Nixon, promising that “upon his return to the United States he would work on the problem of trade, but that one must realize that difficulties cannot be resolved by a stroke of pen.”

The above conversation shows that Mikoyan was in fact as “wily” as described by Western officials. He had survived for several decades at the highest echelons of the Soviet Union, ending up as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, the nominal Head of State, from 1964 until his forced retirement in 1965.


Death, personality, and legacy

As with Khrushchev and other companions, Mikoyan in his last days wrote frank but selective memoirs from his political career during Stalin's rule. [49] Mikoyan died on 21 October 1978, at the age of 82, from natural causes and was buried at Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow. He received six commendations of the Order of Lenin. [2] Mikoyan, in a description by Simon Sebag-Montefiore, was "slim, circumspect, wily and industrious". He has been described as an intelligent man, understanding English, having learned German on his own by translating the German version of Karl Marx's Das Kapital to Russian. Unlike many others, Mikoyan was not afraid to come into a heated argument with Stalin. "One was never bored with Mikoyan", Artyom Sergeev notes, while Khrushchev called him a true cavalier. However, Khrushchev warned of trusting "that shrewd fox from the east." [50] In a close conversation with Vyacheslav Molotov and Nikolai Bukharin, Stalin referred to Mikoyan as a "duckling in politics" he noted, however, that if Mikoyan ever took a serious shot he would improve. [51] Mikoyan had so many children, five boys and the two sons of the late Bolshevik leader Stepan Shahumyan, that he and his wife faced economic problems. His wife Ashkhen would borrow money from Politburo wives who had fewer children. If Mikoyan had discovered this he would, according to his children, have become furious. [52]

Mikoyan was defiantly proud of his Armenian identity, pointing out: "I am not a Russian. Stalin is not a Russian." He and Stalin were said to share a toast: "To hell with all these Russians!" [4] However, in post-Soviet Armenia he is a divisive and controversial figure like some other Soviet-era Armenian officials. [53] His critics argue that he, as a loyal servant to Stalin, is responsible for the deaths of thousands during the 1930s purges when many Armenian intellectuals were assassinated. [54] According to academician Hayk Demoyan, he "symbolizes evil, mass murders, and an atmosphere of fear." [55] His supporters argue that he was a major figure on global political stage and usually point out to his role in the Cuban missile crisis. [54]

Dubbed the Vicar of Bray of politics and known as the "Survivor" during his time, Mikoyan was one of the few Old Bolsheviks who was spared from Stalin's purges and was able to retire comfortably from political life. This was highlighted in a number of popular sayings in Russian, including "From Ilyich [Lenin] to Ilyich [Brezhnev] . without heart attack or stroke!"(Ot Ilyicha do Ilyicha bez infarkta i paralicha). [50] One veteran Soviet official described his political career in the following manner: "The rascal was able to walk through Red Square on a rainy day without an umbrella [and] without getting wet. He could dodge the raindrops." [50]


Anastas Mikoyan - History

Нас вырастил Сталин…” [“Stalin raised us” – in the sense of raising children]
(version of Soviet anthem 1944-56)

Continuing my translation of this story, by reporter Evgeny Krutikov, about his own father. Where we left off: Felix, who resided at the Soviet Residentura in Paris, had been tricked into boarding a plane in Geneva, whence he was whisked off to Moscow be tortured in the Lubyanka. Evgeny has implied, up to this point, that his dad was set up by Beria’s infamous “Petrov” couple. Not to be confused with the current Petrov fellow who is all in the news lately. The next section is entitled “The Big Game”, and I suspect we are going to learn more what this is all about. Young Felix is obviously just a pawn on a much larger chessboard. A quick reminder that both Felix and Felix’s father (Evgeny’s grandpa) worked for Anastas Mikoyan, and that Felix was considered Mikoyan’s closest aide and confidante. Welcome to the Byzantine world of post-Stalin Soviet Office Politics at the highest level! All of these men were “raised” by Stalin in both literal and figurative sense even though dead now, he built the system and still sets the tone.

A Business Trip To Siberia: Memoirs of My Father, Felix Alexeevich Krutikov

The death of Stalin and the elimination of Beria were the just the beginning of the unending struggle for survival within the Party leadership. The (current) tsunami of publications, memoirs and exposes notwithstanding, we still do not have a complete picture of these battles, to this very day. Most of the intrigues and behind-the-curtains operations have remained secret to such an extent, that it was not customary to speak of any of this, even among the direct participants.

Anastas Mikoyan entered into history as the chief Survivor of the Soviet Party-Governmental elite. Notwithstanding the fact that he, perhaps more than any other member of the Politburo who survived Stalin[‘s purges], was subjected to attacks and intrigues, even on the part of Stalin and the latter’s inner circle. Mikoyan’s administrative power would not let Khrushchev sleep at night. Khrushchev saw in him, during the early post-Stalin years, possibly his main competition. There is no proof that Khrushchev requested or “recommended” to his personal friend Ivan Serov, to organize some plot against Mikoyan and maybe this was even just the personal initiative of the head of the KGB. In either case, after several days of interrogations in the internal prison of the Lubyanka, it became quite obvious that the investigators were not at all interested in Swiss watches. They were after Mikoyan!

Felix’s father, along with Ivan Serov and Counterintelligence Head Fedotov — all three of them actually hailed from the same area, they were born in neighboring villages in the Vologod Oblast. And they were all friends. Their official dachas in suburban Moscow stood side by side, and there are photographs in which Serov, Fedotov and Felix’s father are even sitting together in the same boat (in the direct meaning of this term), setting off to fish and it is little Felix who is doing the rowing. None of which prevented Serov from personally beating Felix inside his cell, while threatening him in between blows: “If you don’t tell the investigators what they need to know, then you’ll be pissing blood.” One might say, such were the times and morays. Even given that, what kind of man would even think to use the 27-year-old son of his best friend as cannon fodder in this complex intrigue against one of the most influential personalities in the Soviet state. And even today one can opine as much as one pleases about the great epoch and the great accomplishments, but there simply cannot be a “glorious past” based on such moral principles, even when these principles are practiced within the milieu of goons and butchers.


DOCUMENTS & INTERVIEWS

Hujjat 1 &ndashTelegram from USSR Foreign Minister Gromyko to the Soviet Mission in New York for Mikoyan regarding negotiations in Cuba, November 1, 1962. [Source: AVP RF copy obtained by NHK, provided by Philip Brenner, and on file at National Security Archive, Washington, D.C. translation by John Henriksen, published in the Cold War International History Project Bulletin, No. 8-9, p. 310]

Hujjat 2&ndash Record of a Dinner Conversation between CPSU CC Politburo Member A. I. Mikoyan, White House Envoy John McCloy, and U.S. Ambassador to the UN Adlai Stevenson, November 1, 1962. [Manba: Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Federation provided to the CWIHP. Copy on file at the National Security Archive. Translation by Vladislav M. Zubok for the National Security Archive. Published in Cold War International History (CWIHP)Bulletin, Issues 8-9, Winter 1996/1997, pp. 315-320]

Hujjat 3 &ndash Telegram from Gromyko to Mikoyan, November 10, 1962. [Source: From the personal archive of Sergo A. Mikoyan donated to the National Security Archive. Translated by Anna Melyakova for the National Security Archive]

Hujjat 4 &ndash Telegram from Gromyko to Mikoyan, November 10, 1962. [Source: From the personal archive of Sergo A. Mikoyan donated to the National Security Archive. Translated by Svetlana Savranskaya for the National Security Archive]

Hujjat 5 &ndash A short record of the conversation between A. I. Mikoyan, E. Guevara, and A. Mora, November 17, 1962. [Source: From the personal archive of Sergo A. Mikoyan donated to the National Security Archive. Translated by Amanda Conrad for the National Security Archive]

Hujjat 6 &ndashTelegram from Mikoyan to CC CPSU, November 17, 1962. [Source: From the personal archive of Sergo A. Mikoyan donated to the National Security Archive. Translated by Amanda Conrad for the National Security Archive]

Hujjat 7 &ndash Telegram from Gromyko to Mikoyan, November 18, 1962. [Source: From the personal archive of Sergo A. Mikoyan donated to the National Security Archive. Translated by Amanda Conrad for the National Security Archive]

Hujjat 8 &ndash Mikoyan Telegram to Khrushchev, Special No. 1848, November 18, 1962 (Sunday). [Source: Sergo Mikoyan personal archive, donated to the National Security Archive. Translated by Anna Melyakova for the National Security Archive]

Hujjat 9 &ndash Record of Conversation between A.I. Mikoyan and Cdes. O. Dorticos, E. Guevara, E. Aragonés, C.R. Rodriguez, and R. Roa at the Presidential Palace, November 18, 1962. [Source: From the personal archive of Sergo A. Mikoyan donated to the National Security Archive. Translated by Anna Melyakova for the National Security Archive]

Hujjat 10 &ndash Khrushchev Telegram to Mikoyan (special No. 2536ц), November 18, 1962. [Source: Personal Archive of Sergo Mikoyan donated to the National Security Archive. Translated by Amanda Conrad for the National Security Archive]

Hujjat 11 &ndash Gromyko Telegram to Mikoyan (special No. 2528), November 18, 1962. [Source: Personal Archive of Sergo Mikoyan donated to the National Security Archive. Translated by Amanda Conrad for the National Security Archive]

Hujjat 12 &ndash Mikoyan Telegram to Khrushchev, November 18, 1962, [Source: Personal Archive of Sergo Mikoyan donated to the National Security Archive. Translated by Amanda Conrad for the National Security Archive]

Hujjat 13 &ndash Mikoyan Telegram to the CC CPSU (no. 1856), November 19, 1962. [Source: Personal Archive of Sergo Mikoyan donated to the National Security Archive. Translated by Svetlana Savranskaya for the National Security Archive]

Hujjat 14 &ndash Mikoyan's Speech at the Military Council of General Pavlov's Group, November 21, 1962. [Source: From the personal archive of Dr. Sergo A. Mikoyan, donated to the National Security Archive. Translation by Svetlana Savranskaya and Amanda Conrad for the National Security Archive]

Sergo Mikoyan at the 2002 Havana conference
Sergo Mikoyan, historian and editor of the Soviet academic journal Latin America and son of the former deputy prime minister Anastas Mikoyan, presents his findings on Cuban-Soviet relations at the historic 2002 Havana conference on the 40th anniversary of the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Interviews with Soviet veterans of the Cuban Missile Crisis

Interview with Sergo Mikoyan by Sherry Jones, "Cuban Missile Crisis: What the World Didn't Know," produced by Sherry Jones for Peter Jennings Reporting, ABC News (Washington Media Associates, 1992).

Interview with Alexei Adzhubei & Rada Khrushcheva by Sherry Jones, "Cuban Missile Crisis: What the World Didn't Know," produced by Sherry Jones for Peter Jennings Reporting, ABC News (Washington Media Associates, 1992).

Interview with Alexander Alekseyev by Sherry Jones, "Cuban Missile Crisis: What the World Didn't Know," produced by Sherry Jones for Peter Jennings Reporting, ABC News (Washington Media Associates, 1992).

Interview with Ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin by Sherry Jones, "Cuban Missile Crisis: What the World Didn't Know," produced by Sherry Jones for Peter Jennings Reporting, ABC News (Washington Media Associates, 1992).

Interview with General Leonid Garbuz by Sherry Jones, "Cuban Missile Crisis: What the World Didn't Know," produced by Sherry Jones for Peter Jennings Reporting, ABC News (Washington Media Associates, 1992).

Interview with Lieutenant General Mikhail Titov by Sherry Jones, "Cuban Missile Crisis: What the World Didn't Know," produced by Sherry Jones for Peter Jennings Reporting, ABC News (Washington Media Associates, 1992).

Interview with Oleg Troyanovsky by Sherry Jones, "Cuban Missile Crisis: What the World Didn't Know," produced by Sherry Jones for Peter Jennings Reporting, ABC News (Washington Media Associates, 1992).


Videoni tomosha qiling: Кремлевский долгожитель. Анастас Микоян. Телеканал История


Izohlar:

  1. Hapu

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  2. Claegborne

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  3. Ngozi

    Bu shunchaki ajoyib :)

  4. Arasar

    Maqola uchun rahmat, yaxshi yozdingiz!

  5. Abbotson

    aniq adashmadingiz



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